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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230197/exosome-mediated-genetic-information-transfer-a-missing-piece-of-osteoblast-osteoclast-communication-puzzle
#1
Pengbin Yin, Houchen Lv, Yi Li, Yuan Deng, Licheng Zhang, Peifu Tang
The skeletal system functions and maintains itself based on communication between cells of diverse origins, especially between osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs), accounting for bone formation and resorption, respectively. Previously, protein-level information exchange has been the research focus, and this has been discussed in detail. The regulative effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on OB and OC ignite the question as to whether genetic information could be transferred between bone cells. Exosomes, extracellular membrane vesicles 30-100 nm in diameter, have recently been demonstrated to transfer functional proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs, and serve as mediators of intercellular communication...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230055/impaired-path-integration-in-mice-with-disrupted-grid-cell-firing
#2
Mariana Gil, Mihai Ancau, Magdalene I Schlesiger, Angela Neitz, Kevin Allen, Rodrigo J De Marco, Hannah Monyer
Path integration (PI) is a highly conserved, self-motion-based navigation strategy. Since the discovery of grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex, neurophysiological data and computational models have suggested that these neurons serve PI. However, more direct empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis has been missing due to a lack of selective manipulations of grid cell activity and suitable behavioral assessments. Here we report that selective disruption of grid cell activity in mice can be achieved by removing NMDA glutamate receptors from the retro-hippocampal region and that disrupted grid cell firing accounts for impaired PI performance...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228715/bayesian-and-frequentist-analysis-of-an-austrian-genome-wide-association-study-of-colorectal-cancer-and-advanced-adenomas
#3
Philipp Hofer, Michael Hagmann, Stefanie Brezina, Erich Dolejsi, Karl Mach, Gernot Leeb, Andreas Baierl, Stephan Buch, Hedwig Sutterlüty-Fall, Judith Karner-Hanusch, Michael M Bergmann, Thomas Bachleitner-Hofmann, Anton Stift, Armin Gerger, Katharina Rötzer, Josef Karner, Stefan Stättner, Melanie Waldenberger, Thomas Meitinger, Konstantin Strauch, Jakob Linseisen, Christian Gieger, Florian Frommlet, Andrea Gsur
Most genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were analyzed using single marker tests in combination with stringent correction procedures for multiple testing. Thus, a substantial proportion of associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained undetected and may account for missing heritability in complex traits. Model selection procedures present a powerful alternative to identify associated SNPs in high-dimensional settings. In this GWAS including 1060 colorectal cancer cases, 689 cases of advanced colorectal adenomas and 4367 controls we pursued a dual approach to investigate genome-wide associations with disease risk applying both, single marker analysis and model selection based on the modified Bayesian information criterion, mBIC2, implemented in the software package MOSGWA...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217591/topologically-associating-domains-and-chromatin-loops-depend-on-cohesin-and-are-regulated-by-ctcf-wapl-and-pds5-proteins
#4
Gordana Wutz, Csilla Várnai, Kota Nagasaka, David A Cisneros, Roman R Stocsits, Wen Tang, Stefan Schoenfelder, Gregor Jessberger, Matthias Muhar, M Julius Hossain, Nike Walther, Birgit Koch, Moritz Kueblbeck, Jan Ellenberg, Johannes Zuber, Peter Fraser, Jan-Michael Peters
Mammalian genomes are spatially organized into compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), and loops to facilitate gene regulation and other chromosomal functions. How compartments, TADs, and loops are generated is unknown. It has been proposed that cohesin forms TADs and loops by extruding chromatin loops until it encounters CTCF, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is missing. Here, we show that cohesin suppresses compartments but is required for TADs and loops, that CTCF defines their boundaries, and that the cohesin unloading factor WAPL and its PDS5 binding partners control the length of loops...
December 7, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210334/false-beliefs-predict-increased-circumcision-satisfaction-in-a-sample-of-us-american-men
#5
Brian D Earp, Lauren M Sardi, William A Jellison
Critics of non-therapeutic male and female childhood genital cutting claim that such cutting is harmful. It is therefore puzzling that 'circumcised' women and men do not typically regard themselves as having been harmed by the cutting, notwithstanding the loss of sensitive, prima facie valuable tissue. For female genital cutting (FGC), a commonly proposed solution to this puzzle is that women who had part(s) of their vulvae removed before sexual debut 'do not know what they are missing' and may 'justify' their genitally-altered state by adopting false beliefs about the benefits of FGC, while simultaneously stigmatising unmodified genitalia as unattractive or unclean...
December 6, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195226/the-viral-hypothesis-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-is-human-herpes-virus-6-the-missing-link-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
P Wipfler, N Dunn, O Beiki, E Trinka, A Fogdell-Hahn
PURPOSE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a common epileptic disorder. Although likely multifactorial, the mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown in majority of patients. Viruses, particularly Human Herpes Virus 6A and B (HHV-6), two neurotropic herpes viruses, have been implicated in MTLE due to their ubiquitous nature and ability to establish lifelong latency with risk of reactivation. However, the results of studies investigating this relationship are conflicting...
November 24, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166500/final-diagnosis-of-86-cases-included-in-differential-diagnosis-of-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-in-a-brazilian-sample-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#7
Fernanda Tirelli, Sebastian Vernal, Ana Maria Roselino
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is distributed worldwide, including Brazil. Its several clinical forms need to be distinguished from other dermatoses. Clinical similarities and lack of a gold standard diagnostic tool make leishmaniasis-like lesions a challenging diagnosis. OBJECTIVES.: To report the final diagnosis of patients primarily suspected of having American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). METHODS.: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of medical records of 437 patients with clinical suspicion of ATL, registered in electronic hospital system between 1980 and 2013...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163041/revisiting-the-quantum-brain-hypothesis-toward-quantum-neuro-biology
#8
Peter Jedlicka
The nervous system is a non-linear dynamical complex system with many feedback loops. A conventional wisdom is that in the brain the quantum fluctuations are self-averaging and thus functionally negligible. However, this intuition might be misleading in the case of non-linear complex systems. Because of an extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, in complex systems the microscopic fluctuations may be amplified and thereby affect the system's behavior. In this way quantum dynamics might influence neuronal computations...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158276/seventy-five-years-of-research-on-protein-binding-do-we-ever-understand
#9
Axel Dalhoff
This review summarizes evidence that the impact of protein binding of the activity of antibiotics is multifacetted and more complex than indicated by the numerical value of protein binding alone. A plethora of studies has proven that protein binding of antibiotics matters - the free fraction only is antibacterially active and governs pharamcokinetics. Several studies have indicated that independent from protein binding immunoglobulin G, albumin, α-1-acid-glycoprotein, and pulmonary surfactant acted synergistically with antibacterial agents, thus suggesting that some intrinsic properties of serum proteins may have mediated serum antibiotic synergisms...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149155/lower-cutoffs-for-lc-ms-ms-urine-drug-testing-indicates-better-patient-compliance
#10
Kevin Krock, Amadeo Pesce, Dennis Ritz, Richard Thomas, Agnes Cua, Ryan Rogers, Phil Lipnick, Kristen Kilbourn
BACKGROUND: Urine drug testing is used by health care providers to determine a patient's compliance to their prescribed regimen and to detect non-prescribed medications and illicit drugs. However, the cutoff levels used by clinical labs are often arbitrarily set and may not reflect the urine drug concentrations of compliant patients. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that commonly used cutoffs for many prescribed and illicit drugs were set too high, and methods using these cutoffs may yield a considerable number of false-negative results...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143658/a-key-enzyme-of-animal-steroidogenesis-can-function-in-plants-enhancing-their-immunity-and-accelerating-the-processes-of-growth-and-development
#11
George V Shpakovski, Svetlana G Spivak, Irina N Berdichevets, Olga G Babak, Svetlana V Kubrak, Alexander V Kilchevsky, Andrey V Aralov, Ivan Yu Slovokhotov, Dmitry G Shpakovski, Ekaterina N Baranova, Marat R Khaliluev, Elena K Shematorova
BACKGROUND: The initial stage of the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in animals occurs in the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, where cytochrome P450SCC (CYP11A1) encoded by the CYP11A1 gene catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone - the general precursor of all the steroid hormones, starting with progesterone. This stage is missing in plants where mitochondrial cytochromes P450 (the mito CYP clan) have not been found. Generating transgenic plants with a mitochondrial type P450 from animals would offer an interesting option to verify whether plant mitochondria could serve as another site of P450 monooxygenase reaction for the steroid hormones biosynthesis...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142259/drip-tectonics-and-the-enigmatic-uplift-of-the-central-anatolian-plateau
#12
Oğuz H Göğüş, Russell N Pysklywec, A M C Şengör, Erkan Gün
Lithospheric drips have been interpreted for various regions around the globe to account for the recycling of the continental lithosphere and rapid plateau uplift. However, the validity of such hypothesis is not well documented in the context of geological, geophysical and petrological observations that are tested against geodynamical models. Here we propose that the folding of the Central Anatolian (Kırşehir) arc led to thickening of the lithosphere and onset of "dripping" of the arc root. Our geodynamic model explains the seismic data showing missing lithosphere and a remnant structure characteristic of a dripping arc root, as well as enigmatic >1 km uplift over the entire plateau, Cappadocia and Galatia volcanism at the southern and northern plateau margins since ~10 Ma, respectively...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133149/spontaneous-eye-blink-rate-an-index-of-dopaminergic-component-of-sustained-attention-and-fatigue
#13
Antonio Maffei, Alessandro Angrilli
Blink rate is a behavioral index highly correlated with frontostriatal dopaminergic activity. The present research was aimed at studying the modulation of spontaneous blink rate in function of the increasing attentional load induced by the Mackworth Clock Test. Since blinking interferes with sensory processing, we expected a decreasing blink rate with increasing attentional demand. Three tasks of 7-min each and different difficulties were administered: the Mackworth had a red dot moving in a circle with intervals varying from 500ms, 350ms to 200ms, corresponding to increasing task difficulty...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123534/viral-diagnostics-in-plants-using-next-generation-sequencing-computational-analysis-in-practice
#14
REVIEW
Susan Jones, Amanda Baizan-Edge, Stuart MacFarlane, Lesley Torrance
Viruses cause significant yield and quality losses in a wide variety of cultivated crops. Hence, the detection and identification of viruses is a crucial facet of successful crop production and of great significance in terms of world food security. Whilst the adoption of molecular techniques such as RT-PCR has increased the speed and accuracy of viral diagnostics, such techniques only allow the detection of known viruses, i.e., each test is specific to one or a small number of related viruses. Therefore, unknown viruses can be missed and testing can be slow and expensive if molecular tests are unavailable...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116692/a-pilot-study-evaluating-knowledge-of-indications-for-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#15
Mark W Jones
A pilot study was conducted in mid-Michigan to evaluate knowledge of appropriate hyperbaric oxygen therapy referrals in "first contact" physicians who did not have additional hyperbaric training. The hypothesis for this study is that many first-contact physicians have little or no exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy and its indications. A survey was distributed regarding accepted indications combined with conditions not currently approved or contraindicated for HBO₂. Answers were tallied for correct identification of approved indications, missed approved indications, and inappropriate identification of unapproved indications...
2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112467/meniscectomy-and-resultant-articular-cartilage-lesions-of-the-knee-among-prospective-national-football-league-players-an-imaging-and-performance-analysis
#16
Jorge Chahla, Mark E Cinque, Jonathan A Godin, George Sanchez, George F Lebus, James M Whalen, Mark D Price, Nicholas I Kennedy, Gilbert Moatshe, Robert F LaPrade, Matthew T Provencher
BACKGROUND: The effect of prior meniscectomy and the resulting reduction in meniscal tissue on a potential National Football League (NFL) player's articular cartilage status and performance remain poorly elucidated. Purpose/Hypothesis: (1) To determine the epidemiology, imaging characteristics, and associated articular cartilage pathology of the knee among players with a previous meniscectomy who were participating in the NFL Combine and (2) to evaluate the effect of these injuries on performance as compared with matched controls...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096600/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-parasitic-nematode-camallanus-cotti-extreme-discontinuity-in-the-rate-of-mitogenomic-architecture-evolution-within-the-chromadorea-class
#17
Hong Zou, Ivan Jakovlić, Rong Chen, Dong Zhang, Jin Zhang, Wen-Xiang Li, Gui-Tang Wang
BACKGROUND: Complete mitochondrial genomes are much better suited for the taxonomic identification and phylogenetic studies of nematodes than morphology or traditionally-used molecular markers, but they remain unavailable for the entire Camallanidae family (Chromadorea). As the only published mitogenome in the Camallanina suborder (Dracunculoidea superfamily) exhibited a unique gene order, the other objective of this research was to study the evolution of mitochondrial architecture in the Spirurida order...
November 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094346/population-based-clinical-practice-research-datalink-study-using-algorithm-modelling-to-identify-the-true-burden-of-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#18
J R Ingram, S Jenkins-Jones, D W Knipe, C L I Morgan, R Cannings-John, V Piguet
BACKGROUND: Epidemiology data regarding hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) are conflicting and prevalence estimates vary 80-fold, from 0.05% in a population-based study, to 4%. OBJECTIVES: To assess the hypothesis that previous population-based studies under-estimated true HS prevalence by missing undiagnosed cases. METHODS: We performed a population-based observational and case-control study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) linked to Hospital Episode Statistics data...
November 1, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073910/spot-sputum-samples-are-at-least-as-good-as-early-morning-samples-for-identifying-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Michael E Murphy, Patrick P J Phillips, Carl M Mendel, Emily Bongard, Anna L C Bateson, Robert Hunt, Saraswathi Murthy, Kasha P Singh, Michael Brown, Angela M Crook, Andrew J Nunn, Sarah K Meredith, Marc Lipman, Timothy D McHugh, Stephen H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: The use of early morning sputum samples (EMS) to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) can result in treatment delay given the need for the patient to return to the clinic with the EMS, increasing the chance of patients being lost during their diagnostic workup. However, there is little evidence to support the superiority of EMS over spot sputum samples. In this new analysis of the REMoxTB study, we compare the diagnostic accuracy of EMS with spot samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis pre- and post-treatment...
October 27, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060120/heart-rate-variability-analysis-during-muscle-fatigue-due-to-prolonged-isometric-contraction
#20
Andrea Guidi, Alberto Greco, Federica Felici, Andrea Leo, Emiliano Ricciardi, Matteo Bianchi, Antonio Bicchi, Gaetano Valenza, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo
Fatigue can be defined as the muscular condition occurring before the inability to perform a task. It can be assessed through the evaluation of the median and mean frequency of the spectrum of the surface electromyography series. Previous studies investigated the relationship between heartbeat dynamics and muscular activity. However, exploitation of such cardiovascular measures to automatically identify muscle fatigue during fatiguing exercises is still missing. To this extent, HRV signals were gathered from 32 subjects during an isometric contraction task, and features defined in the time, frequency and nonlinear domains were investigated...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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