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Cognitive psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346831/anxiety-and-depression-as-longitudinal-predictors-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-older-adults
#1
Antônio Carlos Cruz Freire, Milena Pereira Pondé, Aihua Liu, Jean Caron
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have dealt with the potential correlation between anxiety, depression, and cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults. METHOD: This longitudinal study was conducted in the city of Montreal, Canada, with 352 older adults aged 55 years or more. The participants were interviewed at baseline and again 2 years later. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score was estimated and compared between the 2 time points, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess major depression and anxiety, and the K10 measured high psychological distress...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346514/valence-arousal-familiarity-concreteness-and-imageability-ratings-for-292-two-character-chinese-nouns-in-cantonese-speakers-in-hong-kong
#2
Lydia T S Yee
Words are frequently used as stimuli in cognitive psychology experiments, for example, in recognition memory studies. In these experiments, it is often desirable to control for the words' psycholinguistic properties because differences in such properties across experimental conditions might introduce undesirable confounds. In order to avoid confounds, studies typically check to see if various affective and lexico-semantic properties are matched across experimental conditions, and so databases that contain values for these properties are needed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346113/wisdom-in-context
#3
Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and psychological scientists have converged on the idea that wisdom involves certain aspects of thinking (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change), enabling application of knowledge to life challenges. Empirical evidence indicates that people's ability to think wisely varies dramatically across experiential contexts that they encounter over the life span. Moreover, wise thinking varies from one situation to another, with self-focused contexts inhibiting wise thinking...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343568/thermogenic-and-psychogenic-recruitment-of-human-eccrine-sweat-glands-variations-between-glabrous-and-non-glabrous-skin-surfaces
#4
Christiano A Machado-Moreira, Nigel A S Taylor
Human eccrine sweat-gland recruitment and secretion rates were investigated from the glabrous (volar) and non-glabrous hand surfaces during psychogenic (mental arithmetic) and thermogenic stimuli (mild hyperthermia). It was hypothesised that these treatments would activate glands from both skin surfaces, with the non-thermal stimulus increasing secretion rates primarily by recruiting more sweat glands. Ten healthy men participated in two seated, resting trials in temperate conditions (25-26°C). Trials commenced under normothermic conditions during which the first psychogenic stress was applied...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341610/differential-effects-of-social-and-novelty-enrichment-on-individual-differences-in-impulsivity-and-behavioral-flexibility
#5
Maya Zhe Wang, Andrew T Marshall, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
Early life experience profoundly impacts behavior and cognitive functions in rats. The present study investigated how the presence of conspecifics and/or novel objects, could independently influence individual differences in impulsivity and behavioral flexibility. Twenty-four rats were reared in an isolated condition, an isolated condition with a novel object, a pair-housed social condition, or a pair-housed social condition with a novel object. The rats were then tested on an impulsive choice task, a behavioral flexibility task, and an impulsive action task...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341559/-moyamoya-disease-associated-with-kidney-angiodysplasia-in-a-child
#6
A Dibi, Z Maana, F Jabourik, A Bentahila
INTRODUCTION: Moyamoya disease is a progressive, chronic occlusive vascular disease of the circle of Willis arteries leading to the development of collateral circulation to compensate the occlusion. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old girl presented an abrupt loss of consciousness and a right-sided motor deficit. Clinical examination found hypertension with 220/120mmHg arterial blood pressure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large left hemispheric ischemic lesion...
March 21, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341015/impairment-of-social-function-in-young-females-with-recent-onset-anorexia-nervosa-and-recovered-individuals
#7
Mette Bentz, Jens Richardt Moellegaard Jepsen, Tine Pedersen, Cynthia M Bulik, Lennart Pedersen, Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Kerstin J Plessen
PURPOSE: A subgroup of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) displays social difficulties; however, it is not clear if individuals with comorbid autism spectrum disorders account for these difficulties. METHODS: We compared social function using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in 43 young females with first-episode AN who did not have comorbid autism spectrum disorder, 28 individuals recovered from adolescent-onset AN, and 41 healthy comparison individuals (age range 14-22 years)...
January 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339814/modulating-oxidative-stress-relieves-stress-induced-behavioral-and-cognitive-impairments-in-rats
#8
Naimesh Solanki, Ankita Salvi, Gaurav Patki, Samina Salim
Background: Persistent psychological stress often leads to anxiety disorders and depression. Benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are popular treatment options but have limited efficacy, supporting the need for alternative treatment. Based on our recent preclinical work suggesting a causal link between neurobehavioral deficits and elevated oxidative stress, we hypothesized that interventions that mitigate oxidative stress can attenuate/overcome neurobehavioral deficits...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338955/the-role-of-cognitive-reappraisal-in-placebo-analgesia-an-fmri-study
#9
Marian van der Meulen, Sandra Kamping, Fernand Anton
Placebo analgesia (PA) depends crucially on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is assumed to be responsible for initiating the analgesic response. Surprisingly little research has focused on the psychological mechanisms mediated by the PFC and underlying PA. One increasingly accepted theory is that cognitive reappraisal - the reinterpretation of the meaning of adverse events - plays an important role, but no study has yet addressed the possible functional relationship with PA. We studied the influence of individual differences in reappraisal ability on PA and its prefrontal mediation...
March 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338892/embodiment-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-implications-and-applications
#10
Wolfgang Tschacher, Anne Giersch, Karl Friston
In recent decades, embodiment has become an influential concept in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Embodiment denotes the study of the reciprocal (causal) relationships between mind and body, with the mind not only affecting the body but also vice versa. Embodied cognition comes to the fore in sensorimotor coupling, predictive coding, and nonverbal behavior. Additionally, the embodiment of the mind constitutes the basis of social interaction and communication, as evident in research on nonverbal synchrony and mimicry...
March 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338716/neurological-evidence-for-the-role-of-construal-level-in-future-directed-thought
#11
Paul E Stillman, Hyojin Lee, Xiaoyan Deng, Rao Unnava, William A Cunningham, Kentaro Fujita
The ability to mentally represent future events is a significant human psychological achievement. A challenge that people encounter is that they often lack detailed specifics about distant relative to near future events. Construal level theory (Liberman & Trope, 2014) proposes that people represent distant future events by their abstract and essential features - a process referred to as high-level construal. As events become temporally proximal, people represent events by their increasingly available and reliable concrete and idiosyncratic features - a process referred to as low-level construal...
February 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338644/clinical-hypnosis-an-effective-mind-body-modality-for-adolescents-with-behavioral-and-physical-complaints
#12
REVIEW
Anju Sawni, Cora Collette Breuner
Mind-body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t'ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind-body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate the mind-body connection, leading to positive emotional and physical well-being...
March 24, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338591/the-course-prediction-and-treatment-of-acute-and-post-traumatic-stress-in-trauma-patients-a-systematic-review
#13
Eva Visser, Taco Gosens, Brenda Leontine Den Oudsten, Jolanda De Vries
BACKGROUND: Trauma patients suffer from Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It is unknown how these disorders develop over time and when treatment is effective. Our aim was to systematically review (i) the course and predictors of ASD and PTSD after trauma and (ii) which and when psychological treatments are effective. METHODS: Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Cochrane, Pubmed, and Google Scholar were searched up to September 14, 2015...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337945/client-interpersonal-impacts-as-mediators-of-long-term-outcome-in-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-integrated-with-motivational-interviewing-for-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#14
Michael J Constantino, Felicia M Romano, Alice E Coyne, Henny A Westra, Martin M Antony
OBJECTIVE: A recent trial of generalized anxiety disorder treatment (Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Integrating Motivational Interviewing With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Severe Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Allegiance-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84, 768-782. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000098 ) revealed that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with motivational interviewing (MI) outperformed CBT alone across a 12-month follow up...
March 24, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337944/the-influence-of-gate-start-position-on-physical-performance-and-anxiety-perception-in-expert-bmx-athletes
#15
Franck Di Rienzo, Guillaume Martinent, Lucie Levêque, Tadhg MacIntyre, Christian Collet, Aymeric Guillot
The critical importance of the start phase in bicycle motocross (BMX) racing is increasingly acknowledged. Past experiments underlined that the internal lane of the starting gate provides a strong positional advantage. However, how lane position affects start performance and cognitive and somatic state anxiety remains unexplored. We examined the start performance and anxiety responses of youth national-level BMX riders in both experimental and ecological contexts. We used contextualization motor imagery routines to evaluate start performance and state anxiety from the internal and external lanes...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337548/the-effects-of-anxiety-and-situation-specific-context-on-perceptual-motor-skill-a-multi-level-investigation
#16
Oliver R Runswick, André Roca, A Mark Williams, Neil E Bezodis, Jamie S North
We examined the effects of anxiety and situation-specific contextual information on attentional, interpretational, and behavioural processes underpinning perceptual-motor performance as proposed by Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans (Psychological Research 76:747-759; Nieuwenhuys, Oudejans, Psychological Research 76:747-759, 2012) using an in situ task. Twelve skilled cricket batsmen played against a skilled spin bowler under conditions manipulated to induce low and high levels of anxiety and the presence of low and high levels of situation-specific context...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336768/care-of-girls-and-women-with-turner-syndrome-beyond-growth-and-hormones
#17
Caroline Culen, Diana-Allexandra Ertl, Katharina Schubert, Lisa Bartha-Doering, Gabriele Haeusler
Turner syndrome (TS), although considered a rare disease, is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in women, with an incident of 1 in 2,500 female births. TS is characterized by distinctive physical features such as short stature, ovarian dysgenesis, an increased risk for heart and renal defects as well as a specific cognitive and psychosocial phenotype. Given the complexity of the condition, patients face manifold difficulties which increase over the lifespan. Furthermore, failures during the transitional phase to adult care result in moderate health outcomes and decreased quality of life...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335664/cognitive-behavioral-intervention-compared-to-telephone-counselling-early-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-trial
#18
Myrthe Elisabeth Scheenen, Annemarie Cecile Visser-Keizer, Myrthe Elisabeth de Koning, Harm Jan van der Horn, Peter van de Sande, Marlies Elisabeth van Kessel, Joukje van der Naalt, Jacoba M Spikman
Many patients do not return to work (RTW) following mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) due to persistent complaints that are often resistant to therapy in the chronic phase. Recent studies suggest that psychological interventions should be implemented early after injury to prevent patients from developing chronic complaints. This study is a randomized controlled trial which examines the effectiveness of a newly developed CBT intervention (CBTi) compared to telephonic counseling (TC) in at risk mTBI patients (patients with high reports of early complaints)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334749/ctg-repeat-targeting-oligonucleotides-for-down-regulating-huntingtin-expression
#19
Eman M Zaghloul, Olof Gissberg, Pedro M D Moreno, Lee Siggens, Mattias Hällbrink, Anna S Jørgensen, Karl Ekwall, Rula Zain, Jesper Wengel, Karin E Lundin, C I Edvard Smith
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disorder in which patients suffer from mobility, psychological and cognitive impairments. Existing therapeutics are only symptomatic and do not significantly alter the disease progression or increase life expectancy. HD is caused by expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat region in exon 1 of the Huntingtin gene (HTT), leading to the formation of mutant HTT transcripts (muHTT). The toxic gain-of-function of muHTT protein is a major cause of the disease...
February 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334398/maintenance-of-social-anxiety-in-stuttering-a-cognitive-behavioral-model
#20
Lisa Iverach, Ronald M Rapee, Quincy J J Wong, Robyn Lowe
Purpose: Stuttering is a speech disorder frequently accompanied by anxiety in social-evaluative situations. A growing body of research has confirmed a significant rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a chronic and disabling anxiety disorder associated with substantial life impairment. Several influential models have described cognitive-behavioral factors that contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety in nonstuttering populations. The purpose of the present article is to apply these leading models to the experience of social anxiety for people who stutter...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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