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Behavioural economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430928/typology-and-dynamics-of-heavier-drinking-styles-in-great-britain-1978-2010
#1
Robin C Purshouse, Alan Brennan, Daniel Moyo, James Nicholls, Paul Norman
Aims: To identify a typology of heavier drinking styles in Great Britain and to identify socio-demographic trends in the typology over the period 1978-2010. Methods: We applied multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering to beverage-specific quantity-frequency measures of alcohol consumption in the repeated cross-sectional General Lifestyle Survey of Great Britain, 1978-2010. The cluster analysis focuses on the 60,043 adult respondents over this period reporting average drinking levels above the UK Government guidelines...
May 1, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427380/the-stepping-stones-and-creating-futures-intervention-to-prevent-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-risk-behaviours-in-durban-south-africa-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-control-trial-and-baseline-characteristics
#2
Andrew Gibbs, Laura Washington, Samantha Willan, Nolwazi Ntini, Thobani Khumalo, Nompumelelo Mbatha, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Nwabisa Shai, Esnat Chirwa, Michael Strauss, Giulia Ferrari, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a global public health challenge. Studies suggest urban informal settlements have particularly high levels of IPV and HIV-prevalence and these settlements are rapidly growing. The current evidence base of effective approaches to preventing IPV recognizes the potential of combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions. However, few of these interventions have been done in urban informal settlements, and almost none have included men as direct recipients of these interventions...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427337/treatment-seeking-behaviour-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-estimated-using-a-bayesian-model
#3
Victor A Alegana, Jim Wright, Carla Pezzulo, Andrew J Tatem, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Seeking treatment in formal healthcare for uncomplicated infections is vital to combating disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour varies within and between communities and is modified by socio-economic, demographic, and physical factors. As a result, it remains a challenge to quantify healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour using a metric that is comparable across communities. Here, we present an application for transforming individual categorical responses (actions related to fever) to a continuous probabilistic estimate of fever treatment for one country in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424062/health-system-factors-influencing-management-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-four-european-union-countries-learning-from-country-experiences
#4
Gerard de Vries, Svetla Tsolova, Laura F Anderson, Agnes C Gebhard, Einar Heldal, Vahur Hollo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero Cejudo, Daniela Schmid, Bert Schreuder, Tonka Varleva, Marieke J van der Werf
BACKGROUND: In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
April 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424057/personalized-medicine-in-europe-not-yet-personal-enough
#5
Antonello Di Paolo, François Sarkozy, Bettina Ryll, Uwe Siebert
BACKGROUND: Personalized medicine has the potential to allow patients to receive drugs specific to their individual disease, and to increase the efficiency of the healthcare system. There is currently no comprehensive overview of personalized medicine, and this research aims to provide an overview of the concept and definition of personalized medicine in nine European countries. METHODS: A targeted literature review of selected health databases and grey literature was conducted to collate information regarding the definition, process, use, funding, impact and challenges associated with personalized medicine...
April 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423994/seasonal-variation-in-sports-participation
#6
Ute Schüttoff, Tim Pawlowski
This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421127/using-agent-based-models-to-develop-public-policy-about-food-behaviours-future-directions-and-recommendations
#7
REVIEW
Philippe J Giabbanelli, Rik Crutzen
Most adults are overweight or obese in many western countries. Several population-level interventions on the physical, economical, political, or sociocultural environment have thus attempted to achieve a healthier weight. These interventions have involved different weight-related behaviours, such as food behaviours. Agent-based models (ABMs) have the potential to help policymakers evaluate food behaviour interventions from a systems perspective. However, fully realizing this potential involves a complex procedure starting with obtaining and analyzing data to populate the model and eventually identifying more efficient cross-sectoral policies...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420394/influence-maternal-background-has-on-children-s-mental-health
#8
Elena Arroyo-Borrell, Gemma Renart, Carme Saurina, Marc Saez
BACKGROUND: In this paper, we aim to discern how a mother's health and her socioeconomic determinants may influence her children's mental health. In addition to this, we also evaluate the influence of other household characteristics and whether or not the economic downturn has heightened the effect a parent's social gradient has on their children's mental health. METHODS: We use samples comprised of 4-14-year-old minors from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS), undertaken prior to the crisis, and the 2011 SNHS, carried out during the crisis...
April 18, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420315/dental-care-attendance-and-refrainment-from-dental-care-among-adults
#9
Magnus Hakeberg, Ulla Wide Boman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse dental care utilization, refrainment from self-perceived needed dental care and the association with socioeconomic indicators among adult individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey included 3500 randomly selected adult individuals. Telephone interviews were conducted and the participants answered a battery of questions regarding dental visiting habits, health, socioeconomic position (SEP), behavioural factors and lifestyle indicators...
April 19, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417609/action-plans-and-coping-strategies-in-elderly-copd-patients-influence-the-result-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation-an-observational-study
#10
Patrizia Russo, Giulia Prinzi, Aliaksei Kisialou, Vittorio Cardaci, Emanuele Stirpe, Vittoria Conti, Massimo Fini, Stefano Bonassi
BACKGROUND: COPD management needs a comprehensive assessment of clinical features (symptoms severity, co-morbidities) together with life-style, behavioural, socio-economic and multi-omics parameters. Among the other issues, psycho-cognitive assessment plays a critical role. Coping strategies are used to manage psychological stress. AIM: To evaluate the association between coping strategies and outcome of Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR). DESIGN: Observational study...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416040/effect-of-early-sexual-debut-on-high-school-completion-in-south-africa
#11
A V Bengesai, H T A Khan, R Dube
Early sexual debut is of major concern because it is a correlate for health and economic shocks experienced in adulthood. In South Africa, this concern has provided impetus for research directed at the HIV and AIDS epidemic, teenage pregnancy and the effect of adolescent sexual behaviour on persistence in school. Of interest to the present study is high school completion, which is a well-established empirical barometer of adult socioeconomic opportunities. Using data from the five waves of the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), this paper examines the association between sexual behaviours initiated in pre- and early adolescence and high school completion rates...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415936/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-unawareness-prevalence-trends-and-risk-factors-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-1999-2010
#12
Nana Zhang, Xin Yang, Xiaolin Zhu, Bin Zhao, Tianyi Huang, Qiuhe Ji
Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999-2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals...
April 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408119/ecological-validity-of-cost-effectiveness-models-of-universal-hpv-vaccination-a-systematic-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Giampiero Favato, Tania Easton, Riccardo Vecchiato, Emmanouil Noikokyris
BACKGROUND: The protective (herd) effect of the selective vaccination of pubertal girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) implies a high probability that one of the two partners involved in intercourse is immunised, hence preventing the other from this sexually transmitted infection. The dynamic transmission models used to inform immunisation policy should include consideration of sexual behaviours and population mixing in order to demonstrate an ecological validity, whereby the scenarios modelled remain faithful to the real-life social and cultural context...
April 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407063/trends-in-the-sexual-behaviour-of-15-year-olds-in-scotland-2002-14
#14
Fergus G Neville, Juliet McEachran, Aixa Aleman-Diaz, Ross Whitehead, Alina Cosma, Dorothy Currie, Candace Currie
Early sexual initiation and inadequate contraceptive use can place adolescents at increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. These behaviours are patterned by gender and may be linked to social inequalities. This paper examines trends in sexual initiation and contraceptive use by gender and family affluence for Scottish adolescents. Cross-sectional data from four nationally representative survey cycles (2002, 2004, 2010, 2014) (n = 8895) (mean age = 15.57) were analysed. Logistic regressions examined the impact of survey year on sexual initiation, condom use and birth control pill (BCP) use at last sex; as well as any changes over time in association between family affluence and the three sexual behaviours...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406924/quantifying-dispersal-of-a-non-aggressive-saprophytic-bark-beetle
#15
Nicolas Meurisse, Stephen Pawson
Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles). We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406202/finding-pathways-to-national-scale-land-sector-sustainability
#16
Lei Gao, Brett A Bryan
The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets under Agenda 2030 of the United Nations map a coherent global sustainability ambition at a level of detail general enough to garner consensus amongst nations. However, achieving the global agenda will depend heavily on successful national-scale implementation, which requires the development of effective science-driven targets tailored to specific national contexts and supported by strong national governance. Here we assess the feasibility of achieving multiple SDG targets at the national scale for the Australian land-sector...
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403660/value-based-choice-an-integrative-neuroscience-informed-model-of-health-goals
#17
Elliot T Berkman
OBJECTIVE: Traditional models of health behaviour focus on the roles of cognitive, personality and social-cognitive constructs (e.g. executive function, grit, self-efficacy), and give less attention to the process by which these constructs interact in the moment that a health-relevant choice is made. Health psychology needs a process-focused account of how various factors are integrated to produce the decisions that determine health behaviour. DESIGN: I present an integrative value-based choice model of health behaviour, which characterises the mechanism by which a variety of factors come together to determine behaviour...
April 13, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402285/doping-of-graphene-induced-by-boron-silicon-substrate
#18
Arezoo Dianat, Zhongquan Liao, Martin Gall, Tao Zhang, Rafael Gutierrez, Ehrenfried Zschech, Gianaurelio Cuniberti
In this work, we show the doping of graphene most likely from heteroatoms induced by the substrate using Raman spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The doping of graphene on a highly boron-doped silicon substrate was achieved by an annealing at 400 K for about 3 hours in an oven with air flow. With the same annealing, only the Raman features similar to that from the pristine graphene were observed in the freestanding graphene and the graphene on a typical Si/SiO2 wafer...
April 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399587/-are-interventions-promoting-physical-activity-cost-effective-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#19
Alfred Rütten, Karim Abu-Omar, Ionut Burlacu, Valentin Schätzlein, Marc Suhrcke
On the basis of international published reviews, this systematic review aims to determine the health economic benefits of interventions promoting physical activity.This review of reviews is based on a systematic literature research in 10 databases (e. g. PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus) supplemented by hand searches from January 2000 to October 2015. Publications were considered in the English or German language only. Results of identified reviews were derived.In total, 18 reviews were identified that could be attributed to interventions promoting physical activity (2 reviews focusing on population-based physical activity interventions, 10 reviews on individual-based and 6 reviews on both population-based and individual-based physical activity interventions)...
March 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398163/the-effect-of-parenting-practices-on-the-severity-of-gingival-bleeding-in-children
#20
Santhosh Kumar, Jyothi Tadakamadla, Melanie Zimmer-Gembeck, Jeroen Kroon, Ratilal Lalloo, Newell Walter Johnson
BACKGROUND: Studies have consistently reported that parenting practices having an impact on eating styles which determine obesity levels in children. However, there is no study that evaluated the association of parenting practices on gingivitis in children using path analysis to evaluate if oral health-related behaviour mediates this association. This study aimed to test a model of the parenting and family demographic factors that could account for gingivitis in children, with a focus on the mediational roles of oral health-related behaviours and oral hygiene status...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
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