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Working Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031122/allocating-effort-and-anticipating-pleasure-in-schizophrenia-relationship-with-real-world-functioning
#1
M Serper, E Payne, C Dill, C Portillo, J Taliercio
BACKGROUND: Poor motivation to engage in goal-oriented behavior has been recognized as a hallmark feature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZ). Low drive in SZ may be related to anticipating rewards as well as to poor working memory. However, few studies to date have examined beliefs about self-efficacy and satisfaction for future rewards (anticipatory pleasure). Additionally, few studies to date have examined how these deficits may impact SZ patients' real world functioning. METHOD: The present study examined SZ patients' (n=57) anticipatory pleasure, working memory, self-efficacy and real world functioning in relation to their negative symptom severity...
August 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028956/age-differences-in-the-neural-mechanisms-of-intertemporal-choice-under-subjective-decision-conflict
#2
Ben Eppinger, Hauke R Heekeren, Shu-Chen Li
Older decision-makers may capitalize on their greater experiences in financial decisions and by this offset decline in cognitive abilities. However, this pattern of results should reverse in situations that place high demands on cognitive control functions. In this study, we investigated how decision conflict affects the neural mechanisms of intertemporal decision-making in younger and older adults. To individually adjust the level of decision conflict we determined the indifference point (IDP) in intertemporal decision-making for each participant...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028935/latent-profile-analysis-reveals-behavioral-and-brain-correlates-of-dopamine-cognition-associations
#3
Martin Lövdén, Nina Karalija, Micael Andersson, Anders Wåhlin, Jan Axelsson, Ylva Köhncke, Lars S Jonasson, Anna Rieckman, Goran Papenberg, Douglas D Garrett, Marc Guitart-Masip, Alireza Salami, Katrine Riklund, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg, Ulman Lindenberger
Evidence suggests that associations between the neurotransmitter dopamine and cognition are nonmonotonic and open to modulation by various other factors. The functional implications of a given level of dopamine may therefore differ from person to person. By applying latent-profile analysis to a large (n = 181) sample of adults aged 64-68 years, we probabilistically identified 3 subgroups that explain the multivariate associations between dopamine D2/3R availability (probed with 11C-raclopride-PET, in cortical, striatal, and hippocampal regions) and cognitive performance (episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed)...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028821/load-sensitive-impairment-of-working-memory-for-biological-motion-in-schizophrenia
#4
Hannah Lee, Jejoong Kim
Impaired working memory (WM) is a core cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Nevertheless, past studies have reported that patients may also benefit from increasing salience of memory stimuli. Such efficient encoding largely depends upon precise perception. Thus an investigation on the relationship between perceptual processing and WM would be worthwhile. Here, we used biological motion (BM), a socially relevant stimulus that schizophrenics have difficulty discriminating from similar meaningless motions, in a delayed-response task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028440/intracerebroventricular-infusion-of-an-angiotensin-at2-receptor-agonist-novokinin-aggravates-some-diabetes-mellitus-induced-alterations-in-wistar-rats
#5
Daniela Pechlivanova, Kiril Petrov, Petar Grozdanov, Zlatina Nenchovska, Jana Tchekalarova, Alexander Stoynev
Cumulative data suggest the significant role of the Renin - Angiotensin System in the development of the pathological consequences of diabetes mellitus (DM). Newly synthesized AT2 receptor agonists gained importance as a target for creating new antihypertensives. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a peptide AT2 agonist Novokinin, infused intracerebroventricularly, on the consequences of the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM (T1 DM) in Wistar rats. Food and water consumption, body weight, urine excretion (metabolic cages), motor activity (open field test), anxiety (elevated plus maze), nociception (paw pressure analgesimeter test), spatial memory (T-maze alternation test) and plasma levels of glucose and corticosterone (ELISA) were assessed two weeks after the T1 DM induction...
October 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028205/mpigenenet-parallel-calculation-of-gene-co-expression-networks-on-multicore-clusters
#6
Jorge Gonzalez-Dominguez, Maria J Martin
In this work we present MPIGeneNet, a parallel tool that applies Pearson's correlation and Random Matrix Theory to construct gene co-expression networks. It is based on the state-of-the-art sequential tool RMTGeneNet, which provides networks with high robustness and sensitivity at the expenses of relatively long runtimes for large scale input datasets. MPIGeneNet returns the same results as RMTGeneNet but improves the memory management, reduces the I/O cost, and accelerates the two most computationally demanding steps of co-expression network construction by exploiting the compute capabilities of common multicore CPU clusters...
October 10, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028147/-most-significant-change-and-the-maximising-cognition-maxcog-intervention-the-views-of-clients-supporters-and-counsellors
#7
Bridget Regan, Yvonne Wells
OBJECTIVES: To explore the views of clients, supporters and counsellors about their experiences of the maximising cognition (MAXCOG) intervention. METHODS: The most significant change (MSC) method of analysis was used. Twenty-three narrative accounts of the MAXCOG intervention and the 'MSC' that occurred were obtained. A panel, including experts from Alzheimer's Australia, the MAXCOG research team and clinicians from memory clinics, conducted a workshop to discuss and categorise the accounts...
October 13, 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028007/endoscopic-optical-coherence-tomography-with-a-focus-adjustable-probe
#8
Wenchao Liao, Tianyuan Chen, Chengming Wang, Wenxin Zhang, Zhangkai Peng, Xiao Zhang, Shengnan Ai, Deyong Fu, Tieying Zhou, Ping Xue
We present a focus-adjustable endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is able to acquire images with different focal planes and overcome depth-of-focus limitations by image fusing. The use of a two-way shape-memory-alloy spring enables the probe to adjust working distance over 1.5 mm, providing a large scanning range with high resolution and no sensitivity loss. Equipped with a homemade hollow-core ultrasonic motor, the probe is capable of performing an unobstructed 360 deg field-of-view distal scanning...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027663/the-role-of-cardiac-vagal-tone-and-inhibitory-control-in-pre-schoolers-listening-comprehension
#9
Sara Scrimin, Elisabetta Patron, Elena Florit, Daniela Palomba, Lucia Mason
This study investigated the role of basal cardiac activity and inhibitory control at the beginning of the school year in predicting oral comprehension at the end of the year in pre-schoolers. Forty-three, 4-year-olds participated in the study. At the beginning of the school year children's electrocardiogram at rest was registered followed by the assessment of inhibitory control as well as verbal working memory and verbal ability. At the end of the year all children were administered a listening comprehension ability measure...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026994/the-role-of-phasic-norepinephrine-modulations-during-task-switching-evidence-for-specific-effects-in-parietal-areas
#10
Nicole Wolff, Moritz Mückschel, Tjalf Ziemssen, Christian Beste
Cognitive flexibility is a major requirement for successful goal-directed behavior and their neurobiological underpinnings are becoming better understood. However, the role of the norepinephrine system during task switching is largely enigmatic, despite neurobiological considerations make it likely that the norepinephrine system likely plays an important role. Theoretical considerations also suggest that the norepinephrine system mainly modulates task-switching processes when these rely upon working memory mechanisms...
October 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026110/a-novel-true-random-number-generator-based-on-a-stochastic-diffusive-memristor
#11
Hao Jiang, Daniel Belkin, Sergey E Savel'ev, Siyan Lin, Zhongrui Wang, Yunning Li, Saumil Joshi, Rivu Midya, Can Li, Mingyi Rao, Mark Barnell, Qing Wu, J Joshua Yang, Qiangfei Xia
The intrinsic variability of switching behavior in memristors has been a major obstacle to their adoption as the next generation of universal memory. On the other hand, this natural stochasticity can be valuable for hardware security applications. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel true random number generator utilizing the stochastic delay time of threshold switching in a Ag:SiO2 diffusive memristor, which exhibits evident advantages in scalability, circuit complexity, and power consumption. The random bits generated by the diffusive memristor true random number generator pass all 15 NIST randomness tests without any post-processing, a first for memristive-switching true random number generators...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024846/attentional-control-and-executive-functioning-in-school-aged-children-linking-self-regulation-and-parenting-strategies
#12
Andrea M Spruijt, Marielle C Dekker, Tim B Ziermans, Hanna Swaab
Good parenting strategies can shape children's neurocognitive development, yet little is known about the nature of this relation in school-aged children and whether this association shifts with age. We aimed to investigate the relation between parenting strategies observed during a home visit and children's performance-based attentional control and executive functioning (N=98, aged 4-8years). Linear and curvilinear regression analyses showed that children of parents who were more supportive, were less intrusive, and asked more open-ended questions displayed better inhibitory control...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024682/history-of-concussion-impacts-electrophysiological-correlates-of-working-memory
#13
Caitlin M Hudac, Cathryn S Cortesa, Patrick S Ledwidge, Dennis L Molfese
Sports-related concussions occur in approximately 21% of college athletes with implications for long-term cognitive impairments in working memory. Working memory involves the capacity to maintain short-term information and integrate with higher-order cognitive processing for planning and behavior execution, critical skills for optimal cognitive and athletic performance. This study quantified working memory impairments in 36 American football college athletes (18-23years old) using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024221/dendrites-deep-learning-and-sequences-in-the-hippocampus
#14
Upinder S Bhalla
The hippocampus places us both in time and space. It does so over remarkably large spans: milliseconds to years, and centimeters to kilometers. This works for sensory representations, for memory, and for behavioral context. How does it fit in such wide ranges of time and space scales, and keep order among the many dimensions of stimulus context? A key organizing principle for a wide sweep of scales and stimulus dimensions is that of order in time, or sequences. Sequences of neuronal activity are ubiquitous in sensory processing, in motor control, in planning actions, and in memory...
October 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024164/understanding-role-of-steroids-in-typical-and-atypical-brain-development-advantages-of-using-a-brain-in-a-dish-approach
#15
REVIEW
Dwaipayan Adhya, Emily Annuario, Madeline A Lancaster, Jack Price, Simon Baron-Cohen, Deepak P Srivastava
Steroids have an important role in growth, development, sexual differentiation and reproduction. All four classes of steroids, androgens, estrogens, progestogens and glucocorticoids, have varying effects on the brain. Androgens and estrogens are involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain, and also influence cognition. Progestogens such as progesterone and its metabolites have been shown to be involved in neuroprotection, although their protective effects are timing dependent. Glucocorticoids are linked with stress and memory performance, also in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023756/working-memory-and-attention-are-still-impaired-after-three-years-in%C3%A2-patients-with-stress-related-exhaustion
#16
Ingibjörg H Jonsdottir, Arto Nordlund, Susanne Ellbin, Thomas Ljung, Kristina Glise, Peter Währborg, Anna Sjörs, Anders Wallin
Cognitive impairment is one of the most pronounced symptoms reported by patients with stress-related mental health problems. Impairments related to executive function and to some extent speed and attention are therefore common in patients with stress-related burnout/exhaustion. In this paper we present a follow-up of cognitive performance in patients with stress-related exhaustion several years after they initially sought medical care. Thirty patients and 27 healthy controls, mean age 49 years (SD 6.5) and 55 years (SD 6...
October 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022091/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-stress-differentially-modulate-spine-density-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#17
Marion Rincel, Amandine L Lépinay, Yoottana Janthakhin, Gwenaëlle Soudain, Sophie Yvon, Stéphanie Da Silva, Corinne Joffre, Agnès Aubert, Alexandra Séré, Sophie Layé, Vassilia Theodorou, Guillaume Ferreira, Muriel Darnaudéry
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key area for the regulation of numerous brain functions including stress response and cognitive processes. This brain area is also particularly affected by adversity during early life. Using an animal model in rats, we recently demonstrated that maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) prevents maternal separation (MS)-induced gene expression alterations in the developing PFC and attenuates several long-term deleterious behavioral effects of MS. In the present study, we ask whether maternal HFD could protect mPFC neurons of pups exposed to early life stress by examining dendritic morphology and spine density in juvenile [postnatal day (PND) 21] and adult rats submitted to MS...
October 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020870/recent-life-stress-exposure-is-associated-with-poorer-long-term-memory-working-memory-and-self-reported-memory
#18
Grant S Shields, Dominique Doty, Rebecca H Shields, Garrett Gower, George M Slavich, Andrew P Yonelinas
Although substantial research has examined the effects of stress on cognition, much of this research has focused on acute stress (e.g. manipulated in the laboratory) or chronic stress (e.g. persistent interpersonal or financial difficulties). In contrast, the effects of recent life stress on cognition have been relatively understudied. To address this issue, we examined how recent life stress is associated with long-term, working memory, and self-reported memory in a sample of 142 healthy young adults who were assessed at two time points over a two-week period...
October 12, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020848/concussion-alters-the-functional-brain-processes-of-visual-attention-and-working-memory
#19
Priyanka Shah-Basak, Charline Urbain, Simeon Wong, Leodante Da Costa, Elizabeth W Pang, Benjamin Dunkley, Margot Taylor
Millions of North Americans suffer a concussion or a mild traumatic brain injury annually and are at risk of cognitive, emotional and physical sequelae. While fMRI studies have provided an initial framework for examining functional deficits induced by concussion, particularly working memory and attention, the temporal dynamics underlying these deficits are not well understood. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG), a modality with millisecond temporal resolution, in conjunction with a 1-back visual working memory (VWM) paradigm using scenes from everyday life to characterize spatiotemporal functional differences at specific VWM stages, in adults who did or did not suffer a recent concussion...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019687/simulated-dynamics-of-glycans-on-ligand-binding-domain-of-nmda-receptors-reveals-strong-dynamic-coupling-between-glycans-and-protein-core
#20
Anton V Sinitskiy, Vijay S Pande
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, key neuronal receptors playing the central role in learning and memory, are heavily glycosylated in vivo. Astonishingly little is known about the structure, dynamics and physiological relevance of glycans attached to them. We recently demonstrated that certain glycans on the ligand binding domain (LBD) of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) can serve as intramolecular potentiators, changing EC50 of NMDAR co-agonists. In this work, we use molecular dynamics trajectories, in aggregate 86...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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