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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236073/reduced-educational-outcomes-persist-into-adolescence-following-mild-iodine-deficiency-in-utero-despite-adequacy-in-childhood-15-year-follow-up-of-the-gestational-iodine-cohort-investigating-auditory-processing-speed-and-working-memory
#1
Kristen L Hynes, Petr Otahal, John R Burgess, Wendy H Oddy, Ian Hay
There is increasing evidence that even mild gestational iodine deficiency (GID) results in adverse neurocognitive impacts on offspring. It's unclear, however, if these persist long-term and whether they can be ameliorated by iodine sufficiency in childhood. We followed a unique cohort (Gestational Iodine Cohort, n = 266) where gestation occurred during a period of mild population iodine deficiency, with children subsequently growing-up in an iodine replete environment. We investigated whether associations between mild GID and reductions in literacy outcomes, observed at age 9-years, persisted into adolescence...
December 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235036/expression-of-dha-metabolizing-enzyme-alox15-is-regulated-by-selective-histone-acetylation-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#2
Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Claire Poh-Ee Bon, Yee-Kong Ng, Deron R Herr, Jui-Sheng Wu, Teng-Nan Lin, Wei-Yi Ong
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in neural membranes of the CNS, and recent studies have shown a role of DHA metabolism by 15-lipoxygenase-1 (Alox15) in prefrontal cortex resolvin D1 formation, hippocampo-prefrontal cortical long-term-potentiation, spatial working memory, and anti-nociception/anxiety. In this study, we elucidated epigenetic regulation of Alox15 via histone modifications in neuron-like cells. Treatment of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate significantly increased Alox15 mRNA expression...
December 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234786/the-effects-of-delay-duration-on-visual-working-memory-for-orientation
#3
Hongsup Shin, Qijia Zou, Wei Ji Ma
We used a delayed-estimation paradigm to characterize the joint effects of set size (one, two, four, or six) and delay duration (1, 2, 3, or 6 s) on visual working memory for orientation. We conducted two experiments: one with delay durations blocked, another with delay durations interleaved. As dependent variables, we examined four model-free metrics of dispersion as well as precision estimates in four simple models. We tested for effects of delay time using analyses of variance, linear regressions, and nested model comparisons...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234356/the-opportunities-of-virtual-reality-in-the-rehabilitation-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Azadeh Bashiri, Marjan Ghazisaeedi, Leila Shahmoradi
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. This disorder, in addition to its main symptoms, creates significant difficulties in education, social performance, and personal relationships. Given the importance of rehabilitation for these patients to combat the above issues, the use of virtual reality (VR) technology is helpful. The aim of this study was to highlight the opportunities for VR in the rehabilitation of children with ADHD. This narrative review was conducted by searching for articles in scientific databases and e-Journals, using keywords including VR, children, and ADHD...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234305/functional-components-of-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-cross-sectional-investigation
#5
Jordi A Matias-Guiu, Ana Cortés-Martínez, María Valles-Salgado, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Vanesa Pytel, Paloma Montero, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, Jorge Matias-Guiu
Background: Cognitive impairment is frequent and disabling in multiple sclerosis (MS). Changes in information processing speed constitute the most important cognitive deficit in MS. However, given the clinical and topographical variability of the disease, cognitive impairment may vary greatly and appear in other forms in addition to slower information processing speed. Our aim was to determine the frequency of cognitive impairment, the principal cognitive domains, and components involved in MS and to identify factors associated with presence of cognitive impairment in these patients in a large series of patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233801/getting-to-the-root-of-fine-motor-skill-performance-in-dentistry-brain-activity-during-dental-tasks-in-a-virtual-reality-haptic-simulation
#6
Suzanne Perry, Susan M Bridges, Frank Zhu, W Keung Leung, Michael F Burrow, Jamie Poolton, Rich Sw Masters
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence considering the relationship between movement-specific reinvestment (a dimension of personality which refers to the propensity for individuals to consciously monitor and control their movements) and working memory during motor skill performance. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measuring oxyhemoglobin demands in the frontal cortex during performance of virtual reality (VR) psychomotor tasks can be used to examine this research gap. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the potential relationship between the propensity to reinvest and blood flow to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices of the brain...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233383/implementation-of-a-pharmacy-research-committee-to-enhance-the-pharmacy-resident-research-experience
#7
Milena M McLaughlin, Elizabeth Short, Rachael Prusi, Dalila Masic, Noelle Rm Chapman, Michael Postelnick
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Most postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residents complete at least one research project as part of their graduation requirements. The research skills learned prepare residents to address research questions and generate evidence-based recommendations for patient care. However, there are multiple steps involved in a research project, and streamlining this process can be difficult. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH), a large academic center located in Chicago, IL, developed a research committee (RC) to facilitate research within the department of pharmacy for residents and to maintain residency research support materials...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233080/mathematics-ability-and-related-skills-in-preschoolers-born-very-preterm
#8
Holly M Hasler, Natacha Akshoomoff
Children born very preterm (VPT) are at risk for academic, behavioral, and/or emotional problems. Mathematics is a particular weakness and better understanding of the relationship between preterm birth and early mathematics ability is needed, particularly as early as possible to aid in early intervention. Preschoolers born VPT (n = 58) and those born full term (FT; n = 29) were administered a large battery of measures within 6 months of beginning kindergarten. A multiple-mediation model was utilized to characterize the difference in skills underlying mathematics ability between groups...
December 12, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232966/sex-differences-in-the-relationship-between-prolactin-levels-and-impaired-processing-speed-in-early-psychosis
#9
Itziar Montalvo, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Marta Creus, Ángel Cabezas, Montse Solé, Maria José Algora, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella, Javier Labad
INTRODUCTION: Hyperprolactinaemia is commonly observed in people with psychotic disorders due to D2 receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs, although it may also exist in drug-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis. Recent studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may have a negative impact on cognitive function in people with early psychosis. We aimed to explore whether there are sex differences in the association between prolactin levels and cognitive performance in early psychosis patients...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232710/stabilizing-patterns-in-time-neural-network-approach
#10
Nadav Ben-Shushan, Misha Tsodyks
Recurrent and feedback networks are capable of holding dynamic memories. Nonetheless, training a network for that task is challenging. In order to do so, one should face non-linear propagation of errors in the system. Small deviations from the desired dynamics due to error or inherent noise might have a dramatic effect in the future. A method to cope with these difficulties is thus needed. In this work we focus on recurrent networks with linear activation functions and binary output unit. We characterize its ability to reproduce a temporal sequence of actions over its output unit...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232622/cognitive-mechanisms-underlying-third-graders-arithmetic-skills-expanding-the-pathways-to-mathematics-model
#11
Ulf Träff, Linda Olsson, Kenny Skagerlund, Rickard Östergren
A modified pathways to mathematics model was used to examine the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic skills in third graders. A total of 269 children were assessed on tasks tapping the four pathways and arithmetic skills. A path analysis showed that symbolic number processing was directly supported by the linguistic and approximate quantitative pathways. The direct contribution from the four pathways to arithmetic proficiency varied; the linguistic pathway supported single-digit arithmetic and word problem solving, whereas the approximate quantitative pathway supported only multi-digit calculation...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232539/how-to-identify-and-manage-cognitive-dysfunction-after-breast-cancer-treatment
#12
Marie Lange, Florence Joly
Attention and memory dysfunction is a common complaint among patients with breast cancer that can be reported during and up to several years after treatment. It can negatively affect patients' quality of life and their ability to work. This phenomenon has mainly been studied in patients with breast cancer who are treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Women describe concentration problems and difficulties with word finding, multitasking, or remembering new information, as well as more effort and time needed to accomplish these tasks...
December 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232494/reconstructing-relational-information
#13
Kevin M Horecka, Michael Dulas, Hillary Schwarb, Heather Lucas, Melissa Duff, Neal J Cohen
Hippocampal involvement in learning and remembering relational information has an extensive history, often focusing specifically on spatial information. In humans, spatial reconstruction (SR) paradigms are a powerful tool for evaluating an individuals' spatial-relational memory. In SR tasks, participants study locations of items in space and subsequently reconstruct the studied display after a short delay. Previous work has revealed that patients with hippocampal damage are impaired both in overall placement accuracy as well as on a specific measure of relational memory efficacy, "swaps" (i...
December 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232315/beneficial-effects-of-exercise-pretreatment-in-a-sporadic-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#14
Chongyun Wu, Luodan Yang, Donovan Tucker, Yan Dong, Ling Zhu, Rui Duan, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, Quanguang Zhang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of swimming exercise pretreatment on a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease rat model and provide an initial understanding of related molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Male 2.5-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 4 groups: a) control, b) swim + vehicle, c) STZ without swim, and d) swim + STZ. The Barnes Maze task and Novel Object Recognition test were used to measure hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and working memory, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232252/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-and-its-related-precursors-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Nady Braidy, Ross Grant, Perminder S Sachdev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review discusses the biology and metabolism of the essential pyridine nucleotide nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in the central nervous system. We also review recent work suggesting important neuroprotective effects that may be associated with the promotion of NAD+ levels through NAD+ precursors against Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Perturbations in the physiological homoeostatic state of the brain during the ageing process can lead to impaired cellular function, and ultimately leads to loss of brain integrity and accelerates cognitive and memory decline...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232150/unusual-ferroelectricity-in-two-dimensional-perovskite-oxide-thin-films
#16
Jinlian Lu, Wei Luo, Junsheng Feng, Hongjun Xiang
Two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectricity have attracted much attention due to their applications in novel miniaturized devices such as non-volatile memories, field effect transistors and sensors. Since most of the commercial ferroelectric (FE) devices are based on ABO3 perovskite oxides, it is important to investigate the properties of 2D ferroelectricity in perovskite oxides thin films. Here, based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we find that there exist three kinds of in-plane ferroelectric states which originate from different microscopic mechanisms: (i) a proper FE state with the polarization along [110] due to the second-order Jahn-Teller effect related to the B ion with empty d-orbitals; (ii) a robust FE state with the polarization along [100] induced by the surface effect; (iii) a hybrid improper FE state with the polarization along [110] that is induced by the tri-linear coupling between two rotational modes and the A-site displacement...
December 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230574/pigeons-columba-livia-know-when-they-will-need-hints-prospective-metacognition-for-reference-memory
#17
Sumie Iwasaki, Sota Watanabe, Kazuo Fujita
Despite their impressive cognitive abilities, avian species have shown less evidence for metacognition than mammals. We suspect that commonly used tasks such as matching to sample might be too demanding to allow metacognitive processing within birds' working memory. Here, we examined whether pigeons could control their behavior as a function of knowledge levels on a three-item sequence learning task, a reference memory task supposedly requiring fewer working memory resources. The experiment used two types of lists differing in familiarity...
December 11, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230169/eye-gaze-and-aging-selective-and-combined-effects-of-working-memory-and-inhibitory-control
#18
Trevor J Crawford, Eleanor S Smith, Donna M Berry
Eye-tracking is increasingly studied as a cognitive and biological marker for the early signs of neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. However, in order to make further progress, a more comprehensive understanding of the age-related effects on eye-tracking is essential. The antisaccade task requires participants to make saccadic eye movements away from a prepotent stimulus. Speculation on the cause of the observed age-related differences in the antisaccade task largely centers around two sources of cognitive dysfunction: inhibitory control (IC) and working memory (WM)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230076/cohort-sequential-study-of-conflict-inhibition-during-middle-childhood
#19
Leslie Rollins, Tracy Riggins
This longitudinal study examined developmental changes in conflict inhibition and error correction in three cohorts of children (5, 7, and 9 years of age). At each point of assessment children completed three levels of Luria's tapping task (1980), which requires the inhibition of a dominant response and maintenance of task rules in working memory. Findings suggest that both conflict inhibition and error detection and correction improve significantly during middle childhood. When cognitive demands were high, conflict inhibition, as shown by initial response accuracy, improved steadily across middle childhood...
November 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229820/beta-oscillations-reflect-supramodal-information-during-perceptual-judgment
#20
Saskia Haegens, José Vergara, Román Rossi-Pool, Luis Lemus, Ranulfo Romo
Previous work on perceptual decision making in the sensorimotor system has shown population dynamics in the beta band, corresponding to the encoding of stimulus properties and the final decision outcome. Here, we asked how oscillatory dynamics in the medial premotor cortex (MPC) contribute to supramodal perceptual decision making. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes in two monkeys trained to perform a tactile-acoustic frequency discrimination task, including both unimodal and crossmodal conditions...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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