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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102262/scaling-single-cell-genomics-from-phenomenology-to-mechanism
#1
Amos Tanay, Aviv Regev
Three of the most fundamental questions in biology are how individual cells differentiate to form tissues, how tissues function in a coordinated and flexible fashion and which gene regulatory mechanisms support these processes. Single-cell genomics is opening up new ways to tackle these questions by combining the comprehensive nature of genomics with the microscopic resolution that is required to describe complex multicellular systems. Initial single-cell genomic studies provided a remarkably rich phenomenology of heterogeneous cellular states, but transforming observational studies into models of dynamics and causal mechanisms in tissues poses fresh challenges and requires stronger integration of theoretical, computational and experimental frameworks...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099872/assessment-of-gait-and-sensorimotor-deficits-in-the-d1ct-7-mouse-model-of-tourette-syndrome
#2
Stephen C Fowler, Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marco Bortolato
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics. While TS patients have been also shown to exhibit subtle abnormalities of sensorimotor integration and gait, animal models of this disorder are seldom tested for these functions. To fill this gap, we assessed gait and sensorimotor integration in the D1CT-7 mouse, one of the best-validated animal models of TS. D1CT-7 mice exhibit spontaneous tic-like manifestations, which, in line with the clinical phenomenology of TS, are markedly exacerbated by environmental stress...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098505/facilitating-and-hindering-factors-for-coping-with-the-experience-of-having-a-child-with-cancer-a-lebanese-perspective
#3
Myrna A A Doumit, May Naifeh Khoury
BACKGROUND: Families with a child with cancer face significant emotional and psychosocial stressors. The frequency of childhood cancer is increasing in Lebanon with more than 282 children diagnosed each year. This condition is reported to evoke a range of challenging emotions for parents, yet no studies have been conducted on the facilitating and hindering factors that affect Lebanese parents coping with a child with cancer. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of factors facilitating and hindering coping methods of Lebanese parents with a child with cancer...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098249/enhancing-dielectric-permittivity-for-energy-storage-devices-through-tricritical-phenomenon
#4
Jinghui Gao, Yan Wang, Yongbin Liu, Xinghao Hu, Xiaoqin Ke, Lisheng Zhong, Yuting He, Xiaobing Ren
Although dielectric energy-storing devices are frequently used in high voltage level, the fast growing on the portable and wearable electronics have been increasing the demand on the energy-storing devices at finite electric field strength. This paper proposes an approach on enhancing energy density under low electric field through compositionally inducing tricriticality in Ba(Ti,Sn)O3 ferroelectric material system with enlarged dielectric response. The optimal dielectric permittivity at tricritical point can reach to εr = 5...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097936/experimental-study-on-tissue-phantoms-to-understand-the-effect-of-injury-and-suturing-on-human-skin-mechanical-properties
#5
Arnab Chanda, Vinu Unnikrishnan, Zachary Flynn, Kim Lackey
Skin injuries are the most common type of injuries occurring in day-to-day life. A skin injury usually manifests itself in the form of a wound or a cut. While a shallow wound may heal by itself within a short time, deep wounds require surgical interventions such as suturing for timely healing. To date, suturing practices are based on a surgeon's experience and may vary widely from one situation to another. Understanding the mechanics of wound closure and suturing of the skin is crucial to improve clinical suturing practices and also to plan automated robotic surgeries...
January 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097439/modeling-responses-in-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus-implications-for-forward-masking-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#6
Nima Salimi, Muhammad S A Zilany, Laurel H Carney
A phenomenological model of the responses of neurons in the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) of the rodent is presented in this study. Pure tones at the characteristic frequency (CF) and broadband noise stimuli evoke offset-type responses in these neurons. SPON neurons also phase-lock to the envelope of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) stimuli for a range of modulation frequencies. Model SPON neuron received inhibitory input that was relayed by the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body from the contralateral model ventral cochlear nucleus neuron...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097174/uncertainty-the-overbearing-lived-experience-of-the-elderly-people-undergoing-hemodialysis-a-qualitative-study
#7
Robab Sahaf, Ehteram Sadat Ilali, Hamid Peyrovi, Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani, Fatemeh Spahbodi
BACKGROUND: The chronic kidney disease is a major health concern. The number of the elderly people with chronic renal failure has increased across the world. Dialysis is an appropriate therapy for the elderly, but it involves certain challenges. The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis. METHODS: This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis...
January 2017: International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095726/male-professional-footballers-experiences-of-mental-health-difficulties-and-help-seeking
#8
Susan Wood, Lesley K Harrison, Jo Kucharska
OBJECTIVES: Male professional footballers (Soccer) represent an at-risk population of developing mental health difficulties and not accessing professional support. One in four current footballers report mental health difficulties. Higher prevalence is reported after retirement. This qualitative study aimed to provide in-depth insight into male professional footballers' lived experiences of mental health difficulties and help-seeking. METHODS: Seven participants were interviewed...
January 18, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095141/an-old-problem-aging-and-skeletal-muscle-strain-injury
#9
Brent A Baker
: Clinical Scenario: Even though chronological aging is an inevitable phenomenological consequence occurring in every living organism, it is biological aging that may be the most significant factor challenging our quality of life. Development of functional limitations, resulting from improper maintenance and restoration of various organ systems, ultimately leads to reduced health and independence. Skeletal muscle is an organ system, that when challenged, is often injured in response to varying stimuli...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093238/a-model-of-the-mitochondrial-basis-of-bipolar-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Ken Walder, Sean L McGee, Olivia M Dean, Susannah J Tye, Michael Maes, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder phenomenologically is a biphasic disorder of energy availability; increased in mania and decreased in depression. In consort, there is accumulating evidence indicating increased mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in bipolar mania which contrasts with decreased mitochondrial function in patients in the euthymic or depressive phase of the illness. Consequently, the central thesis of this paper is that bipolar disorder is due to a phasic dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenergetics...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091724/automatic-ct-based-finite-element-model-generation-for-temperature-based-death-time-estimation-feasibility-study-and-sensitivity-analysis
#11
Sebastian Schenkl, Holger Muggenthaler, Michael Hubig, Bodo Erdmann, Martin Weiser, Stefan Zachow, Andreas Heinrich, Felix Victor Güttler, Ulf Teichgräber, Gita Mall
Temperature-based death time estimation is based either on simple phenomenological models of corpse cooling or on detailed physical heat transfer models. The latter are much more complex but allow a higher accuracy of death time estimation, as in principle, all relevant cooling mechanisms can be taken into account.Here, a complete workflow for finite element-based cooling simulation is presented. The following steps are demonstrated on a CT phantom: Computer tomography (CT) scan Segmentation of the CT images for thermodynamically relevant features of individual geometries and compilation in a geometric computer-aided design (CAD) model Conversion of the segmentation result into a finite element (FE) simulation model Computation of the model cooling curve (MOD) Calculation of the cooling time (CTE) For the first time in FE-based cooling time estimation, the steps from the CT image over segmentation to FE model generation are performed semi-automatically...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088845/-%C3%A2-it-shows-that-there-s-no-limits-the-psychological-impact-of-co-production-for-experts-by-experience-working-in-youth-mental-health
#12
Claire Mayer, Karen McKenzie
Co-production is commonly conceptualised as a more equal sharing of power and decision-making between a dichotomy of service user and service provider, each bringing valuable and different assets to the process. 'Experts by experience' lie in the overlap between this conceptually created duality, providing the services they now do by virtue of having once used services themselves. Previous related studies suggest that their involvement in co-production could impact positively on their social capital, self-esteem, self-efficacy and life skills...
January 15, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086827/mothers-accounts-of-the-impact-on-emotional-wellbeing-of-organised-peer-support-in-pregnancy-and-early-parenthood-a-qualitative-study
#13
Jenny McLeish, Maggie Redshaw
BACKGROUND: The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078975/the-uniformity-illusion
#14
Marte Otten, Yair Pinto, Chris L E Paffen, Anil K Seth, Ryota Kanai
Vision in the fovea, the center of the visual field, is much more accurate and detailed than vision in the periphery. This is not in line with the rich phenomenology of peripheral vision. Here, we investigated a visual illusion that shows that detailed peripheral visual experience is partially based on a reconstruction of reality. Participants fixated on the center of a visual display in which central stimuli differed from peripheral stimuli. Over time, participants perceived that the peripheral stimuli changed to match the central stimuli, so that the display seemed uniform...
January 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078495/economic-context-and-hiv-vulnerability-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-living-in-urban-slums-in-kenya-a-qualitative-analysis-based-on-scarcity-theory
#15
Larissa Jennings, Muthoni Mathai, Sebastian Linnemayr, Antonio Trujillo, Margaret Mak'anyengo, Brooke E E Montgomery, Deanna L Kerrigan
Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology...
January 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078311/common-variant-rs356182-near-snca-defines-a-parkinson-s-disease-endophenotype
#16
Christine A Cooper, Nimansha Jain, Michael D Gallagher, Daniel Weintraub, Sharon X Xie, Yosef Berlyand, Alberto J Espay, Joseph Quinn, Karen L Edwards, Thomas Montine, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, John Trojanowski, Cyrus P Zabetian, Alice S Chen-Plotkin
OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) presents clinically with several motor subtypes that exhibit variable treatment response and prognosis. Here, we investigated genetic variants for their potential association with PD motor phenotype and progression. METHODS: We screened 10 SNPs, previously associated with PD risk, for association with tremor-dominant (TD) versus postural-instability gait disorder (PIGD) motor subtypes. SNPs that correlated with the TD/PIGD ratio in a discovery cohort of 251 PD patients were then evaluated in a multi-site replication cohort of 559 PD patients...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077836/-decision-making-experience-on-breast-reconstruction-for-women-with-breast-cancer
#17
Myungsun Yi, Woo Joung Joung, Eun Young Park, Eun Jin Kwon, Haejin Kim, Ji Young Seo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore decision making experiences of Korean women with breast cancer who underwent breast reconstruction with/after a mastectomy. METHODS: Data were collected during 2015-2016 through individual in-depth interviews with 10 women who had both mastectomy and breast reconstruction, and analyzed using phenomenological method to identify essential themes on experiences of making a decision to have breast reconstruction. RESULTS: Five theme clusters emerged...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074346/actively-negotiating-the-mind-body-divide-how-clozapine-treated-schizophrenia-patients-make-health-for-themselves
#18
Julia E H Brown, Simone Dennis
It is well recognised that antipsychotic treatments impact the whole body, not just the target area of the brain. For people with refractory schizophrenia on clozapine, the gold standard antipsychotic treatment in England and Australia, the separation of mental and physical regimes of health is particularly pronounced, resulting in multiple, compartmentalised treatment registers. Clinicians often focus on the mental health aspects of clozapine use, using physical indicators to determine whether treatment can continue...
January 10, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073112/space-and-objects-on-the-phenomenology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-of-anomalous-perception-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-1
#19
Steven M Silverstein, Docia Demmin, Borut Škodlar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Perception of space and objects is a traditional focus within phenomenology, and disturbances in these aspects of perception among people with schizophrenia have long been discussed within phenomenological psychiatry. Despite this, there has been little empirical work on the causes and effects of most of these perceptual alterations in people with schizophrenia. Progress towards this goal can be accelerated by the use of EAWE (Examination of Anomalous World Experience), an interview-based tool to elicit, categorize, and quantify abnormal perceptual and other experiential phenomena...
January 11, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071870/accessing-new-understandings-of-trauma-informed-care-with-queer-birthing-women-in-a-rural-context
#20
Jennifer Searle, Lisa Goldberg, Megan Aston, Sylvia Burrow
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Participant narratives from a feminist and queer phenomenological study aim to broaden current understandings of trauma. Examining structural marginalization within perinatal care relationships provides insights into the impact of dominant models of care on queer birthing women. More specifically, validation of queer experience as a key finding from the study offers trauma-informed strategies that reconstruct formerly disempowering perinatal relationships. BACKGROUND: Heteronormativity governs birthing spaces and presents considerable challenges for queer birthing women who may also have an increased risk of trauma due to structurally marginalizing processes that create and maintain socially constructed differences...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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