keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Working Memory

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823099/evidence-of-dysexecutive-syndrome-in-patients-with-acromegaly
#1
Shaobo Shan, Lingling Fang, Jia Huang, Raymond C K Chan, Guijun Jia, Weiqing Wan
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore different aspects of executive function in patients with acromegaly and investigate the cause of dysexecutive syndrome in these patients. METHODS: We conducted five typical executive function tests (Stroop test, verbal fluency [VF] test, Hayling Sentence Completion Test [HSCT], N-back test, and Sustained Attention to Response Task [SART]) on 42 acromegalic patients and 42 strictly matched healthy controls. Comparative analyses were conducted for five major executive function domains...
August 19, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821958/midlife-work-related-stress-is-associated-with-late-life-cognition
#2
Shireen Sindi, Ingemar Kåreholt, Alina Solomon, Babak Hooshmand, Hilkka Soininen, Miia Kivipelto
To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and late-life cognition in individuals without dementia from the general population. The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study population (n = 2000) was randomly selected from independent Finnish population-based surveys (baseline mean age 50 years). Participants underwent two re-examinations in late life (mean age 71 and 78 years, respectively). 1511 subjects participated in at least one re-examination (mean total follow-up 25 years)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821812/crows-rival-monkeys-in-cognitive-capacity
#3
Dmitry Balakhonov, Jonas Rose
The present study compares the 'bandwidth of cognition' between crows and primates. Working memory is the ability to maintain and manipulate information over short periods of time - a core component of cognition. The capacity of working memory is tightly limited, in humans correlated with individual intelligence and commonly used synonymously with cognitive capacity. Crows have remarkable cognitive skills and while birds and mammals share neural principles of working memory, its capacity has not been tested in crows...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821746/neural-circuitry-governing-anxious-individuals-mis-allocation-of-working-memory-to-threat
#4
Daniel M Stout, Alexander J Shackman, Walker S Pedersen, Tara A Miskovich, Christine L Larson
Dispositional anxiety is a trait-like phenotype that confers increased risk for a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Like many patients with anxiety disorders, individuals with elevated levels of dispositional anxiety are prone to intrusive and distressing thoughts in the absence of immediate threat. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that these symptoms are rooted in the mis-allocation of working memory (WM) resources to threat-related information. Here, functional MRI was used to identify the network of brain regions that support WM for faces and to quantify the allocation of neural resources to threat-related distracters in 81 young adults...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821677/disruption-of-m1-activity-during-performance-plateau-impairs-consolidation-of-motor-memories
#5
Raphaël Hamel, Maxime Trempe, Pierre-Michel Bernier
Upon exposure to a new sensorimotor relationship, motor behaviors iteratively change early in adaptation, but eventually stabilize as adaptation proceeds. Behavioral work suggests that motor memory consolidation is initiated upon the attainment of asymptotic levels of performance. Separate lines of evidence point to a critical role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in consolidation. However, a causal relationship between M1 activity during asymptote and consolidation has yet to be demonstrated. The present study investigated this issue in male and female participants using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere with post-movement activity in M1 in two behavioral phases of a ramp-and-hold visuomotor adaptation paradigm...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820674/restoration-of-fmri-decodability-does-not-imply-latent-working-memory-states
#6
Sebastian Schneegans, Paul M Bays
Recent imaging studies have challenged the prevailing view that working memory is mediated by sustained neural activity. Using machine learning methods to reconstruct memory content, these studies found that previously diminished representations can be restored by retrospective cueing or other forms of stimulation. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for an activity-silent working memory state that can be reactivated dependent on task demands. Here, we test the validity of this conclusion by formulating a neural process model of working memory based on sustained activity and using this model to emulate a spatial recall task with retro-cueing...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820212/self-rectifying-bipolar-resistive-switching-memory-based-on-an-iron-oxide-and-graphene-oxide-hybrid
#7
Se-I Oh, Janardhanan R Rani, Sung-Min Hong, Jae-Hyung Jang
A resistive random access memory (RRAM) device with self-rectifying I-V characteristics was fabricated by inserting a silicon nitride (Si3N4) layer between the bottom electrode and solution-processed active material of an iron oxide-graphene oxide (FeOx-GO) hybrid. The fabricated Au/Ni/FeOx-GO/Si3N4/n(+)-Si memory device exhibited an excellent resistive switching ratio and a rectification ratio higher than 10(4). In the Au/Ni/FeOx-GO/Si3N4/n(+)-Si device, resistive switching occurs in both the FeOx-GO and Si3N4 layers separately, resulting in a highly uniform and stable switching performance...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819131/impulsiveness-does-not-prevent-cooperation-from-emerging-but-reduces-its-occurrence-an-experiment-with-zebra-finches
#8
Camille Chia, Frédérique Dubois
Reciprocal altruism, the most probable mechanism for cooperation among unrelated individuals, can be modelled as a Prisoner's Dilemma. This game predicts that cooperation should evolve whenever the players, who expect to interact repeatedly, make choices contingent to their partner's behaviour. Experimental evidence, however, indicates that reciprocity is rare among animals. One reason for this would be that animals are very impulsive compared to humans. Several studies have reported that temporal discounting (that is, strong preferences for immediate benefits) has indeed a negative impact on the occurrence of cooperation...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818818/validation-of-a-smartphone-based-approach-to-in-situ-cognitive-fatigue-assessment
#9
Edward Price, George Moore, Leo Galway, Mark Linden
BACKGROUND: Acquired Brain Injuries (ABIs) can result in multiple detrimental cognitive effects, such as reduced memory capability, concentration, and planning. These effects can lead to cognitive fatigue, which can exacerbate the symptoms of ABIs and hinder management and recovery. Assessing cognitive fatigue is difficult due to the largely subjective nature of the condition and existing assessment approaches. Traditional methods of assessment use self-assessment questionnaires delivered in a medical setting, but recent work has attempted to employ more objective cognitive tests as a way of evaluating cognitive fatigue...
August 17, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818766/design-synthesis-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-study-of-novel-pyrrolidine-based-11%C3%AE-hsd1-inhibitors-for-age-related-cognitive-dysfunction
#10
Rosana Leiva, Christian Griñan-Ferré, Constantí Seira, Elena Valverde, Andrew McBride, Margaret Binnie, Belén Pérez, F Javier Luque, Mercè Pallàs, Axel Bidon-Chanal, Scott P Webster, Santiago Vázquez
Recent findings suggest that treatment with 11β-HSD1 inhibitors provides a novel approach to deal with age-related cognitive dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's disease. In this work we report potent 11β-HSD1 inhibitors featuring unexplored pyrrolidine-based polycyclic substituents. A selected candidate administered to 12-month-old SAMP8 mice for four weeks prevented memory deficits and displayed a neuroprotective action. This is the first time that 11β-HSD1 inhibitors have been studied in this broadly-used mouse model of accelerated senescence and late-onset Alzheimer's disease...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818692/suppression-of-irrelevant-sounds-during-auditory-working-memory
#11
Jyrki Ahveninen, Larry J Seidman, Wei-Tang Chang, Matti Hämäläinen, Samantha Huang
Auditory working memory (WM) processing in everyday acoustic environments depends on our ability to maintain relevant information online in our minds, and to suppress interference caused by competing incoming stimuli. A challenge in communication settings is that the relevant content and irrelevant inputs may emanate from a common source, such as a talkative conversationalist. An open question is how the WM system deals with such interference. Will the distracters become inadvertently filtered before processing for meaning because the primary WM operations deplete all available processing resources? Or are they suppressed post perceptually, through an active control process? We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring magnetoencephalography (MEG), EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) during a phonetic auditory continuous performance task...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816482/same-location-costs-in-peripheral-cueing-the-role-of-cue-awareness-and-feature-changes
#12
Tobias Schoeberl, Thomas Ditye, Ulrich Ansorge
Prior studies using the peripheral cueing paradigm have shown that singleton cues that do not match to the top-down search settings of the observer can impair performance in visual search when the cue appears at the target location (in valid conditions) compared with when the cue appears at a location away from the target (in invalid conditions). This pattern, the same-location cost (SLC), has recently been suggested to originate from an awareness-dependent updating of object files in working memory. It has also been argued that the processes underlying the SLC could have obscured results of prior studies by masking attentional capture effects by peripheral cues under certain conditions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816479/alternation-blindness-in-the-representation-of-binary-sequences
#13
Ru Qi Yu, Daniel Osherson, Jiaying Zhao
Binary information is prevalent in the environment and contains 2 distinct outcomes. Binary sequences consist of a mixture of alternation and repetition. Understanding how people perceive such sequences would contribute to a general theory of information processing. In this study, we examined how people process alternation and repetition in binary sequences. Across 4 paradigms involving estimation, working memory, change detection, and visual search, we found that the number of alternations is underestimated compared with repetitions (Experiment 1)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816476/benefits-of-flexible-prioritization-in-working-memory-can-arise-without-costs
#14
Nicholas E Myers, Sammi R Chekroud, Mark G Stokes, Anna C Nobre
Most recent models conceptualize working memory (WM) as a continuous resource, divided up according to task demands. When an increasing number of items need to be remembered, each item receives a smaller chunk of the memory resource. These models predict that the allocation of attention to high-priority WM items during the retention interval should be a zero-sum game: improvements in remembering cued items come at the expense of uncued items because resources are dynamically transferred from uncued to cued representations...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815677/memory-between-traumatic-shock-and-psychic-historicization
#15
Guillemine Chaudoye, Marine Strauss-Kahn, Rafika Zebdi
'I want to erase him from my memory,' she said, 'his eyes, his eyes staring at me … they are there every night, his hand … every night it hits me again and again …'. On the basis of these few words taken from the therapeutic work with Keltoum, the author reflects theoretically and clinically on the place of memory in a traumatism: a fixed memory, a 'frozen image', the signs of a traumatic compulsion to repeat, are the expressions of a process of psychic disorganization but also of a 'symbolized and symbolizing' memory anticipating a possible historicization of this memory, of a path, therefore, towards a resolution of the trauma resulting from a process of psychic integration and reorganization...
August 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814979/executive-functioning-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-domain-asynchrony-and-age-related-performance
#16
Donna Reid, Jo Moss, Lisa Nelson, Laura Groves, Chris Oliver
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) to identify a syndrome and age-related profile of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Participants were 24 individuals with CdLS aged 13-42 years (M = 22; SD = 8.98), and a comparable contrast group of 21 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) aged 15-33 years (M = 24; SD = 5.82). Measures were selected to test verbal and visual fluency, inhibition, perseverance/flexibility, and working memory and comprised both questionnaire and performance tests...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814843/effects-of-hearing-loss-on-speech-recognition-under-distracting-conditions-and-working-memory-in-the-elderly
#17
Wondo Na, Gibbeum Kim, Gungu Kim, Woojae Han, Jinsook Kim
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to evaluate hearing-related changes in terms of speech-in-noise processing, fast-rate speech processing, and working memory; and to identify which of these three factors is significantly affected by age-related hearing loss. METHODS: One hundred subjects aged 65-84 years participated in the study. They were classified into four groups ranging from normal hearing to moderate-to-severe hearing loss. All the participants were tested for speech perception in quiet and noisy conditions and for speech perception with time alteration in quiet conditions...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814760/mir-181a-involves-in-the-hippocampus-dependent-memory-formation-via-targeting-prkaa1
#18
Sun-Fu Zhang, Jun-Chen Chen, Jing Zhang, Jian-Guo Xu
Post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in memory formation. However, the roles of individual miRNAs in these processes remain largely unknown. In this study, we want to clarify the role of miR-181a in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. A transient increase in miR-181a expression was observed after conditioned fear conditioning (CFC) and object location task (OLT) training. Selective overexpression or inhibition of miR-181a in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) via the injection of a miR-181a agomir or antagomir enhanced or impaired the CFC- and OLT-dependent memory formation, respectively...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814467/input-from-the-medial-geniculate-nucleus-modulates-amygdala-encoding-of-fear-memory-discrimination
#19
Nicole C Ferrara, Patrick K Cullen, Shane P Pullins, Elena K Rotondo, Fred J Helmstetter
Generalization of fear can involve abnormal responding to cues that signal safety and is common in people diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. Differential auditory fear conditioning can be used as a tool to measure changes in fear discrimination and generalization. Most prior work in this area has focused on elevated amygdala activity as a critical component underlying generalization. The amygdala receives input from auditory cortex as well as the medial geniculate nucleus (MgN) of the thalamus, and these synapses undergo plastic changes in response to fear conditioning and are major contributors to the formation of memory related to both safe and threatening cues...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814466/interaction-of-induced-anxiety-and-verbal-working-memory-influence-of-trait-anxiety
#20
Nilam Patel, Catherine Stoodley, Daniel S Pine, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
This study examines the influence of trait anxiety on working memory (WM) in safety and threat. Interactions between experimentally induced anxiety and WM performance (on different cognitive loads) have been reported in healthy, nonanxious subjects. Differences in trait anxiety may moderate these interactions. Accordingly, these interactions may be potentiated by high trait anxiety (HTA), or show a resilient pattern that protects cognitive performance. HTA and low trait anxiety (LTA) were defined by a median split of scores on the trait component of the state-trait anxiety inventory...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
keyword
keyword
15263
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"