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Missing hypothesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037145/generalized-disequilibrium-test-for-association-in-qualitative-traits-incorporating-imprinting-effects-based-on-extended-pedigrees
#1
Jian-Long Li, Peng Wang, Wing Kam Fung, Ji-Yuan Zhou
BACKGROUND: For dichotomous traits, the generalized disequilibrium test with the moment estimate of the variance (GDT-ME) is a powerful family-based association method. Genomic imprinting is an important epigenetic phenomenon and currently, there has been increasing interest of incorporating imprinting to improve the test power of association analysis. However, GDT-ME does not take imprinting effects into account, and it has not been investigated whether it can be used for association analysis when the effects indeed exist...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028358/posterior-tibial-translation-measurements-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-improve-diagnostic-sensitivity-for-chronic-posterior-cruciate-ligament-injuries-and-graft-tears
#2
Nicholas N DePhillipo, Mark E Cinque, Jonathan A Godin, Gilbert Moatshe, Jorge Chahla, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee is a highly sensitive and specific method for diagnosing acute posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears, with a reported accuracy of 96% to 100%. In chronic and revision settings, these injuries may be missed on MRI because of the apparent continuity of nonfunctional PCL fibers. Posterior tibial translation (PTT) of the medial compartment has been identified as a potential secondary finding of PCL tear on routine MRI. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of PTT on MRI associated with PCL injuries and compare it with the sensitivity of a radiologist's MRI interpretation with preoperative posterior knee stress radiographs as the gold standard...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023375/workflow-for-criticality-assessment-applied-in-biopharmaceutical-process-validation-stage-1
#3
Thomas Zahel, Lukas Marschall, Sandra Abad, Elena Vasilieva, Daniel Maurer, Eric M Mueller, Patrick Murphy, Thomas Natschläger, Cécile Brocard, Daniela Reinisch, Patrick Sagmeister, Christoph Herwig
Identification of critical process parameters that impact product quality is a central task during regulatory requested process validation. Commonly, this is done via design of experiments and identification of parameters significantly impacting product quality (rejection of the null hypothesis that the effect equals 0). However, parameters which show a large uncertainty and might result in an undesirable product quality limit critical to the product, may be missed. This might occur during the evaluation of experiments since residual/un-modelled variance in the experiments is larger than expected a priori...
October 12, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980263/detecting-multiethnic-rare-variants
#4
Weiwei Ouyang, Xiaofeng Zhu, Huaizhen Qin
Genome-wide association studies have identified many common genetic variants which are associated with certain diseases. The identified common variants, however, explain only a small portion of the heritability of a complex disease phenotype. The missing heritability motivated researchers to test the hypothesis that rare variants influence common diseases. Next-generation sequencing technologies have made the studies of rare variants practicable. Quite a few statistical tests have been developed for exploiting the cumulative effect of a set of rare variants on a phenotype...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972617/self-assembly-of-p-chiral-supramolecular-phosphines-on-rhodium-and-direct-evidence-for-rh-catalyst-substrate-interactions
#5
Vijay S Koshti, Anirban Sen, Dinesh Shinde, Samir H Chikkali
Supramolecular phosphine-derived catalysts are known to provide high enantioselectivity in asymmetric transformations such as hydrogenation, but direct evidence unravelling the role of secondary interactions is largely missing. As a representative case study, the role of hydrogen bonding in asymmetric hydrogenation catalysed by p-chiral supramolecular phosphines is investigated. To establish the nature of hydrogen bonding in the self-assembled Rh-complex, NMR experiments were performed at different concentrations and temperatures...
October 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971835/the-pump-the-exchanger-and-the-holy-spirit-origins-of-the-endogenous-ouabain-hypertension-hypothesis-and-its-40-year-evolution
#6
Mordecai P Blaustein
Two prescient 1953 publications set the stage for elucidating a novel endocrine system: Schatzmann's report that cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) are all Na(+) pump inhibitors, and Szent-Gyorgi's suggestion that there is an endogenous "missing screw" in heart failure that CTSs like digoxin may replace. In 1977 I postulated that an endogenous Na(+) pump inhibitor acts as a natriuretic hormone and simultaneously elevates blood pressure (BP) in salt-dependent hypertension. This hypothesis was based on the idea that excess renal salt retention promoted the secretion of a CTS-like hormone that inhibits renal Na(+) pumps and salt reabsorption...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969383/a-ventral-glomerular-deficit-in-parkinson-s-disease-revealed-by-whole-olfactory-bulb-reconstruction
#7
Bolek Zapiec, Birger V Dieriks, Sheryl Tan, Richard L M Faull, Peter Mombaerts, Maurice A Curtis
Olfactory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease and is an early symptom, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Hindering progress in our mechanistic understanding of olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is the paucity of literature about the human olfactory bulb, both from normal and Parkinson's disease cases. Qualitatively it is well established that the neat arrangement of the glomerular array seen in the mouse olfactory bulb is missing in humans. But rigorous quantitative approaches to describe and compare the thousands of glomeruli in the human olfactory bulb are not available...
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968627/association-score-testing-for-rare-variants-and-binary-traits-in-family-data-with-shared-controls
#8
Mohamad Saad, Ellen M Wijsman
Genome-wide association studies have been an important approach used to localize trait loci, with primary focus on common variants. The multiple rare variant-common disease hypothesis may explain the missing heritability remaining after accounting for identified common variants. Advances of sequencing technologies with their decreasing costs, coupled with methodological advances in the context of association studies in large samples, now make the study of rare variants at a genome-wide scale feasible. The resurgence of family-based association designs because of their advantage in studying rare variants has also stimulated more methods development, mainly based on linear mixed models (LMMs)...
August 31, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967670/modeling-the-contributions-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-and-aneuploidy-to-saccharomyces-hybrid-sterility
#9
Primrose J Boynton, Thijs Janzen, Duncan Greig
Errors in meiosis can be important postzygotic barriers between different species. In Saccharomyces hybrids, chromosomal missegregation during meiosis I produces gametes with missing or extra chromosomes. Gametes with missing chromosomes are inviable, but we do not understand how extra chromosomes (disomies) influence hybrid gamete inviability. We designed a model predicting rates of missegregation in interspecific hybrid meioses assuming several different mechanisms of disomy tolerance, and compared predictions from the model to observations of sterility in hybrids between Saccharomyces yeast species...
October 2, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921819/effectiveness-of-a-new-tool-for-self-evaluation-of-adherence-to-antimuscarinic-drug-treatment-in-older-patients-of-both-sexes-with-urge-incontinence
#10
Kirill Kosilov, Sergay Loparev, Irina Kuzina, Liliya Kosilova, Marina Ivanovskaya, Alexandra Prokofyeva
AIM: The present study was a comparison of the validity of the Medication Adherence Self-Report Inventory (MASRI) questionnaire with other methods of assessing adherence to antimuscarinic drugs treatment in older patients with urge incontinence. METHODS: The experiment involved 733 men and women aged >65 years who had noted no less than one urge incontinence episode per day. At the beginning of the experiment, and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks, their adherence to treatment was monitored using the MASRI...
September 17, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917197/adolescent-socioeconomic-status-and-depressive-symptoms-in-later-life-evidence-from-structural-equation-models
#11
Elizabeth C Pino, Karla Damus, Brian Jack, David Henderson, Snezana Milanovic, Bindu Kalesan
BACKGROUND: The complex association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms is not entirely understood and the existing literature does not address the relationship between early-life SES and later-life depression from a life-course perspective, incorporating mediating events. METHODS: Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we employed structural equation modeling to examine how SES measured at age 18 affects depressive symptoms at age 54 directly and through mediating variables college graduation, marriage, and household income level at age 36...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903861/a-decision-support-system-and-rule-based-algorithm-to-augment-the-human-interpretation-of-the-12-lead-electrocardiogram
#12
Andrew W Cairns, Raymond R Bond, Dewar D Finlay, Daniel Guldenring, Fabio Badilini, Guido Libretti, Aaron J Peace, Stephen J Leslie
BACKGROUND: The 12-lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) has been used to detect cardiac abnormalities in the same format for more than 70years. However, due to the complex nature of 12-lead ECG interpretation, there is a significant cognitive workload required from the interpreter. This complexity in ECG interpretation often leads to errors in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We have previously reported on the development of an ECG interpretation support system designed to augment the human interpretation process...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895945/excess-labile-carbon-promotes-the-expression-of-virulence-factors-in-coral-reef-bacterioplankton
#13
Anny Cárdenas, Matthew J Neave, Mohamed Fauzi Haroon, Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Christian Wild, Astrid Gärdes, Christian R Voolstra
Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many coral reefs, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in reef waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on coral reefs are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to coral reef degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to assess gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows...
September 12, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893634/metabolism-and-dna-repair-shape-a-specific-modification-pattern-in-mitochondrial-dna
#14
Tina Pawar, Magnar Bjørås, Arne Klungland, Lars Eide
The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) resides in the vicinity of energy-rich reactions. Thus, chemical modifications of mtDNA might mirror mitochondrial processes and could serve as biomarkers of metabolic processes in the mitochondria. This hypothesis was tested by assessing modifications at 17 different sites in the mtDNA as a function of cell type, oxidative stress and mitochondrial activity. Two mouse mutants with a metabolic phenotype were compared to wild-type (WT) mice: the ogg1(-/-) mouse that lacks the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), and the alkbh7(-/-) mouse missing the ALKBH7 protein that has been implicated in fatty acid oxidation...
September 8, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890920/how-did-i-miss-that-developing-mixed-hybrid-visual-search-as-a-model-system-for-incidental-finding-errors-in-radiology
#15
Jeremy M Wolfe, Abla Alaoui Soce, Hayden M Schill
In a real world search, it can be important to keep 'an eye out' for items of interest that are not the primary subject of the search. For instance, you might look for the exit sign on the freeway, but you should also respond to the armadillo crossing the road. In medicine, these items are known as "incidental findings," findings of possible clinical significance that were not the main object of search. These errors (e.g., missing a broken rib while looking for pneumonia) have medical consequences for the patient and potential legal consequences for the physician...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859254/what-impact-does-nursing-care-left-undone-have-on-patient-outcomes-review-of-the-literature
#16
Alejandra Recio-Saucedo, Chiara Dall'Ora, Antonello Maruotti, Jane Ball, Jim Briggs, Paul Meredith, Oliver C Redfern, Caroline Kovacs, David Prytherch, Gary B Smith, Peter Griffiths
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Systematic review of the impact of missed nursing care on outcomes in adults, on acute hospital wards and in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: A considerable body of evidence support the hypothesis that lower levels of registered nurses on duty increases the likelihood of patients dying on hospital wards, and the risk of many aspects of care being either delayed or left undone (missed). However, the direct consequence of missed care remains unclear...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855322/the-thermal-background-determines-how-the-infrared-and-visual-systems-interact-in-pit-vipers
#17
Qin Chen, Yang Liu, Steven E Brauth, Guangzhan Fang, Yezhong Tang
The thermal infrared (IR) sensing system of pit vipers is believed to complement vision and provide a substitute imaging system in dark environments. Theoretically, the IR system would best image a scene consisting of a homothermal target in cold surroundings as a bright spot on a dark background. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated how the pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus) discriminates and strikes prey when the background temperature is either higher or lower than that of the prey (approximately 32-33°C) in different parts of the scene...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844649/post-operative-mortality-missed-care-and-nurse-staffing-in-nine-countries-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Jane E Ball, Luk Bruyneel, Linda H Aiken, Walter Sermeus, Douglas M Sloane, Anne Marie Rafferty, Rikard Lindqvist, Carol Tishelman, Peter Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Variation in post-operative mortality rates has been associated with differences in registered nurse staffing levels. When nurse staffing levels are lower there is also a higher incidence of necessary but missed nursing care. Missed nursing care may be a significant predictor of patient mortality following surgery. AIM: Examine if missed nursing care mediates the observed association between nurse staffing levels and mortality. METHOD: Data from the RN4CAST study (2009-2011) combined routinely collected data on 422,730 surgical patients from 300 general acute hospitals in 9 countries, with survey data from 26,516 registered nurses, to examine associations between nurses' staffing, missed care and 30-day in-patient mortality...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822553/vitamin-d-status-in-growing-dairy-goats-and-sheep-influence-of-ultraviolet-b-radiation-on-bone-metabolism-and-calcium-homeostasis
#19
M V Nemeth, M R Wilkens, A Liesegang
The aim of this study was to investigate how controlled UVB irradiation in combination with reduced nutritional vitamin D (vitD) supply affects vitD status and Ca metabolism of growing goats and sheep. The hypothesis was that, like dairy cows, goats and sheep are able to compensate for the missing nutritional supply of vitD through endogenous production in the skin, with the consequence of a high vitD status and a balanced Ca homeostasis. Sixteen lambs and 14 goat kids aged 3 and a half months were housed in an UVB free environment and fed hay and a vitD-free concentrate over a period of 13 wk...
October 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815917/hiv-infected-patients-beliefs-about-their-chronic-co-treatments-in-comparison-with-their-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
S Kamal, O Bugnon, M Cavassini, M P Schneider
OBJECTIVES: Thanks to the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected patients can have almost a normal life expectancy. This has resulted in an aging HIV-infected population with other chronic comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and depression. Our hypothesis is that patients' perceptions of and attitudes towards their cART, which is perceived as crucial to their survival, differ from their beliefs about their co-treatments, and this may have an impact on their medication adherence...
August 16, 2017: HIV Medicine
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