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Missing hypothesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089514/reproductive-conflict-and-the-evolution-of-menopause-in-killer-whales
#1
Darren P Croft, Rufus A Johnstone, Samuel Ellis, Stuart Nattrass, Daniel W Franks, Lauren J N Brent, Sonia Mazzi, Kenneth C Balcomb, John K B Ford, Michael A Cant
Why females of some species cease ovulation prior to the end of their natural lifespan is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle [1-4]. The fitness benefits of post-reproductive helping could in principle select for menopause [1, 2, 5], but the magnitude of these benefits appears insufficient to explain the timing of menopause [6-8]. Recent theory suggests that the cost of inter-generational reproductive conflict between younger and older females of the same social unit is a critical missing term in classical inclusive fitness calculations (the "reproductive conflict hypothesis" [6, 9])...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088368/pollutants-and-biomarker-responses-in-two-reef-fish-species-haemulon-aurolineatum-and-ocyurus-chrysurus-in-the-southern-gulf-of-mexico
#2
Gerardo Gold-Bouchot, J Rubio-Piña, J Montero-Muñoz, N Ramirez-Miss, A Echeverría-García, V Patiño-Suarez, C A Puch-Hau, O Zapata-Pérez
The environmental quality differences between two groups of reefs in the Veracruz Reef System were evaluated. The North group of reefs is very close to Veracruz, an urban and port zone, whereas the South group is more isolated, with minor anthropogenic disturbances. To prove the hypothesis that the North group is more affected by anthropogenic activities, the concentrations of hydrocarbons in liver, metals and metalloids such as Se, As, Ba, Cd, Hg and V in muscle, and PAH metabolites in bile were evaluated, and related to biomarkers (transcript abundance of cytochrome P4501A, Vitellogenin, and Glutathione-S-transferase) in two species of fish: Haemulon aurolineatum and Ocyurus chysurus...
January 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064440/dietary-fibre-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-colorectal-adenomas-and-carcinomas
#3
REVIEW
Yibo Yao, Tao Suo, Roland Andersson, Yongqing Cao, Chen Wang, Jingen Lu, Evelyne Chui
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the Cochrane review published in 2002.Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialised countries. Experimental evidence has supported the hypothesis that dietary fibre may protect against the development of CRC, although epidemiologic data have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of dietary fibre on the recurrence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in people with a known history of adenomatous polyps and on the incidence of CRC compared to placebo...
January 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047852/we-b-201-00-statistical-failings-that-keep-us-all-in-the-dark
#4
David Schlesinger
: Evidence is growing to suggest that many published clinical results cannot be replicated. At the same time, the number of published clinical papers is steadily increasing and most if not all base their conclusions on evidence provided by formal statistical tests. Medical physicists have a critical need to understand and be able to interpret the methods and results of these studies in order to judge their scientific quality and relevance. However many medical physicists have minimal or no training in the sort of practical statistical methods commonly found in the literature...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047191/we-b-201-01-introduction-not-everything-you-read-is-true
#5
D Schlesinger
: Evidence is growing to suggest that many published clinical results cannot be replicated. At the same time, the number of published clinical papers is steadily increasing and most if not all base their conclusions on evidence provided by formal statistical tests. Medical physicists have a critical need to understand and be able to interpret the methods and results of these studies in order to judge their scientific quality and relevance. However many medical physicists have minimal or no training in the sort of practical statistical methods commonly found in the literature...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046521/we-b-201-02-statistical-failings-that-can-keep-us-all-in-the-dark
#6
J Sloan
: Evidence is growing to suggest that many published clinical results cannot be replicated. At the same time, the number of published clinical papers is steadily increasing and most if not all base their conclusions on evidence provided by formal statistical tests. Medical physicists have a critical need to understand and be able to interpret the methods and results of these studies in order to judge their scientific quality and relevance. However many medical physicists have minimal or no training in the sort of practical statistical methods commonly found in the literature...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045988/differential-dna-methylation-patterns-are-related-to-phellogen-origin-and-quality-of-quercus-suber-cork
#7
Vera Inácio, Pedro M Barros, Augusta Costa, Cristóvão Roussado, Elsa Gonçalves, Rita Costa, José Graça, M Margarida Oliveira, Leonor Morais-Cecílio
DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032043/caries-risk-in-children-of-udaipur-city-india-using-genetic-taste-sensitivity-to-6-n-propylthiouracil
#8
Payel Karmakar, Ruchi Arora, Chhaya Patel, Bhumi Sarvaiya, Aditi Singh, Mittal Patel
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Dental caries still remains the single most common disease of childhood. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of dental caries would be observed among nontaster children compared to medium tasters or supertasters of 6n propylthiouracil impregnated filter papers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted on a random sample of 600 school children aged 6-12 years in Udaipur city. 6-n-propylthiouracil strips were prepared...
November 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027967/co-phylogeographic-study-of-the-flatworm-gyrodactylus-gondae-and-its-goby-host-pomatoschistus-minutus
#9
Tine Huyse, Merel Oeyen, Maarten H D Larmuseau, Filip A M Volckaert
We performed a comparative phylogeographic study on the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus gondae Huyse, Malmberg & Volckaert 2005 (Gyrodactylidae) and its sand goby host Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) (Gobiidae). G. gondae is a host-specific parasite with a direct life cycle and a very short generation time. These properties are expected to increase the chance to track the genealogical history of the host with genetic data of the parasite ('magnifying glass principle'). To investigate this hypothesis we screened nine sand goby populations (n=326) along the Atlantic coasts of Europe for Gyrodactylus specimens...
December 24, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024275/stress-disrupts-the-reconsolidation-of-fear-memories-in-men
#10
Shira Meir Drexler, Oliver T Wolf
Reconsolidation is a post-retrieval process of restabilization of the memory trace. Previous findings from our group suggest that cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone secreted in response to stress, enhances the reconsolidation of fear memories in healthy men. Cortisol effect was found to be very specific, enhancing only the fear memory that was reactivated (i.e. retrieved), but not the non-reactivated memory. In the current study we aimed to investigate the effects of psychosocial stress, a more ecologically valid intervention, on fear memory reconsolidation in men...
November 25, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990506/platform-switching-versus-regular-platform-implants-3-year-post-loading-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Silvio Mario Meloni, Sascha Aleksandear Jovanovic, Milena Pisano, Marco Tallarico
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that platform switching and regular platform implants would have different outcomes in single-tooth replacement against the alternative hypothesis of no difference. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was designed as a randomised controlled split-mouth trial. Eighteen patients with bilaterally missing single premolars or molars to be restored with implant-supported single crowns, were consecutively enrolled. Implant sites were randomly assigned to be treated according to the platform switching concept (PS group), or with matching implant-abutment diameters (RP group)...
2016: European Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975231/statistical-approaches-to-candidate-biomarker-panel-selection
#12
Heidi M Spratt, Hyunsu Ju
The statistical analysis of robust biomarker candidates is a complex process, and is involved in several key steps in the overall biomarker development pipeline (see Fig. 22.1, Chap. 19 ). Initially, data visualization (Sect. 22.1, below) is important to determine outliers and to get a feel for the nature of the data and whether there appear to be any differences among the groups being examined. From there, the data must be pre-processed (Sect. 22.2) so that outliers are handled, missing values are dealt with, and normality is assessed...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933294/branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-are-related-with-surrogates-of-disturbed-lipid-metabolism-among-older-men
#13
Urho M Kujala, Markku Peltonen, Merja K Laine, Jaakko Kaprio, Olli J Heinonen, Jouko Sundvall, Johan G Eriksson, Antti Jula, Seppo Sarna, Heikki Kainulainen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Existing studies suggest that decreased branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism and thus elevated levels in blood are associated with metabolic disturbances. Based on such information, we have developed a hypothesis how BCAA degradation mechanistically connects to tricarboxylic acid cycle, intramyocellular lipid storage, and oxidation, thus allowing more efficient mitochondrial energy production from lipids as well as providing better metabolic health. We analyzed whether data from aged Finnish men are in line with our mechanistic hypothesis linking BCAA catabolism and metabolic disturbances...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919000/the-role-of-anger-and-depressive-mood-in-transformation-process-from-victimization-to-perpetration
#14
Yanghee Lee, Sangwon Kim
Violence exerts detrimental influence on children's lives. Reported delinquent behaviors of children have reached an alarming level throughout all societies, and tend to be followed by further victimization. Victimized children suffer various physical and psychological difficulties, with the worst being further involved in perpetrations which puts these children at a greater risk. This study explores the transformation process from victimization to perpetration, by hypothesizing that depressive mood and anger serve as mediators...
January 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913251/unmapped-reads-from-cattle-rnaseq-data-a-source-for-missing-and-misassembled-sequences-in-the-reference-assemblies-and-for-detection-of-pathogens-in-the-host
#15
Tahir Usman, Frieder Hadlich, Wiebke Demasius, Rosemarie Weikard, Christa Kühn
Usually, reads from transcriptome sequencing data unmapped to the target species' reference genome are disregarded. A recent RNAseq project on the new fatal disease Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia had indicated an unexplained immune response signature to a double-stranded RNA virus. To unravel its background, contigs were de novo assembled from unmapped RNAseq reads and aligned against the bovine genome assemblies and multispecies NCBI databases. Lack of genuine virus sequence contigs rejected the hypothesis of a live virus being causal for the unexplained immune response...
January 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912000/green-wave-tracking-by-large-herbivores-an-experimental-approach
#16
Inger Maren Rivrud, Marco Heurich, Philipp Krupczynski, Jörg Müller, Atle Mysterud
The forage maturation hypothesis (FMH) states that herbivores should follow the onset of growth in spring to obtain access to forage of higher quality and quantity, the so-called "green wave surfing." Several studies have found correlative evidence in support of this by associating animal movement with plant phenology. However, experimental manipulation of vast natural systems determining causes of large herbivore movement is usually beyond reach. The unique management system involving winter enclosures for wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Germany facilitated an opportunity for an experimental approach...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908413/trace-element-and-cytokine-concentrations-in-patients-with-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva-fop-a-case-control-study
#17
Laura Hildebrand, Timo Gaber, Peter Kühnen, Rolf Morhart, Heinz Unterbörsch, Lutz Schomburg, Petra Seemann
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a rare inherited disease characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification. Disease onset, severity and symptoms vary between FOP patients, as does the frequency and activity of so-called flare-ups, during which tendons, ligaments, muscle and soft tissue are replaced by bone. Traumata, infections or other stressors are known inducers of flare-ups, and the hormone Activin A may be involved in disease activity; however, reliable biomarkers for FOP activity are missing, and the basal trace element and inflammatory state of patients are unknown...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896934/increased-identification-of-novel-variants-in-type-2-diabetes-birth-weight-and-their-pleiotropic-loci
#18
Chun-Ping Zeng, Yuan-Cheng Chen, Xu Lin, Jonathan Greenbaum, You-Ping Chen, Cheng Peng, Xia-Fang Wang, Rou Zhou, Wei-Min Deng, Jie Shen, Hong-Wen Deng
BACKGROUND: Clinical and epidemiological findings point to an association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and low birth weight (BW). However, the nature underlying their relationship is largely unknown. Here, we aim to identify novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in T2D, BW and their pleiotropic loci. METHODS: We applied a pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) method to two independent GWAS summary statistics of T2D (n = 149,821) and BW (n = 26,836)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886106/multi-target-tracking-using-an-improved-gaussian-mixture-cphd-filter
#19
Weijian Si, Liwei Wang, Zhiyu Qu
The cardinalized probability hypothesis density (CPHD) filter is an alternative approximation to the full multi-target Bayesian filter for tracking multiple targets. However, although the joint propagation of the posterior intensity and cardinality distribution in its recursion allows more reliable estimates of the target number than the PHD filter, the CPHD filter suffers from the spooky effect where there exists arbitrary PHD mass shifting in the presence of missed detections. To address this issue in the Gaussian mixture (GM) implementation of the CPHD filter, this paper presents an improved GM-CPHD filter, which incorporates a weight redistribution scheme into the filtering process to modify the updated weights of the Gaussian components when missed detections occur...
November 23, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875982/comparative-genomics-to-explore-phylogenetic-relationship-cryptic-sexual-potential-and-host-specificity-of-rhynchosporium-species-on-grasses
#20
Daniel Penselin, Martin Münsterkötter, Susanne Kirsten, Marius Felder, Stefan Taudien, Matthias Platzer, Kevin Ashelford, Konrad H Paskiewicz, Richard J Harrison, David J Hughes, Thomas Wolf, Ekaterina Shelest, Jenny Graap, Jan Hoffmann, Claudia Wenzel, Nadine Wöltje, Kevin M King, Bruce D L Fitt, Ulrich Güldener, Anna Avrova, Wolfgang Knogge
BACKGROUND: The Rhynchosporium species complex consists of hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens specialized to different sweet grass species including the cereal crops barley and rye. A sexual stage has not been described, but several lines of evidence suggest the occurrence of sexual reproduction. Therefore, a comparative genomics approach was carried out to disclose the evolutionary relationship of the species and to identify genes demonstrating the potential for a sexual cycle. Furthermore, due to the evolutionary very young age of the five species currently known, this genus appears to be well-suited to address the question at the molecular level of how pathogenic fungi adapt to their hosts...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
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