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Behavioural economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542227/health-beliefs-of-school-age-rural-children-in-podoconiosis-affected-families-a-qualitative-study-in-southern-ethiopia
#1
Abebayehu Tora, Getnet Tadele, Abraham Aseffa, Colleen M McBride, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested investigation of health beliefs in children to be an important pre-condition for primary prevention of disease. However, little effort has been made to understand these in the context of podoconiosis. This study therefore aimed to explore the health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in March 2016 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539686/lifecourse-transitions-gender-and-drinking-in-later-life
#2
Clare Holdsworth, Martin Frisher, Marina Mendonça, Cesar DE Oliveiria, Hynek Pikhart, Nicola Shelton
Older people consume less alcohol than any other adult age group. However, in recent years survey data on alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom have shown that while younger age groups have experienced a decline in alcohol consumption, drinking behaviours among the elderly have not reduced in the same way. This paper uses data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing to analyse both the frequency and quantity of older adult's alcohol consumption using a lifecourse approach over a ten-year period. Overall drinking declined over time and the analysis examined how socio-economic characteristics, partnership, employment and health statuses were associated with differences in drinking behaviours and how these changed over time...
March 2017: Ageing and Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539591/characterization-of-the-adult-head-transcriptome-and-identification-of-migration-and-olfaction-genes-in-the-oriental-armyworm-mythimna-separate
#3
Hai-Xu Bian, Hong-Fang Ma, Xi-Xi Zheng, Ming-Hui Peng, Yu-Ping Li, Jun-Fang Su, Huan Wang, Qun Li, Run-Xi Xia, Yan-Qun Liu, Xing-Fu Jiang
The oriental armyworm Mythimna separate is an economically important insect with a wide distribution and strong migratory activity. However, knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the physiological and behavioural responses of the oriental armyworm is scarce. In the present study, we took a transcriptomic approach to characterize the gene network in the adult head of M. separate. The sequencing and de novo assembly yielded 63,499 transcripts, which were further assembled into 46,459 unigenes with an N50 of 1,153 bp...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534429/prevalence-and-costs-of-defensive-medicine-a-national-survey-of-italian-physicians
#4
Massimiliano Panella, Carmela Rinaldi, Fabrizio Leigheb, Sanita Knesse, Chiara Donnarumma, Seval Kul, Kris Vanhaecht, Francesco Di Stanislao
Objective To identify the prevalence of the practice of defensive medicine among Italian hospital physicians, its costs and the reasons for practising defensive medicine and possible solutions to reduce the practice of defensive medicine. Methods Cross-sectional web survey. Main outcome measures Number of physicians reporting having engaged in any defensive medicine behaviour in the previous year. Results A total of 1313 physicians completed the survey. Ninety-five per cent believed that defensive medicine would increase in the near future...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532521/animal-board-invited-review-sheep-birth-distribution-in-past-herds-a-review-for-prehistoric-europe-6th-to-3rd-millennia-bc
#5
M Balasse, A Tresset, A Bălăşescu, E Blaise, C Tornero, H Gandois, D Fiorillo, É Á Nyerges, D Frémondeau, E Banffy, M Ivanova
In temperate latitudes sheep have a seasonal reproductive behaviour, which imposes strong constraints on husbandry in terms of work organization and availability of animal products. During the last 50 years, researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms driving small ruminants' reproduction cycles and finding ways to control them. This characteristic is inherited from their wild ancestor. However, the history of its evolution over the 10 millennia that separates present day European sheep from their Near Eastern ancestors' remains to be written...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532480/medication-adherence-perspectives-in-haemodialysis-patients-a-qualitative-study
#6
Saurav Ghimire, Ronald L Castelino, Matthew D Jose, Syed Tabish R Zaidi
BACKGROUND: End-stage kidney disease patients undergoing haemodialysis are prescribed with multiple complex regimens and are predisposed to high risk of medication nonadherence. The aims of this study were to explore factors associated with medication adherence, and, to examine the differential perspectives on medication-taking behaviour shown by adherent and nonadherent haemodialysis patients. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory design was used. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 haemodialysis patients at the outpatient dialysis facility in Hobart, Australia...
May 22, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532399/economic-stress-and-condescending-treatment-in-childhood-and-adult-self-rated-health-results-from-a-population-study-in-sweden
#7
Fredrik Granström, Hans-Georg Eriksson, Anu Molarius
BACKGROUND: Even today, 12% of the children in Sweden live in poverty and many children are exposed to adverse experiences, such as being bullied, which may have long-term consequences on public health. This study examined the associations between economic stress and condescending treatment in childhood and self-rated health (SRH) in adulthood. METHODS: The study is based on 26,706 persons who responded to a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 25-84 years in 2012 (response rate 53%)...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531286/is-foetal-hyperexposure-to-androgens-a-cause-of-pcos
#8
Panagiota Filippou, Roy Homburg
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence...
May 20, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530040/adolescents-with-hiv-and-transition-to-adult-care-in-the-caribbean-central-america-and-south-america-eastern-europe-and-asia-and-pacific-regions
#9
Heather Bailey, Maria Letícia Santos Cruz, Wipaporn Natalie Songtaweesin, Thanyawee Puthanakit
INTRODUCTION: The HIV epidemics in the Caribbean, Central America and South America (CCASA), Eastern Europe (EE) and Asia and Pacific (AP) regions are diverse epidemics affecting different key populations in predominantly middle-income countries. This narrative review describes the populations of HIV-positive youth approaching adolescence and adulthood in CCASA, EE and AP, what is known of their outcomes in paediatric and adult care to date, ongoing research efforts and future research priorities...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527657/clinical-outcomes-and-cost-effectiveness-of-brief-guided-parent-delivered-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-solution-focused-brief-therapy-for-treatment-of-childhood-anxiety-disorders-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Cathy Creswell, Mara Violato, Hannah Fairbanks, Elizabeth White, Monika Parkinson, Gemma Abitabile, Alessandro Leidi, Peter J Cooper
BACKGROUND: Half of all lifetime anxiety disorders emerge before age 12 years; however, access to evidence-based psychological therapies for affected children is poor. We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of two brief psychological treatments for children with anxiety referred to routine child mental health settings. We hypothesised that brief guided parent-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) would be associated with better clinical outcomes than solution-focused brief therapy and would be cost-effective...
May 17, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526778/nudges-in-a-post-truth-world
#11
Neil Levy
Nudges-policy proposals informed by work in behavioural economics and psychology that are designed to lead to better decision-making or better behaviour-are controversial. Critics allege that they bypass our deliberative capacities, thereby undermining autonomy and responsible agency. In this paper, I identify a kind of nudge I call a nudge to reason, which make us more responsive to genuine evidence. I argue that at least some nudges to reason do not bypass our deliberative capacities. Instead, use of these nudges should be seen as appeals to mechanisms partially constitutive of these capacities, and therefore as benign (so far as autonomy and responsible agency are concerned)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526047/the-paradigm-of-eave-tubes-scaling-up-house-improvement-and-optimizing-insecticide-delivery-against-disease-transmitting-mosquitoes
#12
Fredros Okumu
Control of mosquito-borne diseases is greatly compromised by spread of insecticide resistance, high implementation costs and sub-optimal compliance among users. Improved housing has potential to reduce malaria transmission nearly as much as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), while also preventing other arthropod-borne diseases and improving overall well-being. Yet, it is hardly promoted as mainstream intervention, partly because of high costs, minimal communal benefits to people in non-improved houses, and low scalability...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524260/presence-of-ethanol-sensitive-glycine-receptors-in-medium-spiny-neurons-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#13
B Förstera, B Muñoz, M K Lobo, R Chandra, D M Lovinger, L G Aguayo
Alcohol abuse causes major social, economic and health-related problems worldwide. Alcohol, like other drugs of abuse, increases levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, facilitating behavioural reinforcement and substance abuse. Previous studies suggested that glycine receptors (GlyRs) are involved in the regulation of accumbal dopamine levels. Here, we investigated the presence of GlyRs in accumbal dopamine receptor medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of C57BL/6J mice, analyzing mRNA expression-levels and immunoreactivity of GlyR subunits, as well as ethanol sensitivity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523778/nudges-shoves-and-budges-behavioural-economic-policy-frameworks
#14
Adam Oliver
Behavioural economics-the study of human decision making and how it sometimes deviates systematically from the assumptions of standard economic theory-has attracted a lot of attention in the health policy discourse over recent years. Many appear to believe that behavioural economic findings can be used only to help inform policies that manipulate the choices made by citizens, ie, the so-called nudge policy. However, these findings can be used to inform several different policy frameworks, from seemingly innocuous liberty-preserving changes to the contexts people operate in, to the outlawing of certain corporate behaviours...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521831/the-sitless-project-exercise-referral-schemes-enhanced-by-self-management-strategies-to-battle-sedentary-behaviour-in-older-adults-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Maria Giné-Garriga, Laura Coll-Planas, Míriam Guerra, Àlex Domingo, Marta Roqué, Paolo Caserotti, Michael Denkinger, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Mark A Tully, Frank Kee, Emma McIntosh, Carme Martín-Borràs, Guillermo R Oviedo, Javier Jerez-Roig, Marta Santiago, Oriol Sansano, Guillermo Varela, Mathias Skjødt, Katharina Wirth, Dhayana Dallmeier, Jochen Klenk, Jason J Wilson, Nicole E Blackburn, Manuela Deidda, Guillaume Lefebvre, Denise González, Antoni Salvà
BACKGROUND: Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world's population. Recent evidence indicates that excessive sitting time is harmful to health, independent of meeting the recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) guidelines. The SITLESS project aims to determine whether exercise referral schemes (ERS) can be enhanced by self-management strategies (SMSs) to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB), increase PA and improve health, quality of life and function in the long term, as well as psychosocial outcomes in community-dwelling older European citizens from four countries, within a three-armed pragmatic randomised controlled trial, compared with ERS alone and also with general recommendations about PA...
May 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521791/exploring-the-role-of-socioeconomic-factors-in-the-development-and-spread-of-anti-malarial-drug-resistance-a-qualitative-study
#16
Philip Emeka Anyanwu, John Fulton, Etta Evans, Timothy Paget
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a global health issue with the burden unevenly distributed to the disadvantage of the developing countries of the world. Poverty contributes to the malaria burden as it has the ability to affect integral aspects of malaria control. There have been renewed efforts in the global malaria control, resulting in reductions in the global malaria burden over the last decade. However, the development of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy threatens the sustainability of the present success in malaria control...
May 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520880/children-s-health-in-europe-challenges-for-the-next-decades
#17
Lennart Köhler
These reflections from a Child Public Health perspective underline the dramatic changes in children's conditions in Europe over this last century, including a considerable improvement in health. However, we still face problems, disturbing facts and alarming signs. There are important gaps in our knowledge about essential areas of children's health panorama and about particularly vulnerable sub-groups of children, which are less healthy, less well cared for and not enjoying the good conditions of life. We also see an evident lack of the child's perspective, implying acknowledgement and action on the views of the children themselves...
May 18, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516921/behavioural-economics-occasional-errors-can-benefit-coordination
#18
Simon Gächter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514927/la-vida-normal-living-with-hiv-in-santo-domingo-dominican-republic
#19
Clare Barrington, Deanna Kerrigan, Francisco I Cáceres Ureña, Karen Brudney
In this study, we explore how individuals living with HIV in the Dominican Republic strive to live a 'normal' life and the consequences of this pursuit of normalcy. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with men (n = 20) and women (n = 20) living with HIV and receiving care at two urban clinics in Santo Domingo. We analysed the data using a combination of narrative analysis and thematic coding. We aimed to identify how fears and/or lived experiences with social rejection and HIV-related stigma and discrimination shaped participants' abilities to maintain social relationships, be economically productive and manage HIV within the context of sexual relationships...
May 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509520/dental-pain-and-its-determinants-in-an-adult-population-in-tehran-iran-urban-heart-2
#20
Z Momeni, A Pakdaman, M Asadi-Lari, M R Vaez-Mahdavi, A R Shamshiri, H Hessari
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of dental pain in the past year among adults in Tehran-Iran, and its determinants. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional population study. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 20,322 adults (18-64 years old). METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted across the 22 districts using the multi-stage random sampling method. Data were analysed applying the complex samples method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust the effects of other variables on the outcome variable as dental pain in the past year...
September 2016: Community Dental Health
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