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Behavioural economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738670/antidoping-program-an-important-factor-in-the-promotion-and-protection-of-the-integrity-of-sport-and-athlete-s-health
#1
Filomena Mazzeo, Vincenzo Monda, Stefania Santamaria, Ersilia Nigro, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonietta Messina, Giovanni Messina
Use of performance-enhancing drugs concern not only elite Olympic and Paralympic Games' athletes but also amateur athletes, who are making increasing use of substances and/or methods. Furthermore, a new frontier reached by the doping is the use of genes. World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA), expressly prohibited the participation in competitive sports by the athlete in case of taking banned substances to treat disease in the event that the above assumption implies an excessive improvement of performance. This study aims to analyze and show the doping control as an essential part of the anti-doping program to promote and protect the integrity of sport and athlete's health...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735599/effectiveness-of-the-metslim-lifestyle-intervention-targeting-individuals-of-low-socio-economic-status-and-different-ethnic-origins-with-elevated-waist-to-height-ratio
#2
Andrea J Bukman, Dorit Teuscher, Agnes Meershoek, Reint Jan Renes, Marleen A van Baak, Edith Jm Feskens
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the lifestyle intervention MetSLIM targeting individuals of low socio-economic status of Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch origin was successful in improving waist circumference and other cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle behaviour and quality of life. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental intervention study (Netherlands Trial Register NTR3721). The intervention group participated in a 12-month combined dietary and physical activity programme...
July 24, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735590/effects-of-psychological-eating-behaviour-domains-on-the-association-between-socio-economic-status-and-bmi
#3
Antje Löffler, Tobias Luck, Francisca S Then, Claudia Luck-Sikorski, Alexander Pabst, Peter Kovacs, Yvonne Böttcher, Jana Breitfeld, Anke Tönjes, Annette Horstmann, Markus Löffler, Christoph Engel, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Michael Stumvoll, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigates potential pathways from socio-economic status (SES) to BMI in the adult population, considering psychological domains of eating behaviour (restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating) as potential mediators stratified for sex. DESIGN: Data were derived from the population-based cross-sectional LIFE-Adult-Study. Parallel-mediation models were conducted to obtain the total, direct and indirect effects of psychological eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI for men and for women...
July 24, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732525/effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-embedded-simulation-in-occupational-therapy-clinical-practice-education-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Christine Imms, Eli Mang Yee Chu, Stephen Guinea, Loretta Sheppard, Elspeth Froude, Rob Carter, Susan Darzins, Samantha Ashby, Susan Gilbert-Hunt, Nigel Gribble, Kelli Nicola-Richmond, Merrolee Penman, Elena Gospodarevskaya, Erin Mathieu, Mark Symmons
BACKGROUND: Clinical placements are a critical component of the training for health professionals such as occupational therapists. However, with growing student enrolments in professional education courses and workload pressures on practitioners, it is increasingly difficult to find sufficient, suitable placements that satisfy program accreditation requirements. The professional accrediting body for occupational therapy in Australia allows up to 200 of the mandatory 1000 clinical placement hours to be completed via simulation activities, but evidence of effectiveness and efficiency for student learning outcomes is lacking...
July 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730671/many-faces-of-rationality-implications-of-the-great-rationality-debate-for-clinical-decision-making
#5
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam
Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729321/economic-evaluation-of-a-brief-counselling-for-smoking-cessation-in-dentistry-a-case-study-comparing-two-health-economic-models
#6
Suvi Erika Virtanen, Maria R Galanti, Pia M Johansson, Inna Feldman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness estimates of a brief counselling of smoking cessation in dentistry by using two different health economic models. DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Intervention effectiveness was estimated in a cluster randomised controlled trial. The number of quitters was estimated based on 7-day abstinence and on smoking reduction at follow-up. Health economic evaluation was performed using two models: (1) a population-based model employing potential impact fractions and (2) a Markov model estimating the cost-effectiveness of the intervention for the actual participants...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727279/characterization-of-two-homeodomain-transcription-factors-with-critical-but-distinct-roles-in-virulence-in-the-vascular-pathogen-verticillium-dahliae
#7
J L Sarmiento-Villamil, P Prieto, S J Klosterman, M D García-Pedrajas
Vascular wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is a destructive disease that represents a chronic economic problem on crop production worldwide. In this work we characterized two new regulators of pathogenicity in this species. Vph1 (VDAG_06555) was identified in a candidate gene approach as a putative homolog of the transcription factor Ste12. Vhb1 (VDAG_08786), identified in a forward genetics approach, is similar to the homeobox transcription factor Htf1, reported as a regulator of conidiogenesis in several fungi...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725099/changes-in-employment-uncertainty-and-the-fertility-intention-realization-link-an-analysis-based-on-the-swiss-household-panel
#8
Doris Hanappi, Valérie-Anne Ryser, Laura Bernardi, Jean-Marie Le Goff
How do changes in employment uncertainty matter for fertility? Empirical studies on the impact of employment uncertainty on reproductive decision-making offer a variety of conclusions, ranging from gender and socio-economic differences in the effect of employment uncertainty on fertility intentions and behaviour, to the effect of employment on changes in fertility intentions. This article analyses the association between a change in subjective employment uncertainty and fertility intentions and behaviour by distinguishing male and female partners' employment uncertainty, and examines the variation in these associations by education...
2017: European Journal of Population
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724739/distinct-spinning-patterns-gain-differentiated-loading-tolerance-of-silk-thread-anchorages-in-spiders-with-different-ecology
#9
Jonas O Wolff, Arie van der Meijden, Marie E Herberstein
Building behaviour in animals extends biological functions beyond bodies. Many studies have emphasized the role of behavioural programmes, physiology and extrinsic factors for the structure and function of buildings. Structure attachments associated with animal constructions offer yet unrealized research opportunities. Spiders build a variety of one- to three-dimensional structures from silk fibres. The evolution of economic web shapes as a key for ecological success in spiders has been related to the emergence of high performance silks and thread coating glues...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724370/facing-unemployment-study-protocol-for-the-implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-community-based-intervention-for-psychological-well-being-promotion
#10
Ana Virgolino, Maria João Heitor, Joana Carreiras, Elisa Lopes, Simon Øverland, Steffen Torp, Dora Guðmundsdóttir, José Pereira Miguel, M Fátima Reis, Osvaldo Santos
BACKGROUND: Economic crises and unemployment have profound impact on mental health and well-being. Main goal of the Healthy Employment (HE) project is to enhance intersectoral actions promoting mental health among unemployed, namely through the implementation and effectiveness-evaluation of short-term and sustainable group interventions. METHODS: The project follows a RE-AIM-based (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) framework for assessing a cognitive-behavioural and psychoeducational intervention that has been developed for promoting mental health among unemployed people...
July 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715989/use-and-effectiveness-of-behavioural-economics-in-interventions-for-lifestyle-risk-factors-of-non-communicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-policy-implications
#11
Oana M Blaga, Livia Vasilescu, Razvan M Chereches
AIM: There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective...
July 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715656/the-prevalence-of-malnutrition-and-its-associated-risk-factors-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-ziway-dugda-district-arsi-zone-oromia-regional-state-ethiopia
#12
Abebe Ferede, Firaol Lemessa, Mesfin Tafa, Solomon Sisay
OBJECTIVES: Adequate nutrition is an important factor to determine the health and well-being of women, children and society as a whole. Although various nutritional policies were formulated and aimed at reducing malnutrition at the global level, the magnitude of malnutrition (body mass index [BMI] <18.5 kg/m(2)) among women remained between 10% and 40% in most low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to identify the associated risk factors among women of reproductive age...
July 14, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714283/association-between-maternal-social-capital-and-infant-complementary-feeding-practices-in-rural-ethiopia
#13
Yunhee Kang, Jane Kim, Eunkyo Seo
Few studies have explored the potential of social capital in improving child nutritional status; however, most components of pathways between social capital and nutritional status have remained unexplained. Complementary feeding practice is a strong mediator of child nutritional status. This study examined the association between complementary feeding practice and maternal social capital in rural Ethiopia, using cross-sectional data of infant aged 6-12 months and their mother pairs (n = 870). The Short Social Capital Assessment Tool was used to assess maternal structural (i...
July 17, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713072/link-worker-social-prescribing-to-improve-health-and-well-being-for-people-with-long-term-conditions-qualitative-study-of-service-user-perceptions
#14
Suzanne Moffatt, Mel Steer, Sarah Lawson, Linda Penn, Nicola O'Brien
OBJECTIVES: To describe the experiences of patients with long-term conditions who are referred to and engage with a Link Worker social prescribing programme and identify the impact of the Link Worker programme on health and well-being. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews with thematic analysis of the data. INTERVENTION: Link Worker social prescribing programme comprising personalised support to identify meaningful health and wellness goals, ongoing support to achieve agreed objectives and linkage into appropriate community services...
July 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710713/a-consensus-for-the-development-of-a-vector-model-to-assess-clinical-complexity
#15
Gino Roberto Corazza, Catherine Klersy, Pietro Formagnana, Marco Vincenzo Lenti, Donatella Padula
The progressive rise in multimorbidity has made management of complex patients one of the most topical and challenging issues in medicine, both in clinical practice and for healthcare organizations. To make this easier, a score of clinical complexity (CC) would be useful. A vector model to evaluate biological and extra-biological (socio-economic, cultural, behavioural, environmental) domains of CC was proposed a few years ago. However, given that the variables that grade each domain had never been defined, this model has never been used in clinical practice...
July 14, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710552/the-african-froghopper-ptyelus-flavescens-suborder-cicadomorpha-contains-two-novel-and-one-known-peptides-of-the-adipokinetic-hormone%C3%A2-akh-family-structure-function-and-comparison-with-aphid-akh-suborder-sternorrhyncha
#16
Gerd Gäde, Petr Šimek, Heather G Marco
The rationale of "green pesticides" in food security is to use information about endogenous hormones of pest insects to make peptide mimetics that will act against the pest insects to alter their behaviour or physiology, while taking care not to harm beneficial insects or other organisms in the food chain. Such "green" insecticides are designed thus, on the basis of neuropeptide ligand-receptor interaction and it is of paramount interest to have finally a mimetic at hand that is harmful only to pest insects...
July 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709386/health-complaints-in-late-adolescence-frequency-factor-structure-and-the-association-with-socio-economic-status
#17
Solbjørg Makalani Myrtveit Sæther, Børge Sivertsen, Siren Haugland, Tormod Bøe, Mari Hysing
AIMS: Little is known about social disparities in health in late adolescence. Among boys and girls aged 17-19, we aimed to (1) describe frequency of health complaints, (2) investigate the factor structure of health complaints and (3) examine the association between health complaints and socio-economic status (SES). METHODS: Data from the large population-based youth@hordaland survey ( n=10,253) were used. Health complaints were assessed by five items from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Symptoms Checklist, SES by parental education and perceived family economy...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707605/self-reported-use-of-nutrition-labels-to-make-food-choices-is-associated-with-healthier-dietary-behaviours-in-adolescents
#18
Amier Haidar, Felicia R Carey, Nalini Ranjit, Natalie Archer, Deanna Hoelscher
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine nutrition label use and dietary behaviours among ethnically diverse middle- and high-school students, in Texas, USA. DESIGN: The School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey is a cross-sectional statewide study using a self-administered questionnaire to assess nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Height and weight measurements were used to determine BMI. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between nutrition label use and dietary behaviours, with gender, grade, ethnicity, BMI, parent education, socio-economic status and nutrition knowledge as covariates...
July 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701409/what-outcomes-are-associated-with-developing-and-implementing-co-produced-interventions-in-acute-healthcare-settings-a-rapid-evidence-synthesis
#19
David Clarke, Fiona Jones, Ruth Harris, Glenn Robert
BACKGROUND: Co-production is defined as the voluntary or involuntary involvement of users in the design, management, delivery and/or evaluation of services. Interest in co-production as an intervention for improving healthcare quality is increasing. In the acute healthcare context, co-production is promoted as harnessing the knowledge of patients, carers and staff to make changes about which they care most. However, little is known regarding the impact of co-production on patient, staff or organisational outcomes in these settings...
July 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699542/community-cost-benefit-discussions-that-launched-the-camino-verde-intervention-in-nicaragua
#20
Carlos Hernandez-Alvarez, Jorge Arosteguí, Harold Suazo-Laguna, Rosa Maria Reyes, Josefina Coloma, Eva Harris, Neil Andersson, Robert J Ledogar
BACKGROUND: Recent literature on community intervention research stresses system change as a condition for durable impact. This involves highly participatory social processes leading to behavioural change. METHODS: Before launching the intervention in the Nicaraguan arm of Camino Verde, a cluster-randomised controlled trial to show that pesticide-free community mobilisation adds effectiveness to conventional dengue controls, we held structured discussions with leaders of intervention communities on costs of dengue illness and dengue control measures taken by both government and households...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
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