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Behavioural economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149309/a-comparable-yardstick-adjusting-for-education-bias-in-south-african-health-system-responsiveness-ratings
#1
Laura Rossouw, Anja Smith
Health-system responsiveness (HSR) measures the experience of health-system users in terms of the non-clinical aspects of the health system. This has been operationalized as a measurable construct in multiple surveys and studies. According to the literature, reporting behaviour may vary systematically across socio-demographic characteristics. In this study we explore the association between education levels and reporting behaviour in terms of HSR in South Africa using data from the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health for South Africa (WHO SAGE) conducted in 2007 and 2008...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146660/changing-physical-activity-behaviour-for-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-trial-istep-ms
#2
Jennifer M Ryan, Jennifer Fortune, Andrea Stennett, Cherry Kilbride, Nana Anokye, Christina Victor, Wendy Hendrie, Mohamed Abdul, Lorraine DeSouza, Grace Lavelle, Debbie Brewin, Lee David, Meriel Norris
INTRODUCTION: Although physical activity may reduce disease burden, fatigue and disability, and improve quality of life among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), many people with MS are physically inactive and spend significant time in sedentary behaviour. Behaviour change interventions may assist people with MS to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. However, few studies have investigated their effectiveness using objective measures of physical activity, particularly in the long term...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146648/economic-evaluation-of-an-e-mental-health-intervention-for-patients-with-retinal-exudative-diseases-who-receive-intraocular-anti-vegf-injections-e-pseye-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Hilde P A van der Aa, Ger H M B van Rens, Frank D Verbraak, Machteld Bosscha, Marc A Koopmanschap, Hannie C Comijs, Pim Cuijpers, Ruth M A van Nispen
INTRODUCTION: Because of the great potential of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGF) for retinal exudative diseases, an increased number of patients receives this treatment. However, during this treatment, patients are subjected to frequent invasive intravitreal injections, and the effects on reversing the process of vision loss are uncertain, which may have negative consequences for patients' mental health. One in three patients experience at least mild symptoms of depression/anxiety...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145884/systematic-literature-review-of-built-environment-effects-on-physical-activity-and-active-transport-an-update-and-new-findings-on-health-equity
#4
REVIEW
Melody Smith, Jamie Hosking, Alistair Woodward, Karen Witten, Alexandra MacMillan, Adrian Field, Peter Baas, Hamish Mackie
BACKGROUND: Evidence is mounting to suggest a causal relationship between the built environment and people's physical activity behaviours, particularly active transport. The evidence base has been hindered to date by restricted consideration of cost and economic factors associated with built environment interventions, investigation of socioeconomic or ethnic differences in intervention effects, and an inability to isolate the effect of the built environment from other intervention types...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145600/the-influence-of-gender-and-household-headship-on-voluntary-health-insurance-the-case-of-north-west-cameroon
#5
Tessa Oraro, Nestor Ngube, George Yuh Atohmbom, Siddharth Srivastava, Kaspar Wyss
Within the existing health financing literature, males are typically categorized as the household's decision-makers. While this view accurately reflects many local sociocultural realities, approximately a quarter of sub-Saharan African households are now headed by females. In light of various efforts to expand health insurance coverage in the region, it is necessary to examine whether the factors influencing voluntary health insurance enrolment are analogous across male- and female-headed households. This study sought to identify the gendered determinants of voluntary enrolment into a church-run micro health insurance scheme...
November 13, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143716/the-shelf-space-and-strategic-placement-of-healthy-and-discretionary-foods-in-urban-urban-fringe-and-rural-non-metropolitan-australian-supermarkets
#6
Adrian J Cameron
OBJECTIVE: Supermarkets are a key influence on eating behaviours, but it is unknown if the promotion of food within stores varies on a geographic gradient from urban, to urban-fringe and non-metropolitan areas. The present study aimed to assess the shelf space and strategic placement of healthy and discretionary foods in each of urban, urban-fringe and non-metropolitan Australian supermarkets. Design/Setting In-store audits were conducted in stores from one of the two major Australian supermarket chains in urban (n 19), urban-fringe (n 20) and non-metropolitan (n 26) areas of Victoria...
November 16, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143681/economic-evaluation-of-hcv-testing-approaches-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#7
REVIEW
Jake R Morgan, Maria Servidone, Philippa Easterbrook, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health burden with diverse epidemics worldwide, but at present, only a minority of infected persons have been tested and are aware of their diagnosis. The advent of highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, which is becoming available at increasingly lower costs in low and middle income countries (LMICs), represents a major opportunity to expand access to testing and treatment. However, there is uncertainty as to the optimal testing approaches and who to prioritize for testing...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141661/preventing-enduring-behavioural-problems-in-young-children-through-early-psychological-intervention-healthy-start-happy-start-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Paul G Ramchandani, Christine O'Farrelly, Daphne Babalis, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Sarah Byford, Ellen S R Grimas, Jane E Iles, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Julia McGinley, Charlotte M Phillips, Alan Stein, Jane Warwick, Hillary C Watt, Stephen Scott
BACKGROUND: Behavioural problems are common in early childhood, and can result in enduring costs to the individual and society, including an increased risk of mental and physical illness, criminality, educational failure and drug and alcohol misuse. Most previous research has examined the impact of interventions targeting older children when difficulties are more established and harder to change, and have rarely included fathers. We are conducting a trial of a psychological intervention delivered to families with very young children, engaging both parents where possible...
November 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139649/construction-of-the-questionnaire-on-foreign-language-learning-strategies-in-specific-croatian-context
#9
Nikolina Božinović, Joško Sindik
Learning strategies are special thoughts or behaviours that individuals use to understand, learn or retain new information, according to the point of view of O’Malley & Chamot. The other view, promoted by Oxford, believes learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, and more transferrable to new situations of language learning and use. The use of appropriate strategies ensures greater success in language learning. The aim of the research was to establish metric characteristics of the Questionnaire on learning strategies created by the author, in line with the template of the original SILL questionnaire (Strategy Inventory for Language Learning)...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139563/the-interplay-of-gender-and-social-background-a-longitudinal-study-of-interaction-effects-in-reading-attitudes-and-behaviour
#10
Michael Becker, Nele McElvany
BACKGROUND: Researchers often report and discuss gender differences. However, recent research has drawn attention to interaction effects between gender and other social categories. AIMS: This study analysed the development of disparities in students' reading-related self-concept, intrinsic motivation, and behaviour, as they relate to differences in gender and socio-economic family background. Drawing on expectancy-value theory, we regarded reading-related self-concept, motivation, and behaviour as key to explaining the growing differences between boys and girls in adolescence...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138900/-intergenerational-mobility-and-health-inequalities-in-east-and-west-germany-a-trend-analysis-from-1992-to-2012
#11
Sebastian Günther, Irene Moor, Anja Knöchelmann, Matthias Richter
BACKGROUND: Social mobility processes, i. e. the movement of a person from one social position to another, are central mechanisms for explaining health inequalities. Social differences in health status or behaviour may also change with changes in social status. This article examines the importance of intergenerational mobility, i. e. the rise and fall of social status in relation to parental social position, for subjective health in East and West Germany and whether this relationship has changed over 20 years...
November 14, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138193/stoic-beliefs-and-health-development-and-preliminary-validation-of-the-pathak-wieten-stoicism-ideology-scale
#12
Elizabeth B Pathak, Sarah E Wieten, Christopher W Wheldon
INTRODUCTION: We developed and validated a new parsimonious scale to measure stoic beliefs. Key domains of stoicism are imperviousness to strong emotions, indifference to death, taciturnity and self-sufficiency. In the context of illness and disease, a personal ideology of stoicism may create an internal resistance to objective needs, which can lead to negative consequences. Stoicism has been linked to help-seeking delays, inadequate pain treatment, caregiver strain and suicide after economic stress...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133311/quantifying-research-output-on-poverty-and-non-communicable-disease-behavioural-risk-factors-in-low-income-and-lower-middle-income-countries-a-bibliometric-analysis
#13
Luke Nelson Allen, Nicholas Fox, Alissa Ambrose
OBJECTIVES: Low-income and lower middle-income countries (LLMICs) bear a disproportionate burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). WHO has repeatedly called for more research on poverty and NCDs in these settings, but the current situation remains unquantified. We aimed to assess research output on poverty and NCD risk factors from these countries in relation to upper middle-income and high-income countries. DESIGN: Bibliometric analysis of primary research published between 1 January 1990 and 4 May 2017...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132278/gendered-childcare-norms-evidence-from-rural-swaziland-to-inform-innovative-structural-hiv-prevention-approaches-for-young-women
#14
Pinky N Shabangu, Michelle R Brear
Addressing discriminatory gender norms is a prerequisite for preventing HIV in women, including young women. However, the gendered expectation that women will perform unpaid childcare-related labour is rarely conceptualised as influencing their HIV risk. Our aim was to learn from members of a rural Swazi community about how gendered childcare norms. We performed sequential, interpretive analysis of focus group discussion and demographic survey data, generated through participatory action research. The results showed that gendered childcare norms were firmly entrenched and intertwined with discriminatory norms regarding sexual behaviour...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132084/integrated-and-ecosystemic-approaches-for-bridging-the-gap-between-environmental-management-and-port-management
#15
Javier García-Onetti, Marinez E G Scherer, Juan Manuel Barragán
The rapid exploitation of coastal and marine ecosystemic capital is on course to reach a critical point. The difficulty of implementing Integrated and ecosystem based management models, taking into the account the great complexity of the marine socio-ecological systems, has resulted in a significant gap between theory and practice. The majority of authors emphasize difficulties in engaging and convincing private stakeholders and a number of economic sectors involved in these processes. This reticence is traditionally more pronounced in the port sector, despite their important role in the transformation of coastal and marine areas...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126149/-they-re-thinking-well-it-s-not-as-bad-i-probably-won-t-get-addicted-to-that-but-it-s-still-got-the-nicotine-in-it-so%C3%A2-maturity-control-and-socialising-negotiating-identities-in-relation-to-smoking-and-vaping-a-qualitative-study-of-young-adults-in-scotland
#16
Mark Lucherini, Catriona Rooke, Amanda Amos
Objective: To explore the understandings of and engagement with e-cigarettes, of young adults from disadvantaged backgrounds, and how these may be impacting upon existing smoking identities. Methods: Twenty-two small group and 11 individual qualitative interviews conducted in Central Scotland with 72 16-24 year olds between September 2015 and April 2016. Participants were mostly smokers and ex-smokers from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Results: While most participants had tried e-cigarettes, they generally held ambivalent views about e-cigarettes and vaping...
November 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125862/peptidergic-control-in-a-fruit-crop-pest-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#17
Caroline S Gough, Grace M Fairlamb, Petra Bell, Ronald J Nachman, Neil Audsley, R Elwyn Isaac
Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. A pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive Drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious economic damage to soft fruits. Previously we showed by mass spectrometry the presence of the neuropeptide myosuppressin (TDVDHVFLRFamide) in the nerve bundle suggesting that this peptide is involved in regulating the function of the crop, which in adult dipteran insects has important roles in the processing of food, the storage of carbohydrates and the movement of food into the midgut for digestion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114874/the-revolt-of-the-rust-belt-place-and-politics-in-the-age-of-anger
#18
Michael McQuarrie
This paper argues that the election of Donald Trump is the product of a confluence of historical factors rather than the distinctive appeal of the victor himself. By paying particular attention to the geography of unusual voting behaviour the analytical question comes into view: why did so much uncharacteristic voting occur in the Rust Belt states of the upper Midwest? It is impossible to answer this question adequately using conventional categorical attributes. The usual hypotheses of 'economic anxiety' and white revanchism are unable to account for sudden shifts in the voting behaviour of both white and black voters in post-industrial territories...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110396/using-cognitive-mapping-to-understand-senegalese-infant-and-young-child-feeding-decisions
#19
Stephanie Zobrist, Nikhila Kalra, Gretel Pelto, Brittney Wittenbrink, Peiman Milani, Abdoulaye Moussa Diallo, Tidiane Ndoye, Issa Wone, Megan Parker
Caregivers make decisions about how to feed their infants and young children based on complex interactions of knowledge, beliefs, and values, as well as assessments of situational determinants, including economic and social constraints and opportunities. Because of the relationship of these factors to the adoption of new feeding behaviours, the development of nutrition interventions for this age group must be grounded in knowledge about the target population. This paper presents the results of a study that used cognitive mapping techniques to gain insight into mothers' knowledge and perceptions of foods for infants and young children and examine their significance for feeding decisions in Saint-Louis, northern Senegal...
November 7, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105531/the-relationship-between-children-s-media-habits-and-their-anxiety-and-behaviour-during-dental-treatment
#20
Zahra Jamali, Masoumeh Vatandoost, Leila Erfanparast, Naser Asl Aminabadi, Sajjad Shirazi
OBJECTIVE: The existing evidence suggests that media habits may have moderating role on children's psychological adjustment in the dental setting. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between children's media habits and their anxiety and behaviour management problems (BMP) during dental treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 289 children aged 3-6 years old were included. Dental anxiety (DA) and BMP were assessed using Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale and Frankl's Rating Scale during the dental treatment...
November 5, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
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