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Working Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474959/alpha-gamma-phase-amplitude-coupling-subserves-information-transfer-during-perceptual-sequence-learning
#1
Elinor Tzvi, Leon J Bauhaus, Till U Kessler, Matthias Liebrand, Malte Wöstmann, Ulrike M Krämer
Cross-frequency coupling is suggested to serve transfer of information between wide-spread neuronal assemblies and has been shown to underlie many cognitive functions including learning and memory. In previous work, we found that alpha (8 - 13 Hz) - gamma (30 - 48 Hz) phase amplitude coupling (αγPAC) is decreased during sequence learning in bilateral frontal cortex and right parietal cortex. We interpreted this to reflect decreased demands for visuo-motor mapping once the sequence has been encoded. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test by adding a "simple" condition to the standard serial reaction time task (SRTT) with minimal needs for visuo-motor mapping...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474479/exclusive-breastfeeding-promotion-and-neuropsychological-outcomes-in-5-8-year-old-children-from-uganda-and-burkina-faso-results-from-the-promise-ebf-cluster-randomized-trial
#2
James K Tumwine, Victoria Nankabirwa, Hama Abdoulaye Diallo, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv Engebretsen, Grace Ndeezi, Paul Bangirana, Anselme Simeon Sanou, Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Michael Boivin, Bruno Giordani, Irene Bircow Elgen, Penny Holding, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Vilde Skylstad, Joyce Nalugya, Thorkild Tylleskar, Nicolas Meda
BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects from exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) have been widely acknowledged. We assessed the effect of exclusive breastfeeding promotion by peer counsellors in Uganda and Burkina Faso, on cognitive abilities, social emotional development, school performance and linear growth among 5-8 years old children. METHODS: Children in the PROMISE EBF trial (2006-2008) were re-enrolled in the follow-up PROMISE Saving Brains (SB) study (2013-2015). Caretaker interviews captured sociodemographic characteristics and social emotional development using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473979/a-novel-glp-1-gip-gcg-triagonist-reduces-cognitive-deficits-and-pathology-in-the-3xtg-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Tian Li, Juan-Juan Jiao, Christian Hölscher, Mei-Na Wu, Jun Zhang, Jia-Qing Tong, Xue-Fan Dong, Xue-Song Qu, Yue Cao, Hong-Yan Cai, Qiang Su, Jin-Shun Qi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) have been identified to be effective in T2DM treatment and neuroprotection. In the present study, we further explored the effects of a novel unimolecular GLP-1/GIP/Gcg triagonist on the cognitive behavior and cerebral pathology in the 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD), and investigated its possible electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms...
February 23, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473029/fluoxetine-administration-in-juvenile-monkeys-implications-for-pharmacotherapy-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Mari S Golub, Casey E Hogrefe, Richard J Sherwood, Christoph W Turck
Fluoxetine therapy has been approved for children with major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder for over 14 years and has expanded to other childhood behavior disorders. As use increases, more detail on fluoxetine effects during juvenile brain development can help maintain safe and effective use of this therapy. Here, a narrative review is provided of previously published findings from a large nonhuman primate project. Fluoxetine was administered to juvenile male rhesus monkeys for an extended period (2 years) prior to puberty...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472625/the-role-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-working-memory-maintenance-of-one-s-own-emotional-responses
#5
Ryan Smith, Richard D Lane, Anna Alkozei, Jennifer Bao, Courtney Smith, Anna Sanova, Matthew Nettles, William D S Killgore
The role of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in maintaining emotional information within working memory (WM) remains insufficiently investigated - with some studies suggesting this process activates MPFC and others suggesting its activity is suppressed. To reconcile these different results, we asked 26 healthy participants to complete a WM task involving the maintenance of emotional content (EWM), visual content (VWM), or no content ("rest") after exposure to emotion-provoking images. We also assessed individual differences in emotional awareness (EA)...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470697/reliability-analysis-of-load-sharing-systems-with-memory
#6
Dewei Wang, Chendi Jiang, Chanseok Park
The load-sharing model has been studied since the early 1940s to account for the stochastic dependence of components in a parallel system. It assumes that, as components fail one by one, the total workload applied to the system is shared by the remaining components and thus affects their performance. Such dependent systems have been studied in many engineering applications which include but are not limited to fiber composites, manufacturing, power plants, workload analysis of computing, software and hardware reliability, etc...
February 22, 2018: Lifetime Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470413/electrical-mechanical-monitoring-of-shape-memory-alloy-reinforcing-fibers-obtained-by-pullout-tests-in-sma-cement-composite-materials
#7
Eui-Hyun Kim, Hyunbae Lee, Jae-Hwan Kim, Seung-Muk Bae, Heesu Hwang, Heesun Yang, Eunsoo Choi, Jin-Ha Hwang
Self-healing is an essential property of smart concrete structures. In contrast to other structural metals, shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer two unique effects: shape memory effects, and superelastic effects. Composites composed of SMA wires and conventional cements can overcome the mechanical weaknesses associated with tensile fractures in conventional concretes. Under specialized environments, the material interface between the cementitious component and the SMA materials plays an important role in achieving the enhanced mechanical performance and robustness of the SMA/cement interface...
February 22, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470191/characterization-of-postinfusion-phenotypic-differences-in-fresh-versus-cryopreserved-tcr-engineered-adoptive-cell-therapy-products
#8
Theodore S Nowicki, Helena Escuin-Ordinas, Earl Avramis, Bartosz Chmielowski, Thinle Chodon, Beata Berent-Maoz, Xiaoyan Wang, Paula Kaplan-Lefko, Lili Yang, David Baltimore, James S Economou, Antoni Ribas, Begoña Comin-Anduix
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) consisting of genetically engineered T cells expressing tumor antigen-specific T-cell receptors displays robust initial antitumor activity, followed by loss of T-cell activity/persistence and frequent disease relapse. We characterized baseline and longitudinal T-cell phenotype variations resulting from different manufacturing and administration protocols in patients who received ACT. Patients with melanoma who enrolled in the F5-MART-1 clinical trial (NCT00910650) received infusions of MART-1 T-cell receptors transgenic T cells with MART-1 peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470055/unique-molecular-regulation-of-higher-order-prefrontal-cortical-circuits-insights-into-the-neurobiology-of-schizophrenia
#9
Dibyadeep Datta, Amy F T Arnsten
Schizophrenia is associated with core deficits in cognitive abilities and impaired functioning of the newly evolved prefrontal association cortex (PFC). In particular, neuropathological studies of schizophrenia have found selective atrophy of the pyramidal cell microcircuits in deep layer III of the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC), and compensatory weakening of related GABAergic interneurons. Studies in monkeys have shown that recurrent excitation in these layer III microcircuits generates the precisely patterned, persistent firing needed for working memory and abstract thought...
February 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468634/cognitive-decline-in-the-middle-aged-after-surgery-and-anaesthesia-results-from-the-wisconsin-registry-for-alzheimer-s-prevention-cohort
#10
L C Bratzke, R L Koscik, K J Schenning, L R Clark, M A Sager, S C Johnson, B P Hermann, K J Hogan
Surgery and anaesthesia might affect cognition in middle-aged people without existing cognitive dysfunction. We measured memory and executive function in 964 participants, mean age 54 years, and again four years later, by when 312 participants had had surgery and 652 participants had not. Surgery between tests was associated with a decline in immediate memory by one point (out of a maximum of 30), p = 0.013: memory became abnormal in 77 out of 670 participants with initially normal memory, 21 out of 114 (18%) of whom had had surgery compared with 56 out of 556 (10%) of those who had not, p = 0...
February 21, 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468516/a-systematic-review-of-cognition-in-chiari-i-malformation
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Rogers, Greg Savage, Marcus A Stoodley
Displacement of the cerebellar tonsils in Chiari type I malformation (CMI) can affect functions controlled by the cerebellum and brainstem. While playing an integral role in the control of movement, the cerebellum also has widespread cortical connections, influencing a range of cognitive process. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the relationship between cognition and CMI, assessing evidence for general or domain-specific cognitive change. The search protocol examined the AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases...
February 21, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467698/dual-systems-for-spatial-updating-in-immediate-and-retrieved-environments-evidence-from-bias-analysis
#12
Chuanjun Liu, Chengli Xiao
The spatial updating and memory systems are employed during updating in both the immediate and retrieved environments. However, these dual systems seem to work differently, as the difference of pointing latency and absolute error between the two systems vary across environments. To verify this issue, the present study employed the bias analysis of signed errors based on the hypothesis that the transformed representation will bias toward the original one. Participants learned a spatial layout and then either stayed in the learning location or were transferred to a neighboring room directly or after being disoriented...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467603/cognitive-functions-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-involving-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-mediodorsal-thalamus
#13
REVIEW
Zakaria Ouhaz, Hugo Fleming, Anna S Mitchell
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) has been implicated in executive functions (such as planning, cognitive control, working memory, and decision-making) because of its significant interconnectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Yet, whilst the roles of the PFC have been extensively studied, how the MD contributes to these cognitive functions remains relatively unclear. Recently, causal evidence in monkeys has demonstrated that in everyday tasks involving rapid updating (e.g., while learning something new, making decisions, or planning the next move), the MD and frontal cortex are working in close partnership...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466618/exaggerated-blood-pressure-variability-is-associated-with-memory-impairment-in-very-elderly-patients
#14
Takeshi Fujiwara, Satoshi Hoshide, Hiroshi Kanegae, Kazuo Eguchi, Kazuomi Kario
We investigated the association between working memory (WM) impairment and blood pressure variability (BPV) in very elderly patients. Japanese outpatients ≥80 years who engaged in normal activities of daily living were the study cohort. WM function was evaluated by a simple visual WM test consisting of 3 figures. We considered the number of figures recalled by the patient his/her test score. We defined the patients with a score of 0 or 1 as those with WM impairment and those with scores of 2 or 3 as those without...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466549/an-international-survey-of-assessment-practices-for-short-term-and-working-memory-deficits-in-aphasia
#15
Christos Salis, Laura Murray, Katrina Bakas
Purpose: Recent research has highlighted the clinical relevance of understanding the nature of short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) deficits in persons with aphasia and the way these deficits affect linguistic processing and functional communication in activities of daily living. The psychometric properties of tests commonly used to identify STM/WM problems in individuals with aphasia, however, have been questioned. No previous study has sought to investigate assessment practices and attitudes by speech-language pathologists involved in aphasia management...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464951/ferroelectricity-in-hf-0-5-zr-0-5-o-2-thin-films-a-microscopic-study-of-the-polarization-switching-phenomenon-and-field-induced-phase-transformations
#16
Anastasia A Chouprik, Sergey Zakharchenko, Maxim Spiridonov, Sergei Zarubin, Anna Chernikova, Roman Kirtaev, Pratyush Buragohain, Alexei Gruverman, Andrei Zenkevich, Dmitrii Negrov
Because of their full compatibility with the modern Si based technology, the HfO2 -based ferroelectric films have recently emerged as viable candidates for application in nonvolatile memory devices. However, despite significant efforts, the mechanism of the polarization switching in this material is still under debate. In this work, we elucidate the microscopic nature of the polarization switching process in functional Hf0.5 Zr0.5 O2 -based ferroelectric capacitors during its operation. In particular, the static domain structure and its switching dynamics following the application of the external electric field have been monitored with the advanced piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) technique providing a nm resolution...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464194/identification-of-two-distinct-working-memory-related-brain-networks-in-healthy-young-adults
#17
Tobias Egli, David Coynel, Klara Spalek, Matthias Fastenrath, Virginie Freytag, Angela Heck, Eva Loos, Bianca Auschra, Andreas Papassotiropoulos, Dominique J-F de Quervain, Annette Milnik
Working memory (WM) is an important cognitive domain for everyday life functioning and is often disturbed in neuropsychiatric disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans show that distributed brain areas typically described as fronto-parietal regions are implicated in WM tasks. Based on data from a large sample of healthy young adults ( N = 1369), we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to the WM-fMRI signal and identified two distinct networks that were relevant for differences in individual WM task performance...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463751/within-and-across-trial-dynamics-of-human-eeg-reveal-cooperative-interplay-between-reinforcement-learning-and-working-memory
#18
Anne G E Collins, Michael J Frank
Learning from rewards and punishments is essential to survival and facilitates flexible human behavior. It is widely appreciated that multiple cognitive and reinforcement learning systems contribute to decision-making, but the nature of their interactions is elusive. Here, we leverage methods for extracting trial-by-trial indices of reinforcement learning (RL) and working memory (WM) in human electro-encephalography to reveal single-trial computations beyond that afforded by behavior alone. Neural dynamics confirmed that increases in neural expectation were predictive of reduced neural surprise in the following feedback period, supporting central tenets of RL models...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463181/spared-behavioral-repetition-effects-in-alzheimer-s-disease-linked-to-an-altered-neural-mechanism-at-posterior-cortex
#19
Lucas S Broster, Juan Li, Benjamin Wagner, Charles D Smith, Gregory A Jicha, Frederick A Schmitt, Nancy Munro, Ryan H Haney, Yang Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) classically show disproportionate impairment in measures of working memory, but repetition learning effects are relatively preserved. As AD affects brain regions implicated in both working memory and repetition effects, the neural basis of this discrepancy is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the posterior repetition effect could account for this discrepancy due to the milder effects of AD at visual cortex. METHOD: Participants with early AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls performed a working memory task with superimposed repetition effects while electroencephalography was collected to identify possible neural mechanisms of preserved repetition effects...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462158/docosahexaenoic-acid-for-reading-working-memory-and-behavior-in-uk-children-aged-7-9-a-randomized-controlled-trial-for-replication-the-dolab-ii-study
#20
Paul Montgomery, Thees F Spreckelsen, Alice Burton, Jennifer R Burton, Alexandra J Richardson
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids are central to brain-development of children. Evidence from clinical trials and systematic reviews demonstrates the potential of long-chain Omega-3 supplementation for learning and behavior. However, findings are inconclusive and in need of robust replication studies since such work is lacking. OBJECTIVES: Replication of the 2012 DOLAB 1 study findings that a dietary supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the reading, working memory, and behavior of healthy schoolchildren...
2018: PloS One
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