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Cognitive psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151084/formal-neurocognitive-testing-in-60-patients-with-congenital-hyperinsulinism
#1
Anja Ludwig, Simone Enke, Janine Heindorf, Susann Empting, Thomas Meissner, Klaus Mohnike
BACKGROUND: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is hallmarked by persistent hypoketotic hypoglycemia in infancy. In the majority of all patients, CHI is caused by mutations in the KATP channel genes ABCC8 and KCNJ11, but other genes in the insulin-regulatory pathway have also been described. Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia include an increased risk of seizures and intellectual disability. So far, controlled psychometric studies on cognitive, motor, speech, and social-emotional outcome of CHI patients are missing...
November 17, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150753/psychological-aspects-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Rajesh Sagar, Tanu Gupta
Childhood obesity is multi factorial health condition, so the simple evaluation of body fat will not be sufficed to manage the global epidemic of childhood obesity. Literature consistently provides evidence for physical health risks associated with childhood obesity; however in recent times, mental health of the obese children has also gained attention of the researchers as well as clinicians. Obese children experience number of psycho-social problems that significantly affect their quality of life and wellbeing...
November 18, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149850/a-cross-sectional-examination-of-psychological-distress-positive-mental-health-and-their-predictors-in-medical-students-in-their-clinical-clerkships
#3
Inge van Dijk, Peter L B J Lucassen, Chris van Weel, Anne E M Speckens
BACKGROUND: Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students...
November 17, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149154/philosophical-issues-and-psychological-variables-that-influence-the-determination-of-opioid-effectiveness-a-narrative-review
#4
Daniel Michael Doleys
BACKGROUND: The prescribing of opioids in the chronic pain setting is often based on the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenetics of the drug obtained during development and clinical trials. However, the effectiveness of opioids varies widely and often appears to bear no relationship to the aforementioned variables. The impact of philosophical issues and psychological factors on determining how clinically effective opioid therapy is has often been over looked. OBJECTIVES: This manuscript provides a selective review and narrative summary of the philosophical issues and psychological factors which can influence opioid effectiveness...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148293/quantity-of-movement-as-a-measure-of-engagement-for-dementia-the-influence-of-motivational-disorders
#5
Giulia Perugia, Daniel Rodríguez-Martín, Marta Díaz Boladeras, Andreu Català Mallofré, Emilia Barakova, Matthias Rauterberg
Engagement in activities is crucial to improve quality of life in dementia. Yet, its measurement relies exclusively on behavior observation and the influence that behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) have on it is overlooked. This study investigated whether quantity of movement, gauged with a wrist-worn accelerometer, could be a sound measure of engagement and whether apathy and depression negatively affected engagement. Fourteen participants with dementia took part in 6 sessions of activities: 3 of cognitive games (eg, jigsaw puzzles) and 3 of robot play (Pleo)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147146/relationships-between-short-and-fast-brain-timescales
#6
Eva Déli, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Brain electric activity exhibits two important features: oscillations with different timescales, characterized by diverse functional and psychological outcomes, and a temporal power law distribution. In order to further investigate the relationships between low- and high- frequency spikes in the brain, we used a variant of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem which states that, when we assess the nervous activity as embedded in a sphere equipped with a fractal dimension, we achieve two antipodal points with similar features (the slow and fast, scale-free oscillations)...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145738/development-of-a-psychosocial-group-intervention-for-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-innovative-practice
#7
Karen Barton, Ian Johnson, Amy Mountford
A diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment is associated with an increase in anxiety and depression and a decrease in psychological well-being. Despite this, individuals with mild cognitive impairment may not receive the appropriate support needed to manage the emotional and practical elements of their diagnosis. A psychosocial group intervention based on the 'Recovery Model' was developed in order to meet these needs. Outcome data from a trial of this group intervention indicated it was successful in meeting its aims...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145416/two-is-better-than-one-the-effects-of-strategic-cooperation-on-intra-and-inter-brain-connectivity-by-fnirs
#8
Michela Balconi, Laurent Pezard, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Inter-brain synchronization during joint actions is a core question in social neuroscience, and the differential contribution of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity has yet to be clarified along with the role of psychological variables such as perceived self-efficacy. The cognitive performance and the neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions were recorded by functional Near-Infrared imaging during a synchronicity game. An 8-channel array of optodes was positioned over the frontal and prefrontal regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145183/catastrophe-reaction-and-emotionalism
#9
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
The catastrophic reaction (CR; a disruptive and uncontrolled behavior triggered by anger, irritability, and hostility) and emotionalism (a condition of uncontrolled crying or laughing) are disorders of the emotional regulation and expression, the prevalence of which is underestimated in neurology. Their occurrence is an additional factor of poor outcome for neurologic patients. Although they have been recognized and completely described in their clinical manifestations more than a century ago, many issues remain unsolved regarding their pathogenesis and the respective role of the brain damage and psychological factors...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145178/minor-hemisphere-major-syndromes
#10
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144550/self-determination-theory-as-a-foundation-for-personality-researchers
#11
Kennon M Sheldon, Mike Prentice
In this introductory article we first describe the impetus for this special issue. What made us think that Self-Determination Theory (SDT) might provide a sort of foundation for the rest of personality psychology? For readers unfamiliar with SDT, we then provide a historical overview which covers the evolution of the six "mini-theories" that currently comprise SDT: cognitive evaluation theory, causality orientations theory, organismic integration theory, basic psychological needs theory, goal contents theory, and relational motivation theory...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144186/-the-whole-is-greater-than-the-sum-of-the-parts-prison-staff-perceptions-of-domestic-violence-rehabilitation-programs
#12
Efrat Shoham, Anat Zelig, Badi Hasisi, David Weisburd, Noam Haviv
This qualitative study is part of a mixed methods research project that examined the effectiveness of the primary rehabilitation program for domestic violence offenders in the Israeli Prison Services-the "House of Hope." The quantitative part of the study showed that the "House of Hope" program was effective in reducing recidivism among participating inmates. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the rehabilitation program according to the perspectives of the program staff. For this purpose, semistructured interviews were conducted with the department staff during the study as well as with past directors...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143722/relationship-between-the-number-of-behavioral-symptoms-in-dementia-and-caregiver-distress-what-is-the-tipping-point
#13
Paul B Arthur, Laura N Gitlin, John A Kairalla, William C Mann
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a primary manifestation of brain dysfunction in dementia and a great challenge in caregiving. While BPSD are historically associated with caregiver distress, it is unclear whether there is an identifiable point where BPSD number is associated with heightened caregiver distress. The purpose of this study was to determine if such a tipping point exists to assist clinicians in identifying caregiver compromise. METHODS: Analyses were performed with three datasets totaling 569 community-dwelling persons with dementia and their caregivers...
November 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143135/the-mediating-role-of-spirituality-meaning-peace-faith-between-psychological-distress-and-mental-adjustment-in-cancer-patients
#14
Paula Jimenez-Fonseca, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva, Pere Joan Ferrando, Alberto Carmona-Bayonas, Carmen Beato, Teresa García, María Del Mar Muñoz, Avinash Ramchandani, Ismael Ghanem, Alejandra Rodríguez-Capote, Carlos Jara, Caterina Calderon
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the psychometric properties of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) scale and (b) to provide that FACIT scores behave one-dimensional to establish the mediating role of spiritual well-being in psychological distress and mental adjustment in a sample of patients with non-metastatic, resected cancer. METHOD: A total of 504 consecutive patients completed the FACIT-Sp, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scales...
November 15, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140460/a-meta-analysis-of-social-skills-training-and-related-interventions-for-psychosis
#15
David T Turner, Edel McGlanaghy, Pim Cuijpers, Mark van der Gaag, Eirini Karyotaki, Angus MacBeth
Objective: Evidence suggests that social skills training (SST) is an efficacious intervention for negative symptoms in psychosis, whereas evidence of efficacy in other psychosis symptom domains is limited. The current article reports a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the evidence for SST across relevant outcome measures, control comparisons, and follow-up assessments. The secondary aim of this study was to identify and investigate the efficacy of SST subtypes. Methods: A systematic literature search identified 27 randomized controlled trials including N = 1437 participants...
November 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139320/effects-of-cable-news-watching-on-older-adults-physiological-and-self-reported-stress-and-cognitive-function
#16
Caroline Deal, Ryan Bogdan, J Phil Miller, Tom Rodebaugh, Charlene Caburnay, Mike Yingling, Tammy Hershey, Julia Schweiger, Eric J Lenze
Older adults are the largest consumer of cable news, which includes negative and politicized content and may constitute a daily stressor. As older adults are also vulnerable to the negative consequences of stress, we hypothesized that cable news watching could induce a stress reaction and impair cognitive function. We tested exposures to cable news (i.e., Fox News and MSNBC) in a within-subject randomized controlled design in 34 healthy older adults. We also included negative (Public Broadcasting Station) and positive (trier social stress test) controls...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137697/the-readiness-to-change-for-bariatric-surgery-assessment-tool-validity-factor-structure-and-reliability
#17
Susan M S Carlson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Currently, there is no guideline or standard of practice for performing the psychiatric/psychological evaluation that is a requirement for approval for bariatric surgery. The Readiness to Change for Bariatric Surgery Assessment Tool (RCB-SAT) establishes a means for psychiatric evaluators to objectively assess the patient's cognition, beliefs, and motivation around the bariatric diet and lifestyle changes. Development of a clinical decision-making tool for assessing readiness to change in bariatric patients will be useful regarding The Strategic Plan for NIH Obesity Research...
November 1, 2017: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134048/the-cognitive-and-motivation-intervention-program-in-youth-female-volleyball-players
#18
Fernando Claver, Ruth Jiménez, Alexander Gil-Arias, Alberto Moreno, M Perla Moreno
This study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2002) was aimed to determine the influence of a cognitive-motivational intervention program, to improve the basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment, in youth volleyball players. Participants included 34 Under-19 female volleyball players. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with an experimental group (n = 16; M = 17...
October 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133012/tinnitus-related-fear-mediating-the-effects-of-a-cognitive-behavioural-specialised-tinnitus-treatment
#19
Rilana F F Cima, Gerard van Breukelen, Johan W S Vlaeyen
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive behavioural treatments (CBT) for the reduction of tinnitus complaints have been shown to be effective; however the specific mechanisms of change are yet to be unveiled. Reductions in tinnitus-related fear have been indicated to be an important factor in alleviating tinnitus suffering. The role of tinnitus-related fear has been proposed as a mediator explaining the cognitive behavioural treatment effects on tinnitus severity, tinnitus-related impairment and general quality of life of tinnitus patients...
October 12, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132964/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-contemporary-diagnosis-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Robert L Reid, Claudio N Soares
Most ovulatory women experience premenstrual symptoms (premenstrual syndrome, molimina) which indicate impending menstruation and are of little clinical relevance because they do not affect quality of life. A few women, however, experience significant physical and/or psychological symptoms before menstruation that, if left untreated, would result in deterioration in functioning and relationships. The precise etiology remains elusive, although new theories are gaining support in pre-clinical and early clinical trials...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
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