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4d printing

Yi-Chen Li, Yu Shrike Zhang, Ali Akpek, Su Ryon Shin, Ali Khademhosseini
Four-dimensional (4D) bioprinting, encompassing a wide range of disciplines including bioengineering, materials science, chemistry, and computer sciences, is emerging as the next-generation biofabrication technology. By utilizing stimuli-responsive materials and advanced three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategies, 4D bioprinting aims to create dynamic 3D patterned biological structures that can transform their shapes or behavior under various stimuli. In this review, we highlight the potential use of various stimuli-responsive materials for 4D printing and their extension into biofabrication...
December 2, 2016: Biofabrication
Matteo Bonomo, Danilo Dini, Andrea Giacomo Marrani
The adsorption of I(-) and I3(-) anions, i.e. the two species constituting the most common redox couple of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), onto the surface of screen-printed nanoporous NiO was studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mesoporous NiO films were deposited on transparent metallic fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and polarized as working electrodes in a three-electrode cell with differently concentrated I(-)/I3(-) electrolytes to simulate the different conditions experienced by the NiO cathodes during the lifecycle of a p-type DSC (p-DSC) at those atomic sites not passivated by the dye...
October 21, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Carlos Carbonell, Adam B Braunschweig
Future nanomanufacturing tools will prepare organic materials with complex four-dimensional (4D) structure, where the position (x, y, z) and chemical composition within a volume is controlled with sub-1 μm spatial resolution. Such tools could produce substrates that mimic biological interfaces, like the cell surface or the extracellular matrix, whose topology and chemical complexity combine to direct some of the most sophisticated biological events. The control of organic materials at the nanoscale-level of spatial resolution could revolutionize the assembly of next generation optical and electronic devices or substrates for tissue engineering or enable fundamental biological or material science investigations...
September 19, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Krzysztof C Ciesielski, Caiyun Wu, Joseph M McDonough, David A Mong, Robert M Campbell
PURPOSE: Dynamic or 4D imaging of the thorax has many applications. Both prospective and retrospective respiratory gating and tracking techniques have been developed for 4D imaging via CT and MRI. For pediatric imaging, due to radiation concerns, MRI becomes the de facto modality of choice. In thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), patients often suffer from extreme malformations of the chest wall, diaphragm, and/or spine with inability of the thorax to support normal respiration or lung growth (Campbell et al...
January 2017: Medical Image Analysis
Qi Ge, Amir Hosein Sakhaei, Howon Lee, Conner K Dunn, Nicholas X Fang, Martin L Dunn
We present a new 4D printing approach that can create high resolution (up to a few microns), multimaterial shape memory polymer (SMP) architectures. The approach is based on high resolution projection microstereolithography (PμSL) and uses a family of photo-curable methacrylate based copolymer networks. We designed the constituents and compositions to exhibit desired thermomechanical behavior (including rubbery modulus, glass transition temperature and failure strain which is more than 300% and larger than any existing printable materials) to enable controlled shape memory behavior...
2016: Scientific Reports
Danielle Lynne Taylor, Marc In Het Panhuis
Over the past few years, there has been a great deal of interest in the development of hydrogel materials with tunable structural, mechanical, and rheological properties, which exhibit rapid and autonomous self-healing and self-recovery for utilization in a broad range of applications, from soft robotics to tissue engineering. However, self-healing hydrogels generally either possess mechanically robust or rapid self-healing properties but not both. Hence, the development of a mechanically robust hydrogel material with autonomous self-healing on the time scale of seconds is yet to be fully realized...
August 4, 2016: Advanced Materials
Xiaoming Liu, Carlos Carbonell, Adam B Braunschweig
Biointerfaces direct some of the most complex biological events, including cell differentiation, hierarchical organization, and disease progression, or are responsible for the remarkable optical, electronic, and biological behavior of natural materials. Chemical information encoded within the 4D nanostructure of biointerfaces - comprised of the three Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z), and chemical composition of each molecule within a given volume - dominates their interfacial properties. As such, there is a strong interest in creating printing platforms that can emulate the 4D nanostructure - including both the chemical composition and architectural complexity - of biointerfaces...
July 27, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Shida Miao, Wei Zhu, Nathan J Castro, Margaret Nowicki, Xuan Zhou, Haitao Cui, John P Fisher, Lijie Grace Zhang
Photocurable, biocompatible liquid resins are highly desired for 3D stereolithography based bioprinting. Here we solidified a novel renewable soybean oil epoxidized acrylate, using a 3D laser printing technique, into smart and highly biocompatible scaffolds capable of supporting growth of multipotent human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Porous scaffolds were readily fabricated by simply adjusting the printer infill density; superficial structures of the polymerized soybean oil epoxidized acrylate were significantly affected by laser frequency and printing speed...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kevin S Paulsen, Aram J Chung
Particles with non-spherical shapes can exhibit properties which are not available from spherical shaped particles. Complex shaped particles can provide unique benefits for areas such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, structural materials, and self-assembly building blocks. Current methods of creating complex shaped particles such as 3D printing, photolithography, and imprint lithography are limited by either slow speeds, shape limitations, or expensive processes. Previously, we presented a novel microfluidic flow lithography fabrication scheme combined with fluid inertia called optofluidic fabrication for the creation of complex shaped three-dimensional (3D) particles...
August 2, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Jiangtao Wu, Chao Yuan, Zhen Ding, Michael Isakov, Yiqi Mao, Tiejun Wang, Martin L Dunn, H Jerry Qi
Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers - digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bin Gao, Qingzhen Yang, Xin Zhao, Guorui Jin, Yufei Ma, Feng Xu
3D bioprinting has been developed to effectively and rapidly pattern living cells and biomaterials, aiming to create complex bioconstructs. However, placing biocompatible materials or cells into direct contact via bioprinting is necessary but insufficient for creating these constructs. Therefore, '4D bioprinting' has emerged recently, where 'time' is integrated with 3D bioprinting as the fourth dimension, and the printed objects can change their shapes or functionalities when an external stimulus is imposed or when cell fusion or postprinting self-assembly occurs...
September 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
Michael P Chae, Warren Matthew Rozen, Robert T Spychal, David J Hunter-Smith
BACKGROUND: Accurate volumetric analysis is an essential component of preoperative planning in both reconstructive and aesthetic breast procedures towards achieving symmetrization and patient-satisfactory outcome. Numerous comparative studies and reviews of individual techniques have been reported. However, a unifying review of all techniques comparing their accuracy, reliability, and practicality has been lacking. METHODS: A review of the published English literature dating from 1950 to 2015 using databases, such as PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and EMBASE, was undertaken...
April 2016: Gland Surgery
Soroush Heidari Pahlavian, Alexander C Bunck, Suraj Thyagaraj, Daniel Giese, Francis Loth, Dennis M Hedderich, Jan Robert Kröger, Bryn A Martin
Abnormal alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow are thought to play an important role in pathophysiology of various craniospinal disorders such as hydrocephalus and Chiari malformation. Three directional phase contrast MRI (4D Flow) has been proposed as one method for quantification of the CSF dynamics in healthy and disease states, but prior to further implementation of this technique, its accuracy in measuring CSF velocity magnitude and distribution must be evaluated. In this study, an MR-compatible experimental platform was developed based on an anatomically detailed 3D printed model of the cervical subarachnoid space and subject specific flow boundary conditions...
November 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Yoshinobu Komai, Maki Sugimoto, Naoto Gotohda, Nobuaki Matsubara, Tatsushi Kobayashi, Yasuyuki Sakai, Yoshiyuki Shiga, Norio Saito
OBJECTIVE: To report our initial experience with a novel style of 3-dimensional (3D) printed kidney, which we call "4D" surgical navigation in minimally invasive off-clamp partial nephrectomy (PN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with a R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score ≥8 renal mass underwent minimally invasive off-clamp PN navigated with the aid of a patient-specific 3D printed kidney. To enhance the advantage of a 3D printed organ, we herein designed our 3D printed kidneys so that the tumor and its margin could be removed...
May 2016: Urology
A Sydney Gladman, Elisabetta A Matsumoto, Ralph G Nuzzo, L Mahadevan, Jennifer A Lewis
Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are exemplified by nastic plant motions, where a variety of organs such as tendrils, bracts, leaves and flowers respond to environmental stimuli (such as humidity, light or touch) by varying internal turgor, which leads to dynamic conformations governed by the tissue composition and microstructural anisotropy of cell walls...
April 2016: Nature Materials
D Soultan, J Murphy, B Gill, V Moiseenko, L Cervino
PURPOSE: To construct and test a 3D printed phantom designed to mimic variable PET tracer uptake seen in lung tumor volumes. To assess segmentation accuracy of sub-volumes of the phantom following 4D PET/CT scanning with ideal and patient-specific respiratory motion. To plan, deliver and verify delivery of PET-driven, gated, simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiotherapy plans. METHODS: A set of phantoms and inserts were designed and manufactured for a realistic representation of lung cancer gated radiotherapy steps from 4D PET/CT scanning to dose delivery...
June 2015: Medical Physics
D Soultan, J Murphy, C James, C Hoh, B Gill, V Moiseenko, L Cervino
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of internal target volume (ITV) segmentation of lung tumors for treatment planning of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiotherapy as seen in 4D PET/CT images, using a novel 3D-printed phantom. METHODS: The insert mimics high PET tracer uptake in the core and 50% uptake in the periphery, by using a porous design at the periphery. A lung phantom with the insert was placed on a programmable moving platform. Seven breathing waveforms of ideal and patient-specific respiratory motion patterns were fed to the platform, and 4D PET/CT scans were acquired of each of them...
June 2015: Medical Physics
Michael P Chae, David J Hunter-Smith, Inoka De-Silva, Stephen Tham, Robert T Spychal, Warren Matthew Rozen
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, image-guided production of three-dimensional (3D) haptic biomodels, or rapid prototyping (RP), has transformed the way surgeons conduct preoperative planning. In contrast to earlier RP techniques such as stereolithography, 3D printing has introduced fast, affordable office-based manufacturing. We introduce the concept of 4D printing for the first time by introducing time as the fourth dimension to 3D printing. METHODS: The bones of the thumb ray are 3D printed during various movements to demonstrate four-dimensional (4D) printing...
July 2015: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Shannon E Bakarich, Robert Gorkin, Marc in het Panhuis, Geoffrey M Spinks
A smart valve is created by 4D printing of hydrogels that are both mechanically robust and thermally actuating. The printed hydrogels are made up of an interpenetrating network of alginate and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). 4D structures are created by printing the "dynamic" hydrogel ink alongside other static materials.
June 2015: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Feng Luo, Tao Lin Sun, Tasuku Nakajima, Takayuki Kurokawa, Yu Zhao, Koshiro Sato, Abu Bin Ihsan, Xufeng Li, Honglei Guo, Jian Ping Gong
A series of tough polyion complex hydrogels is synthesized by sequential homopolymerization of cationic and anionic monomers. Owing to the reversible interpolymer ionic bonding, the materials are self-healable under ambient conditions with the aid of saline solution. Furthermore, self-glued bulk hydrogels can be built from their microgels, which is promising for 3D/4D printing and the additive manufacturing of hydrogels.
May 6, 2015: Advanced Materials
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