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Global oncology

Andrea Callegaro, Bart Spiessens, Benjamin Dizier, Fernando U Montoya, Hans C van Houwelingen
In this paper, we considered different methods to test the interaction between treatment and a potentially large number (p) of covariates in randomized clinical trials. The simplest approach was to fit univariate (marginal) models and to combine the univariate statistics or p-values (e.g., minimum p-value). Another possibility was to reduce the dimension of the covariates using the principal components (PCs) and to test the interaction between treatment and PCs. Finally, we considered the Goeman global test applied to the high-dimensional interaction matrix, adjusted for the main (treatment and covariates) effects...
October 20, 2016: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
Francisco Tustumi, Cintia Mayumi Sakurai Kimura, Flavio Roberto Takeda, Rodrigo Hideki Uema, Rubens Antônio Aissar Salum, Ulysses Ribeiro-Junior, Ivan Cecconello
Background: Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, esophageal cancer still has high mortality. Prognostic factors associated with patient and with disease itself are multiple and poorly explored. Aim: Assess prognostic variables in esophageal cancer patients. Methods: Retrospective review of all patients with esophageal cancer in an oncology referral center. They were divided according to histological diagnosis (444 squamous cell carcinoma patients and 105 adenocarcinoma), and their demographic, pathological and clinical characteristics were analyzed and compared to clinical stage and overall survival...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Lorena Arribas, Laura Hurtós, Maria José Sendrós, Inmaculada Peiró, Neus Salleras, Eduard Fort, Jose Manuel Sánchez-Migallón
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to design a new nutritional screening tool (NUTRISCORE) to detect nutritional risk in outpatients with cancer. METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted. We randomly selected outpatients receiving onco-specific, palliative, or symptomatic treatment for malignant neoplasms (including solid tumors and hematologic malignancies). These patients were assessed using the NUTRISCORE tool, the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), and the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) to detect risk for malnutrition...
August 13, 2016: Nutrition
Sunil Kr Verma
A 62-year-old male was undergoing treatment of NHL with bone marrow involvement with thrombocytopenia. After 15min of starting of IV infusion of rituximab, he started having severe retrosternal chest pain, diagnosed as acute ST elevation inferior wall MI. Patient was pre-loaded with dual anti platelets. Coronary angiogram showed 100% occlusion of proximal RCA. Thrombosuction of this culprit RCA revealed underlying 90% stenosis. After that, PCI with balloon angioplasty of RCA was done. The procedure was terminated in the view of successful balloon angioplasty with good TIMI flow...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Sara E Fischer, Olusegun I Alatise, Akinwunmi O Komolafe, Aba I Katung, Adedeji A Egberongbe, Samuel A Olatoke, Olayide S Agodirin, Oladapo A Kolawole, Olaejerinde O Olaofe, Omobolaji O Ayandipo, Olorunda Rotimi, Murray F Brennan, T Peter Kingham
PURPOSE: There is an increasing effort in the global public health community to strengthen research capacity in low- and middle-income countries, but there is no consensus on how best to approach such endeavors. Successful consortia that perform research on HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases exist, but few papers have been published detailing the challenges faced and lessons learned in setting up and running a successful research consortium. METHODS: Members of the African Research Group for Oncology (ARGO) participated in generating lessons learned regarding the foundation and maintenance of a cancer research consortium in Nigeria...
October 14, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Cengiz Gemici, Gokhan Yaprak, Hasan Fevzi Batirel, Mahmut Ilhan, Alpaslan Mayadagli
BACKGROUND: Locoregional recurrence is a major problem in esophageal cancer patients treated with definitive concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Approximately half of the patients fail locoregionally. We analyzed the impact of enlarged radiation field size and higher radiation dose incorporated to chemoradiotherapy on oncologic outcome. METHODS: Seventy-four consecutive patients with histologically proven nonmetastatic squamous or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus were included in this retrospective analysis...
October 13, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
K Kırca, S Kutlutürkan
Radiotherapy is a reliable and effective treatment method for the treatment of head and neck cancers. This study was conducted as a descriptive work with the purpose of determining the symptoms experienced by patients with head and neck cancer who are undergoing radiotherapy. The study was carried out on 47 patients receiving treatment in oncology clinics. Data were obtained at mid-radiotherapy (RT), at the end of radiotherapy and 1 month after the end of radiotherapy using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) and Personal Information Forms...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Jeremy Andrew Saban, Michael Pizzi, Jillian Caldwell, Ana Palijan, Michael Zappitelli
OBJECTIVES: Aminoglycosides (AG) are a group of bactericidal antibiotics with nephrotoxic effects that are commonly used in the treatment of hospitialized children. We have examined previous AG treatment as a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI) during current AG treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of children ranging in age from 1 month to 18 years who were treated with AG between October 2008 and April 2012 at Montreal's Children's Hospital...
October 7, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Carlos H Barrios, Daniel Herchenhorn, Matías Chacón, Paula Cabrera-Galeana, Peter Sajben, Ke Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sunitinib is an approved treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The safety profile and efficacy of sunitinib were confirmed in a global expanded access trial ( identifier: NCT00130897). This report presents a subanalysis of the final trial data from patients in Latin America. METHODS: Treatment-naïve or previously treated mRCC patients aged ≥18 years received oral sunitinib at a starting dose of 50 mg/day on a 4-weeks-on/2-weeks-off schedule...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Annemieke van Dongen-Leunis, W Ken Redekop, Carin A Uyl-de Groot
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the validity and interpretability of different preference-based questionnaires (generic 5-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire [EQ-5D-5L], cancer-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Preference-Based Measure, and European Organization of Randomized Controlled Trials 8 Dimension [EORTC-8D]) in patients with acute leukemia. METHODS: Patients who participated in Hemato-Oncologie voor Volwassenen Nederland (HOVON - the Haemato Oncology Foundation for Adults in the Netherlands) clinical trials between 1999 and 2011 at a single hospital were invited to complete the questionnaires...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Inés Llamas Ramos, Rocío Llamas Ramos, Ana María Martín Nogueras, Jorge Juan Alvarado Omenat, José Ignacio Calvo Arenillas, Emilio Fonseca Sánchez, María Cortés Rodríguez
CONTEXT: Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) is a multidimensional tool developed to evaluate frequency, severity and distress of common symptoms present in cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: To translate the original English version of MSAS and prove the reliability and validity of the Spanish version. METHODS: MSAS scale was translated into Spanish and administered to 246 cancer patients aged between 18 and 85. They attended the Day Hospital to receive chemotherapy...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Sergio Cantoreggi
Sergio Cantoreggi speaks to Henry Ireland, Commissioning Editor: Sergio Cantoreggi, PhD, is the Chief Scientific Officer and Global Head of Research and Development of the Helsinn Group, a mid-sized pharmaceutical company headquartered in Lugano, Switzerland, and focused on providing cancer supportive care solutions to oncology patients worldwide. Dr Cantoreggi has overall responsibility for all R&D activities of the Helsinn Group and has contributed to six major regulatory approvals of cancer supportive care agents in the USA, Europe and Japan...
October 3, 2016: Future Oncology
Ada W Y Leung, Tanya de Silva, Marcel B Bally, William W Lockwood
Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of multiple histological subtypes each driven by unique genetic alterations. Despite the development of targeted therapies that inhibit the oncogenic mutations driving a subset of lung cancer cases, there is a paucity of effective treatments for the majority of lung cancer patients and new strategies are urgently needed. In recent years, the concept of synthetic lethality has been established as an effective approach for discovering novel cancer-specific targets as well as a method to improve the efficacy of existing drugs which provide partial but insufficient benefits for patients...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Cancer
Bernd L Groner, Nancy E Hynes
Cancer research has become a global enterprise, and the number of researchers, as well as the cost for their activities, has skyrocketed. The budget for the National Cancer Institute of the United States National Institutes of Health alone was US$5.2 billion in 2015. Since most of the research is funded by public money, it is perfectly legitimate to ask if these large expenses are worth it. In this brief commentary, we recapitulate some of the breakthroughs that mark the history of breast cancer research over the past decades and emphasize the resulting benefits for afflicted women...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
Yan Xia, Chi Kuan, Chien-Hsiang Chiu, Xiao-Jing Chen, Yi-Yin Do, Pung-Ling Huang
Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daniel Esau
When first described in 1958, Burkitt lymphoma was considered by many to be an African curiosity. However, over the next few decades, over 10,000 publications on Burkitt lymphoma would influence many facets of oncology research including immunology, molecular genetics, chemotherapy, and viral oncology. At the time of discovery, its distribution in equatorial Africa was unique; it was where a child was born and lived, and not what race they were, that conveyed the greatest incidence risk. Its association with Epstein-Barr virus brought attention to the possibility that oncogenesis may be influenced by viruses...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Karina Jayaputra, Shunsuke Ono
PURPOSE: Our study addresses how the information in the labels differed between United States (US) and Japan, what factors were associated with the decision to place the boxed warning on the label, and the relation of both countries in terms of drug label policy. METHODS: We investigated adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in boxed warnings for 44 oncological drug labels approved from 2004 to 2014 in both Japan and the US. We applied conditional logistic regression to examine how likely it was for each ADR to be included in a boxed warning...
September 26, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Marlon Perera, Nishanth Krishnananthan, Uri Lindner, Nathan Lawrentschuk
Globally, the increased uptake of serum PSA level screening led to an increase in the number of diagnoses of low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Traditionally, these patients have been considered for either active surveillance programmes or radical whole-gland therapies, such as prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Focal therapy is an emerging treatment option that involves the focal ablation of prostate cancer with preservation of surrounding healthy tissue. This approach might result in reduced morbidity when compared with whole-gland therapies...
September 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Sarah Schroyen, Manon Marquet, Guy Jerusalem, Benoît Dardenne, Marjan Van den Akker, Frank Buntinx, Stéphane Adam, Pierre Missotten
OBJECTIVES: Older people may suffer from stigmas linked to cancer and aging. Although some studies suggested that a negative view of cancer may increase the level of depression, such an association has never been studied in the elderly population. Similarly, even though it is established that a negative self-perception of aging has deleterious consequences on mental and physical health in normal aging, the influence in pathological contexts, such as oncology, has not been studied. The main aim of this study is thus to analyze the effect of these two stigmas on the health of elderly oncology patients...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
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