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Missing hypothesis

R L Openshaw, D M Thomson, J M Penninger, J A Pratt, B J Morris
RATIONALE: Members of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and the upstream kinase MKK7, have all been strongly linked with synaptic plasticity and with the development of the neocortex. However, the impact of disruption of this pathway on cognitive function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we test the hypothesis that reduced MKK7 expression is sufficient to cause cognitive impairment. METHODS: Attentional function in mice haploinsufficient for Map2k7 (Map2k7 (+/-) mice) was investigated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT)...
October 24, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Tarig Ali-Dinar, Jason E Lang
Obesity is a major risk factor for several conditions including atherosclerotic disease, metabolic syndrome, and upper airway dysfunction. However, the purported link between obesity and asthma has remained more difficult to define, in part due to limitations in past epidemiologic studies and the inherent challenge in accurately defining asthma in children. It is possible that obesity leads to asthma only in the presence of a mediating variable such as an obesity-related conditions such as esophageal reflux or insulin resistance...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Yiyuan Duan, Jiaoyue Long, Jun Chen, Xuemei Jiang, Jian Zhu, Yang Jin, Feng Lin, Jun Zhong, Rong Xu, Lizheng Mao, Linhong Deng
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 33 (ADAM33) has been identified as a susceptibility gene for asthma, but details of the causality are not fully understood. we hypothesize that soluble ADAM33 (sADAM33) overexpression can alter the mechanical behaviors of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) via regulation of the cell's contractile phenotype, and thus contributes to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthma. To test this hypothesis, we either overexpressed or knocked down the sADAM33 level in rat ASMCs by transfecting the cells with sADAM33 or a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that specifically targets the ADAM33 disintegrin domain, and subsequently assessed the cells for stiffness, contractility and traction force, together with the expression level of contractile and proliferative phenotype markers...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Daniele Kazue Sugioka, Carlos Eduardo Ibaldo Gonçalves, Maria da Graça Bicalho
BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of specific histocompatibility, literature has associated genes involved in the immune response, like the Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA), with a better prognosis in transplantation. However, other non-HLA genes may also influence the immune process, such as the genes encoding the immunoglobulin-like receptors of natural killer cells (KIRs). The discovery that NK cell KIR receptors interact with conservative epitopes (C1, C2, Bw4) presented in HLA class I molecules that are genetically polymorphic, also observed in KIR genes, led to the investigation of the relevance of the KIR system to hematopoietic stem cell transplant...
2016: BMC Hematology
Thomas Cloppenborg, Theodor W May, Ingmar Blümcke, Philip Grewe, Lena J Hopf, Thilo Kalbhenn, Margarete Pfäfflin, Tilman Polster, Reinhard Schulz, Friedrich G Woermann, Christian G Bien
INTRODUCTION: Despite the success of epilepsy surgery, recent reports suggest a decline in surgical numbers. We tested these trends in our cohort to elucidate potential reasons. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Presurgical, surgical and postsurgical data of all patients undergoing presurgical evaluation in between 1990 and 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Patients were grouped according to the underlying pathology. RESULTS: A total of 3060 patients were presurgically studied, and resective surgery was performed in 66...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Victoria Goeckmann, Sophie Rothammer, Ivica Medugorac
Bovine spastic paresis (BSP) is a sporadic, progressive neuromuscular disease that is thought to affect all breeds of cattle. The disease manifests as a unilateral or bilateral hyperextension of the hind limb due to increased muscle tone or permanent spasm of mainly the gastrocnemius and/or the quadriceps muscle. Clinical signs only appear in rising, standing and moving animals, which is an important diagnostic feature. Although several medical treatments have been described, surgical procedures such as neurectomy or tenectomy are generally indicated...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
H Brochard, C Boudebesse, C Henry, O Godin, M Leboyer, B Étain
OBJECTIVE: To examine the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may link circadian disorder and metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder (BP). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted from January 2013 to January 2015, using the Medline and Cochrane databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "obesity", "leptin" and "circadian disorders", "sleeping disorders" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials; (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder; (iii) studies involving patients with sleeping disorder; or (iv) data about metabolic syndrome...
September 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
Olivia Corradin, Andrea J Cohen, Jennifer M Luppino, Ian M Bayles, Fredrick R Schumacher, Peter C Scacheri
SNPs associated with disease susceptibility often reside in enhancer clusters, or super-enhancers. Constituents of these enhancer clusters cooperate to regulate target genes and often extend beyond the linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks containing risk SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified 'outside variants', defined as SNPs in weak LD with GWAS risk SNPs that physically interact with risk SNPs as part of a target gene's regulatory circuitry. These outside variants further explain variation in target gene expression beyond that explained by GWAS-associated SNPs...
September 19, 2016: Nature Genetics
Michelle Shui Yee Lau, Peter Mooney, William White, Victoria Appleby, Sulleman Moreea, Ismail Haythem, Joshua Elias, Kiran Bundhoo, Gareth Corbett, Liam Wong, Her Hsin Tsai, Simon Cross, John Hebden, Sami Hoque, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend coeliac serology in iron deficiency anaemia, and duodenal biopsy for those tested positive to detect coeliac disease. However, pre-endoscopy serology is often unavailable, thus committing endoscopists to take routine duodenal biopsies. Some endoscopists consider duodenal biopsy mandatory in anaemia to exclude other pathologies. We hypothesise that using a point of care test at endoscopy could fill this gap, by providing rapid results to target anaemic patients who require biopsies, and save costs by biopsy avoidance...
September 15, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Yvonne Y Chen, Jeremy B Caplan
During study trials of a recognition memory task, alpha (∼10 Hz) oscillations decrease, and concurrently, theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations increase when later memory is successful versus unsuccessful (subsequent memory effect). Likewise, at test, reduced alpha and increased theta activity are associated with successful memory (retrieval success effect). Here we take an individual differences approach to test three hypotheses about theta and alpha oscillations in verbal, old/new recognition, measuring the difference in oscillations between hit trials and miss trials...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Judith A Stolwijk, Xuexin Zhang, Maxime Gueguinou, Wei Zhang, Khalid Matrougui, Christian Renken, Mohamed Trebak
Endothelial barrier function is tightly regulated by plasma membrane receptors and is crucial for tissue fluid homeostasis; its dysfunction causes disease, including sepsis and inflammation. The ubiquitous activation of Ca2+ signaling upon phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled receptor ligation leads quite naturally to the assumption that Ca2+ signaling is required for receptor-regulated endothelial barrier function. This widespread hypothesis draws analogy from smooth muscle and proposes the requirement of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-generated Ca2+ signaling in activating the endothelial contractile apparatus and generating inter-endothelial gaps...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rika Suda, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Keiichi Ishida, Fumiaki Kato, Takashi Urushibara, Ayumi Sekine, Rintaro Nishimura, Takayuki Jujo, Toshihiko Sugiura, Ayako Shigeta, Seiichiro Sakao, Koichiro Tatsumi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease in some patients, despite improved treatments. Microvasculopathy has been implicated in the poor outcomes of patients with CTEPH. A reduction in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) was previously suggested to indicate microvasculopathy in CTEPH patients; therefore, we assessed DLCO /alveolar ventilation (DLCO /VA ) as a prognostic and pathophysiological marker in CTEPH...
September 11, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Viktoria Dotz, Rüdiger Adam, Günter Lochnit, Horst Schroten, Clemens Kunz
Beneficial effects have been proposed for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro and animal studies. To date, in vivo evidence of the link between certain oligosaccharide structures in milk and their consumption by infant gut microbiota is still missing, although likely. Whereas many studies have described HMO patterns in human milk from larger cohorts, data on the excretion of HMO and possible metabolites produced in the infant gut are still very limited. From smaller-scale studies, an age-dependency according to infant gut maturation and microbiota adaptation has previously been hypothesized...
September 9, 2016: Glycobiology
Johan Frostegård, WenJing Tao, Lennart Råstam, Ulf Lindblad, Staffan Lindeberg
BACKGROUND: We here study antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) which we reported to be inversely associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and autoimmune conditions. In previous studies, we determined that this inverse association is more pronounced at low levels with high risk and at high levels, with decreased risk. We compare individuals from Kitava, New Guinea (with low risk of these conditions), with Swedish controls. METHODS: We studied a group of 178 individuals from Kitava (age 20-86), and compared those above age 40 (n = 108) with a group of age- and sex-matched individuals from a population based cohort in Sweden (n = 108)...
September 9, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Areerat Nirunsittirat, Waranuch Pitiphat, Christy M McKinney, Timothy A DeRouen, Nusara Chansamak, Onauma Angwaravong, Piyachat Patcharanuchat, Taksin Pimpak
This cohort study was conducted in Khon Kaen, Thailand, to test the hypothesis that a longer breastfeeding duration increases the risk for dental caries in primary teeth. We collected information on infant feeding practices and potential confounders using a structured questionnaire to interview mothers or caregivers during the second trimester of pregnancy and after birth at 21 days and at 3, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. Regardless of other liquids and foods, full breastfeeding was defined as feeding breast milk but not formula, while any breastfeeding was feeding breast milk with or without formula...
2016: Caries Research
Samuel Wieczorek, Florence Combes, Cosmin Lazar, Quentin Giai Gianetto, Laurent Gatto, Alexia Dorffer, Anne-Marie Hesse, Yohann Coute, Myriam Ferro, Christophe Bruley, Thomas Burger
: DAPAR and ProStaR are software tools to perform the statistical analysis of label-free XIC-based quantitative discovery proteomics experiments. DAPAR contains procedures to filter, normalize, impute missing value, aggregate peptide intensities, perform null hypothesis significance tests and select the most likely differentially abundant proteins with a corresponding false discovery rate. ProStaR is a graphical user interface that allows friendly access to the DAPAR functionalities through a web browser...
September 6, 2016: Bioinformatics
Silvia Bacci, Francesco Bartolucci, Silvia Pandolfi
A critical problem in repeated measurement studies is the occurrence of nonignorable missing observations. A common approach to deal with this problem is joint modeling the longitudinal and survival processes for each individual on the basis of a random effect that is usually assumed to be time constant. We relax this hypothesis by introducing time-varying subject-specific random effects that follow a first-order autoregressive process, AR(1). We also adopt a generalized linear model formulation to accommodate for different types of longitudinal response (i...
September 1, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Isabelle Dautriche, Emmanuel Chemla
The number of potential meanings for a new word is astronomic. To make the word-learning problem tractable, one must restrict the hypothesis space. To do so, current word learning accounts often incorporate constraints about cognition or about the mature lexicon directly in the learning device. We are concerned with the convexity constraint, which holds that concepts (privileged sets of entities that we think of as "coherent") do not have gaps (if A and B belong to a concept, so does any entity "between" A and B)...
2016: PloS One
Rebecca L Mercieca-Bebber, Melanie A Price, Melanie L Bell, Madeleine T King, Penelope M Webb, Phyllis N Butow
AIMS: Participant drop out is a major barrier to high-quality patient-reported outcome (PRO) data analysis in cancer research as patients with worsening health are more likely to dropout. To test the hypothesis that ovarian cancer patients with worse PROs would drop out earlier, we examined how patients differed by time of dropout on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), anxiety, depression, optimism and insomnia. METHODS: This analysis included 619 participants, stratified by time of dropout, from the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study - Quality of Life substudy, in which participants completed PRO questionnaires at three-monthly intervals for 21 months...
August 30, 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Katelyn M Sileo, Leickness C Simbayi, Amber Abrams, Allanise Cloete, Susan M Kiene
OBJECTIVE: Using daily diary methods, we aimed to test the hypothesis that at the event-level consuming alcohol increases the likelihood that antiretrovirals (ARV) will be missed on a particular day. METHODS: This prospective cohort study of 74 (52 female, 22 male) people living with HIV (PLHIV) in South Africa collected event-level data on ARV adherence and alcohol consumption using structured daily phone interviews over a period of 42days generating 2718 data points...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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