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Working Memory

Arielle Tambini, Derek Evan Nee, Mark D'Esposito
The hippocampus plays a critical role in episodic memory, among other cognitive functions. However, few tools exist to causally manipulate hippocampal function in healthy human participants. Recent work has targeted hippocampal-cortical networks by performing TMS to a region interconnected with the hippocampus, posterior inferior parietal cortex (pIPC). Such hippocampal-targeted TMS enhances associative memory and influences hippocampal functional connectivity. However, it is currently unknown which stages of mnemonic processing (encoding or retrieval) are affected by hippocampal-targeted TMS...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Sundeep Teki, Bon-Mi Gu, Warren H Meck
Time and memory are inextricably linked, but it is far from clear how event durations and temporal sequences are encoded in memory. In this review, we focus on resource allocation models of working memory which suggest that memory resources can be flexibly distributed amongst several items such that the precision of working memory decreases with the number of items to be encoded. This type of model is consistent with human performance in working memory tasks based on visual, auditory as well as temporal stimulus patterns...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Jacob Lahr, Lora Minkova, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout, Stefan Klöppel, Elisa Scheller
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetically caused neurodegenerative disorder characterized by heterogeneous motor, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms. Although motor symptoms may be the most prominent presentation, cognitive symptoms such as memory deficits and executive dysfunction typically co-occur. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and task fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to evaluate HD-related changes in the neural network underlying working memory (WM). Sixty-four pre-symptomatic HD mutation carriers (preHD), 20 patients with early manifest HD symptoms (earlyHD), and 83 healthy control subjects performed an n -back fMRI task with two levels of WM load...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Veronica Guardabassi, Carlo Tomasetto
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a highly stigmatizing condition, and reduced cognitive functioning is a stereotypical trait ascribed to individuals with obesity. In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat (i.e., a depletion of working memory resources due to the fear of confirming a negative self-relevant stereotype when a stereotype-related ability is assessed) contributes to cognitive deficits in individuals with obesity. METHODS: Computerized tests of (a) working memory and (b) probabilistic learning-an ability unrelated with working memory-were administered to a community sample of 131 adults...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Qing Zhang, Jiacheng Bi, Xiaodong Zheng, Yongyan Chen, Hua Wang, Wenyong Wu, Zhengguang Wang, Qiang Wu, Hui Peng, Haiming Wei, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian
Checkpoint blockade enhances effector T cell function and has elicited long-term remission in a subset of patients with a broad spectrum of cancers. TIGIT is a checkpoint receptor thought to be involved in mediating T cell exhaustion in tumors; however, the relevance of TIGIT to the dysfunction of natural killer (NK) cells remains poorly understood. Here we found that TIGIT, but not the other checkpoint molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, was associated with NK cell exhaustion in tumor-bearing mice and patients with colon cancer...
June 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
Michael C Salling, Mary Jane Skelly, Elizabeth Avegno, Samantha Regan, Tamara Zeric, Elcoma Nichols, Neil L Harrison
Periodic episodes of excessive alcohol consumption ("binge drinking") occur frequently among adolescents, and early binge drinking is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use disorders later in life. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes significant development during adolescence and hence may be especially susceptible to the effects of binge drinking. In humans and in animal models, adolescent alcohol exposure is known to alter PFC neuronal activity and produce deficits in PFC-dependent behaviors such as decision making, response inhibition, and working memory...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Antonio Román, Andrea Flumini, Julio Santiago
The mental representation of both time and number shows lateral spatial biases, which can be affected by habitual reading and writing direction. However, this effect is in place before children begin to read. One potential early cause is the experiences of looking at picture books together with a carer, as those images also follow the directionality of the script. What is the underlying mechanism for this effect? In the present study, we test the possibility that such experiences induce spatial biases in mental model construction, a mechanism which is a good candidate to induce the biases observed with numbers and times...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Caitlyn Kruiper, Birgitte Fagerlund, Mette Ø Nielsen, Signe Düring, Maria H Jensen, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Birte Y Glenthøj, Bob Oranje
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are already present in early stages of schizophrenia. P3a and P3b event-related potentials (ERPs) are believed to underlie the processes of attention and working memory (WM), yet limited research has been performed on the associations between these parameters. Therefore, we explored possible associations between P3a/b amplitudes and cognition in a large cohort of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia (AN-FES) patients and healthy controls (HC)...
June 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Mandy Roheger, Elke Kalbe, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is one of the most prevalent non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), often experienced as more debilitating for patients and caregivers than motor problems. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the course of cognitive decline and the identification of valid progression markers for Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is essential. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review summarizes the current state of knowledge on cognitive decline over time by reporting effect sizes of cognitive changes in neuropsychological tests...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Hanna Lu, Ni Xi, Ada W T Fung, Linda C W Lam
BACKGROUND: Memory and learning, as the core brain function, shows controversial results across studies focusing on aging and dementia. One of the reasons is because of the multi-faceted nature of memory and learning. However, there is still a dearth of comparable proxies with psychometric and morphometric portrait in clinical and non-clinical populations. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the proxies of memory and learning function with direct and derived measures and examine their associations with morphometric features in senior adults with different cognitive status...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Craig P Hutton, Jennifer A Lemon, Boris Sakic, C David Rollo, Douglas R Boreham, Margaret Fahnestock, J Martin Wojtowicz, Suzanna Becker
The increasing global burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and failure of conventional treatments to stop neurodegeneration necessitates an alternative approach. Evidence of inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress prior to the accumulation of amyloid-β in the prodromal stage of AD (mild cognitive impairment; MCI) suggests that early interventions which counteract these features, such as dietary supplements, may ameliorate the onset of MCI-like behavioral symptoms. We administered a polyphenol-containing multiple ingredient dietary supplement (MDS), or vehicle, to both sexes of triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice and wildtype mice for 2 months from 2-4 months of age...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ulrike Zetsche, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Lars Schulze
Individuals who experience recurrent negative thoughts are at elevated risk for mood and anxiety disorders. It is thus essential to understand why some individuals get stuck in recurrent negative thinking (RNT), whereas others are able to disengage eventually. Theoretical models propose that individuals high in recurrent negative thinking suffer from deficits in controlling the contents of working memory. Empirical findings, however, are inconclusive. In this meta-analysis, we synthesize findings from 94 studies to examine the proposed association between RNT and deficits in cognitive control...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Pamela Heaton, Wai Fung Tsang, Kelly Jakubowski, Daniel Mullensiefen, Rory Allen
Deficits in auditory short-term memory have been widely reported in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and recent evidence suggests that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and co-morbid language impairment (ALI) experience similar difficulties. Music, like language relies on auditory memory and the aim of the study was to extend work investigating the impact of auditory short-term memory impairments to musical perception in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Groups of children with SLI and ALI were matched on chronological age (CA), receptive vocabulary, non-verbal intelligence and digit span, and compared with CA matched typically developing (TD) controls, on tests of pitch and temporal acuity within a voluntary musical imagery paradigm...
June 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Sudeep Bhatia, Neil Stewart
We study how people evaluate and aggregate the attributes of naturalistic choice objects, such as movies and food items. Our approach applies theories of object representation in semantic memory research to large-scale crowd-sourced data, to recover multiattribute representations for common choice objects. We then use standard choice experiments to test the predictive power of various decision rules for weighting and aggregating these multiattribute representations. Our experiments yield three novel conclusions: 1...
June 15, 2018: Cognition
Reuben Rideaux, Emma Baker, Mark Edwards
Information can be consolidated into visual working memory in parallel, i.e. two items can be consolidated in the same time required to consolidate one. However, while motion direction items consolidated in parallel are encoded at a reduced precision, no such reduction has been reported for colour. Here we examine two possible explanations for the inconsistency between the phenomena associated with consolidating these features in parallel: i) that reduced precision can only be detected when more than two colour items are consolidated in parallel, or ii) that the exposure duration used in previous studies was too long, allowing observers serially consolidate items...
June 15, 2018: Vision Research
Yvonne G Ellis, Dylan P Cliff, Steven J Howard, Anthony D Okely
The aim of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a childcare-based intervention to reduce total and prolonged sitting time in pre-schoolers. Four centres and 115 pre-schoolers (44 % boys; 4.1y) participated in a 3-month, 2-arm pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through observations and semi-structured interviews. Sitting time, and breaks and bouts of sitting during childcare were assessed using an activPAL accelerometer over a one-week period at pre- and post-test (12wks)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Min Dai, Ingegerd Hellstrom, Yuen Y Yip, Hans Olov Sjögren, Karl Erik Hellstrom
While immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have therapeutic efficacy against many tumors, few patients are cured. Attempting to improve their therapeutic efficacy we have applied the TC1 mouse lung carcinoma model and injected established subcutaneous tumors intratumorally with 3 weekly doses of various combinations of mAbs. Combinations of mAbs to CTLA4/PD1/CD137 (the 3 mAb combination) and to CTLA4/PD1/CD137/CD19 (the 4 mAb combination) were most efficacious to induce complete regression of both the injected tumor and an untreated tumor in the same mouse...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Johanna Calderon, Jane W Newburger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Leah H Rubin, K Luan Phan, Sheila M Keating, Pauline M Maki
OBJECTIVE: Low-dose hydrocortisone (LDH) enhances aspects of learning and memory in select populations including patients with PTSD and HIV-infected men. HIV-infected women show impairments in learning and memory, but the cognitive effects of LDH in HIV-infected women are unknown. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study examining the time-dependent effects of a single low-dose administration of hydrocortisone (10 mg oral) on cognition in 36 HIV-infected women...
June 14, 2018: AIDS
Katie Palen, Monica Thakar, Bryon D Johnson, Jill A Gershan
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) of chimeric antigen receptor T cells has demonstrated remarkable success for the treatment of pediatric B-cell leukemia. For patients who are not candidates for chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, ACT using tumor antigen-experienced polyclonal T cells may be a treatment option. Since leukemic blasts reside in the bone marrow and bone marrow is a preferred site for homeostatic proliferation of cytotoxic memory CD8 T cells, we hypothesized that bone marrow would be a source of activated T cells...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
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