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Missing hypothesis

Sebastian Kucher, Larissa Dsikowitzky, Mathias Ricking, Sujatha C H, Jan Schwarzbauer
The pesticide DDT (1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene) and its degradates are among the most persistent and abundant organochlorine contaminates in the environment, and DDT is still being produced in several Asian countries. In this study, we report for the first time on the detection of DDT-related compounds with one additional or missing chlorine atom at the phenyl group (DDX±Cl ) in sediment and soil samples taken in the vicinity of former and current DDT production sites. These congeneric compounds most likely originate from production residues disposed of into the environment...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Kenneth T Shelton, Jason Qu, Federico Bilotta, Emery N Brown, Gaston Cudemus, David A D'Alessandro, Hao Deng, Alan DiBiasio, Jacob A Gitlin, Eunice Y Hahm, Lauren E Hobbs, Timothy T Houle, Reine Ibala, Marco Loggia, Kara J Pavone, Shahzad Shaefi, George Tolis, M Brandon Westover, Oluwaseun Akeju
INTRODUCTION: Delirium, which is prevalent in postcardiac surgical patients, is an acute brain dysfunction characterised by disturbances in attention, awareness and cognition not explained by a pre-existing neurocognitive disorder. The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. However, basic science and clinical studies suggest that sleep disturbance may be a modifiable risk factor for the development of delirium. Dexmedetomidine is a α-2A adrenergic receptor agonist medication that patterns the activity of various arousal nuclei similar to sleep...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Pizzolotto Roberto, Brandmayr Pietro
Is it correct to look for a supposedly missing species by focusing research at the type locality? A species can be declared extinct because for an unusual amount of time it has not been seen again; however, in the frame of the climate change it is likely that a supposedly missing species is a lucky survivor not seen because it was not searched for in the correct environment. We used the strictly endemic Leistus punctatissimus Breit, 1914 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) as the case study for testing the latter hypothesis vs...
2018: ZooKeys
Emily C Sturm, Whitney E Zahnd, John D Mellinger, Sabha Ganai
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that patients with cT1N0 esophageal cancer undergoing local excision would have lower survival compared with esophagectomy due to potential discordant staging. BACKGROUND: Local excision has become an attractive alternative for management of early esophageal cancer, avoiding the morbidity of esophagectomy. It is uncertain if occult nodal metastasis impacts survival. METHODS: An observational study was conducted using the National Cancer Database (1998-2012) for patients with clinical T1N0 esophageal cancer who underwent local excision (n = 1625) or esophagectomy (n = 3255)...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Kyung Min Lee, Sami M Kivelä, Vladislav Ivanov, Axel Hausmann, Lauri Kaila, Niklas Wahlberg, Marko Mutanen
A rapid shift from traditional Sanger sequencing-based molecular methods to the phylogenomic approach with large numbers of loci is underway. Among phylogenomic methods, RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) sequencing approaches have gained much attention as they enable rapid generation of up to thousands of loci randomly scattered across the genome and are suitable for non-model species. RAD data sets however suffer from large amounts of missing data and rapid locus dropout along with decreasing relatedness among taxa...
April 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
Samer Alabed, Youssef Latifeh, Husam Aldeen Mohammad, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Chronic antipsychotic drug treatment may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a long-term movement disorder. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist drugs, which have intense sedative properties and may exacerbate psychotic symptoms, have been used to treat TD. OBJECTIVES: 1. Primary objectiveThe primary objective was to determine whether using non-benzodiazepine GABA agonist drugs for at least six weeks was clinically effective for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or other chronic mental illnesses...
April 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fenella Steyfkens, Zhiqiang Zhang, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Johan M Thevelein
The nutrient composition of the medium has dramatic effects on many cellular properties in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . In addition to the well-known specific responses to starvation for an essential nutrient, like nitrogen or phosphate, the presence of fermentable sugar or a respirative carbon source leads to predominance of fermentation or respiration, respectively. Fermenting and respiring cells also show strong differences in other properties, like storage carbohydrate levels, general stress tolerance and cellular growth rate...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lambros T Koufariotis, Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen, Paul Stothard, Ben J Hayes
BACKGROUND: There are an exceedingly large number of sequence variants discovered through whole genome sequencing in most populations, including cattle. Deciphering which of these affect complex traits is a major challenge. In this study we hypothesize that variants in some functional classes, such as splice site regions, coding regions, DNA methylated regions and long noncoding RNA will explain more variance in complex traits than others. Two variance component approaches were used to test this hypothesis - the first determines if variants in a functional class capture a greater proportion of the variance, than expected by chance, the second uses the proportion of variance explained when variants in all annotations are fitted simultaneously...
April 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
Douglas G Howe
BACKGROUND: Many biological knowledge bases gather data through expert curation of published literature. High data volume, selective partial curation, delays in access, and publication of data prior to the ability to curate it can result in incomplete curation of published data. Knowing which data sets are incomplete and how incomplete they are remains a challenge. Awareness that a data set may be incomplete is important for proper interpretation, to avoiding flawed hypothesis generation, and can justify further exploration of published literature for additional relevant data...
April 2, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Wonchul Shin, Lihao Ge, Gianvito Arpino, Seth A Villarreal, Edaeni Hamid, Huisheng Liu, Wei-Dong Zhao, Peter J Wen, Hsueh-Cheng Chiang, Ling-Gang Wu
Fusion is thought to open a pore to release vesicular cargoes vital for many biological processes, including exocytosis, intracellular trafficking, fertilization, and viral entry. However, fusion pores have not been observed and thus proved in live cells. Its regulatory mechanisms and functions remain poorly understood. With super-resolution STED microscopy, we observed dynamic fusion pore behaviors in live (neuroendocrine) cells, including opening, expansion, constriction, and closure, where pore size may vary between 0 and 490 nm within 26 milliseconds to seconds (vesicle size: 180-720 nm)...
March 28, 2018: Cell
J H Swan, J M Brooks, R Amini, A R Moore, K W Turner
OBJECTIVES: Tobacco smoking and physical inactivity are among leading behavioral risk factors for ill health in older adults. This study considers how smoking is associated with physical activity. DESIGN: Using a Life-Course model, data are analyzed regarding this relationship, controlling for, and interacted with, life-course and other factors. Daily smokers and sometimes smokers were hypothesized to engage in less leisure-time physical activity than those who never smoked, while those who stopped smoking were expected to do more than never smokers...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Rutger H A Welling, Olaf J Bakker, Dierk Scheinert, Frans L Moll, Constantijn E Hazenberg, Jihad A Mustapha, Gert J de Borst, Andrej Schmidt
PURPOSE: To investigate the hypothesis that interventions involving retrograde below-the-knee (BTK) vessel punctures have an acceptably low complication rate and high procedural success. METHODS: A systematic review was performed of the MEDLINE and Scopus databases for articles describing the results of BTK retrograde access for peripheral interventions. Outcome measures were access success, procedure success, and complications. A predefined subgroup analysis was performed of prospective studies to reduce the influence of possible reporting bias on outcomes...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
S Caruso, R Gatto, B Cinque, M G Cifone, A Mattei
AIM: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between caries and oral health status, age, salivary cortisol levels, and parental education in children with and without prior dental caries experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational case-control study was performed including 122 children aged between 3 and 6 years who were clinically examined for caries experience using the sum of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the primary (dmft index) and permanent (DMFT index) dentition...
March 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Anna Julkunen, Anna Maria Heikkinen, Birgitta Söder, Per-Östen Söder, Sanna Toppila-Salmi, Jukka H Meurman
Oral infections up-regulate a number of systemic inflammatory reactions that, in turn, play a role in the development of systemic diseases. We investigated the association between oral health and autoimmune diseases in a cohort of Swedish adults. Hypothesis was that poor oral health associates with incidence of autoimmune diseases. Overall 1676 subjects aged 30-40 years old from Stockholm County (Sweden) participated in this study in 1985. Subjects were randomly selected from the registry file of Stockholm region and were followed-up for 30 years...
December 22, 2017: Dentistry journal
Breton M Asken, Russell M Bauer, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Michael A McCrea, Julianne D Schmidt, Christopher C Giza, Aliyah R Snyder, Zachary M Houck, Anthony P Kontos, Thomas W McAllister, Steven P Broglio, James R Clugston, Scott Anderson, Jeff Bazarian, Alison Brooks, Thomas Buckley, Sara Chrisman, Michael Collins, John DiFiori, Stefan Duma, Brian Dykhuizen, James T Eckner, Luis Feigenbaum, April Hoy, Louise Kelly, T Dianne Langford, Laura Lintner, Gerald McGinty, Jason Mihalik, Christopher Miles, Justus Ortega, Nicholas Port, Margot Putukian, Steve Rowson, Steven Svoboda
BACKGROUND: Timely removal from activity after concussion symptoms remains problematic despite heightened awareness. Previous studies indicated potential adverse effects of continuing to participate in physical activity immediately after sustaining a concussion. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to determine the effect of timing of removal from play after concussion on clinical outcomes. It was hypothesized that immediate removal from activity after sport-related concussion (SRC) would be associated with less time missed from sport, a shorter symptomatic period, and better outcomes on acute clinical measures...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Philip L Smith, Daniel R Little
The dominant paradigm for inference in psychology is a null-hypothesis significance testing one. Recently, the foundations of this paradigm have been shaken by several notable replication failures. One recommendation to remedy the replication crisis is to collect larger samples of participants. We argue that this recommendation misses a critical point, which is that increasing sample size will not remedy psychology's lack of strong measurement, lack of strong theories and models, and lack of effective experimental control over error variance...
March 19, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ricardo J Lopes, Joana Correia, Helena Batalha, Gonçalo C Cardoso
Exotic species can experience fast expansion in new environments, especially if they left their pathogens behind (Enemy Release hypothesis) or brought novel pathogens to the native competitors (Novel Weapon hypothesis). Common waxbills (Estrilda astrild) are native to sub-Saharan Africa and invaded west Iberia since the 1960s. Past haemosporidian parasite surveys at four locations in Portugal showed that waxbills can be infected with parasites, though with very low prevalence. However, it is not known if this pattern generalizes across their distribution range, or if there are geographic differences in parasite prevalence...
March 19, 2018: Parasitology
Feng Zhao, Matthew Kirby, Anuradha Roy, Yizhong Hu, X Edward Guo, Xiaodu Wang
Understanding the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical function of trabecular bone is critical for prediction and prevention of bone fragility fractures. However, a detailed understanding of the structural design of trabecular microarchitecture is still missing. This study hypothesized that there exists a commonality in the underlying probabilistic distributions of microstructural features of trabecular bones, whereas the microstructural differences among individuals are primarily describe by a set of scalar parameters...
March 10, 2018: Bone
Thomas Uray, Andrew Lamade, Jonathan Elmer, Tomas Drabek, Jason P Stezoski, Amalea Missé, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Robert H Garman, Niel Chen, Patrick M Kochanek, Cameron Dezfulian
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrest etiology may be an important source of between-patient heterogeneity, but the impact of etiology on organ injury is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that asphyxial cardiac arrest results in greater neurologic injury than cardiac etiology cardiac arrest (ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest), whereas ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest results in greater cardiovascular dysfunction after return of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN: Prospective observational human and randomized animal study...
March 10, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Brett K J Kilb, Andrew P Kurmis, Michael Parry, Karen Sherwood, Paul Keown, Bassam A Masri, Clive P Duncan, Donald S Garbuz
BACKGROUND: Once touted as the future of hip arthroplasty, metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing surfaces have fallen sharply from favor with the emergence of a strong body of evidence demonstrating unacceptably high premature implant failure rates. The previously unpredictable development of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) has been a substantive contributor to this. Although the underlying pathophysiology of these so-called "pseudotumors" is now well understood, the fundamental predisposing patient risk factors have remained elusive...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
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