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Working Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535390/spatial-memory-mice-quickly-learn-a-safe-haven
#1
S E Roian Egnor
New work on innate escape behavior shows that mice spontaneously form a spatially precise memory of the location of shelter, which is laid down quickly and updated continuously.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535106/value-tools-in-managed-care-decision-making-current-hurdles-and-future-opportunities
#2
Jeremy Schafer, Dominic Galante, Jason Shafrin
BACKGROUND: Organizations such as the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, and Memorial Sloan Kettering have created distinct tools to help different stakeholders assess the value of oncology treatments. However, the oncology value tools were not necessarily created for payers, and it is unclear whether payers are using these tools as part of their drug management process. OBJECTIVE: To understand what value tools payers are using in oncology management and what benefits and shortcomings the tools may have from the payer perspective...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534788/rankmap-a-framework-for-distributed-learning-from-dense-data-sets
#3
Azalia Mirhoseini, Eva L Dyer, Ebrahim M Songhori, Richard Baraniuk, Farinaz Koushanfar
This paper introduces RankMap, a platform-aware end-to-end framework for efficient execution of a broad class of iterative learning algorithms for massive and dense data sets. Our framework exploits data structure to scalably factorize it into an ensemble of lower rank subspaces. The factorization creates sparse low-dimensional representations of the data, a property which is leveraged to devise effective mapping and scheduling of iterative learning algorithms on the distributed computing machines. We provide two APIs, one matrix-based and one graph-based, which facilitate automated adoption of the framework for performing several contemporary learning applications...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534643/bicams-in-the-argentine-population-relationship-with-clinical-and-sociodemographic-variables
#4
Sandra Vanotti, A Smerbeck, María B Eizaguirre, Maria L Saladino, Ralph R H Benedict, Fernando J Caceres
The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) was developed to provide valid assessment of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). The relationship between clinical and social variables and cognitive disorders has been extensively studied, but primarily in developed countries with a focus on other cognitive measures or batteries. The objectives of this study were to analyze the relationship between the BICAMS data and key clinical and sociodemographic variables in the Argentine MS population...
May 23, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534399/self-assembly-of-organic-ferroelectrics-by-evaporative-dewetting-a-case-of-%C3%AE-glycine
#5
Ensieh Seyedhosseini, Konstantin Romanyuk, Daria Vasileva, Semen Vasilev, Alla Nuraeva, Pavel Zelenovskiy, Maxim S Ivanov, Anna N Morozovska, Vladimir Ya Shur, Haidong Lu, Alexei Gruverman, Andrei Leonidovitch Kholkin
Self-assembly of ferroelectric materials attracts significant interest because it offers a promising fabrication route to novel structures useful for microelectronic devices such as non-volatile memories, integrated sensors/actuators, or energy harvesters. In this work, we demonstrate a novel approach for self-assembly of organic ferroelectrics (as exemplified by ferroelectric β-glycine) using evaporative dewetting, which allows forming quasi-regular arrays of nano- and microislands with preferred orientation of polarization axes...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533953/interplay-among-pain-intensity-sleep-disturbance-and-emotion-in-patients-with-non-specific-low-back-pain
#6
Shilabant Sen Sribastav, He Peiheng, Long Jun, Li Zemin, Wei Fuxin, Wang Jianru, Liu Hui, Wang Hua, Zheng Zhaomin
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is the most common problem worldwide. There are several negative consequences of LBP, such as sleep disorders, work leave, disability, depression, anxiety, and poor quality of life. In this study, we designed to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disturbance in patients with non-specific LBP(NSLBP), and cross-correlation among sleep disorder, anxiety, depression and pain intensity in patients with NSLBP. AIM: In this study, we designed to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disturbance in patients with NSLBP, and cross-correlation among sleep disorder, anxiety, depression and pain intensity in patients with NSLBP...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533945/the-role-of-speed-in-adhd-related-working-memory-deficits-a-time-based-resource-sharing-and-diffusion-model-account
#7
Alexander Weigard, Cynthia Huang-Pollock
Several recent commentaries suggest that, for psychological science to move beyond "homuncular" explanations for cognitive control, it is critically important to examine the role of basic and computationally well-defined processes (e.g. cognitive processing speed). Correlational evidence has previously linked slow speed to working memory (WM) deficits in ADHD, but the directionality of this relationship has not been investigated experimentally and the mechanisms through which speed may influence WM are unclear...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533517/vortioxetine-reduces-bold-signal-during-performance-of-the-n-back-working-memory-task-a-randomised-neuroimaging-trial-in-remitted-depressed-patients-and-healthy-controls
#8
J Smith, M Browning, S Conen, R Smallman, J Buchbjerg, K G Larsen, C K Olsen, S R Christensen, G R Dawson, J F Deakin, P Hawkins, R Morris, G Goodwin, C J Harmer
Cognitive dysfunction is common in depression during both acute episodes and remission. Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant that has improved cognitive function including executive function in depressed patients in randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, it is unclear whether vortioxetine is able to target directly the neural circuitry implicated in the cognitive deficits in depression. Remitted depressed (n=48) and healthy volunteers (n=48) were randomised to receive 14 days treatment with 20 mg vortioxetine or placebo in a double-blind design...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532855/long-term-influence-of-prenatal-high-sucrose-intake-on-learning-and-memory-of-aged-rat-offspring-with-oxidative-stress-and-disruptions-in-nmdars-wnt-signaling-in-hippocampus
#9
Axin He, Yingying Zhang, Lingjun Li, Xueqin Feng, Bin Wei, Di Zhu, Yanping Liu, Lei Wu, Lubo Zhang, Zhice Xu, Miao Sun
Maternal over-nutrition may increase risks of various diseases in the offspring. Our recent work demonstrated that prenatal high sucrose (HS) could impair spatial acquisitionin the adolescentoffspringrats. This study investigated whether prenatal HS has a long-term impact on cognitive capabilities in the aged offspring rats. The aged HS offspring showed impaired glucose tolerance, significantly increased fasting insulin and insulin resistance index, with unchanged plasma glucose. In the navigation test, the aged HS offspring exhibited longer escape latency and longer swimming path length to the platform...
May 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532591/modeling-stability-analysis-and-computational-aspects-of-some-simplest-nonlinear-fuzzy-two-term-controllers-derived-via-center-of-area-gravity-defuzzification
#10
N K Arun, B M Mohan
The mathematical models reported in the literature so far have been found using Center of Sums (CoS) defuzzification method only. It appears that no one has found models using Center of Area (CoA) or Center of Gravity (CoG) defuzzification method. Although there have been some works reported to deal with modeling of fuzzy controllers via Centroid method, all of them have in fact used CoS method only. In this paper, for the first time mathematical models of the simplest Mamdani type fuzzy Proportional Integral (PI)/Proportional Derivative (PD) controllers via CoG defuzzification are presented...
May 19, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532363/early-visual-cortex-as-a-multiscale-cognitive-blackboard
#11
Pieter R Roelfsema, Floris P de Lange
Neurons in early visual cortical areas not only represent incoming visual information but are also engaged by higher level cognitive processes, including attention, working memory, imagery, and decision-making. Are these cognitive effects an epiphenomenon or are they functionally relevant for these mental operations? We review evidence supporting the hypothesis that the modulation of activity in early visual areas has a causal role in cognition. The modulatory influences allow the early visual cortex to act as a multiscale cognitive blackboard for read and write operations by higher visual areas, which can thereby efficiently exchange information...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532302/the-effects-of-the-constancy-of-location-and-order-in-working-memory-visual-phonological-binding-of-children-with-dyslexia
#12
Enrico Toffalini, Elisa Tomasi, Donatella Albano, Cesare Cornoldi
It has been suggested that children with dyslexia have difficulties in visual-phonological working memory (WM) binding, supporting the hypothesis that this ability is crucial in the formation of associations between written forms and phonological codes required by reading. However, research on this topic is currently scarce and has not clarified to what extent binding may be supported by spatial and temporal information. The present study examined visual-phonological WM binding performance in a group of children with dyslexia compared to a control group of typically developing children matched for age, gender, and grade...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#13
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532271/prospective-memory-and-subjective-memory-decline-a-neuropsychological-indicator-of-memory-difficulties-in-community-dwelling-older-people
#14
Stephen D Lee, Ben Ong, Kerryn E Pike, Glynda J Kinsella
INTRODUCTION: Prospective memory difficulties are known to occur in Alzheimer's disease, and may provide an early indicator of cognitive decline. Older people reporting high levels of subjective memory decline (SMD) but without evidence of cognitive decline on standard neuropsychological tests are increasingly considered at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether prospective memory performance is differentially impaired in older people reporting high levels of SMD as compared to a control group...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531561/a-meta-analysis-of-neurocognition-in-youth-with-familial-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#15
E Bora, A Özerdem
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological impairment, including deficits in social cognition is evident in subjects at genetic high-risk for psychosis. However, findings in youth at genetic risk to bipolar disorder (BP) have been suggested to be less supportive of premorbid deficits. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in youth with familiar risk for bipolar disorder (FHR-BD). METHODS: A novel meta-analysis of FHR-BD (mean age 10-25), including 18 studies (786 offsprings/siblings of patients with BD and 794 healthy controls), was conducted...
March 3, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531307/following-instructions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-the-benefits-of-actions-at-encoding-and-recall
#16
Simon S Y Lui, Tian-Xiao Yang, Chris L Y Ng, Peony T Y Wong, Jessica O Y Wong, Ulrich Ettinger, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
The ability to follow spoken instructions is important to everyday functioning but has seldom been studied in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Recent evidence suggests that action-based processing may facilitate the ability to follow instructions, which relies largely on working memory. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SZ patients may also benefit from action-based advantages in following instructions. Forty-eight clinically stable SZ patients and 48 demographic- and IQ-matched controls completed a following spoken instruction span task involving varied encoding and recall conditions...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531159/a-family-of-aco-routing-protocols-for-mobile-ad-hoc-networks
#17
Delfín Rupérez Cañas, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba, Tai-Hoon Kim
In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes...
May 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530496/public-representations-of-loss-in-death-announcements-1912-to-2002
#18
Paul Brusser, Johann Louw
This work presents a historical analysis of death announcements ( N = 1,443) posted in the New York Times between 1912 and 2002. Announcements were coded according to two main categories: the genre of the announcement and the presence of emotion words. Four distinct main genres emerged: death notices, memorials, recognition postings by organizations, and recognition postings by nonorganizational parties (friends and family). The proportion of death notices declined steadily from 1912 to 2002, while the proportion of announcements paying tribute to the deceased increased...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530312/-the-second-victim-treating-the-health-care-providers
#19
REVIEW
Shimrit Shor, Orna Tal, Ron Maymon
During their professional careers, physicians and other health care providers are repeatedly exposed to emotional stress. This is usually secondary to coping with the results of a medical error or complicated medical event. Generally, in the above cases, the patient and his/her family are in the center of the medical system, being "the first victim" of such an event, while the involved caregiver, who provided the medical service, is categorized as the "second victim". "Second victims" may feel anxiety, fear, guilt or anger and experience social withdrawal, which may lead to troubling memories, depression and insomnia...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529544/complementary-and-alternative-interventions-for-fatigue-management-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#20
Gang-Zhu Xu, Yan-Feng Li, Mao-De Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao
BACKGROUND: We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complementary and alternative interventions for fatigue after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We searched multiple online sources including ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library database, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, the Web of Science, AMED, PsychINFO, Toxline, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, PEDro, PsycBite, and the World Health Organization (WHO) trial registry, in addition to hand searching of grey literature...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
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