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Behavioural economics

Seo Ah Hong, Karl Peltzer, Kyi Tun Lwin, La Seng Aung
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015-16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18-49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18...
2018: PloS One
M Hobbs, M J Duncan, P Collins, J Mckenna, S Schoeppe, A L Rebar, S Alley, C Short, C Vandelanotte
Background: The co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles, calls for interventions that target multiple health behaviours. This study investigates the clustering of health behaviours and examines demographic differences between each cluster. Methods: In total, 934 adults from Queensland, Australia completed a cross-sectional survey assessing multiple health behaviours. A two-step hierarchical cluster analysis using multiple iterations identified the optimal number of clusters and the subset of distinguishing health behaviour variables...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
David Modic, Ross Anderson, Jussi Palomäki
Psychological and other persuasive mechanisms across diverse contexts are well researched, with many studies of the effectiveness of specific persuasive techniques on distinct types of human behaviour. In the present paper, our specific interest lies in the development of a generalized modular psychometric tool to measure individuals' susceptibility to persuasion. The scale is constructed using items from previously developed and validated particulate scales established in the domains of social psychology and behavioural economics...
2018: PloS One
Rshood Khraif, Asharaf Abdul Salam, Abdullah Al-Mutairi, Ibrahim Elsegaey
Fertility levels and their determinants in Saudi Arabia have not been studied sufficiently for formulating family policy, although some attention has been paid to rapid fertility transitions in the context of socioeconomic and cultural change. This study focused on the fertility of a particular occupational category in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess determinants of fertility, measured as the number of children. The sample was drawn from the King Saud University staff - ever-married Saudi Arabian women...
March 15, 2018: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Sharon Ashong, Irene A Kretchy, Barima Afrane, Ama de-Graft Aikins
Background: Patients with schizophrenia are managed with antipsychotics and other psychotropic medications. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the commonly prescribed psychotropic medications for patients with schizophrenia, explore the types of therapeutic monitoring that were performed, and find out whether the side effects experienced by the patients played any role in their adherence behaviour. Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study enrolled 259 patients with schizophrenia from Accra Psychiatric Hospital and Pantang Psychiatric Hospital...
2018: Psychiatry Journal
Laura Coll-Planas, Sergi Blancafort, Xavier Rojano, Marta Roqué, Rosa Monteserín
BACKGROUND: Older people living in socio-economic deprived urban areas especially suffer the effects of health inequalities but have been insufficiently targeted. Strategies promoted by local primary health care agents might influence health and social behaviours as intermediate social determinants that are modifiable and thus can potentially mitigate health inequalities. Therefore, we aim to develop and assess the effectiveness of a complex intervention based on a community programme that promotes self-management, health literacy and social capital targeting older people from urban socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in order to improve their self-perceived health as an indicator of health inequality reduction...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Itismita Mohanty, Tesfaye Alemayehu Gebremedhin
This paper examines the effect of maternal socio-economic status in the household, such as their autonomy, ability, freedom and bargaining power, on child birth registration in India using the nationally representative India Human Development Survey-II (IHDS-II), 2011-12. We have estimated a multilevel mixed effects model which accounts for the hierarchical structure of the data and allows us to examine the effects of unobserved 'district' and 'community' characteristics along with individual child level characteristics on probability of birth registration...
2018: PloS One
David J Cottrell, Alex Wright-Hughes, Michelle Collinson, Paula Boston, Ivan Eisler, Sarah Fortune, Elizabeth H Graham, Jonathan Green, Allan O House, Michael Kerfoot, David W Owens, Eirini-Christina Saloniki, Mima Simic, Sandy Tubeuf, Amanda J Farrin
BACKGROUND: Self-harm in adolescents is common and repetition rates high. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce self-harm. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of family therapy (FT) compared with treatment as usual (TAU). DESIGN: A pragmatic, multicentre, individually randomised controlled trial of FT compared with TAU. Participants and therapists were aware of treatment allocation; researchers were blind to allocation...
March 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Marta Trapero-Bertran, Reiner Leidl, Celia Muñoz, Puttarin Kulchaitanaroaj, Kathryn Coyle, Maximilian Präger, Judit Józwiak-Hagymásy, Kei Long Cheung, Mickael Hiligsmann, Subhash Pokhrel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Modelling return on investment (ROI) from smoking cessation interventions requires estimates of their costs and benefits. This paper describes a standardized method developed to source both economic costs of tobacco smoking and costs of implementing cessation interventions for a Europe-wide ROI model [European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco model (EQUIPTMOD)]. DESIGN: Focused search of administrative and published data...
March 13, 2018: Addiction
Peige Song, He Wang, Wei Xia, Xinlei Chang, Manli Wang, Lin An
Hyperuricemia, the physiological prerequisite for gout, is linked to the presence and severity of multiple comorbidities that affect longevity and well-being. By using the baseline data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative survey, the prevalence of hyperuricemia in general middle-aged and older Chinese was estimated. The potential effects of health behaviours and comorbidities on hyperuricemia were also explored. In 2010, the prevalence of hyperuricemia among middle-aged and older Chinese was 6...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yiping Chen, Christiana Kartsonaki, Robert Clarke, Yu Guo, Canqing Yu, Zheng Bian, Qilian Jiang, Shanpeng Li, Junshi Chen, Liming Li, Zhengming Chen
BACKGROUND: Inadequate sleep duration and insomnia can affect both physical and mental health. There is limited evidence, however, on characteristics and correlates of sleep patterns and insomnia in urban and rural China. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, involving 512,891 adults aged 30-79 years from ten (five urban and five rural) diverse areas in China, recorded detailed information, using interviewer-administered laptop-based questionnaires, on sleep patterns (duration, daytime napping and snoring) and insomnia symptoms...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate depressive symptoms and their association with sociodemographic factors, stressors and support, including childhood adversity, health status risk and behaviour in Indonesia. METHOD: In a cross-sectional national population survey in 2014-15 in Indonesia, 31442 adults (mean age 37.3 years, SD = 14.9, age range 15-101 years) responded to the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) and various other measures...
March 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Isabel Lane, Ashley Bryce, Suzanne M Ingle, Alastair D Hay
Purpose: Antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to public health. Diagnostic uncertainty is a key driver of antimicrobial prescribing. We sought to determine whether locally relevant, real-time syndromic or microbiological infection epidemiology can improve prescribing by reducing diagnostic uncertainty. Methods: Eligible studies investigated effects on primary care prescribing for common infections in Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development countries...
February 26, 2018: Family Practice
Maria Romay-Barja, Policarpo Ncogo, Gloria Nseng, Maria A Santana-Morales, Pedro Berzosa, Zaida Herrador, Basilio Valladares, Matilde Riloha, Agustin Benito
BACKGROUND: Malaria is endemic in Equatorial Guinea with stable transmission, and it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria is critical to malaria control. Six years after the introduction of artesunate-amodiaquine (AS/AQ) therapy in Equatorial Guinea, adherence to the first-line treatment seems to be low in the Bata district. The factors associated with the choice of malaria treatment have not been studied previously in this area; therefore, this study aimed to analyse the preference and use of artemether as malaria treatment and its related factors in the Bata district of Equatorial Guinea...
March 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Raymond J Chan, Wolfgang Marx, Natalie Bradford, Louisa Gordon, Ann Bonner, Clint Douglas, Diana Schmalkuche, Patsy Yates
BACKGROUND: With the increasing burden of chronic and age-related diseases, and the rapidly increasing number of patients receiving ambulatory or outpatient-based care, nurse-led services have been suggested as one solution to manage increasing demand on the health system as they aim to reduce waiting times, resources, and costs while maintaining patient safety and enhancing satisfaction. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this review were to assess the clinical effectiveness, economic outcomes and key implementation characteristics of nurse-led services in the ambulatory care setting...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Gro Beate Samdal, Eivind Meland, Geir Egil Eide, Sveinung Berntsen, Eirik Abildsnes, Tonje H Stea, Thomas Mildestvedt
AIMS: We examine the characteristics of participants entering Norwegian Healthy Life Centres, their reasons for attending and whether socio-economic status, motivation, self-efficacy and social support relate to physical activity and sedentary behaviour. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is part of a randomised controlled trial. Inclusion criteria are that participants should be ≥ 18 years old and able to take part in a physical activity group intervention. Exclusion criteria are severe mental illness and general learning disability...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Yohannes Adama Melaku, Andre Renzaho, Tiffany K Gill, Anne W Taylor, Eleonora Dal Grande, Barbora de Courten, Estifanos Baye, David Gonzalez-Chica, Elina Hyppӧnen, Zumin Shi, Malcolm Riley, Robert Adams, Yohannes Kinfu
BACKGROUND: Diet is a major determining factor for many non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). However, evidence on diet-related NCD burden remains limited. We assessed the trends in diet-related NCDs in Australia from 1990 to 2015 and compared the results with other countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). METHODS: We used data and methods from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study to estimate the NCD mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to 14 dietary risk factors in Australia and 34 OECD nations...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Ting Ji, Jiajia Wu, QiaoQiao He, Yi Tao, Ruth Mace
The relative importance of social evolution theories such as kin selection, direct reciprocity and need-based transfers in explaining real-world cooperation is the source of much debate. Previous field studies of cooperation in human communities have revealed variability in the extent to which each of these theories explains human sociality in different contexts. We conducted multivariate social network analyses predicting costly cooperation-labouring on another household's farm-in 128 082 dyads of Mosuo farming households in southwest China...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Marius Warg Næss
Cooperation evolves on social networks and is shaped, in part, by norms: beliefs and expectations about the behaviour of others or of oneself. Networks of cooperative social partners and associated norms are vital for pastoralists, such as Saami reindeer herders in northern Norway. However, little is known quantitatively about how norms structure pastoralists' social networks or shape cooperation. Saami herders reported their social networks and participated in field experiments, allowing us to gauge the overlap between reported and emergent cooperation...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Shukun Wang, Danyang Meng, Sisi Wang, Zhong Zhang, Ruijin Yang, Wei Zhao
In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis and cationization with epoxypropyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride of wheat protein, an economic protein complex containing great amount of disulfide bonds, were conducted to improve properties such as solubility and disassociation behaviour for recovery of damaged hair when used in shampoo. The optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were pH 8.2, 55°C with Alcalase for 60 min. After the selected hydrolysis, the degree of hydrolysis, nitrogen solubility index, foaming capacity index, foam stability index, emulsifying activity index and emulsion stability index of hydrolysate with 58...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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