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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923151/a-novel-role-for-the-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-14-on-macrophage-inflammatory-response-and-atherosclerosis-development
#1
Xiao Wei, Ruomei Yang, Chengpan Wang, Xun Jian, Ling Li, Hua Liu, Gangyi Yang, Zhiyong Li
Genome-wide association studies have shown that Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) is associated with both Type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid metabolism. However, its role in chronic inflammatory responses and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate both in vivo and in vitro the impact of KLF14 on chronic inflammatory responses and atherosclerosis. ApoE KO mice, a well-established animal model of atherosclerosis, had higher expressions of KLF14 in aorta tissues than that in C57BL/6 J mice when fed the high-fat diet (HFD) or standard chow diet...
November 14, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922638/enhancing-dopaminergic-signaling-and-histone-acetylation-promotes-long-term-rescue-of-deficient-fear-extinction
#2
N Whittle, V Maurer, C Murphy, J Rainer, D Bindreither, M Hauschild, A Scharinger, M Oberhauser, T Keil, C Brehm, T Valovka, J Striessnig, N Singewald
Extinction-based exposure therapy is used to treat anxiety- and trauma-related disorders; however, there is the need to improve its limited efficacy in individuals with impaired fear extinction learning and to promote greater protection against return-of-fear phenomena. Here, using 129S1/SvImJ mice, which display impaired fear extinction acquisition and extinction consolidation, we revealed that persistent and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction in these mice was associated with enhanced expression of dopamine-related genes, such as dopamine D1 (Drd1a) and -D2 (Drd2) receptor genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, but not hippocampus...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922612/the-intricate-dance-of-post-translational-modifications-in-the-rhythm-of-life
#3
REVIEW
Arisa Hirano, Ying-Hui Fu, Louis J Ptáček
Endogenous biological rhythms with approximately 24-h periodicity are generated by the circadian clock, in which clock genes coordinate with one another and form a transcriptional-translational negative feedback loop. The precision of the circadian clock is further regulated by multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and SUMOylation. Here, we review current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the core clock proteins by PTMs in the mammalian circadian clock...
December 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922200/a-fluorescence-lifetime-based-binding-assay-for-class-iia-histone-deacetylases
#4
Christian Meyners, Monique Mertens, Pablo Wessig, Franz-Josef Meyer-Almes
Class IIa HDACs show extremely low enzymatic activity and no commonly accepted endogenous substrate is known today. Increasing evidence suggests that these enzymes exert their effect rather through molecular recognition of acetylated proteins and recruiting other proteins like HDAC3 to the desired target location. Accordingly, class IIa HDACs like bromodomains have been suggested to act as "Readers" of acetyl marks, whereas enzymatically active HDACs from class I or IIb are called "Erasers" to highlight their capability to remove acetyl groups from acetylated histones or other proteins...
December 6, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920977/neurochemical-changes-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-detected-by-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Xianjing Zhao, Maosheng Xu, Kristen Jorgenson, Jian Kong
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a highly prevalent health problem around the world, affecting 50% to 85% of people at some point in life. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies on brain chemical changes in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: We identified relevant studies from a literature search of PubMed and EMBASE from 1980 to March 2016. Data extraction was performed on the subjects' characteristics, MRS methods, spectral analyses, cerebral metabolites and perceptual measurements...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920298/malate-synthase-and-%C3%AE-methylmalyl-coa-lyase-reactions-in-the-methylaspartate-cycle-in-haloarcula-hispanica
#6
Farshad Borjian, Jing Han, Jing Hou, Hua Xiang, Jan Zarzycki, Ivan A Berg
: Haloarchaea are extremely halophilic heterotrophic microorganisms belonging to the class Halobacteria (Euryarchaeota). Almost half of the haloarchaea possesses the genes coding for enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle, a recently discovered anaplerotic acetate assimilation pathway. In this cycle, the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle together with the dedicated enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle convert two acetyl-CoA molecules to malate. The methylaspartate cycle involves two reactions catalyzed by homologous enzymes belonging to the CitE-like enzyme superfamily, the malyl-CoA lyase/thioesterase (haloarchaeal malate synthase, hMS, Hah_2476 in Haloarcula hispanica) and the β-methylmalyl-CoA lyase (hMCL, Hah_1341)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920204/studies-on-the-detection-expression-glycosylation-dimerization-and-ligand-binding-properties-of-mouse-siglec-e
#7
Shoib Siddiqui, Flavio Schwarz, Stevan Springer, Zahra Khedri, Hai Yu, Lingquan Deng, Andrea Verhagen, Yuko Naito-Matsui, Weiping Jiang, Daniel Kim, Jie Zhou, Beibei Ding, Xi Chen, Nissi Varki, Ajit Varki
CD33-related Siglecs are a family of proteins widely expressed on innate immune cells. Binding of sialylated glycans or other ligands triggers signals that inhibit or activate inflammation. Immunomodulation by Siglecs has been extensively studied, but relationships between structure and functions are poorly explored. Here we present new data relating the structure and function of Siglec-E, the major CD33-related Siglec expressed on mouse neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. We generated nine new rat monoclonal antibodies specific to mouse Siglec-E, with no cross-reactivity to Siglec-F...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920160/supressor-of-frigida-suf4-supports-gamete-fusion-via-regulating-arabidopsis-ec1-gene-expression
#8
Francesca Resentini, Philippe Cyprys, Joshua G Steffen, Svenja Alter, Pietro Angelo Morandini, Chiara Mizzotti, Alan Lloyd, Gary N Drews, Thomas Dresselhaus, Lucia Colombo, Stefanie Sprunck, Simona Masiero
The EC1 gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana comprises five members that are specifically expressed in the egg cell and redundantly control gamete fusion during double fertilization. We investigated the activity of all five EC1 promoters in promoter-deletion studies and identified SUF4 (SUPPRESSOR OF FRIGIDA 4), a C2H2 transcription factor, as a direct regulator of the EC1 gene expression. In particular, we demonstrated that SUF4 binds to all five Arabidopsis EC1 promoters, thus regulating their expression. The down regulation of SUF4 in homozygous suf4-1 ovules results in reduced EC1 expression and delayed sperm fusion, which can be rescued by expressing SUF4-GUS under control of the SUF4 promoter...
December 5, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920040/regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-by-inhibitory-smads
#9
Keiji Miyazawa, Kohei Miyazono
Inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) have conserved carboxy-terminal MH2 domains but highly divergent amino-terminal regions when compared with receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) and common-partner Smads (co-Smads). Smad6 preferentially inhibits Smad signaling initiated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptors ALK-3 and ALK-6, whereas Smad7 inhibits both transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)- and BMP-induced Smad signaling. I-Smads also regulate some non-Smad signaling pathways. Here, we discuss the vertebrate I-Smads, their roles as inhibitors of Smad activation and regulators of receptor stability, as scaffolds for non-Smad signaling, and their possible roles in the nucleus...
December 5, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#10
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in carriage of non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms represent a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of high doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919791/biosensor-assisted-transcriptional-regulator-engineering-for-methylobacterium-extorquens-am1-to-improve-mevalonate-synthesis-by-increasing-the-acetyl-coa-supply
#11
Wei-Fan Liang, Lan-Yu Cui, Jin-Yu Cui, Kai-Wen Yu, Song Yang, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing
Acetyl-CoA is not only an important intermediate metabolite for cells but also a significant precursor for production of industrially interesting metabolites. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a model strain of methylotrophic cell factories using methanol as carbon source, is of interest because it produces abundant coenzyme A compounds capable of directing to synthesis of different useful compounds from methanol. However, acetyl-CoA always does not efficiently accumulate in M. extorquens AM1, as it is located in the center of three cyclic central metabolic pathways...
December 3, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918982/traffic-derived-particulate-matter-exposure-and-histone-h3-modification-a-repeated-measures-study
#12
Yinan Zheng, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Zhou Zhang, Brian T Joyce, Jia Zhong, Jacob K Kresovich, Lei Liu, Wei Zhang, Tao Gao, Dou Chang, Citlalli Osorio-Yanez, Juan Jose Carmona, Sheng Wang, John P McCracken, Xiao Zhang, Yana Chervona, Anaite Díaz, Pier A Bertazzi, Petros Koutrakis, Choong-Min Kang, Joel Schwartz, Andrea A Baccarelli, Lifang Hou
BACKGROUND: Airborne particulate matter (PM) may induce epigenetic changes that potentially lead to chronic diseases. Histone modifications regulate gene expression by influencing chromatin structure that can change gene expression status. We evaluated whether traffic-derived PM exposure is associated with four types of environmentally inducible global histone H3 modifications. METHODS: The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers examined twice, 1-2 weeks apart, for ambient PM10 (both day-of and 14-day average exposures), personal PM2...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918556/effects-of-fatty-acid-synthase-inhibitors-on-lymphatic-vessels-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-in-a-melanoma-model
#13
Débora C Bastos, Jenny Paupert, Catherine Maillard, Fabiana Seguin, Marco A Carvalho, Michelle Agostini, Ricardo D Coletta, Agnès Noël, Edgard Graner
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is responsible for the endogenous production of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. Its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in human cancers including melanomas. Our group has previously shown that the inhibition of FASN with orlistat reduces spontaneous lymphatic metastasis in experimental B16-F10 melanomas, which is a consequence, at least in part, of the reduction of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of pharmacological FASN inhibition on lymphatic vessels by using cell culture and mouse models...
December 5, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918234/formation-and-exudation-of-non-volatile-products-of-the-arabidiol-triterpenoid-degradation-pathway-in-arabidopsis-roots
#14
Reza Sohrabi, Tehane Ali, Liva Harinantenaina Rakotondraibe, Dorothea Tholl
Triterpenoids produced by plants play important roles in the protection against biotic stress. Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana produce different triterpenoids, which include the tricyclic triterpene diol, arabidiol. In a degradation reaction induced by infection with the oomycete pathogen, Pythium irregulare, arabidiol is cleaved to the 11-carbon volatile homoterpene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and the 19-carbon ketone, apo-arabidiol. The arabidiol pathway and its volatile breakdown product DMNT have been implicated in the defense against P...
December 5, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917784/suppression-of-bromodomain-containing-protein-4-by-shrna-a-new-approach-for-cancer-treatment
#15
Turan Kaya, Berke Kahraman, Nurgeldi Bazarov, Alperen S Toker, Ayse Celik, Sadik Cigdem, Esra Gunduz
PURPOSE: MYC is a transcription factor coding gene that is believed to control 15% of the genes in the entire human genome. The central role of c-MYC in cancer pathogenesis makes it a major therapeutic target in field of anticancer agent development. METHODS: We targeted the acetyl-lysine binding modules or bromodomains, which are associated with c-MYC transcriptional activation. RESULTS: Sequence specific inhibition of BET bromodomains with small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) resulted in cessation of cellular proliferation in different cancer cell lines...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917510/activation-of-interleukin-6-and-8-expressions-by-methylmercury-in-human-u937-macrophages-involves-rela-and-p50
#16
Megumi Yamamoto, Noureen Khan, Muflihatul Muniroh, Eriko Motomura, Rie Yanagisawa, Takami Matsuyama, Christoph F A Vogel
The accumulation of macrophages has been observed around lesions of the brain in patients with Minamata disease. In this condition, mercury has been detected histochemically in macrophages throughout the brain. However, the role of macrophages in the neurotoxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) and the molecular mechanisms of their response to MeHg exposure remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated how MeHg affects the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in cultured human U937 macrophages...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917474/germacrone-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-stimulates-lipolysis-via-the-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signalling-pathway-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#17
Yuan-Ri Guo, Se-Young Choung
OBJECTIVES: In a previous study, we reported that Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Of the components in ASE, germacrone (GM) was identified as a potent bioactive constituent. GM is known for its anticancer and antiviral activity. However, the effects of GM and the molecular mechanism by which GM regulates adipogenesis and lipolysis were not reported. Therefore, we investigated the effect of GM on adipogenesis and lipolysis and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917341/the-effect-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-nac-on-aluminum-phosphide-poisoning-inducing-cardiovascular-toxicity-a-case-control-study
#18
Fakhreddin Taghaddosinejad, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Mahdi Ghazanfari-Nasrabad, Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Morteza Hajihosseini, Omid Mehrpour
BACKGROUND: Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a very effective indoor and outdoor pesticide. We investigated the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the survival time, hemodynamics, and cardiac biochemical parameters at various time intervals in some cases of AlP poisoning. METHODS: This research was a case-control study to evaluate 63 AlP poisoned patients during 2010-2012. Patients with cardiovascular complications of AlP to be treated with intravenous NAC plus conventional treatment were considered as the case group and compared with patients who did not receive NAC...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917121/neurochemical-and-neuroanatomical-plasticity-following-memory-training-and-yoga-interventions-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Hongyu Yang, Amber M Leaver, Prabha Siddarth, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie M St Cyr, Harris A Eyre, Katherine L Narr, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916942/evidence-of-bioactive-compounds-from-vernonia-polyanthes-leaves-with-topical-anti-inflammatory-potential
#20
Kamilla C M Rodrigues, Lucas A Chibli, Bruna C S Santos, Vanessa S Temponi, Nícolas C C Pinto, Elita Scio, Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira, Maria S Alves, Orlando V Sousa
Vernonia polyanthes Less. (Asteraceae), popularly known as "assa-peixe", is a plant species used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of cutaneous damage, cicatrization, inflammation, and rheumatism. Based on these ethnopharmacological findings, the current study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the hexane (HEVP) and ethyl acetate (EAEVP) extracts from V. polyanthes leaves in experimental models of skin inflammation. Chemical characterization was carried out by HPLC-UV/DAD analysis...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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