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Taewoo Kim
This study examines the perceptual basis of diagnostic virtuosity in East Asian medicine, combining Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology and an ethnographic investigation of Korean medicine in South Korea. A novice, being exposed to numerous clinical transactions during apprenticeship, organizes perceptual experience that occurs between him or herself and patients. In the process, the fledgling practitioner's body begins to set up a medically-tinged "intentionality" interconnecting his or her consciousness and medically significant qualities in patients...
October 21, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Franziska Hopfner, Dietrich Haubenberger, Wendy R Galpern, Katrina Gwinn, Ashlee Van't Veer, Samantha White, Kailash Bhatia, Charles H Adler, David Eidelberg, William Ondo, Glenn T Stebbins, Caroline M Tanner, Rick C Helmich, Fred A Lenz, Roy V Sillitoe, David Vaillancourt, Jerrold L Vitek, Elan D Louis, Holly A Shill, Matthew P Frosch, Tatiana Foroud, Gregor Kuhlenbäumer, Andrew Singleton, Claudia M Testa, Mark Hallett, Rodger Elble, Günther Deuschl
Essential tremor (ET) is a common cause of significant disability, but its etiologies and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Research has been hampered by the variable definition of ET and by non-standardized research approaches. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (USA) invited experts in ET and related fields to discuss current knowledge, controversies, and gaps in our understanding of ET and to develop recommendations for future research. Discussion focused on phenomenology and phenotypes, therapies and clinical trials, pathophysiology, pathology, and genetics...
October 4, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Chilala Cheelo, Selestine Nzala, Joseph M Zulu
BACKGROUND: In 2010 the government of the republic of Zambia stopped training traditional birth attendants and forbade them from conducting home deliveries as they were viewed as contributing to maternal mortality. This study explored positive and negative maternal health related experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula. METHODS: This was a phenomenological study and data were collected through focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with trained traditional birth attendants (tTBAs) and key informant interviews with six female traditional leaders that were selected one from each of the six zones...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Diogo Boito, Matthias Jamin, Ramon Miravitllas
The quantum chromodynamics (QCD) coupling α_{s} is not a physical observable of the theory, since it depends on conventions related to the renormalization procedure. We introduce a definition of the QCD coupling, denoted by α[over ^]_{s}, whose running is explicitly renormalization scheme invariant. The scheme dependence of the new coupling α[over ^]_{s} is parametrized by a single parameter C, related to transformations of the QCD scale Λ. It is demonstrated that appropriate choices of C can lead to substantial improvements in the perturbative prediction of physical observables...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
P Adamson, I Anghel, A Aurisano, G Barr, M Bishai, A Blake, G J Bock, D Bogert, S V Cao, T J Carroll, C M Castromonte, R Chen, S Childress, J A B Coelho, L Corwin, D Cronin-Hennessy, J K de Jong, S De Rijck, A V Devan, N E Devenish, M V Diwan, C O Escobar, J J Evans, E Falk, G J Feldman, W Flanagan, M V Frohne, M Gabrielyan, H R Gallagher, S Germani, R A Gomes, M C Goodman, P Gouffon, N Graf, R Gran, K Grzelak, A Habig, S R Hahn, J Hartnell, R Hatcher, A Holin, J Huang, J Hylen, G M Irwin, Z Isvan, C James, D Jensen, T Kafka, S M S Kasahara, G Koizumi, M Kordosky, A Kreymer, K Lang, J Ling, P J Litchfield, P Lucas, W A Mann, M L Marshak, N Mayer, C McGivern, M M Medeiros, R Mehdiyev, J R Meier, M D Messier, W H Miller, S R Mishra, S Moed Sher, C D Moore, L Mualem, J Musser, D Naples, J K Nelson, H B Newman, R J Nichol, J A Nowak, J O'Connor, M Orchanian, R B Pahlka, J Paley, R B Patterson, G Pawloski, A Perch, M M Pfützner, D D Phan, S Phan-Budd, R K Plunkett, N Poonthottathil, X Qiu, A Radovic, B Rebel, C Rosenfeld, H A Rubin, P Sail, M C Sanchez, J Schneps, A Schreckenberger, P Schreiner, R Sharma, A Sousa, N Tagg, R L Talaga, J Thomas, M A Thomson, X Tian, A Timmons, J Todd, S C Tognini, R Toner, D Torretta, G Tzanakos, J Urheim, P Vahle, B Viren, A Weber, R C Webb, C White, L Whitehead, L H Whitehead, S G Wojcicki, R Zwaska
We report results of a search for oscillations involving a light sterile neutrino over distances of 1.04 and 735 km in a ν_{μ}-dominated beam with a peak energy of 3 GeV. The data, from an exposure of 10.56×10^{20} protons on target, are analyzed using a phenomenological model with one sterile neutrino. We constrain the mixing parameters θ_{24} and Δm_{41}^{2} and set limits on parameters of the four-dimensional Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix, |U_{μ4}|^{2} and |U_{τ4}|^{2}, under the assumption that mixing between ν_{e} and ν_{s} is negligible (|U_{e4}|^{2}=0)...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Brian T Gregg, Dana M Howell, Anne Shordike
An increasing number of U.S. military veterans are entering postsecondary education with problems attributed to deployed military service. The primary objective of this research was to describe the lived experiences of student veterans transitioning from active military service to postsecondary education. Phenomenological interviews were performed with 13 student veterans who had transitioned from military deployment to postsecondary education. An overall essential meaning of "emerging in college culture" was manifested from three themes, supported by rich textural and structural descriptions of student veterans' experiences: (1) repurposing military experiences for life as a student veteran, (2) reconstructing civilian identity, and (3) navigating postsecondary context and interactions...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Sally P Weinrich, Jill E Bormann, Dale Glaser, Sally Hardin, Mary Barger, Cabiria Lizarraga, Juan Del Rio, Carolyn B Allard
Women and families are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. Negative attitudes of nurses toward homeless women are a major barrier to homeless women seeking health care. This cross-sectional, mixed-methods pilot study, conducted primarily by nurses, tested the Mantram Repetition Program for the first time with 29 homeless women. The Mantram Repetition Program is a spiritually based skills training that teaches mantram (sacred word) repetition as a cost-effective, personalized, portable, and focused strategy for reducing stress and improving well-being...
November 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
Djordje Mirkovic, Phillip M Stepanian, Jeffrey F Kelly, Phillip B Chilson
The radar scattering characteristics of aerial animals are typically obtained from controlled laboratory measurements of a freshly harvested specimen. These measurements are tedious to perform, difficult to replicate, and typically yield only a small subset of the full azimuthal, elevational, and polarimetric radio scattering data. As an alternative, biological applications of radar often assume that the radar cross sections of flying animals are isotropic, since sophisticated computer models are required to estimate the 3D scattering properties of objects having complex shapes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sepideh Hajian, Esmat Mehrabi, Masoumeh Simbar, Mohammad Houshyari, Farid Zayeri, Parastoo Hajian
BACKGROUND: Cancer diagnosis for everybody may be perceived as crisis and breast cancer, as the most common malignancy in women, can influence their well-being and multiple aspects of their health. So understanding that how women in various contexts and communities adjust to the illness is necessary to facilitate this adjustment and improve their quality of life. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to: 1) identify the core components of coping strategies to adjust to the illness in Iranian women with breast cancer perspective, 2) to develop and determine psychometric properties of a native self-report instrument to assess coping behaviors and measure the degree of adjustment with the breast cancer...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention
Alsacia L Sepulveda-Pacsi, Grenny Hiraldo, Keville Frederickson
BACKGROUND: Two thirds of respondents of a recent survey, primarily self-identified urban immigrant Dominican females, indicated that cancer was the health problem they worried about the most. PURPOSE: The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain a greater understanding of the cancer worry experienced by Dominican women. DESIGN: Giorgi's descriptive existential phenomenological framework and methodology guided the study. SETTING: Washington Heights/Inwood community, New York City, New York...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Nicola Liberati
The aim of this paper is to analyse teledildonics from a phenomenological perspective in order to show the possible effects they will have on ourselves and on our society. The new way of using digital technologies is to merge digital activities with our everyday praxes, and there are already devices which enable subjects to be digitally connected in every moment of their lives. Even the most intimate ones are becoming mediated by devices such as teledildonics which digitally provide a tactual stimulation allowing users to have sexual intercourse through them...
October 18, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Rouhollah Zaboli, Shahram Tofighi, Ali Aghighi, Seyyed Javad Hosaini Shokouh, Nader Naraghi, Hassan Goodarzi
INTRODUCTION: Clinical practice guidelines are structured recommendations that help physicians and patients to make proper decisions when dealing with a specific clinical condition. Because blunt abdominal trauma causes a various range of mild, single-system, and multisystem injuries, early detection will help to reduce mortality and resulting disability. Emergency treatment should be initiated based on CPGs. This study aimed to determine the variables affecting implementing blunt abdominal trauma CPGs in an Iranian hospital...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Michael A van Manen
Vociferous, shrill, and piercing-the first cry of the newborn infant signals that a new and separate life has begun. Separated from the body of the mother, the newborn cry serves to call for care, support, and protection. Yet, what is it that is expressed in the first cry? Or is the cry not really a matter of expression at all? In what sense may the cry be meaningful? Although we may be able to explain the function of the cry, we are puzzled by the enigma of its meaning. In this study, the science of the first cry is complemented with its physiognomy and genesis...
October 16, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Richard A Gray, Pras Pathmanathan
Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of fatal cardiac arrhythmias requires a tight integration of electrophysiological experiments, models, and theory. Existing models of transmembrane action potential (AP) are complex (resulting in over parameterization) and varied (leading to dissimilar predictions). Thus, simpler models are needed to elucidate the "minimal physiological requirements" to reproduce significant observable phenomena using as few parameters as possible. Moreover, models have been derived from experimental studies from a variety of species under a range of environmental conditions (for example, all existing rabbit AP models incorporate a formulation of the rapid sodium current, INa, based on 30 year old data from chick embryo cell aggregates)...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Dawn Schroeder, Wendy Duggleby, Brenda L Cameron
BACKGROUND: In families where genetic testing for the breast cancer 1 and 2 genes (BRCA1/2) has not identified a deleterious mutation, the risk for hereditary breast cancer (HBC) can still be high when there is a strong family history. Little is known about how an awareness of risk for HBC impacts the everyday lives of unaffected women (no personal history for breast and/or ovarian cancer) in these families. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore how unaffected women, living in BRCA1/2-negative families, experience living with risk for HBC...
October 4, 2016: Cancer Nursing
Alberto Papi, Maria Sandra Magnoni, Carmelo Caio Muzzio, Gianmarco Benso, Andrea Rizzi
The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) study was a large 3-year observational multicentre international study aimed at defining COPD phenotypes and identifying biomarkers and/or genetic parameters that help to predict disease progression. The study has contributed to a better understanding of COPD heterogeneity, with the characterization of clinically important subtypes/phenotypes of patients, such as the frequent exacerbators or patient with persistent systemic inflammation, who may have different prognosis or treatment requirements...
October 14, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Jaclyn H Ford, David C Rubin, Kelly S Giovanello
Recent research suggests that emotional music clips can serve as a highly successful tool for eliciting rich autobiographical memories, and that the utility of these cues may be related to their subjective familiarity. The current study was designed to examine the effects of familiarity on phenomenological characteristics and neural recruitment during retrieval of autobiographical memories elicited by musical cues. Further, we were interested in understanding how these effects differ as a function of age. In an event-related functional neuroimaging study, participants retrieved autobiographical memories associated with age-specific popular musical clips...
September 2016: Psychomusicology
Indrajith D Nissanka, Poojitha D Yapa
The ability to calculate the oil droplet size distribution (DSD) and its dynamic behavior in the water column is important in oil spill modeling. Breaking waves disperse oil from a surface slick into the water column as droplets of varying sizes. Oil droplets undergo further breakup and coalescence in the water column due to the turbulence. Available models simulate oil DSD based on empirical/equilibrium equations. However, the oil DSD evolution due to subsequent droplet breakup and coalescence in the water column can be best represented by a dynamic population model...
October 10, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
A Vince, C Clarke, E L Wolverson
BACKGROUND: Literature indicates that people's experiences of receiving a diagnosis of dementia can have a lasting impact on well-being. Psychiatrists frequently lead in communicating a diagnosis but little is known about the factors that could contribute to potential disparities between actual and best practice with regard to diagnostic disclosure. A clearer understanding of psychiatrists' subjective experiences of disclosure is therefore needed to improve adherence to best practice guidelines and ensure that diagnostic disclosure facilitates living well with dementia...
October 17, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
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