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Acetylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927261/hdac11-inhibits-myoblast-differentiation-through-repression-of-myod-dependent-transcription
#1
Sang Kyung Byun, Tae Hyeon An, Min Jeong Son, Da Som Lee, Hyun Sup Kang, Eun-Woo Lee, Baek Soo Han, Won Kon Kim, Kwang-Hee Bae, Kyoung-Jin Oh, Sang Chul Lee
Abnormal differentiation of muscle is closely associated with aging (sarcopenia) and diseases such as cancer and type II diabetes. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that regulate muscle differentiation will be useful in the treatment and prevention of these conditions. Protein lysine acetylation and methylation are major post-translational modification mechanisms that regulate key cellular processes. In this study, to elucidate the relationship between myogenic differentiation and protein lysine acetylation/methylation, we performed a PCR array of enzymes related to protein lysine acetylation/ methylation during C2C12 myoblast differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927129/deficiency-of-gap-junction-composed-of-connexin43-contributes-to-oxaliplatin-resistance-in-colon-cancer-cells
#2
Min Su, Qi Zhang
Although comprehensive strategies in the treatment of colorectal cancer have been developed for a number of years, the five-year survival rate of metastatic colon cancer remains less than 10%. Oxaliplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for metastatic colon cancer, improves the response rate of patients and prolongs patients' progression-free survival. However, the generation of resistance limits the clinical application of oxaliplatin, and the mechanisms of this remain unclear. The present study mainly investigated the effect of the gap junction (GJ) composed of connexin43 (Cx43) on oxaliplatin cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927052/synergistic-effects-of-phenylhexyl-isothiocyanate-and-ly294002-on-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-hl-60-cells
#3
Huicong Yang, Yiqun Huang, Yong Zou, Xudong Ma
The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergistic effect of phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHI) and LY294002 [an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)] on the PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway, modulating histone acetylation, inhibiting cell viability and inducing apoptosis in HL-60 cells. The inhibition of HL-60 cell viability was monitored using an MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry. Expression of acetylated histone H3 and histone H4, and the Akt signaling pathway proteins phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p-p70S6K) was detected using western blotting...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926934/the-beneficial-effects-of-allicin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-are-comparable-to-losartan
#4
Ehécatl Miguel Ángel García Trejo, Abraham Said Arellano Buendía, Omegar Sánchez Reyes, Fernando Enrique García Arroyo, Raúl Arguello García, María Lilia Loredo Mendoza, Edilia Tapia, Laura Gabriela Sánchez Lozada, Horacio Osorio Alonso
Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD), reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C), CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral) (CKDA), and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg) (CKDL). After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926745/microrna-30e-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-cervical-carcinoma-cells-through-targeting-galnt7
#5
Huijuan Wu, Jun Chen, Dan Li, Xiangyu Liu, Lei Li, Ke Wang
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. However, the underlying mechanism of occurrence and development of cervical cancer is obscure. In this study, we observed that miR-30e was downregulated in clinical cervical cancer tissues and cervical cancer cells. Next, overexpression of miR-30e reduced the cervical cancer cell growth through MTT, colony formation, EdU, and Transwell assay in SiHa and Caski cells. Subsequently, UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 7 (GALNT7) was identified as a potential miR-30e target by bioinformatics analysis...
September 16, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926708/molecular-nuances-governing-the-self-assembly-of-1-3-2-4-dibenzylidene-d-sorbitol
#6
Andrew Singh, France-Isabelle Auzanneau, Maria G Corradini, Girishma Grover, Richard G Weiss, Michael A Rogers
1,3:2,4 Dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) is the gold-standard for low-molecular-weight organogelators (LMOGs). DBS gelates a wide array of solvents, as illustrated by the large Hansen sphere representing gels (2d = 33.5, p = 7.5, and h = 8.7 MPa1/2; radius = 11.2 MPa1/2). Derivatives of DBS have been synthesised to isolate and determine molecular features essential for organogelation. Herein, π-π stacking and hydrogen-bonding are the major non-covalent interactions examined. The importance of π-π stacking was studied using 1,3:2,4 dicyclohexanecarboxylidene-D-sorbitol (DCHS), which eliminates possible π-π stacking, while still conserving the other structural aspects of DBS...
September 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926430/targeting-histone-methylation-in-cancer
#7
Michael T McCabe, Helai P Mohammad, Olena Barbash, Ryan G Kruger
Most, if not all, human cancers exhibit altered epigenetic signatures that promote aberrant gene expression that contributes to cellular transformation. Historically, attempts to pharmacologically intervene in this process have focused on DNA methylation and histone acetylation. More recently, genome-wide studies have identified histone and chromatin regulators as one of the most frequently dysregulated functional classes in a wide range of cancer types. These findings have provided numerous potential therapeutic targets including many that affect histone methylation...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926429/targeting-histone-acetylation-readers-and-writers-in-leukemia-and-cancer
#8
Christopher B Benton, Warren Fiskus, Kapil N Bhalla
Chromatin packaging of DNA provides a framework for transcriptional regulation. Modifications to DNA and histone proteins in nucleosomes lead to conformational changes, alterations in the recruitment of transcriptional complexes, and ultimately modulation of gene expression. We provide a focused review of control mechanisms that help modulate the activation and deactivation of gene transcription specifically through histone acetylation writers and readers in cancer. The chemistry of these modifications is subject to clinically actionable targeting, including state-of-the-art strategies to inhibit basic oncogenic mechanisms related to histone acetylation...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926267/synthesis-and-analysis-of-bacterial-folate-metabolism-intermediates-and-antifolates
#9
Surendra Dawadi, Shannon L Kordus, Anthony D Baughn, Courtney C Aldrich
The mechanism of action of para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), a drug used to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), has been confirmed through the first synthesis and biochemical characterization of its active metabolite 7. The synthesis features the coupling of N(2)-acetyl-6-formylpterin obtained from the degradation of folic acid and appropriately functionalized arylamines to form Schiff bases. The sequential chemoselective reduction of the imine and pterin ring led to the formation of dihydrofolate analogue 7 and two other dihydropteroate species...
September 19, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926063/methylglyoxal-attenuates-insulin-signaling-and-downregulates-the-enzymes-involved-in-cholesterol-biosynthesis
#10
Arati B Deshmukh, Shakuntala Bai, Aarthy T, Rubina S Kazi, Reema Banarjee, Rajeshwari Rathore, Vijayakumar Mv, Thulasiram Hv, Manoj Kumar Bhat, Kulkarni Mj
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl known to be elevated under the hyperglycemic conditions of diabetes and is implicated in the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, the current study investigates the role of MG in exacerbating insulin resistance at the insulin signaling level, as well as its effect on the global proteomic level. By using insulin sensitive rat muscle cells (L6) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the insulin receptor (IR) and a glucose transporter fused with green fluorescent protein (GLUT4-GFP), we have observed that MG impairs insulin signaling, inhibits GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake...
September 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925477/the-study-on-the-effect-of-hyperglycemia-on-offspring-fatty-tissue-metabolism-during-pregnancy
#11
H-P Dong, M-Z Tan, Q-J Liu, J Wang, S-B Zhong
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we adopted maternal diabetes model on rats, which induced by streptozotocin to explore the metabolism changes of rat adipose tissue during the neonatal period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The female rats were induced as diabetes models by streptozotocin (STZ), and mated with the normal male rats when they entered into adulthood. The chosen male offspring rats were executed at week 12 and the epididymis and subcutaneous fat pad were obtained...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925404/ing5-activity-in-self-renewal-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-via-calcium-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone-pathways
#12
F Wang, A Y Wang, C Chesnelong, Y Yang, A Nabbi, S Thalappilly, V Alekseev, K Riabowol
Stem cell-like brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) cause recurrence of glioblastomas, with BTIC 'stemness' affected by epigenetic mechanisms. The ING family of epigenetic regulators (ING1-5) function by targeting histone acetyltransferase (HAT) or histone deacetylase complexes to the H3K4me3 mark to alter histone acetylation and subsequently, gene expression. Here we find that ectopic expression of ING5, the targeting subunit of HBO1, MOZ and MORF HAT complexes increases expression of the Oct4, Olig2 and Nestin stem cell markers, promotes self-renewal, prevents lineage differentiation and increases stem cell pools in BTIC populations...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925298/new-natural-barrigenol-like-triterpenoid-isolated-from-the-husks-of-xanthoceras-sorbifolia-bunge
#13
Da Wang, Bin Yu, Chuming Chen, Jie Duan, Donghua Di, Xin Xiong, Yiren Yang, Huiyuan Gao
The Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge husks were known for their abundant triterpenoids resource, which contributed to many bioactivities, such as antitumor, antiinflammatory and neuroprotection. The present study has led to the purification of a new triterpenoid saponin, 21β-O-acetyl-xanthohuskiside A (1), together with six known barrigenol derivatives (2-7), whose structures were authenticated on the basis of NMR, HR-MS, IR spectrum and acid hydrolysis experiment. Compound 7 showed more noteworthy cytotoxicity towards three human tumour cell lines (HCT-116, HepG-2 and U87-MG) than other compounds...
September 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924523/the-interplay-of-genetics-and-environmental-factors-in-the-development-of-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Abu Baker Sheikh, Adeel Nasrullah, Shujaul Haq, Aisha Akhtar, Haider Ghazanfar, Amara Nasir, Rao M Afzal, Marvi M Bukhari, Ahtsham Yousaf Chaudhary, Syed W Naqvi
Obesity is a major health issue in the developed nations, and it has been increasingly clear that both genetics and environment play an important role in determining if an individual will be obese or not. We reviewed the latest researches which were carried out to identify the obesity susceptible genes and to identify the metabolic pathways having a central role in energy balance. Obesity is a heritable disorder, and some of the many obesity susceptible genes are fat mass and obesity (FTO), leptin, and Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R)...
July 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924015/no-mediates-nitrite-sensing-and-adaptation-and-triggers-a-remodeling-of-lipids
#15
Lina J Dolch, Josselin Lupette, Guillaume Tourcier, Mariette Bedhomme, Séverine Collin, Leonardo Magneschi, Melissa Conte, Khawla Seddiki, Christelle Richard, Erwan Corre, Laurent Fourage, Frédéric Laeuffer, Robert Richards, Michael Reith, Fabrice Rébeillé, Juliette Jouhet, Patrick McGinn, Eric Marechal
Nitric oxide (NO) is an intermediate of the nitrogen cycle, an industrial pollutant and a marker of climate change. NO also acts as a gaseous transmitter in a variety of biological processes. The impact of environmental NO needs to be addressed. In diatoms, a dominant phylum in phytoplankton, NO was reported to mediate programmed cell death (PCD) in response to diatom derived polyunsaturated aldehydes. Here, using the Phaeodactylum Pt1 strain, 2E,4E-decadienal supplied in the micromolar concentration range led to a non-specific cell toxicity...
September 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923959/ncor1-independent-mechanism-plays-a-role-in-the-action-of-the-unliganded-thyroid-hormone-receptor
#16
Arturo Mendoza, Inna Astapova, Hiroaki Shimizu, Molly R Gallop, Lujain Al-Sowaimel, S M Dileas MacGowan, Tim Bergmann, Anders H Berg, Danielle E Tenen, Christopher Jacobs, Anna Lyubetskaya, Linus Tsai, Anthony N Hollenberg
Nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1) is considered to be the major corepressor that mediates ligand-independent actions of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) during development and in hypothyroidism. We tested this by expressing a hypomorphic NCoR1 allele (NCoR1ΔID), which cannot interact with the TR, in Pax8-KO mice, which make no thyroid hormone. Surprisingly, abrogation of NCoR1 function did not reverse the ligand-independent action of the TR on many gene targets and did not fully rescue the high mortality rate due to congenital hypothyroidism in these mice...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923942/identification-of-sialic-acid-binding-function-for-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-spike-glycoprotein
#17
Wentao Li, Ruben J G Hulswit, Ivy Widjaja, V Stalin Raj, Ryan McBride, Wenjie Peng, W Widagdo, M Alejandra Tortorici, Brenda van Dieren, Yifei Lang, Jan W M van Lent, James C Paulson, Cornelis A M de Haan, Raoul J de Groot, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Bart L Haagmans, Berend-Jan Bosch
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) targets the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract both in humans and in its natural host, the dromedary camel. Virion attachment to host cells is mediated by 20-nm-long homotrimers of spike envelope protein S. The N-terminal subunit of each S protomer, called S1, folds into four distinct domains designated S1(A) through S1(D) Binding of MERS-CoV to the cell surface entry receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) occurs via S1(B) We now demonstrate that in addition to DPP4, MERS-CoV binds to sialic acid (Sia)...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923415/diindolylmethane-and-its-halogenated-derivatives-induce-protective-autophagy-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells-via-induction-of-the-oncogenic-protein-aeg-1-and-activation-of-amp-dependent-kinase-ampk
#18
Hossam Draz, Alexander A Goldberg, Vladimir I Titorenko, Emma Guns, Stephen H Safe, J Thomas Sanderson
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) and its synthetic halogenated derivatives 4,4'-Br2- and 7,7'-Cl2DIM (ring-DIMs) have recently been shown to induce protective autophagy in human prostate cancer cells. The mechanisms by which DIM and ring-DIMs induce autophagy have not been elucidated. As DIM is a mitochondrial ATP-synthase inhibitor, we hypothesized that DIM and ring-DIMs induce autophagy via alteration of intracellular AMP/ATP ratios and activation of AMPK signaling in prostate cancer cells. We found that DIM and ring-DIMs induced autophagy was accompanied by increased autophagic vacuole formation and conversion of LC3BI to LC3BII in LNCaP and C42B human prostate cancer cells...
September 15, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922741/genomic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-sialic-acid-acetylesterase-siae-in-zebrafish
#19
Viola Ravasio, Eufemia Damiati, Daniela Zizioli, Flavia Orizio, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Marta Manzoni, Roberto Bresciani, Giuseppe Borsani, Eugenio Monti
Sialic acid acetylesterase (SIAE) removes acetyl moieties from the carbon 9 and 4 hydroxyl groups of sialic acid and recently a debate has been opened on its association to autoimmunity. Trying to get new insights on this intriguing enzyme we have studied siae in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In this teleost siae encodes for a polypeptide with a high degree of sequence identity to human and mouse counterparts. Zebrafish Siae behavior upon transient expression in COS7 cells is comparable to human enzyme concerning pH optimum of enzyme activity, subcellular localization and glycosylation...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922390/identifying-novel-transcription-factors-involved-in-the-inflammatory-response-by-using-binding-site-motif-scanning-in-genomic-regions-defined-by-histone-acetylation
#20
Peter S Askovich, Stephen A Ramsey, Alan H Diercks, Kathleen A Kennedy, Theo A Knijnenburg, Alan Aderem
The innate immune response to pathogenic challenge is a complex, multi-staged process involving thousands of genes. While numerous transcription factors that act as master regulators of this response have been identified, the temporal complexity of gene expression changes in response to pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor stimulation strongly suggest that additional layers of regulation remain to be uncovered. The evolved pathogen response program in mammalian innate immune cells is understood to reflect a compromise between the probability of clearing the infection and the extent of tissue damage and inflammatory sequelae it causes...
2017: PloS One
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