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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440686/aragwab-network-based-boosting-of-genome-wide-association-studies-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Tak Lee, Insuk Lee
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been applied for the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could not explain all the phenotypic variations. A major reason for missing true phenotype-associated loci is the strict P-value threshold after adjustment for multiple hypothesis tests to reduce false positives. This statistical limitation can be partly overcome by increasing the sample size, but at a much higher cost...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428393/reactivity-to-interpersonal-stress-in-patients-with-eating-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-using-an-experimental-paradigm
#2
REVIEW
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Janet Treasure, Carol Kan, Valentina Cardi
Reactivity to interpersonal stress in patients with eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using an experimental paradigm. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, 2018.- Social difficulties have been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating disorder symptoms. The aim of this work was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies testing patients' reactivity to interpersonal stress, compared to healthy controls. Thirty-four studies were included. Meta-analyses were conducted on 16 studies and on following outcomes: attention bias and interference to threatening faces and cortisol, heart rate and negative affect before and after exposure to interpersonal stress...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406999/serum-cholecalciferol-may-be-a-better-marker-of-vitamin-d-status-than-25-hydroxyvitamin-d
#3
Rolf Jorde, G Grimnes
Vitamin D is produced in the skin upon sun-exposure or obtained through the diet. Vitamin D is hydroxylated to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the liver and to the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) in the kidneys. To exert its effect 1,25(OH) 2 D has to bind to the nuclear vitamin D receptor VDR. Lack of vitamin D leads to rickets in children and to osteomalacia in adults. 25(OH)D is used as a marker of a subject's vitamin D status. Low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with a number of diseases, risk factors for disease and increased mortality...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405334/mitonuclear-mate-choice-a-missing-component-of-sexual-selection-theory
#4
REVIEW
Geoffrey E Hill
The fitness of a eukaryote hinges on the coordinated function of the products of its nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in achieving oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). I propose that sexual selection plays a key role in the maintenance of mitonuclear coadaptation across generations because it enables pre-zygotic sorting for coadapted mitonuclear genotypes. At each new generation, sexual reproduction creates new combinations of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, and the potential arises for mitonuclear incompatibilities and reduced fitness...
February 6, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402332/the-efficacy-and-mechanism-evaluation-of-treating-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-with-the-addition-of-co-trimoxazole-eme-tipac-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Matthew Hammond, Allan B Clark, Anthony P Cahn, Edwin R Chilvers, William Duncan Fraser, David M Livermore, Toby M Maher, Helen Parfrey, Ann Marie Swart, Susan Stirling, David Thickett, Moira Whyte, Andrew Wilson
BACKGROUND: We hypothesise, based upon the findings from our previous trial, that the addition of co-trimoxazole to standard therapy is beneficial to patients with moderate to severe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We aim to investigate this by assessing unplanned hospitalisation-free survival (defined as time from randomisation to first non-elective hospitalisation, lung transplant or death) and to determine whether any effect relates to changes in infection and/or markers of disease control and neutrophil activity...
February 5, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383389/gout-as-a-risk-factor-for-osteoporosis-epidemiologic-evidence-from-a-population-based-longitudinal-study-involving-108-060-individuals
#6
V C Kok, J-T Horng, M N Wang, Z-Y Chen, J-T Kuo, G-D Hung
Is gout a risk factor for future osteoporosis? This large population-based study comprising two matched groups of individuals with and without gout demonstrates that patients with gout have a 20% increase in the risk of developing osteoporosis in future through an 8-year follow-up. INTRODUCTION: To examine if gout is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective matched-cohort study. Two matched cohorts (n = 36,458 with gout and 71,602 without gout) assembled and recruited from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Dataset containing 1 million subjects...
January 30, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370461/religiousness-as-a-predictor-of-suicide-an-analysis-of-162-european-regions
#7
Steven Stack, Frederique Laubepin
Research on religion as a protective factor has been marked by four recurrent limitations: (1) an overemphasis on the United States, a nation where religiosity is relatively high; (2) a neglect of highly secularized zones of the world, where religiousness may be too weak to affect suicide; (3) restriction of religiousness to religious affiliation, a construct which may miss capturing other dimensions of religiousness such as the importance of religion in one's life; and (4) an overwhelming use of the nation as a unit of analysis, which masks variation in religiousness within nations...
January 25, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348611/prediction-is-production-the-missing-link-between-language-production-and-comprehension
#8
Clara D Martin, Francesca M Branzi, Moshe Bar
Language comprehension often involves the generation of predictions. It has been hypothesized that such prediction-for-comprehension entails actual language production. Recent studies provided evidence that the production system is recruited during language comprehension, but the link between production and prediction during comprehension remains hypothetical. Here, we tested this hypothesis by comparing prediction during sentence comprehension (primary task) in participants having the production system either available or not (non-verbal versus verbal secondary task)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344360/validity-reliability-and-norwegian-adaptation-of-the-stroke-specific-quality-of-life-ss-qol-scale
#9
Synne Garder Pedersen, Guri Anita Heiberg, Jørgen Feldbæk Nielsen, Oddgeir Friborg, Henriette Holm Stabel, Audny Anke, Cathrine Arntzen
Background: There is a paucity of stroke-specific instruments to assess health-related quality of life in the Norwegian language. The objective was to examine the validity and reliability of a Norwegian version of the 12-domain Stroke-Specific Quality of Life scale. Methods: A total of 125 stroke survivors were prospectively recruited. Questionnaires were administered at 3 months; 36 test-retests were performed at 12 months post stroke. The translation was conducted according to guidelines...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343909/decline-in-semen-parameters-from-2000-to-2016-among-bangladeshi-men-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#10
Nusrat Mahmud, Eshita Sharmin, Md Arif Mamun, Zayan Shamayeen, Natalie Rivadeneira, Roger Rochat, Akanksha Mehta
Introduction: The objective of this study was to analyze longitudinal changes in sperm parameters of Bangladeshi men. We hypothesized that semen parameters declined for this population. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed semen data from men aged 18-64 years who sought care for general sperm quality or updates on fertility status at an infertility clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January 2000 to June 2016 (n = 13,953). Samples with incomplete data were excluded (n = 143)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316198/co-causation-of-reduced-newborn-size-by-maternal-undernutrition-infections-and-inflammation
#11
Per Ashorn, Lotta Hallamaa, Lindsay H Allen, Ulla Ashorn, Upeksha Chandrasiri, Megan Deitchler, Ronan Doyle, Ulla Harjunmaa, Josh M Jorgensen, Steve Kamiza, Nigel Klein, Kenneth Maleta, Minyanga Nkhoma, Brietta M Oaks, Basho Poelman, Stephen J Rogerson, Christine P Stewart, Mamane Zeilani, Kathryn G Dewey
More than 20 million babies are born with low birthweight annually. Small newborns have an increased risk for mortality, growth failure, and other adverse outcomes. Numerous antenatal risk factors for small newborn size have been identified, but individual interventions addressing them have not markedly improved the health outcomes of interest. We tested a hypothesis that in low-income settings, newborn size is influenced jointly by multiple maternal exposures and characterized pathways associating these exposures with newborn size...
January 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316158/reduced-stroke-distance-of-the-left-ventricular-outflow-tract-is-independently-associated-with-long-term-mortality-in%C3%A2-patients-hospitalized-due-to-heart-failure
#12
You Zhong, Qays Almodares, JieFu Yang, Fang Wang, Michael Fu, Magnus C Johansson
PURPOSE: Reduced blood circulation is an important feature of heart failure, and Doppler stroke distance of the left ventricular outflow tract is a measure of forward stroke volume. Several echocardiographic parameters have known prognostic implications in heart failure, but the prognostic implications of stroke distance in relation to other parameters are insufficiently known. The aim was therefore to test the hypothesis that stroke distance is associated with five-year all-cause mortality, independently of other echocardiography variables, and that stroke distance has added long-term prognostic value...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316001/directly-observed-therapy-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-people-who-inject-drugs-at-risk-for-non-adherence-to-direct-acting-antivirals
#13
Angelika Schütz, Stephan Moser, Cornelia Schwanke, Raphael Schubert, Julian Luhn, Enisa Gutic, Tobias Lang, Michael Schleicher, Hans Haltmayer, Michael Gschwantler
An important subgroup of people who inject drugs (PWID) receiving opioid agonist therapy (OAT), cannot be treated in the setting of a hepatology center and would not regularly ingest their medication when handed to them for self-administration. Our hypothesis was that chronic hepatitis C in these patients could be ideally managed if modern, interferon-free regimens were administered together with OAT under direct observation of a physician or nurse at a low-threshold facility. In this open-label, non-interventional, proof-of-concept study (ClinicalTrials...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311232/context-dependent-requirements-for-fimh-and-other-canonical-virulence-factors-in-gut-colonization-by-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#14
Colin W Russell, Brittany A Fleming, Courtney A Jost, Alexander Tran, Alan T Stenquist, Morgan A Wambaugh, Mary P Bronner, Matthew A Mulvey
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) act as commensals within the mammalian gut, but can induce pathology upon dissemination to other host environments such as the urinary tract and bloodstream. ExPEC genomes are likely shaped by evolutionary forces encountered within the gut where the bacteria spend much of their time, provoking the question of how their extraintestinal virulence traits arose. The principle of coincidental evolution, in which a gene that evolved in one niche happens to be advantageous in another, has been used to argue that ExPEC virulence factors originated in response to selective pressures within the gut ecosystem...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306678/exercise-transcutaneous-oximetry-significantly-modifies-the-diagnostic-hypotheses-and-impacts-scheduled-investigations-or-treatments-of-patients-with-exertional-limb-pain
#15
Samir Henni, Guillaume Mahe, Christophe Lamotte, Remi Laurent, Alessandra Bura Riviere, Marion Aubourg, Gabrielle Sarlon, Damien Laneelle, Anne Long, Isabelle Signolet, Jean Picquet, Mathieu Feuilloy, Pierre Abraham
INTRODUCTION: In lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD), transcutaneous oximetry at exercise (Ex-TcpO2) has been largely validated in research practice, but evidence of routine practice in various vascular laboratories is missing. We hypothesized that Ex-TcPO2 would change the diagnosis hypotheses, investigations and treatments for patients referred for exertional limb pain. MATERIAL & METHODS: A multicenter prospective trial was conducted in nine different referral centers...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306205/relevance-of-and-aspen-criteria-of-malnutrition-to-predict-hospital-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-study
#16
G D Ceniccola, T P Holanda, R S F Pequeno, V S Mendonça, A B M Oliveira, L S F Carvalho, I de Brito-Ashurst, W M C Araújo
PURPOSE: Malnutrition is prevalent in the intensive care units (ICU), yet, there is a paucity of validated assessment tools. Subsequently, this study evaluates the validity of the malnutrition AND-ASPEN tool as an ICU mortality predictor. METHODS: Patients admitted to a large mixed ICU (72 beds) from 2014 to 2016, were followed during stay and had electronic health records on sex, age, Apache II and baseline nutrition assessment collected at admission. Patients with shortstay (<48h) and missing data were excluded...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304743/a-powerful-parent-of-origin-effects-test-for-qualitative-traits-on-x-chromosome-in-general-pedigrees
#17
Qi-Lei Zou, Xiao-Ping You, Jian-Long Li, Wing Kam Fung, Ji-Yuan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Genomic imprinting is one of the well-known epigenetic factors causing the association between traits and genes, and has generally been examined by detecting parent-of-origin effects of alleles. A lot of methods have been proposed to test for parent-of-origin effects on autosomes based on nuclear families and general pedigrees. Although these parent-of-origin effects tests on autosomes have been available for more than 15 years, there has been no statistical test developed to test for parent-of-origin effects on X chromosome, until the parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XPAT) and its extensions were recently proposed...
January 5, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301966/pairwise-comparisons-across-species-are-problematic-when-analyzing-functional-genomic-data
#18
Casey W Dunn, Felipe Zapata, Catriona Munro, Stefan Siebert, Andreas Hejnol
There is considerable interest in comparing functional genomic data across species. One goal of such work is to provide an integrated understanding of genome and phenotype evolution. Most comparative functional genomic studies have relied on multiple pairwise comparisons between species, an approach that does not incorporate information about the evolutionary relationships among species. The statistical problems that arise from not considering these relationships can lead pairwise approaches to the wrong conclusions and are a missed opportunity to learn about biology that can only be understood in an explicit phylogenetic context...
January 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297363/critical-illness-and-flat-batteries
#19
REVIEW
Mervyn Singer
An exaggerated, dysregulated host response to insults such as infection (i.e. sepsis), trauma and ischaemia-reperfusion injury can result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. While the focus of research in this area has largely centred on inflammation and immunity, a crucial missing link is the precise identification of mechanisms at the organ level that cause this physiological-biochemical failure. Any hypothesis must reconcile this functional organ failure with minimal signs of cell death, availability of oxygen, and (often) minimal early local inflammatory cell infiltrate...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288142/patient-reported-outcome-measures-utility-for-predicting-spinal-surgery-in-an-integrated-spine-practice
#20
James R Babington, Alicia Edwards, Anna Wright, Taitea Dykstra, Andrew S Friedman, Rajiv K Sethi
BACKGROUND: For the majority of patients, spinal surgery is an elective treatment. The decision as to when and if to pursue surgery is complicated and influenced by a myriad of factors including pain intensity and duration, impact on functional activities, referring physician recommendation and surgeon preference. By understanding the factors that lead a patient to choose surgery we may better understand the decision making process, improve outcomes, and provide more effective care. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) at initial physiatry clinic consultation and subsequent decision to pursue surgical treatment...
December 26, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
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