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Cognitive psychology

Seema Mehrotra, Paulomi Sudhir, Girish Rao, Jagadisha Thirthalli, T K Srikanth
There is a dearth of published research on uptake and utility of mental health apps in India, despite a rising global trend in the application of technology in the field of mental health. We describe the development and pilot testing of a self-help intervention for depression, PUSH-D (Practice and Use Self-Help for Depression) for urban Indians. This guided self-help app, with essential and optional zone sections, was developed to provide a comprehensive coverage of therapeutic strategies drawn from cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, supportive psychotherapy, and positive psychology...
March 22, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Abdulbari Bener, Reem Alsulaiman, Lisa Doodson, Hanadi R El Ayoubi
Introduction: Breast cancer has been the most common cancer type that affects women worldwide and subsequent treatment is often associated with considerable psychological and quality of life (QoL). Aim: This study aimed to assess psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) general QoL questionnaire (QLQ-C30) for breast cancer patients in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted on 678 breast cancer patients using Arabic version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 tool...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Katarzyna Karolina Machaczek, Peter Allmark, Elizabeth Goyder, Gordon Grant, Tom Ricketts, Nick Pollard, Andrew Booth, Deborah Harrop, Stephanie de-la Haye, Karen Collins, Geoff Green
BACKGROUND: Depression is the largest contributor to disease burden globally. The evidence favouring physical activity as a treatment for mild-to-moderate depression is extensive and relatively uncontested. It is unclear, however, how to increase an uptake of physical activity amongst individuals experiencing mild-to-moderate depression. This leaves professionals with no guidance on how to help people experiencing mild-to-moderate depression to take up physical activity. The purpose of this study was to scope the evidence on interventions to increase the uptake of physical activity amongst individuals experiencing mild-to-moderate depression, and to develop a model of the mechanisms by which they are hypothesised to work...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Mary C Davis, Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant, Ellen WanHeung Yeung, Linda J Luecken, Alex J Zautra, Michael R Irwin
Background: Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of cognitive deficits in adulthood, a relation that is likely mediated by stress-sensitive psychological and physiological indicators. Purpose: To evaluate whether the link between exposure to childhood abuse and cognitive function in middle adulthood is mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6), metabolic risk, and depressive mood symptoms. Methods: Participants were 770 adults aged 40-65 recruited from the community, who completed the following: (i) a questionnaire assessing exposure to abuse prior to age 18, (ii) a phone interview assessing current depressive mood symptoms, and (iii) a home visit that included blood sampling for evaluation of IL-6 and assessment of metabolic risk indices...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Cindel J M White, Mark Schaller
Conceptual analyses of moral cognition suggest that different variables may influence moral judgments depending upon the target's age. Five experiments (total N = 1,733) tested the implications for moral judgments about adults and young children. Results show that adults who were perceived to be more cognitively capable were judged to have greater moral rights and their transgressions were judged less harshly, but young children who were perceived to be more cognitively capable were judged to have fewer moral rights and their transgressions were judged more harshly...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
S A Nemkova
The article covers the problems of diagnosis and treatment of mental impairment in children with cerebral palsy. Mental disorders in cerebral palsy include cognitive impairment (disorders of perception, memory, attention, motor-visual coordination, intelligence and speech), border disorders (cerebral/asthenic, neurosis-like, psychopathic-like syndromes) and personality disorders (accentuation of character, mental infantilism). Diagnosis of mental disorders in patients with cerebral palsy is a challenging task, due to various combinations of them with physical, speech and sensory disorders, which requires a differentiated approach...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
T V Shuteeva
AIM: To assess the efficacy of neipilept in treatment of asthenic syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of patients, aged from 30 to 40 years, with functional asthenia were examined. Patients were divided into main (n=40) and control (n=15) groups. In 22% men and 56% women, the disease was precipitated by emotional stress, in 46 and 38% by physical and stressful work conditions. Both groups received standard treatment. Patients of the main group received additionally neipilept in solution (500 mg daily) during 30 days...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Paloma Ruiz-Rodríguez, Antonio Cano-Vindel, Roger Muñoz-Navarro, Cristina M Wood, Leonardo A Medrano, Luciana Sofía Moretti
Introduction: In the primary care (PC) setting in Spain, the prevalence of emotional disorders (EDs) such as anxiety, depression and somatoform disorder is high. In PC patients, these disorders are not always managed in accordance with the recommendations provided by clinical practice guidelines, resulting in major direct and indirect economic costs and suboptimal treatment outcomes. The aim is to analyze and compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of group-based psychological therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Pia Noel, Cliodhna Cork, Ross G White
Social capital (SC) is highlighted as an important factor for post-crisis mental health outcomes. However, the heterogeneous nature of the construct makes it difficult to get a clear picture of the evidence concerning the association between SC indices and mental health. This review examines how SC is conceptualized and measured, and the relationships with other variables in quantitative empirical studies investigating the associations between SC and mental health in post-disaster and post-conflict contexts...
March 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Li-Jung Lin, Hsin-Yen Yen
BACKGROUND: The rising population of older adults is transforming Taiwan society. Although many long-term care facilities now operate for older adults, the transition from the home environment to long-term facilities may cause multiple issues, including relocation stress syndrome, for new residents. Autonomy is a critical element of the human experience. Leisure, as an expression of autonomy, has been shown to enhance self-image and promote feelings of competence and mastery. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between participation in leisure activities and adjustment to residential care using the continuity theory...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Xin Xu, Cheuk Ni Kan, Tien Yin Wong, Ching-Yu Cheng, M Kamran Ikram, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances were found to be associated with more behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPS) in early patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, data on preclinical stages of dementia are lacking. Hence, the present study sought to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and BPS in dementia-free elderly with varying severity of cognitive impairment in an Asian sample. METHODS: Community-living elderly were recruited and administered a comprehensive cognitive battery (vascular dementia battery [VDB]) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess symptoms of sleep disturbances and BPS...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Nicholas P Allan, Joseph W Boffa, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Interventions aimed at preventing suicidal thoughts target people at risk for suicide based on risk factor elevations. Based on the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide, elevated perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB) are potential targets for prevention of the occurrence of suicidal thoughts. PB is the belief that one is a burden to others. TB is the perceived lack of social connectedness. METHODS: This study was designed to examine the effects of a preventative intervention targeting PB and TB on the 6-month incidence of suicide ideation in a sample of 138 people (M = 38...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Justin F Landy, Daniel M Bartels
We propose that methods from the study of category-based induction can be used to test the descriptive accuracy of theories of moral judgment. We had participants rate the likelihood that a person would engage in a variety of actions, given information about a previous behavior. From these likelihood ratings, we extracted a hierarchical, taxonomic model of how moral violations relate to each other (Study 1). We then tested the descriptive adequacy of this model against an alternative model inspired by Moral Foundations Theory, using classic tasks from induction research (Studies 2a and 2b), and using a measure of confirmation, which accounts for the baseline frequency of these violations (Study 3)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
BACKGROUND: Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ricardo Cáceda, W Sue T Griffin, Pedro L Delgado
BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation is linked to suicide risk. However, it is unclear whether increased inflammation drives suicidal crises or is a trait associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Limited data exist on the sources of increased inflammation observed in suicidal patients and on its downstream effects. AIMS: To examine factors associated with inflammation and with suicidal ideation severity in acutely suicidal depressed patients. METHODS: Fifty-two adult depressed patients of both sexes hospitalized for severe suicidal ideation were characterized for suicidality, depression, anxiety, medical comorbidity, psychological and physical pain, impulsivity, verbal fluency, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL) 6...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Elliot T Berkman
The ways that people set, pursue, and eventually succeed or fail in accomplishing their goals are central issues for consulting psychology. Goals and behavior change have long been the subject of empirical investigation in psychology, and have been adopted with enthusiasm by the cognitive and social neurosciences in the last few decades. Though relatively new, neuroscientific discoveries have substantially furthered the scientific understanding of goals and behavior change. This article reviews the emerging brain science on goals and behavior change, with particular emphasis on its relevance to consulting psychology...
March 2018: Consulting Psychology Journal
P H M Burger, M Scholz
BACKGROUND: In Germany, currently two out of three medical students are female. Several studies corroborate that medical students show a significantly higher prevalence of stress-related mental disorders than the population in general. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate, if gender has an influence on the distribution of mental stress parameters and learning style among male and female medical students. METHODS: We investigated a total of 758 students of the medical faculty at the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany, using standardized and validated psychological questionnaires on depressive symptoms (BDI-II), burnout (BOSS-II) and quality of life (SF-12)...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
David G Ashbrook, Benjamin Hing, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Wilfred C de Vega, Diane B Miller, Gordon Broderick, James P O'Callaghan, Patrick O McGowan
BACKGROUND: Gulf War illness (GWI) is an archetypal, medically unexplained, chronic condition characterised by persistent sickness behaviour and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components. An estimated 25-32% of the over 900,000 veterans of the 1991 Gulf War fulfil the requirements of a GWI diagnosis. It has been hypothesised that the high physical and psychological stress of combat may have increased vulnerability to irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors leading to a priming of the neuroimmune system...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Dariusz Dolinski, Ewa Odachowska
A driver is often required to react adequately to sudden, dangerous situations. If the driver successfully negotiates the challenge, a state of emotional relief is then experienced that arises at the moment the strong fear dissipates. Previous experimental studies described in the psychological literature have shown that in a state of relief, people exhibit a decline in cognitive functioning. The article's authors posed the question of how well a driver functions in this unique state. They conducted research using an AutoSim AS 1200-6 driving simulator in two road conditions: outside the city and in urban driving conditions...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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