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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526889/the-contribution-of-an-asthma-diagnostic-consultation-service-in-obtaining-an-accurate-asthma-diagnosis-for-primary-care-patients-results-of-a-real-life-study
#1
R M E Gillis, W van Litsenburg, R H van Balkom, J W Muris, F W Smeenk
Previous studies showed that general practitioners have problems in diagnosing asthma accurately, resulting in both under and overdiagnosis. To support general practitioners in their diagnostic process, an asthma diagnostic consultation service was set up. We evaluated the performance of this asthma diagnostic consultation service by analysing the (dis)concordance between the general practitioners working hypotheses and the asthma diagnostic consultation service diagnoses and possible consequences this had on the patients' pharmacotherapy...
May 19, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511065/quantifying-the-brain-s-sheet-structure-with-normalized-convolution
#2
Chantal M W Tax, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Tom Dela Haije, Andrea Fuster, Max A Viergever, Evan Calabrese, Luc Florack, Alexander Leemans
The hypothesis that brain pathways form 2D sheet-like structures layered in 3D as "pages of a book" has been a topic of debate in the recent literature. This hypothesis was mainly supported by a qualitative evaluation of "path neighborhoods" reconstructed with diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography. Notwithstanding the potentially important implications of the sheet structure hypothesis for our understanding of brain structure and development, it is still considered controversial by many for lack of quantitative analysis...
April 4, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506288/visualizing-statistical-significance-of-disease-clusters-using-cartograms
#3
Barry J Kronenfeld, David W S Wong
BACKGROUND: Health officials and epidemiological researchers often use maps of disease rates to identify potential disease clusters. Because these maps exaggerate the prominence of low-density districts and hide potential clusters in urban (high-density) areas, many researchers have used density-equalizing maps (cartograms) as a basis for epidemiological mapping. However, we do not have existing guidelines for visual assessment of statistical uncertainty. To address this shortcoming, we develop techniques for visual determination of statistical significance of clusters spanning one or more districts on a cartogram...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484367/introducing-alternative-based-thresholding-for-defining-functional-regions-of-interest-in-fmri
#4
Jasper Degryse, Ruth Seurinck, Joke Durnez, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Peter A Bandettini, Beatrijs Moerkerke
In fMRI research, one often aims to examine activation in specific functional regions of interest (fROIs). Current statistical methods tend to localize fROIs inconsistently, focusing on avoiding detection of false activation. Not missing true activation is however equally important in this context. In this study, we explored the potential of an alternative-based thresholding (ABT) procedure, where evidence against the null hypothesis of no effect and evidence against a prespecified alternative hypothesis is measured to control both false positives and false negatives directly...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457513/fatal-disseminated-histoplasmosis-presenting-as-fuo-in-an-immunocompetent-italian-host
#5
Alessandro Bonsignore, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Rosario Barranco, Francesco De Stefano, Jean Louis Ravetti, Francesco Ventura
Histoplasmosis is a relatively rare infectious disease endemic to certain geographic areas such as East Africa, eastern and central United States, western Mexico, Central and South America. Disseminated histoplasmosis has been reported mainly in immunocompromised hosts and in AIDS patients. In this paper we report on a fatal case of undiagnosed disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as fever of unknown origin (FUO) in a 43-year-old Italian woman who, although splenectomized 5years earlier due to a motor vehicle accident, was otherwise immunocompetent...
March 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440300/insecticide-induced-leg-loss-does-not-eliminate-biting-and-reproduction-in-anopheles-gambiae-mosquitoes
#6
Alison T Isaacs, Amy Lynd, Martin J Donnelly
Recent successes in malaria control have been largely attributable to the deployment of insecticide-based vector control tools such as bed nets and indoor residual spraying. Pyrethroid-treated bed nets are acutely neurotoxic to mosquitoes, inducing symptoms such as loss of coordination, paralysis, and violent spasms. One result of pyrethroid exposure often seen in laboratory tests is mosquito leg loss, a condition that has thus far been assumed to equate to mortality, as females are not expected to blood feed...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439542/ch3nh3pbi3-perovskites-ferroelasticity-revealed
#7
Evgheni Strelcov, Qingfeng Dong, Tao Li, Jungseok Chae, Yuchuan Shao, Yehao Deng, Alexei Gruverman, Jinsong Huang, Andrea Centrone
Ferroelectricity has been proposed as a plausible mechanism to explain the high photovoltaic conversion efficiency in organic-inorganic perovskites; however, convincing experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is still missing. Identifying and distinguishing ferroelectricity from other properties, such as piezoelectricity, ferroelasticity, etc., is typically nontrivial because these phenomena can coexist in many materials. In this work, a combination of microscopic and nanoscale techniques provides solid evidence for the existence of ferroelastic domains in both CH3NH3PbI3 polycrystalline films and single crystals in the pristine state and under applied stress...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427384/imbalanced-target-prediction-with-pattern-discovery-on-clinical-data-repositories
#8
Tak-Ming Chan, Yuxi Li, Choo-Chiap Chiau, Jane Zhu, Jie Jiang, Yong Huo
BACKGROUND: Clinical data repositories (CDR) have great potential to improve outcome prediction and risk modeling. However, most clinical studies require careful study design, dedicated data collection efforts, and sophisticated modeling techniques before a hypothesis can be tested. We aim to bridge this gap, so that clinical domain users can perform first-hand prediction on existing repository data without complicated handling, and obtain insightful patterns of imbalanced targets for a formal study before it is conducted...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413719/intra-specific-variation-and-allometry-of-the-skull-of-late-cretaceous-side-necked-turtle-bauruemys-elegans-pleurodira-podocnemididae-and-how-to-deal-with-morphometric-data-in-fossil-vertebrates
#9
Thiago F Mariani, Pedro S R Romano
BACKGROUND: Previous quantitative studies on Bauruemys elegans (Suárez, 1969) shell variation, as well as the taphonomic interpretation of its type locality, have suggested that all specimens collected in this locality may have belonged to the same population. We rely on this hypothesis in a morphometric study of the skull. Also, we tentatively assessed the eating preference habits differentiation that might be explained as due to ontogenetic changes. METHODS: We carried out an ANOVA testing 29 linear measurements from 21 skulls of B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413247/agricultural-factor-markets-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-updated-view-with-formal-tests-for-market-failure
#10
Brian Dillon, Christopher B Barrett
This paper uses the recently collected Living Standard Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture Initiative data sets from five countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to provide a comprehensive overview of factor market participation by agrarian households and to formally test for failures in rural markets. Under complete and competitive markets, households can solve their consumption and production problems separately, so that household factor endowments do not predict input demand. This paper implements a simple, theoretically grounded test of this separation hypothesis, which can be interpreted as a reduced form test of market failure...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403812/infections-and-cancer-the-fifty-shades-of-immunity-hypothesis
#11
Camille Jacqueline, Aurélie Tasiemski, Gabriele Sorci, Beata Ujvari, Fatima Maachi, Dorothée Missé, François Renaud, Paul Ewald, Frédéric Thomas, Benjamin Roche
BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the twentieth century, infection has emerged as a fundamental aspect of cancer causation with a growing number of pathogens recognized as oncogenic. Meanwhile, oncolytic viruses have also attracted considerable interest as possible agents of tumor destruction. DISCUSSION: Lost in the dichotomy between oncogenic and oncolytic agents, the indirect influence of infectious organisms on carcinogenesis has been largely unexplored. We describe the various ways - from functional aspects to evolutionary considerations such as modernity mismatches - by which infectious organisms could interfere with oncogenic processes through immunity...
April 12, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398343/large-scale-interaction-effects-reveal-missing-heritability-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#12
H J Woo, C Yu, K Kumar, J Reifman
Genetic susceptibility factors behind psychiatric disorders typically contribute small effects individually. A possible explanation for the missing heritability is that the effects of common variants are not only polygenic but also non-additive, appearing only when interactions within large groups are taken into account. Here, we tested this hypothesis for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) disease risks, and identified genetic factors shared with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When considered independently, few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome-wide significance...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396357/nanofibre-production-in-spiders-without-electric-charge
#13
Anna-Christin Joel, Werner Baumgartner
Technical nanofibre production is linked to high voltage, because they are typically produced by electrospinning. Spiders on the contrary have evolved a way to produce nanofibres without high voltage. These spiders are called cribellate spiders and produce nanofibres within their capture thread production. It is suggested that their nanofibres are frictionally charged when being brushed over a continuous area on the calamistrum, a comb-like structure at the metatarsus of the fourth leg. Although there are indications that electrostatic charges are involved in the formation of the threads structure, final proof is missing...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393838/functional-polymorphisms-in-dopaminergic-genes-modulate-neurobehavioral-and-neurophysiological-consequences-of-sleep-deprivation
#14
Sebastian C Holst, Thomas Müller, Amandine Valomon, Britta Seebauer, Wolfgang Berger, Hans-Peter Landolt
Sleep deprivation impairs cognitive performance and reliably alters brain activation in wakefulness and sleep. Nevertheless, the molecular regulators of prolonged wakefulness remain poorly understood. Evidence from genetic, behavioral, pharmacologic and imaging studies suggest that dopaminergic signaling contributes to the behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) consequences of sleep loss, although direct human evidence thereof is missing. We tested whether dopamine neurotransmission regulate sustained attention and evolution of EEG power during prolonged wakefulness...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392994/medical-big-data-promise-and-challenges
#15
Choong Ho Lee, Hyung-Jin Yoon
The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology...
March 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376248/keystone-predation-and-molecules-of-keystone-significance
#16
Richard K Zimmer, Graham A Ferrier, Steven J Kim, Rachel R Ogorzalek Loo, Cheryl Ann Zimmer, Joseph A Loo
Keystone species structure ecological communities and are major determinants of biodiversity. A synthesis of research on keystone species is nonetheless missing a critical component - the sensory mechanisms for behavioral interactions that determine population- and community-wide attributes. Here, we establish the chemosensory basis for keystone predation by sea stars (Pisaster ochraceus) on mussels. This consumer-resource interaction is prototypic of top-down driven trophic cascades. Each mussel species (Mytilus californianus and M...
April 4, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302160/increased-genomic-burden-of-germline-copy-number-variants-is-associated-with-early-onset-breast-cancer-australian-breast-cancer-family-registry
#17
Logan C Walker, John F Pearson, George A R Wiggins, Graham G Giles, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey
BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer who have multiple affected relatives are more likely to have inherited genetic risk factors for the disease. All the currently known genetic risk factors for breast cancer account for less than half of the average familial risk. Furthermore, the genetic factor(s) underlying an increased cancer risk for many women from multiple-case families remain unknown. Rare genomic duplications and deletions, known as copy number variants (CNVs), cover more than 10% of a human genome, are often not assessed in studies of genetic predisposition, and could account for some of the so-called "missing heritability"...
March 16, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298901/unveiling-another-missing-piece-in-ebv-driven-lymphomagenesis-ebv-encoded-micrornas-expression-in-eber-negative-burkitt-lymphoma-cases
#18
Lucia Mundo, Maria R Ambrosio, Matteo Picciolini, Giuseppe Lo Bello, Sara Gazaneo, Leonardo Del Porro, Stefano Lazzi, Mohsen Navari, Noel Onyango, Massimo Granai, Cristiana Bellan, Giulia De Falco, Davide Gibellini, Pier P Piccaluga, Lorenzo Leoncini
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus linked to a number of lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in which its frequency ranges from 30% in sporadic cases to 100% in the endemic ones. The possible contribution of EBV to BL pathogenesis is largely unknown. It has been suggested that EBV may be associated with all of the cases, including those diagnosed as EBV negative by a mechanism of hit-and-run. Early during oncogenesis, viral genes are essential for initiating disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285241/neural-reactivity-to-reward-in-school-age-offspring-of-depressed-mothers
#19
Jillian Lee Wiggins, Karen T G Schwartz, Maria Kryza-Lacombe, Philip A Spechler, Sarah L Blankenship, Lea R Dougherty
BACKGROUND: Identifying neural profiles predictive of future psychopathology in at-risk individuals is important to efficiently direct preventive care. Alterations in reward processing may be a risk factor for depression. The current study characterized neural substrates of reward processing in children at low- and high-risk for psychopathology due to maternal depression status. METHODS: Children with (n=27) and without (n=19) maternal depression (ages 5.9-9.6 years) performed a monetary incentive delay task in which they received rewards, if they successfully hit a target, or no reward regardless of performance, during fMRI acquisition...
May 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282543/sudden-cardiac-death-and-sarcoidosis-of-the-heart-in-a-young-patient
#20
Morgane Jotterand, Silke Grabherr, Johannes Alexandre Lobrinus, Katarzyna Michaud
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology affecting any organ, microscopically characterized by noncaseating granulomata. Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis has been reported. It might be symptomatic or not and even revealed by sudden death. Heart conduction system is rarely investigated at autopsy, even in cases of sudden cardiac death. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman who died suddenly. The examination of the heart conduction system revealed a cardiac sarcoidosis that could explain the sudden death...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
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