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Edina Schweighoffer, Victor Lj Tybulewicz
The number of mature B cells is carefully controlled by signalling from receptors that support B cell survival. The best studied of these are the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and BAFFR. Recent work has shown that signalling from these receptors is closely linked, involves the CD19 co-receptor, and leads to activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways, ERK1, ERK2 and ERK5 MAP kinases, and PI-3 kinases. Importantly, studies show that investigation of the importance of signalling molecules in cell survival requires the use of inducible gene deletions within mature B cells...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Sana Irfan Khan, Rajiv Kumar Malhotra, Neha Rani, Anil Kumar Sahu, Ameesha Tomar, Shanky Garg, Tapas Chandra Nag, Ruma Ray, Shreesh Ojha, Dharamvir Singh Arya, Jagriti Bhatia
Xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase have been implicated in producing myocardial damage following reperfusion of an occluded coronary artery. We investigated and compared the effect of febuxostat and allopurinol in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury with a focus on the signaling pathways involved. Male Wistar rats were orally administered vehicle (CMC) once daily (sham and IR + control), febuxostat (10 mg/kg/day; FEB10 + IR), or allopurinol (100 mg/kg/day; ALL100 + IR) for 14 days...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Mengjuan Wei, Zhiyong Zheng, Liang Shi, Yao Jin, Lili Ji
Hepatotoxicity due to acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in clinic. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a dietary polyphenol, was reported to prevent APAP-induced liver injury in our previous studies. This study aims to investigate the protection provided by CGA against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity via focusing on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2. CGA prevented APAP-induced oxidative liver injury and enhanced Nrf2 activation in mice and in hepatocytes in vitro...
November 10, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Srivatsava Naidu, Lei Shi, Peter Magee, Justin D Middleton, Alessandro Laganá, Sudhakar Sahoo, Hui Sun Leong, Melanie Galvin, Kristopher Frese, Caroline Dive, Vincenza Guzzardo, Matteo Fassan, Michela Garofalo
In NSCLC alterations in PDGF receptors are markers of worst prognosis and efficient targeting of these receptors is yet to be achieved. In this study, we explored PDGFR-regulated microRNAs demonstrating that miR-23b cluster and miR-125a-5p are downregulated by increased expression of PDGFR-α or PDGFR-β in NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, the expression of these microRNAs is positively regulated by p53 and negatively modulated by NF-kB p65. Forced expression of miR-23b cluster or miR-125a-5p enhanced drug sensitivity and suppressed invasiveness of NSCLC cells by silencing several genes involved in oncogenic KRAS and NF-kB pathways, including SOS1, GRB2, IQGAP1, RALA, RAF-1, IKKβ, AKT2, ERK2 and KRAS itself...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chang Yin, Temesgen Fufa, Gayathri Chandrasekar, Madhu Aeluri, Verina Zaky, Shaimaa Abdelhady, Antonio B Rodríguez, Johan Jakobsson, Farzaneh Shahin Varnoosfaderani, Jayashri Mahalingam, Jianping Liu, Olle Larsson, Outi Hovatta, Frank Gaunitz, Anita Göndör, Michael Andäng, Satish S Kitambi
Stem cells display a fundamentally different mechanism of proliferation control when compared to somatic cells. Uncovering these mechanisms would maximize the impact in drug discovery with a higher translational applicability. The unbiased approach used in phenotype-based drug discovery (PDD) programs can offer a unique opportunity to identify such novel biological phenomenon. Here, we describe an integrated phenotypic screening approach, employing a combination of in vitro and in vivo PDD models to identify a small molecule increasing stem cell proliferation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Han-Heom Na, Keun-Cheol Kim
We have determined a functional link to the inverse expression of SETDB1 and FosB following anticancer drug treatment. Doxorubicin treatment caused decreased SETDB1 expression and FosB overexpression both at the mRNA and protein levels. The decreased HMTase activity of SETDB1 coincided with altered occupancy across the promoter region of the FosB gene. SETDB1 overexpression decreased the luciferase reporter activity containing the FosB promoter region, but siSETDB1 increased the luciferase reporter activity, suggesting that SETDB1 directly and negatively regulated FosB expression...
November 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xi Chen, Ting Gu, Jing-Hua Wang, Hui Xiong, Ye-Qiu Wang, Guo-Liang Liu, Yan Qu, Ning Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of wogonin on the mechanism of melanin synthesis in the A375 melanoma cell line. A375 cells, cultured in vitro, were treated with wogonin and the activity of tyrosinase (TYR) and melanin synthesis were examined via MTT assay, L-dopa oxidation assay and an NaOH lysis assay. Protein expression levels of TYR and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were examined via western blotting. mRNA expression levels of TYR, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1, TRP-2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1, ERK-2 and JNK-2 were analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Justin N Weilnau, Michael A Carcella, Kristin M Miner, Tarun N Bhatia, Daniel F Hutchison, Deepti B Pant, Negin Nouraei, Rehana K Leak
Dopamine loss and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease typically commence unilaterally and remain asymmetric for many years, raising the possibility that endogenous defenses slow the cross-hemispheric transmission of pathology. It is well-established that the biological response to subtoxic stress prepares cells to survive subsequent toxic challenges, a phenomenon known as preconditioning, tolerance, or stress adaptation. Here we demonstrate that unilateral striatal infusions of the oxidative toxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) precondition the contralateral nigrostriatal pathway against the toxicity of a second 6-OHDA infusion in the opposite hemisphere...
November 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Jian Yin, Ai-Ping Wang, Wan-Fang Li, Rui Shi, Hong-Tao Jin, Jin-Feng Wei
Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are naturally existing heavy metals that pose significant health risks. The present study aims to identify sensitive biomarkers for differentiating the toxicities induced by Cd and Pb and for providing clues for the early prediction of toxicity and environmental risk assessment. Indicators related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in zebrafish treated with Cd and Pb over time (from 24hpf to 96hpf) were compared. Furthermore, endpoints such as embryo lethality and teratogenicity were detected...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Gergő Gógl, Beáta Biri-Kovács, Ádám Levente Póti, Henrietta Vadászi, Bálint Szeder, Andrea Bodor, Gitta Schlosser, András Ács, Lilla Turiák, László Buday, Anita Alexa, László Nyitray, Attila Reményi
Assembly and disassembly of protein-protein complexes needs to be dynamically controlled and phosphoswitches based upon linear motifs are crucial in this process. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) recognizes a linear binding motif at the C-terminal tail (CTT) of ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), leading to phosphorylation and subsequent activation of RSK1. The CTT also contains a classical PDZ domain binding motif which binds RSK substrates (e.g. MAGI-1). We show that autophosphorylation of the disordered CTT promotes the formation of an intramolecular charge clamp, which efficiently masks critical residues and indirectly hinders ERK binding...
October 30, 2017: FEBS Journal
Lan Luo, Lina Xu, Liang Tang
Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is a common malignant tumor in gynecology. Its incidence and development are closely associated with the levels of estrogenic and progesterone hormone. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway abnormity is associated with a variety of tumors. This study detected estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), ERK1, and ERK2 expression in EC and analyzed their correlations. A total of 40 EC patients in our hospital were selected as test group, while another 40 healthy volunteers were enrolled as control group...
October 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Tzu-Ching Yang, Po-Yuan Chang, Tzu-Ling Kuo, Shao-Chun Lu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Circulating levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are associated with the severity of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, what causes increases in G-CSF and GM-CSF is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether L5-low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a mildly oxidized LDL from AMI, can induce G-CSF and GM-CSF production in human macrophages. METHODS: L1-LDL and L5-LDL were isolated through anion-exchange chromatography from AMI plasma...
October 14, 2017: Atherosclerosis
Chang Lu, Xin Liu, Chen-Song Zhang, Haipeng Gong, Jia-Wei Wu, Zhi-Xin Wang
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key components of cellular signal transduction pathways, which are down-regulated by the MAPK phosphatases (MKPs). Catalytic activity of the MKPs is controlled both by their ability to recognize selective MAPKs and by allosteric activation upon binding to MAPK substrates. Here, we use a combination of experimental and computational techniques to elucidate the molecular mechanism for the ERK2-induced MKP3 activation. Mutational and kinetic study shows that the (334)FNFM(337) motif in the MKP3 catalytic domain is essential for MKP3-mediated ERK2 inactivation and is responsible for ERK2-mediated MKP3 activation...
November 8, 2017: Biochemistry
Yuan-Fang Han, Lin-Hua Ji, Ting-Ting Feng, Fang Liu, Sen Cui, Juan Su
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ERK1 / 2 signaling pathway inhibitor PD98059 on Ras, Raf, MEK, ERK1, ERK2 expression in order to explore a new way for basic research and clinical treatment of the chronic mountain sickness(CMS). METHODS: Sixteen CMS patients were selected, the bone marrow was collected for isolation of monomuclear cells (MNC), the cells were sorted by using CD71 and CD235a antibody magnetic beads, then positive cells were diveded into 5 groups: blank control, DMSO and PD98059 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L, and were cultured in hypoxid condition for 72 hours...
October 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Idris Njanje, Victor P Bagla, Brian K Beseni, Vusi Mbazima, Kgomotso W Lebogo, Leseilane Mampuru, Matlou P Mokgotho
BACKGROUND: Conventional drugs used to treat diabetes are too expensive, toxic and rarely available to rural communities. This study was aimed at investigating the phytochemical differences and hypoglycaemic effects (α-amylase enzyme inhibition, glucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation and phosphorylation of MAPKs) of non-defatted and defatted acetone leaf extract of Acacia karroo. METHODS: Qualitative phytochemical analyses of extracts were determined using standard chemical tests and total phenolic contents using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method...
October 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Sylvain Slaby, Julie Hanotel, Guillaume Marchand, Arlette Lescuyer, Jean-François Bodart, Alain Leprêtre, Sébastien Lemière, Matthieu Marin
Since amphibians are recognised as good models to assess the quality of environments, only few studies have dealt with the impacts of chemical contaminants on their gametes, while toxic effects at this stage will alter all the next steps of their life cycle. Therefore, we propose to investigate the oocyte maturation of Xenopus laevis in cadmium- and lead-contaminated conditions. The impacts of cadmium and lead ions were explored on events involved in the hormone-dependent process of maturation. In time-course experiments, cadmium, at the highest concentration, delayed and prevented the germinal vesicle breakdown...
October 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Rajesh Gumpena, George T Lountos, Sreejith Raran-Kurussi, Joseph E Tropea, Scott Cherry, David S Waugh
The dual specificity phosphatase DUSP1 was the first mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP) to be identified. It dephosphorylates conserved tyrosine and threonine residues in the activation loops of mitogen activated protein kinases ERK2, JNK1 and p38-alpha. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human DUSP1 catalytic domain at 2.49 Å resolution. Uniquely, the protein was crystallized as an MBP fusion protein in complex with a monobody that binds to MBP. Sulfate ions occupy the phosphotyrosine and putative phosphothreonine binding sites in the DUSP1 catalytic domain...
October 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Xiao-Yu Ai, Heng Zhang, Shao-Yan Gao, Yuan Qin, Wei-Long Zhong, Ju Gu, Meng Li, Kai-Liang Qiao, Qin Tian, Zhan-Hong Cui, Jia-Huan Yang, Zhun Bi, Ting Xiao, Shuang Chen, Hui-Juan Liu, Hong-Gang Zhou, Tao Sun, Cheng Yang
Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) have a wide range of applications in anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory therapy. However, the pharmacological mechanism of such substances is not clear. In this study, parthenolide (PTL) was used as an example to explore the anti-tumor effect of natural molecules and their common mechanism. We showed that PTL inhibited the proliferation and migration by reverse EMT via the ERK2/NF-κB/Snail pathway in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, Multiple potential targets of PTL contain a Gly-Leu-Ser/Lys-"co-adaptation pocket"...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
N M Grissom, S E McKee, H Schoch, N Bowman, R Havekes, W T O'Brien, E Mahrt, S Siegel, K Commons, C Portfors, T Nickl-Jockschat, T M Reyes, T Abel
Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, are highly male biased, but the underpinnings of this are unknown. Striatal dysfunction has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, raising the question of whether there are sex differences in how the striatum is impacted by genetic risk factors linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we report male-specific deficits in striatal function important to reward learning in a mouse model of 16p11.2 hemideletion, a genetic mutation that is strongly associated with the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Aswin Pyakurel, Delphine Balmer, Marc K Saba-El-Leil, Caroline Kizilyaprak, Jean Daraspe, Bruno M Humbel, Laure Voisin, Yun Z Le, Johannes von Lintig, Sylvain Meloche, Raphaël Roduit
Recent work has suggested that the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is increased in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) patients and therefore could be an attractive therapeutic target. Notably, ERK1/2 pathway inhibitors are used in cancer therapy, with severe and non-characterized ocular side effects. To decipher the role of ERK1/2 in RPE cells, we conditionally disrupted the Erk1 and Erk2 genes in the mouse RPE. Loss of ERK1/2 activity resulted in a significant decrease of RPE65 expression, a decrease in ocular retinoid levels concomitant with low visual function and a rapid disorganization of RPE cells, ultimately leading to retinal degeneration...
October 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
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