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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103280/formulation-general-features-and-global-calibration-of-a-bioenergetically-constrained-fishery-model
#1
David A Carozza, Daniele Bianchi, Eric D Galbraith
Human exploitation of marine resources is profoundly altering marine ecosystems, while climate change is expected to further impact commercially-harvested fish and other species. Although the global fishery is a highly complex system with many unpredictable aspects, the bioenergetic limits on fish production and the response of fishing effort to profit are both relatively tractable, and are sure to play important roles. Here we describe a generalized, coupled biological-economic model of the global marine fishery that represents both of these aspects in a unified framework, the BiOeconomic mArine Trophic Size-spectrum (BOATS) model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102112/dutiful-daughters-hiv-aids-moral-pragmatics-female-citizenship-and-structural-violence-among-devadasis-in-northern-karnataka-india
#2
Shamshad Khan, Robert Lorway, Claudyne Chevrier, Sumit Dutta, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, Anu Roy, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Sharmistha Mishra, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard, Marissa Becker
Decades of research have documented how sex workers worldwide, particularly female sex workers (FSWs), shoulder a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. In India, although a substantial progress has been made in controlling the epidemic, its prevalence among FSWs and the Devadasis (also called traditional sex workers) in northern Karnataka is still significantly high. On the other hand, much of the HIV prevention research has focused on their mapping and size estimation, typologies, bio-behavioural surveillance, condom use and other prevention technologies...
January 19, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098078/knowledge-attitude-and-behaviour-of-the-general-population-towards-organ-donation-an-indian-perspective
#3
Poreddi Vijayalakshmi, T S Sunitha, Sailaxmi Gandhi, Rohini Thimmaiah, Suresh Bada Math
BACKGROUND: The rate of organ donation in India is low and research on organ donation among the general population is limited. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and willingness to donate organs among the general population. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study among 193 randomly selected relatives of patients (not of those seeking organ donation) attending the outpatient department at a tertiary care centre. We used a structured questionnaire to collect data through face-to-face interviews...
September 2016: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096252/understanding-the-importance-of-therapeutic-relationships-in-the-development-of-self-management-behaviours-during-cancer-rehabilitation-a-qualitative-research-protocol
#4
Wendy M Wilkinson, Jaynie Rance, Deborah Fitzsimmons
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a growing health, social and economic problem. 1 in 3 people in the UK will develop cancer in their lifetime. With survival rates rising to over 50%, the long-term needs of cancer survivors are of growing importance. Cancer rehabilitation is tailored to address the physical or psychosocial decline in ability to engage in daily activities. Its use is supported by high-quality international, multicentre research. Incorporating strategies for self-management behaviour development into rehabilitation can prepare individuals for cancer survivorship...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095282/active-smoking-and-associated-behavioural-risk-factors-before-and-during-pregnancy-prevalence-and-attitudes-among-newborns-mothers-in-mures-county-romania
#5
Florina Ruta, Calin Avram, Septimiu Voidăzan, Claudiu Mărginean, Vladimir Bacârea, Zoltán Ábrám, Kristie Foley, Andrea Fogarasi-Grenczer, Melinda Pénzes, Monica Tarcea
AIM: Smoking before, during and after pregnancy leads to detrimental outcomes on maternal and foetal health and represents an important public health issue. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of smoking before and during pregnancy in a sample of Romanian women. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among mothers (N=1,278) in three maternity hospitals in Tirgu-Mures, Romania, immediately after childbirth, in 2014. We evaluated the prevsalence of smoking before and during pregnancy and used binary logistic regression to assess the influence of socio-demographics and other health behaviour factors in three groups of women: non-smoking pregnant women, women who continued smoking during pregnancy, and smokers who quit during pregnancy...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090336/medical-feminism-working-mothers-and-the-limits-of-home-finding-a-balance-between-self-care-and-other-care-in-cross-cultural-debates-about-health-and-lifestyle-1952-1956
#6
Frederick Cooper
Post-war medical debates about the psychiatric consequences of married women's economic behaviour witnessed far more divergence and collision between perspectives than has often been acknowledged. Practitioners who approached women primarily as facilitators of family health-as wives and mothers-were mistrustful of the competing demands presented by paid employment. They were faced by a growing spectrum of opinion, however, which represented women as atrophying in the confines of domestic life, and which positioned work as a therapeutic act...
July 12, 2016: Palgrave Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088198/does-equity-in-healthcare-spending-exist-among-indian-states-explaining-regional-variations-from-national-sample-survey-data
#7
Rinshu Dwivedi, Jalandhar Pradhan
BACKGROUND: Equity and justice in healthcare payment form an integral part of health policy and planning. In the majority of low and middle-income countries (LMICs), healthcare inequalities are further aggravated by Out of Pocket Expenditure (OOPE). This paper examines the pattern of health equity and regional disparities in healthcare spending among Indian states by applying Andersen's behavioural model of healthcare utilization. METHODS: The present study uses data from the 66(th) quinquennial round of Consumer Expenditure Survey, of the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO), conducted in 2009-10 by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), Government of India (GoI)...
January 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087545/predictors-of-public-support-for-nutrition-focused-policy-systems-and-environmental-change-strategies-in-los-angeles-county-2013
#8
Brenda Robles, Tony Kuo
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. METHODS: Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086921/a-randomized-controlled-trial-focusing-on-socio-economic-status-for-promoting-vegetable-intake-among-adults-using-a-web-based-nutrition-intervention-programme-study-protocol
#9
Saki Nakamura, Takayo Inayama, Takashi Arao
BACKGROUND: Web-based nutritional education programmes appear to be comparable to those delivered face-to-face. However, no existing web-based nutrition education or similar programme has yet been evaluated with consideration of socio-economic status. The objective of a nutritional education programme of promoting vegetable intake designed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the results of intervention and to determine how socio-economic status influences the programme effects...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079592/implementation-science-the-laboratory-as-a-command-centre
#10
Debrah I Boeras, John N Nkengasong, Rosanna W Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in point-of-care technologies to ensure universal access to affordable quality-assured diagnostics have the potential to transform patient management, surveillance programmes, and control of infectious diseases. Decentralization of testing can put tremendous stresses on fragile health systems if the laboratory is not involved in the planning, introduction, and scale-up strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of investments in novel technologies can only be realized if these tests are evaluated, adopted, and scaled up within the healthcare system with appropriate planning and understanding of the local contexts in which these technologies will be used...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078944/rethinking-the-relationship-between-socio-economic-status-and-health-making-the-case-for-sociological-theory-in-health-inequality-research
#11
Emil Øversveen, Håvard T Rydland, Clare Bambra, Terje A Eikemo
AIM: The aim of this study is to analyse previous explanations of social inequality in health and argue for a closer integration of sociological theory into future empirical research. METHODS: We examine cultural-behavioural, materialist, psychosocial and life-course approaches, in addition to fundamental cause theory. Giddens' structuration theory and a neo-materialist approach, inspired by Bruno Latour, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, are proposed as ways of rethinking the causal relationship between socio-economic status and health...
January 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078091/body-mass-index-measured-adiposity-and-population-attributability-of-associated-factors-a-population-based-study-from-buea-cameroon
#12
Leopold Ndemnge Aminde, Jeannine A Atem, Andre Pascal Kengne, Anastase Dzudie, J Lennert Veerman
BACKGROUND: Obesity is currently a global health challenge driven by a mix of behavioural, environmental and genetic factors. Up to date population-based disease burden estimates are needed to guide successful prevention and control efforts in African countries. We investigated the prevalence and population attributable fractions of overweight and obesity in Buea, the Southwest region of Cameroon. METHODS: Data are from a community-based cross-sectional study involving randomly selected adults conducted in 2016...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077072/diabetes-mellitus-medication-use-and-catastrophic-healthcare-expenditure-among-adults-aged-50-years-in-china-and-india-results-from-the-who-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage
#13
Shingai Douglas Gwatidzo, Jennifer Stewart Williams
BACKGROUND: Expenditure on medications for highly prevalent chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in financial impoverishment. People in developing countries and in low socioeconomic status groups are particularly vulnerable. China and India currently hold the world's two largest DM populations. Both countries are ageing and undergoing rapid economic development, urbanisation and social change. This paper assesses the determinants of DM medication use and catastrophic expenditure on medications in older adults with DM in China and India...
January 11, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073954/gene-obesogenic-environment-interactions-in-the-uk-biobank-study
#14
Jessica Tyrrell, Andrew R Wood, Ryan M Ames, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Robin N Beaumont, Samuel E Jones, Marcus A Tuke, Katherine S Ruth, Rachel M Freathy, George Davey Smith, Stéphane Joost, Idris Guessous, Anna Murray, David P Strachan, Zoltán Kutalik, Michael N Weedon, Timothy M Frayling
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069625/cost-effectiveness-of-a-pragmatic-structured-education-intervention-for-the-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-economic-evaluation-of-data-from-the-let-s-prevent-diabetes-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
J Leal, D Ahrabian, M J Davies, L J Gray, K Khunti, T Yates, A M Gray
OBJECTIVES: Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (TD2M) is a priority for healthcare systems. We estimated the cost-effectiveness compared with standard care of a structured education programme (Let's Prevent) targeting lifestyle and behaviour change to prevent progression to T2DM in people with prediabetes. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 44 general practices in Leicestershire, England...
January 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068975/a-cost-analysis-of-complex-workplace-nutrition-education-and-environmental-dietary-modification-interventions
#16
Sarah Fitzgerald, Ann Kirby, Aileen Murphy, Fiona Geaney, Ivan J Perry
BACKGROUND: The workplace has been identified as a priority setting to positively influence individuals' dietary behaviours. However, a dearth of evidence exists regarding the costs of implementing and delivering workplace dietary interventions. This study aimed to conduct a cost-analysis of workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions from an employer's perspective. METHODS: Cost data were obtained from a workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study...
January 9, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064369/the-role-of-socio-economic-disadvantage-in-the-development-of-comorbid-emotional-and-conduct-problems-in-children-with-adhd
#17
Eirini Flouri, Emily Midouhas, Alexandra Ruddy, Vanessa Moulton
Previous research shows that, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD have worse socio-emotional outcomes and more experience of socio-economic disadvantage. In this study, we explored if and how the increased emotional and behavioural difficulties faced by children with ADHD may be accounted for by their more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances. Our study, using data from 180 children (149 boys) with ADHD from the Millennium Cohort Study, had two aims. First, to examine the role of socio-economic disadvantage in the trajectories of emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years...
January 7, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059490/socio-economic-status-and-theories-of-health-behaviour-time-to-upgrade-a-control-variable
#18
EDITORIAL
Benjamin Schüz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057511/principles-and-strategies-for-improving-the-prevention-of-cardio-metabolic-diseases-in-indigenous-populations-an-international-delphi-study
#19
Lee Stoner, Anna G Matheson, Lane G Perry, Michelle A Williams, Alexandra McManus, Maureen Holdaway, Lyn Dimer, Jennie R Joe, Andrew Maiorana
The disparity in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, including within high-income countries, is driven by a heightened risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. The current study recruited independent panels of experts in Indigenous cardio-metabolic health from Australia, New Zealand and the United States, in order to establish local consensus opinion and initiate dialogue on appropriate prevention strategies. Therefore, a three-round Delphi process was used to consolidate and compare the opinions of 60 experts, 20 from each country...
January 2, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056955/development-of-an-algorithm-for-determining-smoking-status-and-behaviour-over-the-life-course-from-uk-electronic-primary-care-records
#20
Mark D Atkinson, Jonathan I Kennedy, Ann John, Keir E Lewis, Ronan A Lyons, Sinead T Brophy
BACKGROUND: Patients' smoking status is routinely collected by General Practitioners (GP) in UK primary health care. There is an abundance of Read codes pertaining to smoking, including those relating to smoking cessation therapy, prescription, and administration codes, in addition to the more regularly employed smoking status codes. Large databases of primary care data are increasingly used for epidemiological analysis; smoking status is an important covariate in many such analyses. However, the variable definition is rarely documented in the literature...
January 5, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
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