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Behavioural economics

Lorenzini Luca, Giuliani Alessandro, Sivilia Sandra, Baldassarro Vito Antonio, Fernandez Mercedes, Lotti Margotti Matteo, Giardino Luciana, Fontani Vania, Rinaldi Salvatore, Calzà Laura
The search for new therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer disease (AD) is a major goal in medicine and society, also due to the impressive economic and social costs of this disease. In this scenario, biotechnologies play an important role. Here, it is demonstrated that the Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), an innovative technology platform for neuro- and bio-modulation, used according to the neuro-regenerative protocol (RGN-N), significantly increases astroglial reaction around the amyloid plaques in an AD mouse model, as evaluated by GFAP-immunoreactivity, and reduces microglia-associated neuroinflammation markers, as evaluated by Iba1-immunoreactivity and mRNA expression level of inflammatory cytokines TREM...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rimante Ronto, Lauren Ball, Donna Pendergast, Neil Harris
The high school setting has been identified as an ideal setting to teach adolescents about healthy dietary behaviours. This study explored home economics teachers' (HETs) views on the role of high schools in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and promoting healthy dietary behaviours. Semi-structured interviews with 22 HETs were conducted. The interview questions focused on the perceived strengths/opportunities and the limitations/barriers in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and healthy dietary behaviours in Australian high schools...
October 19, 2016: Appetite
C Teljeur, P S Moran, S Walshe, S M Smith, F Cianci, L Murphy, P Harrington, M Ryan
AIMS: To systematically review the evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of self-management support interventions for people with diabetes. BACKGROUND: Self-management support is the provision of education and supportive interventions to increase patients' skills and confidence in managing their health problems, potentially leading to improvements in HbA1c levels in people with diabetes. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials, observational studies or economic modelling studies were eligible for inclusion in the review...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sengupta, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Raghbendra Sah, Machhindra Basnet, Jayne Harthan, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW, < 2500 g) affects one third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0-16 months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Jens Christoffer Skogen, Tormod Bøe, Børge Sivertsen, Mari Hysing
OBJECTIVE: To describe potential differences in unhealthy behaviours among ethnic Norwegian adolescents and minority adolescents from countries within the European Union, European Economic Area or US (EU/EEA countries) and adolescents from non-EU/EEA countries. Specifically, we aimed to investigate ethnic differences in use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs, and potential confounding due to socio-demographic characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 (N = 10,122), with self-reported ethnicity as grouping variable, and self-reported use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs as dependent variables...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Amy Blake, Bryan T Carroll
OBJECTIVE: This paper analyses how game theory can provide a framework for understanding the strategic decision-making that occurs in everyday scenarios in medical training and practice, and ultimately serves as a tool for improving the work environment and patient care. Game theory has been applied to a variety of fields outside of its native economics, but has not been thoroughly studied in the context of health care provision. METHODS: The paper discusses four of the most common 'games' and applies each to a scenario in medicine to provide new insight on the incentives and drivers for certain types of behaviour and a deeper understanding of why certain results are valued more strongly than others...
November 2016: Medical Education
Martin Vyska, Christopher Gilligan
We analyse the dynamical behaviour of a simple, widely used model that integrates epidemiological dynamics with disease control and economic constraint on the control resources. We consider both the deterministic model and its stochastic counterpart. Despite its simplicity, the model exhibits mathematically rich dynamics, including multiple stable fixed points and stable limit cycles arising from global bifurcations. We show that the existence of the limit cycles in the deterministic model has important consequences in modelling the range of potential effects the control can have...
October 18, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Emma Stait, Michael Calnan
BACKGROUND: During the last two decades, differential consumption patterns in health-related behaviours have increasingly been highlighted as playing an important role in explaining persistent and widening health inequalities. This period has also seen government public health policies in England place a greater emphasis on changing 'lifestyle' behaviours, in an attempt to tackle social inequalities in health. The aim of this study was to empirically examine the variation in health-related behaviour in relation to socio-economic position, in the English adult population, to determine the nature of this relationship and whether it has changed over time...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Charu Kohli, Kalika Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To assess average out of expenditure incurred on hypertension management and treatment seeking behaviour among patients in Delhi, India. DESIGN AND METHOD: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in rural and urban slum areas of Delhi to select a total of 160 (142 rural and 18 urban slum) hypertension patients. These patients were detected from the cross sectional screening survey among 200 adults in urban area and 1005 in rural area selected by systematic random sampling...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fiona Mactaggart, Liane McDermott, Anna Tynan, Maxine Whittaker
Health and well-being outcomes in communities living in proximity to mining activity may be influenced by a broad spectrum of factors including population growth, economic instability or land degradation. This review aims to synthesise broader outcomes associated with mining activity and in doing so, further explore possible determinants in communities of low- and middle-income countries. Four databases were systematically searched and articles were included if the study targeted adults residing in proximity to mining activity, and measured individual or community-level health or well-being outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Global Public Health
Ward Blanken, Stefan Schaap, Sophie Theobald, Arjen Rinzema, René H Wijffels, Marcel Janssen
The loss of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the environment during microalgae cultivation is undesirable for both environmental and economic reasons. In this study, a phototrophic biofilm growth model was developed and validated with the objective to maximize both CO2 utilization efficiency and production of microalgae in biofilms. The model was validated in growth experiments with CO2 as the limiting substrate. The CO2 utilization and biomass productivity were maximized by changing the gas flow rate, the number of biofilm reactors in series, and gas composition...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
M Kamrul Islam, Egil Kjerstad
In the theoretical literature on general practitioner (GP) behaviour, one prediction is that intensified competition induces GPs to provide more services resulting in fewer hospital admissions. This potential substitution effect has drawn political attention in countries looking for measures to reduce the growth in demand for hospital care. However, intensified competition may induce GPs to secure hospital admissions a signal to attract new patients and to keep the already enlisted ones satisfied, resulting in higher admission rates at hospitals...
October 14, 2016: Health Economics
Joshua Hayward, Felice N Jacka, Helen Skouteris, Lynne Millar, Claudia Strugnell, Boyd A Swinburn, Steven Allender
OBJECTIVE: Depression affects many Australian adolescents. Research points to the potential of lifestyle improvement for the population-level prevention of mental disorders. However, most studies examine single relationships without considering the combined contribution of lifestyle factors to variance in depression. This study examined associations between adolescent diet, physical activity and screen time behaviours and depressive symptomatology. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of year 8 and 10 students was recruited from 23 participating schools in 18 Victorian communities...
October 12, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Thang S Han, Elon Correa, Michael E J Lean, David M Lee, Terrence W O'Neill, György Bartfai, Gianni Forti, Aleksander Giwercman, Krzysztof Kula, Neil Pendleton, Margus Punab, Martin K Rutter, Dirk Vanderschueren, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Frederick C W Wu, Felipe F Casanueva
Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities...
October 13, 2016: Endocrine
Sarah Floud, Angela Balkwill, Kath Moser, Gillian K Reeves, Jane Green, Valerie Beral, Benjamin J Cairns
BACKGROUND: Some recent research has suggested that health-related behaviours, such as smoking, might explain much of the socio-economic inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. In a large prospective study of UK women, we investigated the associations between education and area deprivation and CHD risk and assessed the contributions of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) to these inequalities. METHODS: After excluding women with heart disease, stroke or cancer at recruitment, 1,202,983 women aged 56 years (SD 5 years) on average, were followed for first coronary event (hospital admission or death) and for CHD mortality...
October 13, 2016: BMC Medicine
Fabián Casas, Ana Benítez-López, Rocío Tarjuelo, Isabel Barja, Javier Viñuela, Jesús T García, Manuel B Morales, Francois Mougeot
Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata)...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Grace McCutchan, Fiona Wood, Stephanie Smits, Adrian Edwards, Kate Brain
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival can in part be explained by long patient intervals among people from deprived groups; however, the reasons for this are unclear. This qualitative study explores the actual and anticipated barriers to cancer symptom presentation in the context of socioeconomic deprivation. METHODS: Thirty participants were recruited through the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Welsh database (n = 20), snowball sampling (n = 8) and community partners (n = 2)...
October 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
Bozhena Zoritch, Ian Roberts, Ann Oakley
BACKGROUND: The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
José Edgardo Dipierri, Alvaro Rodríguez-Larralde, Italo Barrai, Esperanza Gutiérrez Redomero, Concepción Alonso-Rodríguez, Emma Laura Alfaro
In human populations various flexible, labile and interdependent structures (genetic, demographic, socioeconomic) co-exist, each of which can be organized in an hierarchical order corresponding to administrative entities. The relationship between consanguinity, as estimated by random isonymy (F ST), and socioeconomic conditions was analysed at different levels of political and administrative organization in Argentina. From the surnames of 22,666,139 voters from the 2001 electoral roll, F ST was estimated for 510 Argentinian departments...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Arata Hidano, Tim E Carpenter, Mark A Stevenson, M Carolyn Gates
Many countries implement regionalisation as a measure to control economically important livestock diseases. Given that regionalisation highlights the difference in disease risk between animal subpopulations, this may discourage herd managers in low-risk areas from purchasing animals from high-risk areas to protect the disease-free status of their herds. Using bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in New Zealand as a case example, we develop a novel network simulation model to predict how much the frequency of cattle movements between different disease control areas (DCAs) could theoretically change if herd managers adopted the safest practices (preferentially purchasing cattle from areas with the lowest risk of bTB), if herd managers adopted the riskiest practices (preferentially purchasing cattle from areas with the greatest risk of bTB), or if herd managers made trade decisions completely at random (purchasing cattle without consideration for bTB disease risk)...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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