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Chronic hepatitis c

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035130/patterns-of-serologic-markers-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-the-risk-of-transmission-among-pregnant-women-in-southwestern-nigeria
#1
I M Ifeorah, A S Bakarey, M O Adewumi, F O C Faleye, A Akere, C E Omoruyi, A O Ogunwale, C C Uttah, M A Oketade, J A Adeniji
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern in developing countries that has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Vertical transmission of HBV from mother to child has been identified as a major factor leading to chronicity with attendant liver conditions, especially in poor socioeconomic settings. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of serological HBV markers among pregnant women in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria and to determine the implications for perinatal HBV transmission. This study revealed the presence of varied HBV serological patterns of infection or immunity among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria, and thus the risk of mother to child transmission...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035003/hepatitis-b-core-related-antigen-hbcrag-an-emerging-marker-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#2
REVIEW
L-Y Mak, D K-H Wong, K-S Cheung, W-K Seto, C-L Lai, M-F Yuen
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cannot be completely eradicated due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. While quantification of intrahepatic cccDNA requires liver biopsies, serological markers can be non-invasive alternatives to reflect intrahepatic viral replicative activity. Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been advocated as a novel serum marker for disease monitoring and prognostication of CHB...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035002/short-term-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-hepatitis-c-virus-eradication-following-direct-acting-anti-viral-treatment
#3
E Ogawa, N Furusyo, H Nomura, K Dohmen, N Higashi, K Takahashi, A Kawano, K Azuma, T Satoh, M Nakamuta, T Koyanagi, M Kato, S Shimoda, E Kajiwara, J Hayashi
BACKGROUND: With the development of direct-acting anti-virals (DAAs), almost all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can achieve sustained viral response (SVR). AIM: To evaluate the short-term risk of HCC among patients with SVR by DAAs, including those with cirrhosis or previous HCC. METHODS: This large-scale, multicentre cohort study included 1,675 consecutive patients who achieved SVR by treatment with interferon-free sofosbuvir-based regimens, divided into groups with (n = 152) or without previous HCC (n = 1,523)...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034998/the-albumin-bilirubin-grade-uncovers-the-prognostic-relationship-between-hepatic-reserve-and-immune-dysfunction-in-hiv-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
D J Pinato, R Sharma, C Citti, H Platt, M Ventura-Cots, E Allara, T-Y Chen, A Dalla Pria, M Jain, B Mínguez, L Kikuchi, E Kaufman West, M Merli, D E Kaplan, H Hasson, K Marks, M Nelson, M Núñez, A Aytaman, M Bower, N Bräu
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related mortality in people living with HIV, where co-infection with hepatotropic viruses accelerates the course of chronic liver disease. AIM: To evaluate whether the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, a more accurate marker of liver dysfunction in HCC, might identify patients with progressive liver dysfunction in the context of HIV/hepatitis co-infection. METHODS: Using uni- and multi-variable analyses, we studied the albumin-bilirubin grade as a predictor of overall survival (OS) in a large, multi-center cohort of patients with HIV-associated HCC recruited from 44 centres in 9 countries within the Liver Cancer in HIV study group...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034200/promising-effect-of-rosa-damascena-extract-on-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver
#5
Ida Davoodi, Roja Rahimi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Fatemeh Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Zahra Memariani, Fariba Najafi
NAFLD is a chronic liver disease that affects a high proportion of the world's population which causes metabolic and hepatic damages. Rosa damascena Mill is traditionally used as a dietary supplement for liver disorders. This study was carried out to determine the beneficial effect of standardized extract of R. damascena on animal model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in Wistar rats. HFD rats showed an increase (p < 0.05) in the plasma lipid levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and reduced the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033936/coinhibitory-receptor-expression-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-maintaining-a-balance-in-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-chronic-viral-infections-and-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Isobel S Okoye, Michael Houghton, Lorne Tyrrell, Khaled Barakat, Shokrollah Elahi
In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called "immune checkpoints" by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033929/immunity-and-fibrogenesis-the-role-of-th17-il-17-axis-in-hbv-and-hcv-induced-chronic-hepatitis-and-progression-to-cirrhosis
#7
REVIEW
Feliciano Chanana Paquissi
Cirrhosis is a common final pathway for most chronic liver diseases; representing an increasing burden worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current evidence has shown that, after an initial injury, the immune response has a significant participation in the ongoing damage, and progression from chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) to cirrhosis, driving the activation and maintenance of main fibrogenic pathways. Among immune deregulations, those related to the subtype 17 of T helper lymphocytes (Th17)/interleukin-17 (IL-17) axis have been recognized as key immunopathological and prognostic elements in patients with CVH...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033906/long-non-coding-rnas-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-cells
#8
REVIEW
Marina Barriocanal, Puri Fortes
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) often leads to a chronic infection in the liver that may progress to steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several viral and cellular factors are required for a productive infection and for the development of liver disease. Some of these are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) deregulated in infected cells. After HCV infection, the sequence and the structure of the viral RNA genome are sensed to activate interferon (IFN) synthesis and signaling pathways. These antiviral pathways regulate transcription of several cellular lncRNAs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033194/association-of-319-c-t-and-49-a-g-polymorphisms-of-ctla-4-gene-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#9
Moisés Enciso-Vargas, Bertha Ruíz-Madrigal, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Omar Yair Morales-Balderas, Zamira Helena Hernández-Nazara, Erika Martínez-López, Carlos Dávalos-Cobian, Jorge Ramón Padilla-Gutiérrez, José Rodrigo Torres-Baranda, José Alfredo Domínguez-Rosales, Montserrat Maldonado-González
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Molecular changes in the CTLA-4 gene can modify the ability to control T lymphocyte proliferation, and promote the persistence or elimination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We aimed to investigate the frequency and association of -319 C/T and +49 A/G polymorphism in the CTLA-4 gene in patients infected with HCV. METHODS: The CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms (-319 C/T in the promoter region, and +49 A/G in exon 1) were analysed by T-ARMS-PCR in 420 individuals, including 205 chronic HCV infected patients and 215 healthy subjects...
October 12, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029951/intrahepatic-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-from-hcv-infected-patients-show-an-exhausted-phenotype-but-can-inhibit-hcv-replication
#10
E Cimini, V Bordoni, A Sacchi, U Visco-Comandini, M Montalbano, C Taibi, R Casetti, E Lalle, G D'Offizi, M R Capobianchi, C Agrati
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) persistence results from inefficiencies of both innate and adaptive immune responses to eradicate the infection. A functional impairment of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was described but few data are available on Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in the liver that, however, represents the battlefield in the HCV/host interaction. Aim of this work was to compare circulating and intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in chronic HCV-infected patients (HCV(pos)) and in HCV-negative (HCV(neg)) subjects. Phenotypic and functional analysis was performed by flow cytometry...
October 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029102/nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment-for-adult-patients-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-infection-with-genotype-c-hepatitis-b-virus-a-nationwide-real-life-study
#11
Young Chang, Won Hyeok Choe, Dong Hyun Sinn, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Sang Hoon Ahn, Hyewon Lee, Jae-Jun Shim, Dae Won Jun, Soo Young Park, Joon Yeul Nam, Eun Ju Cho, Su Jong Yu, Dong Ho Lee, Jeong Min Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, So Young Kwon, Seung Woon Paik, Jung-Hwan Yoon
Background/Aim: Antiviral treatment for patients in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still controversial. We assessed whether antiviral treatment reduces liver disease progression in those patients. Methods: This study included consecutive patients that tested positive for HBeAg with an HBV DNA >20,000 IU/mL, ALT <40 IU/L and without evidence of cirrhosis in eight large-volume hospitals in Korea. The primary endpoint was the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the secondary endpoint was the development of cirrhosis...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028966/high-rates-of-subsequent-asymptomatic-stis-and-risky-sexual-behavior-in-patients-initially-presenting-with-primary-hiv-1-infection
#12
Dominique L Braun, Alex Marzel, Daniela Steffens, Peter W Schreiber, Christina Grube, Alexandra U Scherrer, Roger D Kouyos, Huldrych F Günthard
Introduction: Knowledge of the characteristics and risk factors of individuals with an asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection (STI) is essential for implementation of targeted STI screening strategies. Methods: Between June 2015 and January 2017 an STI screening was offered to all participants in the Zurich Primary HIV-1 Infection Study. Patients were tested for gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus. Determinants of STI prevalence and incidence were assessed using mixed-model logistic regression and survival analysis...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027535/transplant-glomerulopathy
#13
REVIEW
Edward J Filippone, Peter A McCue, John L Farber
In the renal allograft, transplant glomerulopathy represents a morphologic lesion and not a specific diagnosis. The hallmark pathologic feature is glomerular basement membrane reduplication by light microscopy or electron microscopy in the absence of immune complex deposits. Transplant glomerulopathy results from chronic, recurring endothelial cell injury that can be mediated by HLA alloantibodies (donor-specific antibodies), various autoantibodies, cell-mediated immune injury, thrombotic microangiopathy, or chronic hepatitis C...
October 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024739/direct-antiviral-agents-daas-a-new-age-in-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#14
REVIEW
Ulrich Spengler
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem, because infection frequently leads to chronic hepatitis C eventually progressing to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Improved insights into the HCV replication cycle and the role of HCV non-structural proteins has recently enabled to identify drugs directly acting on specific HCV target structures. Agents from three drug classes have been developed and approved by the health authorities. Combinations of two or more drugs from different classes achieve high (>90%) HCV clearance rates and are well tolerated...
October 9, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023927/hepatitis-b-virus-dual-infection-disrupts-platelet-count-recovery-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-with-curative-antiviral-therapy
#15
Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Ching-I Huang, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Chia-Yen Dai, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia recovers after viral eradication. The current study explored the rate and factors associated with platelet (PLT) recovery, which may represent the degree of liver fibrosis regression. METHODS: A total of 466 patients who achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) were enrolled to compare the PLT change after a mean follow-up period of 85.5months (range 12-163 months)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023872/cell-death-markers-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-acute-decompensation
#16
Stewart Macdonald, Fausto Andreola, Patrik Bachtiger, Alex Amoros, Marco Pavesi, Rajeshwar Mookerjee, Yu Bao Zheng, Henning Grønbaek, Alexander L Gerbes, Elsa Sola, Paolo Caraceni, Richard Moreau, Pere Gines, Vicente Arroyo, Rajiv Jalan
The aims of this study were to determine the role of cell death in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation (AD) and acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) using plasma-based biomarkers. The patients studied were part of the CANONIC study (N=337; AD: 258; ACLF: 79); additional cohorts included healthy volunteers, stable cirrhotic patients and a group of 16 AD patients for histological studies. Caspase-cleaved keratin 18 (cK18) and keratin 18 (K18), which reflect apoptotic and total cell death respectively and cK18:K18 ratio (apoptotic index) were measured in the plasma by ELISA...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023858/interleukin-1-gene-cluster-haplotype-analysis-in-the-chronic-outcome-prediction-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#17
Bita Javan, Mohamad Reza Kalani, Majid Shahbazi
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is well known as an important cause of the chronic liver disease. The screening of the genotype of certain cytokines might be helpful to predict the clinical outcome of an HBV infection. The present study investigates the relationship between the polymorphism and haplotypes of the Interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene family, including IL-1-alpha (IL-1A), IL-1-beta (IL-1B) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN), with chronic HBV infection. 297 chronic HBV and 333 matched on sex and age control individuals were genotyped using the standard sequence-specific- polymerase chain reaction primer (SSP-PCR) method...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022863/next-generation-sequencing-revealed-divergence-in-deletions-of-the-pres-region-in-the-hbv-genome-between-different-hbv-related-liver-diseases
#18
Jian'an Jia, Xiaotao Liang, Shipeng Chen, Hui Wang, Huiming Li, Meng Fang, Xin Bai, Ziyi Wang, Mengmeng Wang, Shanfeng Zhu, Fengzhu Sun, Chunfang Gao
In order to investigate if deletion patterns of the preS region can predict liver disease advancement, the preS region of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome in 45 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 94 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients was sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the percentages of nucleotide deletion in the preS region were analysed. Hierarchical clustering and heatmaps based on deletion percentages of preS revealed different deletion patterns between CHB and HCC patients...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022122/association-of-interferon-lambda-polymorphisms-with-elevated-baseline-viral-loads-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-6-infection
#19
Linh Thuy Nguyen, Dzung Van Nguyen, Michael J Carr, William W Hall, Lan Anh Nguyen
Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. For clinical decision making, genetic variation in the interferon-λ (IFNL) cluster has been utilised as a baseline predictor of natural and interferon-based treatment-induced viral clearance. In Vietnam, where HCV genotypes 1 (g1) and g6 predominate, no prior studies have been conducted investigating associations of IFNL3/4 polymorphisms with spontaneous clearance (SC) or HCV viral load (VL) in chronic infection...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022044/erratum-to-action-and-function-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-the-progression-from-chronic-hepatitis-c-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Wenhui Wang, Qiuwei Pan, Gwenny M Fuhler, Ron Smits, Maikel P Peppelenbosch
Erratum to: J Gastroenterol (2017) 52:419-431 DOI 10.1007/s00535-016-1299-5.
October 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
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