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Cognitive psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778000/anxiety-moderates-the-effects-of-stressor-controllability-and-cognitive-reappraisal-on-distress-following-aversive-exposure-an-experimental-investigation
#1
Lillian Le, Michelle Moulds, Angela Nickerson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence suggests that the effectiveness of cognitive reappraisal (CR) depends on different factors, including the individual's psychological wellbeing (e.g., level of anxiety) and the context in which the strategy is used (e.g., stressor controllability). The present study aimed to investigate the emotional (negative affect) and physiological (skin conductance levels) effects of emotion regulation following exposure to controllable versus uncontrollable stress...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777771/assessing-the-longer-term-effects-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-self-reported-driving-ability
#2
John Bernstein, Matthew Calamia
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may have long-term cognitive and functional consequences, and recent mTBI is associated with impaired performance on measures related to driving ability. However, it remains unclear whether prior mTBI history is associated with poorer driving performance. OBJECTIVE: To examine the longer-term effects of mTBI on self-reported driving ability. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online...
May 16, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776732/posttraumatic-stress-and-depressive-symptoms-characterize-cardiac-arrest-survivors-perceived-recovery-at-hospital-discharge
#3
Alex Presciutti, Jayati Verma, Marykay Pavol, Deepti Anbarasan, Cristina Falo, Daniel Brodie, Leroy E Rabbani, David J Roh, Soojin Park, Jan Claassen, Sachin Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms, not cognitive or functional impairment, are associated with cardiac arrest survivors' negative recovery perceptions at hospital discharge. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort of cardiac arrest patients admitted between 9/2015-5/2017. Survival to discharge with sufficient mental status to complete a psychosocial interview was the main inclusion criterion. Perceived recovery was assessed through the question, "Do you feel that you have made a complete recovery from your arrest?" The following measures were examined as potential correlates of perceived recovery: Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Modified Lawton Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, Barthel Index, Modified Rankin Scale, Cerebral Performance Category, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D), and PTSD Checklist-Specific (PCL-S)...
May 10, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775837/predator-based-psychosocial-stress-model-of-ptsd-differentially-influences-voluntary-ethanol-consumption-depending-on-methodology
#4
Phillip R Zoladz, Eric D Eisenmann, Robert M Rose, Brooke A Kohls, Brandon L Johnson, Kiera L Robinson, Megan E Heikkila, Kasey E Mucher, Madelaine R Huntley
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychological disorder typified by diagnostic symptom clusters including hyperarousal, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and intrusive re-experiencing of the traumatic event. Patients with PTSD have been reported to self-medicate with alcohol to ameliorate hyperarousal symptoms associated with the disorder. Research utilizing rodent models of PTSD to emulate this behavioral phenomenon has thus far yielded inconsistent results. In the present study, we examined the effects of a predator-based psychosocial stress model of PTSD on voluntary ethanol consumption...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775693/comparison-of-coping-psychological-distress-and-level-of-functioning-in-patients-with-gastric-and-colorectal-cancer-prior-to-adjuvant-chemotherapy
#5
Caterina Calderón, Paula Jimenez-Fonseca, Carlos Jara, Raquel Hernández, Eva Martínez de Castro, Sonal Varma, Ismael Ghanem, Alberto Carmona-Bayonas
CONTEXT-: Patients with gastrointestinal cancers are at high risk for functional problems that are generally accompanied by a decline in their overall status and intense psychological distress. OBJECTIVES: This study compares the level of functioning in individuals with gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) and analyzes whether improved functioning can be explained by patients' psychological status and coping strategies. METHODS: Prospective, transversal, multicenter study in patients with non-metastatic GC and CRC prior to initiating adjuvant chemotherapy...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772110/morphology-and-memory-toward-an-integrated-theory
#6
Ray Jackendoff, Jenny Audring
Framed in psychological terms, the basic question of linguistic theory is what is stored in memory, and in what form. Traditionally, what is stored is divided into grammar and lexicon, where grammar contains the rules and the lexicon is an unstructured list of exceptions. We develop an alternative view in which rules of grammar are simply lexical items that contain variables, and in which rules have two functions. In their generative function, they are used to build novel structures, just as in traditional generative linguistics...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769796/when-is-meaning-in-life-most-beneficial-to-young-people-styles-of-meaning-in-life-and-well-being-among-late-adolescents
#7
Dariusz Krok
The purpose of this article was to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of meaning in life and subjective and psychological well-being (PWB) among late adolescents. Three hundred and eighty four Polish participants completed The Personal Meaning Profile scale, The Satisfaction With Life Scale, The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, The PWB scale, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, the findings revealed that personal meaning had strong relations with subjective well-being (SWB) and PWB...
2018: Journal of Adult Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768952/meta-analysis-of-the-association-between-rumination-and-reduced-autobiographical-memory-specificity
#8
Connie P Y Chiu, James W Griffith, Bert Lenaert, Filip Raes, Dirk Hermans, Tom J Barry
The CaRFAX model, proposed by Williams J. M. G. (2006. Capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and executive control (CaRFAX): Three processes that underlie overgeneral memory. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 548-568. doi: 10.1080/02699930500450465 ; Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Herman, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., & Dalgleish, T. (2007). Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 122-148. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.122 ) posits that reduced autobiographical memory specificity, a key factor associated with the emergence and maintenance of emotional disorders, may result from heightened rumination...
May 16, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766546/therapeutic-interventions-to-lessen-the-psychosocial-effect-of-vitiligo-in-children-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Simi D Cadmus, Ashley D Lundgren, Ammar M Ahmed
Vitiligo commonly affects children, with half of affected individuals experiencing disease onset before the age of 20. Because childhood is a time of advancement in social and psychological development, understanding the extent of the effect of the disease and means of alleviation is crucial. Vitiligo has been shown to decrease children's quality of life, with greater distress in children with highly visible lesions and darker skin tones. This article reviews the literature regarding interventions that have been analyzed in children...
May 16, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765345/exgutils-a-python-package-for-statistical-analysis-with-the-ex-gaussian-probability-density
#10
REVIEW
Carmen Moret-Tatay, Daniel Gamermann, Esperanza Navarro-Pardo, Pedro Fernández de Córdoba Castellá
The study of reaction times and their underlying cognitive processes is an important field in Psychology. Reaction times are often modeled through the ex-Gaussian distribution, because it provides a good fit to multiple empirical data. The complexity of this distribution makes the use of computational tools an essential element. Therefore, there is a strong need for efficient and versatile computational tools for the research in this area. In this manuscript we discuss some mathematical details of the ex-Gaussian distribution and apply the ExGUtils package, a set of functions and numerical tools, programmed for python, developed for numerical analysis of data involving the ex-Gaussian probability density...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765313/can-tai-chi-and-qigong-postures-shape-our-mood-toward-an-embodied-cognition-framework-for-mind-body-research
#11
Kamila Osypiuk, Evan Thompson, Peter M Wayne
Dynamic and static body postures are a defining characteristic of mind-body practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong (TCQ). A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that TCQ may be beneficial for psychological health, including management and prevention of depression and anxiety. Although a variety of causal factors have been identified as potential mediators of such health benefits, physical posture, despite its visible prominence, has been largely overlooked. We hypothesize that body posture while standing and/or moving may be a key therapeutic element mediating the influence of TCQ on psychological health...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765311/altered-sense-of-body-ownership-and-agency-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype-a-rubber-hand-illusion-study
#12
Daniela Rabellino, Dalila Burin, Sherain Harricharan, Chantelle Lloyd, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
Traumatic experiences have been linked to the development of altered states of consciousness affecting bodily perception, including alterations in body ownership and in sense of agency, the conscious experience of the body as one's own and under voluntary control. Severe psychological trauma and prolonged distress may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Together, symptoms of derealization and, related specifically to the sense of body ownership and agency, of depersonalization (where parts of the body or the entire body itself is perceived as detached and out of control), constitute the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765258/psychological-interventions-for-behavioral-adjustments-in-diabetes-care-a-value-based-approach-to-disease-control
#13
REVIEW
Boon-How Chew, Aaron Fernandez, Sazlina Shariff-Ghazali
Psychological aspects of a person, such as the personal value and belief systems, cognition and emotion, form the basis of human health behaviors, which, in turn, influence self-management, self-efficacy, quality of life, disease control and clinical outcomes in people with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. However, psychological, psychosocial and behavioral interventions aimed at these groups of patients have yielded inconsistent effects in terms of clinical outcomes in clinical trials. This might have been due to differing conceptualization of health behavioral theories and models in the interventions...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763571/attentional-bias-toward-emotional-stimuli-in-accidentally-injured-chinese-patients-with-different-posttraumatic-growth-levels
#14
An-Nuo Liu, Lu-Lu Wang, Ting-Ting Yan, Juan Gong, Hong-Yan Liu, Yan Jiang, Zheng-Wen Pan, Xiao-Hong Liu
Extensive evidence has been obtained that supports an association between an attentional bias (AB) toward negative stimuli and vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology, little is known regarding the characteristics of individual AB in different posttraumatic growth (PTG) levels. The current study used a modified dot-probe task to investigate if individual differences in AB towards either positive or negative emotional stimuli, are related to self-reported PTG. A sample of 202 patients completed the experiment...
May 15, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761488/psychological-therapies-for-treatment-resistant-depression-in-adults
#15
REVIEW
Sharea Ijaz, Philippa Davies, Catherine J Williams, David Kessler, Glyn Lewis, Nicola Wiles
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are a first-line treatment for adults with moderate to severe major depression. However, many people prescribed antidepressants for depression don't respond fully to such medication, and little evidence is available to inform the most appropriate 'next step' treatment for such patients, who may be referred to as having treatment-resistant depression (TRD). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance suggests that the 'next step' for those who do not respond to antidepressants may include a change in the dose or type of antidepressant medication, the addition of another medication, or the start of psychotherapy...
May 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760768/mechanisms-of-change-for-interventions-aimed-at-improving-the-wellbeing-mental-health-and-resilience-of-children-and-adolescents-affected-by-war-and-armed-conflict-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#16
REVIEW
Tania Josiane Bosqui, Bassam Marshoud
Despite increasing research and clinical interest in delivering psychosocial interventions for children affected by war, little research has been conducted on the underlying mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. This review aimed to identify these processes in order to inform existing interventions and highlight research gaps. A systematic review of reviews was conducted drawing from academic databases (PubMed, PILOTS, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews) and field resources (e.g. Médecins Sans Frontières and the Psychosocial Centre of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), with extracted data analysed using Thematic Content Analysis...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759889/social-learning-strategies-bridge-building-between-fields
#17
REVIEW
Rachel L Kendal, Neeltje J Boogert, Luke Rendell, Kevin N Laland, Mike Webster, Patricia L Jones
While social learning is widespread, indiscriminate copying of others is rarely beneficial. Theory suggests that individuals should be selective in what, when, and whom they copy, by following 'social learning strategies' (SLSs). The SLS concept has stimulated extensive experimental work, integrated theory, and empirical findings, and created impetus to the social learning and cultural evolution fields. However, the SLS concept needs updating to accommodate recent findings that individuals switch between strategies flexibly, that multiple strategies are deployed simultaneously, and that there is no one-to-one correspondence between psychological heuristics deployed and resulting population-level patterns...
May 11, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758471/the-predictive-specificity-of-psychological-vulnerability-markers-for-the-course-of-affective-disorders
#18
Sascha Y Struijs, Femke Lamers, Philip Spinhoven, Willem van der Does, Brenda W J H Penninx
High scores on markers of psychological vulnerability have been associated with a worse course of affective disorders. However, little is known about the specificity of those associations in predicting the course of different depressive and anxiety disorders. We examined the impact of psychological vulnerability on the short- and long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety with a current diagnosis of depression or anxiety (n = 1256) were reassessed after 2 and 6 years...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756087/from-acute-to-persistent-low-back-pain-a-longitudinal-investigation-of-somatosensory-changes-using-quantitative-sensory-testing-an-exploratory-study
#19
Anna Marcuzzi, Paul J Wrigley, Catherine M Dean, Petra L Graham, Julia M Hush
Introduction: Chronic low back pain (LBP) is commonly associated with generalised pain hypersensitivity. It is suggested that such somatosensory alterations are important determinants for the transition to persistent pain from an acute episode of LBP. Although cross-sectional research investigating somatosensory function in the acute stage is developing, no longitudinal studies designed to evaluate temporal changes have been published. Objectives: This exploratory study aimed to investigate the temporal development of somatosensory changes from the acute stage of LBP to up to 4 months from onset...
March 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755394/a-pathway-to-psychological-difficulty-perceived-chronic-social-adversity-and-its-symptomatic-reactions
#20
Cody Ding, Jingqiu Zhang, Dong Yang
In this paper, we attempt to predict and explain psychological maladjustment or difficulty. Specifically, we discuss the concept of perceived chronic social adversity, and we expect that such perceived chronic social adversity may potentially lead to chronic stress responses. Accordingly, we propose the symptomatic reactions of perceived chronic social adversity. We put forward a set of hypotheses regarding the relationships between perceived chronic social adversity and those chronic stress responses, and we further hypothesize a mediating role of individualized negative essentialism brought by perceived chronical social adversity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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