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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231478/event-related-brain-potential-indices-of-cognitive-function-and-brain-resource-reallocation-during-working-memory-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, David W Shucard
OBJECTIVE: To examine event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during a visual n-back working memory (WM) task, and test the hypothesis that compensatory brain function may be associated with variance in task performance in MS patients. METHODS: Midline ERPs for 25MS patients and 18 HCs were obtained for a visual n-back task that placed increasing demands on WM. N-back behavioral measures and neuropsychological performance measures of WM were also obtained...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231477/effects-of-tdcs-on-motor-learning-and-memory-formation-a-consensus-and-critical-position-paper
#2
REVIEW
Ethan R Buch, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Antal, Jan Born, Pablo A Celnik, Joseph Classen, Christian Gerloff, Mark Hallett, Friedhelm C Hummel, Michael A Nitsche, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Walter J Paulus, Janine Reis, Edwin M Robertson, John C Rothwell, Marco Sandrini, Heidi M Schambra, Eric M Wassermann, Ulf Ziemann, Leonardo G Cohen
Motor skills are required for activities of daily living. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied in association with motor skill learning has been investigated as a tool for enhancing training effects in health and disease. Here, we review the published literature investigating whether tDCS can facilitate the acquisition, retention or adaptation of motor skills. Work in multiple laboratories is underway to develop a mechanistic understanding of tDCS effects on different forms of learning and to optimize stimulation protocols...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230631/aerobic-exercise-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#3
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Andrea Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with incomplete remission because of negative and cognitive symptoms in a large proportion of patients. Antipsychotic medication is successful in modulating positive symptoms, but only to a lower extent negative symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, development of innovative add-on treatment is highly needed. In this review, recent evidence from clinical studies reveals effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230072/improved-social-interaction-recognition-and-working-memory-with-cannabidiol-treatment-in-a-prenatal-infection-poly-i-c-rat-model
#4
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Ilijana Babic, Xu-Feng Huang, Katrina Weston-Green
Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties, however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction...
February 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229913/increased-risk-of-developing-schizophrenia-in-animals-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke-during-the-gestational-period
#5
Alexandra I Zugno, Mariana B Oliveira, Gustavo A Mastella, Alexandra S A Heylmann, Lara Canever, Felipe D Pacheco, Louyse S Damazio, Sullivan A Citadin, Luiz Antonio de Lucca, Lutiana Roque Simões, Fernanda Malgarin, Josiane Budni, Tatiana Barichello, Patricia F Schuck, João Quevedo
Cigarette smoking during the prenatal period has been investigated as a causative factor of obstetric abnormalities, which lead to cognitive and behavioural changes associated with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate behaviour and AChE activity in brain structures in adult rats exposed to cigarette smoke during the prenatal period. Pregnant rats were divided into non-PCSE (non-prenatal cigarette smoke exposure) and PCSE (prenatal cigarette smoke exposure) groups. On post-natal day 60, the rats received saline or ketamine for 7days and were subjected to behavioural tasks...
February 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229806/-i-can-t-concentrate-a-feasibility-study-with-young-refugees-in-sweden-on-developing-science-driven-interventions-for-intrusive-memories-related-to-trauma
#6
Emily A Holmes, Ata Ghaderi, Ellinor Eriksson, Klara Olofsdotter Lauri, Olivia M Kukacka, Maya Mamish, Ella L James, Renée M Visser
BACKGROUND: The number of refugees is the highest ever worldwide. Many have experienced trauma in home countries or on their escape which has mental health sequelae. Intrusive memories comprise distressing scenes of trauma which spring to mind unbidden. Development of novel scalable psychological interventions is needed urgently. AIMS: We propose that brief cognitive science-driven interventions should be developed which pinpoint a focal symptom alongside a means to monitor it using behavioural techniques...
March 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229518/transition-to-success-on-the-model-room-task-the-importance-of-improvements-in-working-memory
#7
Lauren E Hartstein, Neil E Berthier
Previous work has shown that children under age 3 often perform very poorly on the model room task, in which they are asked to find a hidden toy based on its location in a scale model. One prominent theory for their failure is that they lack the ability to understand the model as both a physical object and as a symbolic representation of the larger room. A hypothesized additional component is that they need to overcome weak, competing representations of where the object was on a previous trial, and where it is in the present trial, in order to succeed in their search...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228742/sleep-dependent-consolidation-of-rewarded-behavior-is-diminished-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-a-comorbid-disorder-of-social-behavior
#8
Christian D Wiesner, Ina Molzow, Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Lioba Baving
Children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often also display impaired learning and memory. Previous research has documented aberrant reward processing in ADHD as well as impaired sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memory. We investigated whether sleep also fosters the consolidation of behavior learned by probabilistic reward and whether ADHD patients with a comorbid disorder of social behavior show deficits in this memory domain, too. A group of 17 ADHD patients with comorbid disorders of social behavior aged 8-12 years and healthy controls matched for age, IQ, and handedness took part in the experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227862/effects-of-high-frequency-rtms-on-sleep-deprivation-a-pilot-study
#9
D P Martinez-Cancino, J Azpiroz-Leehan, L Jimenez-Angeles, A Garcia-Quintanar, R Santana-Miranda, D P Martinez-Cancino, J Azpiroz-Leehan, L Jimenez-Angeles, A Garcia-Quintanar, R Santana-Miranda, A Garcia-Quintanar, L Jimenez-Angeles, R Santana-Miranda, J Azpiroz-Leehan, D P Martinez-Cancino
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a neurostimulation technique which has the potential to serve as a unique research tool for investigating a wide variety of fields in cognitive neuroscience. TMS has been approved by the FDA to serve as a treatment to depression and has also been used to evaluate its effects among several conditions such as Alzheimer, Parkinson disease, chronic pain and stroke. High frequency TMS has been previously used with the intention to measure and modulate the negative effects of sleep deprivation in cognitive performance, but there is no consensus about the ideal protocol yet...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227767/regional-brain-activity-that-determines-successful-and-unsuccessful-working-memory-formation
#10
Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono, Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono, Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono
Using EEG source reconstruction with Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP), we investigated the regional brain activity that determines successful memory encoding in two participant groups of high and low accuracy rates. Eighteen healthy young adults performed a sequential fashion of visual Sternberg memory task. The 32-channel EEG was continuously measured during participants performed two 70 trials of memory task. The regional brain activity corresponding to the oscillatory EEG activity in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) during encoding period was analyzed by MSP implemented in SPM8...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227434/electrospinning-of-gelatin-and-smpu-with-carbon-nanotubes-for-tissue-engineering-scaffolds
#11
Monica A Mejia, Lina M Hoyos, Jenniffer Zapata, Luz M Restrepo, Maria E Moneada, Monica A Mejia, Lina M Hoyos, Jenniffer Zapata, Luz M Restrepo, Maria E Moneada, Lina M Hoyos, Jenniffer Zapata, Monica A Mejia, Luz M Restrepo
The nanofibres created by electrospinning technique are currently used for a variety of applications in tissue engineering; and Gelatin and Polyurethane Shape-Memory (SMPU) have important results in biomedicine. Similarly, carbon nanotubes combined with other biomaterials change important properties, opening new opportunities for biomedical applications. In this work, we constructed scaffold using electrospinning technique based in bovine-hide gelatin, SMPU and both materials hybrid with carbon nanotube. Morphology and cytotoxicity were evaluated and mechanical properties for two materials were obtained in scaffold building...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227396/supervised-multimodal-fusion-and-its-application-in-searching-joint-neuromarkers-of-working-memory-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#12
Shile Qi, Vince D Calhoun, Theo G M van Erp, Eswar Damaraju, Juan Bustillo, Yuhui Du, Jessica A Turner, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith M Ford, James Voyvodic, Bryon A Mueller, Aysenil Belger, Sarah Mc Ewen, Steven G Potkin, Adrian Preda, F Birn, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui, Shile Qi, Vince D Calhoun, Theo G M van Erp, Eswar Damaraju, Juan Bustillo, Yuhui Du, Jessica A Turner, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith M Ford, James Voyvodic, Bryon A Mueller, Aysenil Belger, Sarah McEwen, Steven G Potkin, Adrian Preda, F Birn, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui
Multimodal fusion is an effective approach to better understand brain disease. To date, most current fusion approaches are unsupervised; there is need for a multivariate method that can adopt prior information to guide multimodal fusion. Here we proposed a novel supervised fusion model, called "MCCAR+jICA", which enables both identification of multimodal co-alterations and linking the covarying brain regions with a specific reference signal, e.g., cognitive scores. The proposed method has been validated on both simulated and real human brain data...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227337/prediction-of-the-outcome-in-cardiac-arrest-patients-undergoing-hypothermia-using-eeg-wavelet-entropy
#13
Hana Moshirvaziri, Nima Ramezan-Arab, Shadnaz Asgari, Hana Moshirvaziri, Nima Ramezan-Arab, Shadnaz Asgari, Hana Moshirvaziri, Nima Ramezan-Arab, Shadnaz Asgari
Cardiac arrest (CA) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Induction of hypothermia has been found to improve the functional recovery of CA patients after resuscitation. However, there is no clear guideline for the clinicians yet to determine the prognosis of the CA when patients are treated with hypothermia. The present work aimed at the development of a prognostic marker for the CA patients undergoing hypothermia. A quantitative measure of the complexity of Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, called wavelet sub-band entropy, was employed to predict the patients' outcomes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227289/modeling-volatility-in-heat-rate-variability
#14
Argentina Leite, Maria Eduarda Silva, Ana Paula Rocha, Argentina Leite, Maria Eduarda Silva, Ana Paula Rocha, Argentina Leite, Ana Paula Rocha, Maria Eduarda Silva
Modeling Heart Rate Variability (HRV) data has become important for clinical applications and as a research tool. These data exhibit long memory and time-varying conditional variance (volatility). In HRV, volatility is traditionally estimated by recursive least squares combined with short memory AutoRegressive (AR) models. This work considers a parametric approach based on long memory Fractionally Integrated AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARFIMA) models with heteroscedastic errors. To model the heteroscedasticity nonlinear Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (GARCH) and Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (EGARCH) models are considered...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227102/a-flexible-parylene-probe-for-in-vivo-recordings-from-multiple-subregions-of-the-rat-hippocampus
#15
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Min-Chi Hsiao, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Min-Chi Hsiao, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng, Dong Song, Min-Chi Hsiao, Theodore W Berger, Ahuva Weltman, Kee Scholten, Huijing Xu
The hippocampus is crucial to the formation of long-term memory and declarative memory. It is divided into three sub-fields the CA1, the CA3 and the DG. To understand the neuronal circuitry within the hippocampus and to study the role of the hippocampus in memory function requires the collection of neural activities from multiple subregions of the hippocampus simultaneously. Micro-wire electrode arrays are commonly used as an interface with neural systems. However, recording from multiple deep brain regions with curved anatomical structures such as the thin cell body layers of the hippocampus requires the micro-wires to be arranged into a highly accurate, complex layout that is difficult to fabricated manually...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226876/brain-activation-profiles-in-mtbi-evidence-from-erp-activity-of-working-memory-response
#16
Lianyang Li, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, Nikhil Padhye, George Zouridakis, Lianyang Li, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, Nikhil Padhye, George Zouridakis, Nikhil Padhye, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, George Zouridakis, Lianyang Li
In this study we analyzed event related potentials (ERPs) obtained in an N-back working memory test that varied in difficulty from 0- to 2-back. We collected 21 channels of activity from 11 mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients and 7 normal controls, on three different visits, and used the amplitude and latency of the P300 component to characterize the subjects. A preprocessing procedure based on independent component analysis was used first to identify and eliminate electrophysiological noise on a single trial basis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226859/effects-of-prefrontal-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory-and-reaction-time
#17
Ines S Verissimo, Isabel M Barradas, Tiago T Santos, Pedro C Miranda, Hugo A Ferreira, Ines S Verissimo, Isabel M Barradas, Tiago T Santos, Pedro C Miranda, Hugo A Ferreira, Pedro C Miranda, Ines S Verissimo, Tiago T Santos, Isabel M Barradas, Hugo A Ferreira
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has proven to be a useful tool in the scientific research community, particularly for clinical investigation purposes. Neuroimaging studies indicate that there is a connection between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and working memory (WM), as well as between the primary motor cortex and reaction time (RT). Thus, our goal was to evaluate the effect of anodal stimulation of the PFC, with respect to WM and RT. We tested 20 healthy subjects randomized into two groups - half received active stimulation and the other half sham stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225822/a-reconfiguration-of-the-sex-trade-how-social-and-structural-changes-in-eastern-zimbabwe-left-women-involved-in-sex-work-and-transactional-sex-more-vulnerable
#18
Jocelyn Elmes, Morten Skovdal, Kundai Nhongo, Helen Ward, Catherine Campbell, Timothy B Hallett, Constance Nyamukapa, Peter J White, Simon Gregson
Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224622/slc2a3-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-and-duplication-influence-cognitive-processing-and-population-specific-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Sören Merker, Andreas Reif, Georg C Ziegler, Heike Weber, Ute Mayer, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Annette Conzelmann, Stefan Johansson, Clemens Müller-Reible, Indrajit Nanda, Thomas Haaf, Reinhard Ullmann, Marcel Romanos, Andreas J Fallgatter, Paul Pauli, Tatyana Strekalova, Charline Jansch, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Jan Haavik, Marta Ribasés, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Klaus-Peter Lesch
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial impairments with persistence across the life cycle. Our initial genome-wide screening approach for copy number variants (CNVs) in ADHD implicated a duplication of SLC2A3, encoding glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). GLUT3 plays a critical role in cerebral glucose metabolism, providing energy for the activity of neurons, which, in turn, moderates the excitatory-inhibitory balance impacting both brain development and activity-dependent neural plasticity...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224452/younger-and-older-adults-collaborative-recall-of-shared-and-unshared-emotional-pictures
#20
Sarah J Barber, Jaime J Castrellon, Philipp Opitz, Mara Mather
Although a group of people working together recalls more items than any one individual, they recall fewer unique items than the same number of people working apart whose responses are combined. This is known as collaborative inhibition, and it is a robust effect that occurs for both younger and older adults. However, almost all previous studies documenting collaborative inhibition have used stimuli that were neutral in emotional valence, low in arousal, and studied by all group members. In the current experiments, we tested the impact of picture-stimuli valence, picture-stimuli arousal, and information distribution in modulating the magnitude of collaborative inhibition...
February 21, 2017: Memory & Cognition
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