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Injury predisposition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186446/de-novo-avm-formation-following-venous-sinus-thrombosis-and-prior-avm-resection-in-adults-report-of-2-cases
#1
Siyu Shi, Raghav Gupta, Justin M Moore, Christoph J Griessenauer, Nimer Adeeb, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Ajith J Thomas, Christopher S Ogilvy
Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are traditionally considered congenital lesions, arising from aberrant vascular development during the intrauterine period. Rarely, however, AVMs develop in the postnatal period. Individual case reports of de novo AVM formation in both pediatric and adult patients have challenged the traditional dogma of a congenital origin. Instead, for these cases, a dynamic picture is emerging of AVM growth and development, initially triggered by ischemic and/or traumatic events, coupled with genetic predispositions...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174132/traumatic-brain-injury-induces-genome-wide-transcriptomic-methylomic-and-network-perturbations-in-brain-and-blood-predicting-neurological-disorders
#2
Qingying Meng, Yumei Zhuang, Zhe Ying, Rahul Agrawal, Xia Yang, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
The complexity of the traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathology, particularly concussive injury, is a serious obstacle for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term prognosis. Here we utilize modern systems biology in a rodent model of concussive injury to gain a thorough view of the impact of TBI on fundamental aspects of gene regulation, which have the potential to drive or alter the course of the TBI pathology. TBI perturbed epigenomic programming, transcriptional activities (expression level and alternative splicing), and the organization of genes in networks centered around genes such as Anax2, Ogn, and Fmod...
February 1, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124291/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-complications-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#3
REVIEW
Peyton Cramer, Robert S Bresalier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal complications are very common in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Some of these complications can be life threatening and require prompt and appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this review is to address luminal gastrointestinal and hepatic complications associated with a new class of anticancer drugs, immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), and focuses on the identification, evaluation, and management of the complications associated with this class of drugs...
January 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112481/the-effects-of-body-weight-status-on-orthostatic-intolerance-and-predisposition-to-noncardiac-syncope
#4
REVIEW
G A Christou, D N Kiortsis
Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is frequently the mechanism underlying the occurrence of noncardiac syncope (NCS) and is associated with substantial risk for injury. Body weight status appears to be a modifier of orthostatic responses and possibly influences the propensity to NCS. The majority of cross-sectional studies have found that the lower the body mass index (BMI) the greater the predisposition to OI is, accompanied with both down-regulation of sympathetic nervous system activity and up-regulation of parasympathetic nervous system activity...
January 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111355/epigenetics-in-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
K Kobow, I Blümcke
Approximately 50 million people have epilepsy, making it the most common chronic and severe neurological disease worldwide, with increased risk of mortality and psychological and socioeconomic consequences impairing quality of life. More than 30% of patients with epilepsy have inadequate control of their seizures with drug therapy. Any structural brain lesion can provoke epilepsy. However, progression of seizure activity as well as the development of drug-resistance remains difficult to predict, irrespective of the underlying epileptogenic condition, i...
January 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103119/iatrogenic-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-trauma-patient-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#6
Ahmad Maarouf, Colleen M McQuown, Jennifer A Frey, Rami A Ahmed, Lisa Derrick
BACKGROUND: The recommended practice for over 30 years has been to routinely immobilize patients with unstable cervical spinal injuries using cervical spinal collars. It is shown that patients with Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are four times more likely to suffer a spinal fracture compared to the general population and have an eleven-fold greater risk of spinal cord injury. Current protocols of spinal immobilization were responsible for secondary neurologic deterioration in some of these patients...
January 19, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102489/genetic-variants-and-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rupture-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Mustafa Kaynak, Frank Nijman, Joyce van Meurs, Max Reijman, Duncan E Meuffels
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a familial predisposition for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and have been followed by genetic-association studies on polymorphisms in candidate genes in recent years. To date, no systematic review with a best-evidence synthesis has evaluated the influence of genetics on this devastating knee injury. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the association between genetic variants and ACL rupture. METHODS: We performed an extensive search in Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed Publisher, Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials, and Google scholar up to 24 August 2015...
January 19, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097876/the-relationship-of-perfectionism-with-psychological-symptoms-in-cancer-patients-and-the-contributing-role-of-hyperarousability-and-coping
#8
Claudia Trudel-Fitzgerald, Josée Savard, Lisa-Maria Slim, Renée-Claude Roy, Gordon L Flett, Paul L Hewitt, Hans Ivers
OBJECTIVE: Significant levels of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms are found in cancer patients. Perfectionism, arousability and coping have been associated with these psychological symptoms in the general population but their role among cancer patients remains to be assessed. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between perfectionism and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, insomnia), and the intermediate role of the arousability trait and coping strategies...
January 18, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090564/hepatocyte-toll-like-receptor-5-promotes-bacterial-clearance-and-protects-mice-against-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-disease
#9
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Innate immune dysfunction can promote chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. For example, mice lacking the flagellin receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) show microbial dysbiosis and predisposition to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. The extent to which hepatocytes play a direct role in detecting bacterial products in general, or flagellin in particular, is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of hepatocyte TLR5 in recognizing flagellin, policing bacteria, and protecting against liver disease...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074924/metabotyping-patients-journeys-reveals-early-predisposition-to-lung-injury-after-cardiac-surgery
#10
Raluca Georgiana Maltesen, Bodil Steen Rasmussen, Shona Pedersen, Munsoor Ali Hanifa, Sergey Kucheryavskiy, Søren Risom Kristensen, Reinhard Wimmer
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and patients with severe symptoms undergo cardiac surgery. Even after uncomplicated surgeries, some patients experience postoperative complications such as lung injury. We hypothesized that the procedure elicits metabolic activity that can be related to the disease progression, which is commonly observed two-three days postoperatively. More than 700 blood samples were collected from 50 patients at nine time points pre-, intra-, and postoperatively...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039362/defining-the-temporal-course-of-murine-neurofibromatosis-1-optic-gliomagenesis-reveals-a-therapeutic-window-to-attenuate-retinal-dysfunction
#11
Joseph A Toonen, Yu Ma, David H Gutmann
BACKGROUND: Optic gliomas arising in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome cause reduced visual acuity in 30%-50% of affected children. Since human specimens are rare, genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models have been successfully employed for preclinical therapeutic discovery and validation. However, the sequence of cellular and molecular events that culminate in retinal dysfunction and vision loss has not been fully defined relevant to potential neuroprotective treatment strategies...
December 29, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923624/a-novel-3d-approach-for-determination-of-frontal-and-coronal-plane-tibial-slopes-from-mr-imaging
#12
Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, Rodney Summers, Kaveh Ahmadi, Vijay K Goel, Timothy E Hewett, Edward Nyman
BACKGROUND: The proximal tibia is geometrically complex, asymmetrical, and variable, is heavily implicated in arthrokinematics of the knee joint, and thus a contributor to knee pathologies such as non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Medial, lateral, and coronal tibial slopes are anatomic parameters that may increase predisposition to knee injuries, but the extent to which each contributes has yet to be fully realized. Previously, two-dimensional methods have quantified tibial slopes, but more reliable 3D methods may prove advantageous...
December 3, 2016: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917262/toll-like-receptors-in-pathophysiology-of-liver-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Safak Kiziltas
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that participate in host defense by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns alongside inflammatory processes by recognizing damage associated molecular patterns. Given constant exposure to pathogens from gut, strict control of TLR-associated signaling pathways is essential in the liver, which otherwise may lead to inappropriate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons and may generate a predisposition to several autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903671/sports-related-lung-injury-during-breath-hold-diving
#14
Tanja Mijacika, Zeljko Dujic
The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900301/association-of-acl-tears-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-collagen-12-a1-gene-in-the-indian-population-a-preliminary-case-control-study
#15
Rakesh John, Sharad Prabhakar, Mandeep Singh Dhillon, Akshay Anand, Gillipsie Minhas
BACKGROUND: Genetic predisposition to ACL tears has received tremendous interest in the past few years with many SNPs of different genes being linked to ACL tear. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine if specific sequence variants in COL12A1 gene are associated with ACL tears in Indian population. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 patients with surgically diagnosed ACL tear and 52 healthy, age-matched controls without any ligament/tendon injuries were genotyped for rs970547 and rs240736 SNPs using real time PCR method...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900291/elastin-a-possible-genetic-biomarker-for-more-severe-ligament-injuries-in-elite-soccer-a-pilot-study
#16
Rosa Artells, Ricard Pruna, Alexandre Dellal, Nicola Maffulli
BACKGROUND: The study of new genetic biomarkers in genes related to connective tissue repair and regeneration may help to identify individuals with greater predisposition to injury, who may benefit from targeted preventive measures, and those who require longer recovery time following a muscle, ligament or tendon injury. The present study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Elastin gene could be related to MCL injury. METHODS: 60 top class football players were studied to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms for the Elastin (ELN) gene using Allelic Discrimination analysis...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875489/femoral-medialization-fixation-failures-and-functional-outcome-in-trochanteric-hip-fractures-treated-with-either-a-sliding-hip-screw-or-an-intramedullary-nail-from-within-a-randomized-trial
#17
Christopher P Bretherton, Martyn J Parker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if femoral medialization influences residual pain and mobility and to determine if fixation method or fracture pattern influences the tendency to medialize. DESIGN: This study used data from within a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Peterborough City Hospital, UK. PATIENT/PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred forty-four patients presenting with a trochanteric hip fracture were randomized...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829969/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-athletes-involved-with-high-impact-sports
#18
Cyrus Safinia, Eric M Bershad, H Brent Clark, Karen SantaCruz, Naila Alakbarova, Jose I Suarez, Afshin A Divani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease occurring most commonly in athletes and is caused by repeated concussive or subconcussive blows to the head. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the published literature on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in athletes participating in high-impact sports. In particular, we highlight the significance of concussive and subconcussive impacts in multiple sports, elucidate the differences between clinical/pathological features of CTE and related neurodegenerative diseases, and provide an explanation for the variation in clinical presentation between athletes of different sports...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820742/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#19
Dana Y Fuhrman, John A Kellum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a serious complication of cardiac surgery. An understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AKI in cardiac surgery patients is crucial to early recognition and proper management. RECENT FINDINGS: The article will review the current criteria used for defining AKI and the most recently published incidence rates of AKI in the cardiac surgery population. Variables associated with AKI will be reviewed. The cause of cardiac surgery-associated AKI is multifactorial involving genetic factors as well as insults because of nephrotoxins, ischemia and reperfusion, cardiac dysfunction, venous congestion, inflammation, and oxidative stress...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788778/alcohol-and-lung-injury-and-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Samantha M Yeligar, Michael M Chen, Elizabeth J Kovacs, Joseph H Sisson, Ellen L Burnham, Lou Ann S Brown
Annually, excessive alcohol use accounts for more than $220 billion in economic costs and 80,000 deaths, making excessive alcohol use the third leading lifestyle-related cause of death in the US. Patients with an alcohol-use disorder (AUD) also have an increased susceptibility to respiratory pathogens and lung injury, including a 2-4-fold increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This review investigates some of the potential mechanisms by which alcohol causes lung injury and impairs lung immunity...
September 2016: Alcohol
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