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# Behavioural economics

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#1
REVIEW
Victoria J Wood, Cecilia Vindrola-Padros, Nick Swart, Michelle McIntosh, Sonya Crowe, Stephen Morris, Naomi J Fulop
BACKGROUND: One to one specialling is a type of care which is provided to ensure the safety of patients who may be suffering from cognitive impairment, exhibit challenging behaviour, or may be at risk of falls or of causing harm to themselves or others. Care such as this, often referred to as 'specialling' or 'sitting' is common practice in most hospitals around the world, but there is a lack of evidence regarding its cost effectiveness and the quality of care provided. AIM: The aim of this scoping review was to explore the breadth and scope of literature on one to one specialling, sitters and similar types of care in acute secondary care settings, in order to identify the challenges and concerns relating to the quality of care (process and outcomes) and cost effectiveness emerging from the literature, and determine the implications of this for policy, practice and future research...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
#2
Franklin N Glozah, Kwaku Oppong Asante, Nuworza Kugbey
INTRODUCTION: Parental involvement in physical activity and dietary habits have been found to play a substantial role in the mental health of young people. However, there is little evidence about the associations between parental involvement, health behaviours and mental health among Ghanaian youth. This study sought to examine the role of parental involvement in the association between physical activity, dietary habits and mental health among Ghanaian youth. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2012 Ghana Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS)...
2018: PloS One
#3
Hyun A Heo, Suhyun Park, Sung Woon Pyo
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between psychological factors and temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in a representative sample using data from the Korean nationwide survey. METHODS: The study included 1337 adolescents. Participants provided demographic, socio-economic and behavioural information, and responses to questionnaires assessing their mental health status including perceived stress, depressed mood and suicidal ideation in the presence of TMD...
May 17, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
#4
Lisa Anna Rosenberger, Anbjørn Ree, Christoph Eisenegger, Uta Sailer
Field studies have demonstrated that humans become more generous, helpful and compliant after having been touched by another person. Here, we explored whether these effects are larger for touch activating the C-tactile (CT) fibres, as it is ascribed a particular role in establishing and maintaining bonds and affiliative interactions. The role of CT-targeted and non-targeted touch on prosocial behaviour was investigated in three different experiments using a trust game and a task measuring individual differences in social value orientations (the SVO task)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
#5
Jianjiu Chen, Sai Yin Ho, Lok Tung Leung, Man Ping Wang, Tai Hing Lam
Introduction: Tobacco industry denormalisation (TID) seeks to expose the industry's misconducts. Research on TID beliefs, meaning negative attitudes towards the tobacco industry (TI), may inform TID programmes, but was limited to western populations. We investigated TID beliefs and their association with smoking and sociodemographic characteristics in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey of 14214 students (mean age 15.0 years, 51...
May 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
#6
Domenico Abate, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Caterina Rotolo, Stefania Pollastro, Francesco Faretra
Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena are the most important pathogens responsible for brown rot disease of stone and pome fruits. Information on their mating system and sexual behaviour is scant. A mating-type specific PCR-based assay was developed and applied to 155 Monilinia isolates from ten countries and ten different host plants. We showed that single isolates carry only one of two opposite idiomorphs at the MAT1 locus consistent with a heterothallic mating system for all three species...
May 16, 2018: Phytopathology
#7
Lwendo Moonzwe Davis, Kristin Marie Kostick
Women are most exposed to sexual health risks within their marital relationships, primarily due to the sexually risky behaviours of their spouses. Studies show that expanding agency is critical for women to mitigate both physical and sexual health risks and is linked to increased psycho-social well-being and economic independence. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative primary data collected from a peri-urban community in Zambia, this paper explores how women exert agency in a community where few educational and economic opportunities and substantial food insecurity exacerbate women's risk for HIV within their marital relationships...
May 15, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
#8
Sherry Shiqian Gao, Duangporn Duangthip, Edward Chin Man Lo, Chun Hung Chu
OBJECTIVE: Early childhood caries (ECC) was prevalent in Hong Kong. Children with ECC risk should be identified early for prevention. This study aimed to identify common risk factors of ECC in Hong Kong 3-year-old children. STUDY DESIGN: Sample size calculation showed at least 6,321 of 3-year-old children should be invited in this study. A consent form and a questionnaire enquiring the children's oral health behaviours and social-economic background were distributed to their parents...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
#9
Ebenezer Owusu-Addo, Andre M N Renzaho, Ben J Smith
Cash transfers (CTs) are now high on the agenda of most governments in low- and middle-income countries. Within the field of health promotion, CTs constitute a healthy public policy initiative as they have the potential to address the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequalities. A systematic review was conducted to synthesise the evidence on CTs' impacts on SDoH and health inequalities in sub-Saharan Africa, and to identify the barriers and facilitators of effective CTs. Twenty-one electronic databases and the websites of 14 key organizations were searched in addition to grey literature and hand searching of selected journals for quantitative and qualitative studies on CTs' impacts on SDoH and health outcomes...
June 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
#10
REVIEW
Sharea Ijaz, Philippa Davies, Catherine J Williams, David Kessler, Glyn Lewis, Nicola Wiles
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are a first-line treatment for adults with moderate to severe major depression. However, many people prescribed antidepressants for depression don't respond fully to such medication, and little evidence is available to inform the most appropriate 'next step' treatment for such patients, who may be referred to as having treatment-resistant depression (TRD). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance suggests that the 'next step' for those who do not respond to antidepressants may include a change in the dose or type of antidepressant medication, the addition of another medication, or the start of psychotherapy...
May 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
#11
REVIEW
Linda Leonard, Drew Dawson
The longstanding human interest in dreams has led to a significant body of psychological and philosophical discourse, including research. Recently, however, dreams have been relegated to the periphery of clinical psychological practice. This is potentially problematic as clients continue to bring dreams to therapy and many psychologists lack the confidence or competence to respond effectively to dream material. Building on the structural, professional and research cultures surrounding psychology using a cultural-historical activity theory framework, we argue the marginalisation of dreams is due to cultural-historical factors...
April 22, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
#12
Judith R Glynn, Bindu S Sunny, Bianca DeStavola, Albert Dube, Menard Chihana, Alison J Price, Amelia C Crampin
BACKGROUND: School dropout has been linked to early pregnancy and marriage but less is known about the effect of school performance. We aimed to assess whether school performance influenced age at sexual debut, pregnancy and marriage, and from what age school drop-out and performance were associated with these later life events. METHODS: Data from 2007-2016 from a demographic surveillance site in northern Malawi with annual updating of schooling status and grades, and linked sexual behaviour surveys, were analysed to assess the associations of age-specific school performance (measured as age-for-grade) and status (in or out of school) on subsequent age at sexual debut, pregnancy and marriage...
2018: PloS One
#13
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Background: Improper disposal of child faeces is a major source of faecal pathogens that cause diarrhoeal disease. However, this has received relatively less attention in sanitation evaluation literature, which has tended to focus on sanitation provision, implicitly assuming that child faeces disposal behaviour also improves with sanitation. We examined the impact of improved sanitation without safe disposal (households with improved sanitation but not disposing of child faeces in improved sanitation) and improved sanitation with safe disposal (households with improved sanitation and disposal of child faeces in improved sanitation) on diarrhoeal prevalence in rural Nepal...
May 11, 2018: International Health
#14
Claudia Ramos, Jon Duque-Grajales, Jorge Rendón, Alejandro Montoya-Betancur, Ana Baena, David Pineda, Carlos Tobón
INTRODUCTION: Although the social and economic consequences of Colombian internal conflicts mainly affected the civilian population, they also had other implications. The ex-combatants, the other side of the conflict, have been the subject of many studies that question their personality structures and antisocial features. Results suggest that ex-combatants usually have characteristics of an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) that is related with their behaviour. METHODS: Quantitative EEG (qEEG) was used to evaluate differences in cortical activity patterns between an ex-combatants group and a control group...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
#15
Siobhan K Yilmaz, Brady P Horn, Chris Fore, Caroline A Bonham
Introduction In this paper the economic costs associated with a growing, multi-state telepsychiatry intervention serving rural American Indian/Alaska Native populations were compared to costs of travelling to provide/receive in-person treatment. Methods Telepsychiatry costs were calculated using administrative, information-technology, equipment and technology components, and were compared to travel cost models. Both a patient travel and a psychiatrist travel model were estimated utilising ArcGIS software and unit costs gathered from literature and government sources...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
#16
Amr Idris, Tareq Al Saadi, Tarek Turk, Mahmoud Alkhatib, Mohammed Zakaria, Bisher Sawaf, Basel Edris
Background: The ongoing Syrian war has resulted in many changes in the social and economic life of Syrians. To date, no study has documented the relationship between smoking behaviour and the war. Aim: To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among university students during the crisis in Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic, and the impact of the war on smoking behaviour. Methods: We conducted an anonymous online cross-sectional survey of 1027 undergraduate students from all years and colleges at Damascus University...
May 3, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
#17
Lee Hogarth, Lorna Hardy
RATIONALE: Alcohol dependence is characterised by persistent drinking despite health, social and economic costs. Behavioural economics has proposed two explanations for the persistence of alcohol use despite costs. Dependent individuals may (a) ascribe excessively high value to alcohol, such that costs associated with alcohol are exceeded, and/or (b) they may discount (neglect) the costs associated with alcohol. METHODS: To test these predictions, the current study recruited 127 student drinkers who reported varied alcohol use disorder symptom severity in the Alcohol Use Disorders Inventory Test (AUDIT; mean = 11...
May 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
#18
Jacqueline A Bowden, Nicole Sargent, Steve Wesselingh, Lincoln Size, Claire Donovan, Caroline L Miller
BACKGROUND: Measuring research impact is of critical interest to philanthropic and government funding agencies interested in ensuring that the research they fund is both scientifically excellent and has meaningful impact into health and other outcomes. The Beat Cancer Project (BCP) is a AUD $34 m cancer research funding scheme that commenced in 2011. It was initiated by an Australian charity (Cancer Council SA), and supported by the South Australian Government and the state's major universities... May 9, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742353/surfactant-effect-on-hydrate-crystallization-at-oil-water-interface #19 Kevin Dann, Liat Rosenfeld Gas hydrates pose economic and environmental risks to the oil and gas industry when plug formation occurs in pipelines. A novel approach using interfacial rheology was applied to understand cyclopentane clathrate hydrate formation in the presence of nonionic surfactant to achieve hydrate inhibition at low percent weight compared to thermodynamic inhibitors. The hydrate-inhibiting performance of low ($<$CMC), medium ($\approx$CMC), and high ($>$CMC) concentrations of Span~20, Span~80, Pluronic~L31, and Tween~65 at$2~^{\circ}$C on a manually nucleated$2~\mu L\$ droplet showed a morphological shift in crystallization from planar shell growth to conical growth...
May 9, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
#20
The feasibility of biomass-based activated carbons has received a huge attention due to their excellent characteristics such as inexpensiveness, good adsorption behaviour and potential to reduce a strong dependency towards non-renewable precursors. Therefore, in this research work, eco-friendly activated carbon from palm kernel shell that has been produced from one-stage physical activation by using the Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology is highlighted. The effect of three input parameters-temperature, dwell time and gas flow rate-towards product yield and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake at room temperature and atmospheric pressure are studied...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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