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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903671/sports-related-lung-injury-during-breath-hold-diving
#1
Tanja Mijacika, Zeljko Dujic
The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900301/association-of-acl-tears-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-collagen-12-a1-gene-in-the-indian-population-a-preliminary-case-control-study
#2
Rakesh John, Sharad Prabhakar, Mandeep Singh Dhillon, Akshay Anand, Gillipsie Minhas
BACKGROUND: Genetic predisposition to ACL tears has received tremendous interest in the past few years with many SNPs of different genes being linked to ACL tear. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine if specific sequence variants in COL12A1 gene are associated with ACL tears in Indian population. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 patients with surgically diagnosed ACL tear and 52 healthy, age-matched controls without any ligament/tendon injuries were genotyped for rs970547 and rs240736 SNPs using real time PCR method...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900291/elastin-a-possible-genetic-biomarker-for-more-severe-ligament-injuries-in-elite-soccer-a-pilot-study
#3
Rosa Artells, Ricard Pruna, Alexandre Dellal, Nicola Maffulli
BACKGROUND: The study of new genetic biomarkers in genes related to connective tissue repair and regeneration may help to identify individuals with greater predisposition to injury, who may benefit from targeted preventive measures, and those who require longer recovery time following a muscle, ligament or tendon injury. The present study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Elastin gene could be related to MCL injury. METHODS: 60 top class football players were studied to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms for the Elastin (ELN) gene using Allelic Discrimination analysis...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875489/femoral-medialization-fixation-failures-and-functional-outcome-in-trochanteric-hip-fractures-treated-with-either-a-sliding-hip-screw-or-an-intramedullary-nail-from-within-a-randomized-trial
#4
Christopher P Bretherton, Martyn J Parker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if femoral medialization influences residual pain and mobility and to determine if fixation method or fracture pattern influences the tendency to medialize. DESIGN: This study used data from within a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Peterborough City Hospital, UK. PATIENT/PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred forty-four patients presenting with a trochanteric hip fracture were randomized...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829969/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-athletes-involved-with-high-impact-sports
#5
Cyrus Safinia, Eric M Bershad, H Brent Clark, Karen SantaCruz, Naila Alakbarova, Jose I Suarez, Afshin A Divani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease occurring most commonly in athletes and is caused by repeated concussive or subconcussive blows to the head. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the published literature on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in athletes participating in high-impact sports. In particular, we highlight the significance of concussive and subconcussive impacts in multiple sports, elucidate the differences between clinical/pathological features of CTE and related neurodegenerative diseases, and provide an explanation for the variation in clinical presentation between athletes of different sports...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820742/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#6
Dana Y Fuhrman, John A Kellum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a serious complication of cardiac surgery. An understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AKI in cardiac surgery patients is crucial to early recognition and proper management. RECENT FINDINGS: The article will review the current criteria used for defining AKI and the most recently published incidence rates of AKI in the cardiac surgery population. Variables associated with AKI will be reviewed. The cause of cardiac surgery-associated AKI is multifactorial involving genetic factors as well as insults because of nephrotoxins, ischemia and reperfusion, cardiac dysfunction, venous congestion, inflammation, and oxidative stress...
November 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788778/alcohol-and-lung-injury-and-immunity
#7
REVIEW
Samantha M Yeligar, Michael M Chen, Elizabeth J Kovacs, Joseph H Sisson, Ellen L Burnham, Lou Ann S Brown
Annually, excessive alcohol use accounts for more than $220 billion in economic costs and 80,000 deaths, making excessive alcohol use the third leading lifestyle-related cause of death in the US. Patients with an alcohol-use disorder (AUD) also have an increased susceptibility to respiratory pathogens and lung injury, including a 2-4-fold increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This review investigates some of the potential mechanisms by which alcohol causes lung injury and impairs lung immunity...
September 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768739/remote-liver-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-against-sudden-cardiac-death-via-an-erk-gsk-3%C3%AE-dependent-mechanism
#8
Zhaoyang Hu, Sheng Hu, Shuai Yang, Mou Chen, Ping Zhang, Jin Liu, Geoffrey W Abbott
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning stimuli conducted in remote organs can protect the heart against subsequent ischemic injury, but effects on arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of remote liver ischemia preconditioning (RLIPC) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in vivo, and determined the potential role of ERK/GSK-3βsignaling. METHODS/RESULTS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to sham-operated, control, or RLIPC groups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766954/identification-of-novel-genetic-variations-affecting-osteoarthritis-patients
#9
Mamdooh Abdullah Gari, Mohammed AlKaff, Haneen S Alsehli, Ashraf Dallol, Abdullah Gari, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Roaa Kadam, Mohammed F Abuzinadah, Mazin Gari, Adel M Abuzenadah, Kalamegam Gauthaman, Heba Alkhatabi, Mohammed M Abbas
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease characterized by gradual degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the cartilage and bone. The ECM of cartilage is a highly specified structure that is mainly composed of type II collagen and provides tensile strength to the tissue via aggrecan and proteoglycans. However, changes in the ECM composition and structure can lead to loss of collagen type II and network integrity. Several risk factors have been correlated with OA including age, genetic predisposition, hereditary factors, obesity, mechanical injuries, and joint trauma...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720455/myocardial-fibrosis-in-athletes
#10
REVIEW
Freek R van de Schoor, Vincent L Aengevaeren, Maria T E Hopman, David L Oxborough, Keith P George, Paul D Thompson, Thijs M H Eijsvogels
Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is a common phenomenon in the late stages of diverse cardiac diseases and is a predictive factor for sudden cardiac death. Myocardial fibrosis detected by magnetic resonance imaging has also been reported in athletes. Regular exercise improves cardiovascular health, but there may be a limit of benefit in the exercise dose-response relationship. Intense exercise training could induce pathologic cardiac remodeling, ultimately leading to MF, but the clinical implications of MF in athletes are unknown...
November 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692106/whole-exome-sequencing-analysis-in-twin-sibling-males-with-an-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rupture
#11
Enrique Caso, Antonio Maestro, Cristina C Sabiers, Manuel Godino, Zaira Caracuel, Joana Pons, F Jesus Gonzalez, Rocio Bautista, M Gonzalo Claros, Jaime Caso-Onzain, Elena Viejo-Allende, Peter V Giannoudis, Sara Alvarez, Paolo Maietta, Enrique Guerado
Familial predisposition is among the major genetic risk factors for non-contact musculoskeletal tissue injuries. Personal genome sequence shows that different polymorphism profiles may account for the number and the degree of injuries and the recovery time. Genotyping studies allow investigation into genome factors with potential impact on pathogenesis of non-contact ligament injuries. We have studied a family with twin sibling males surgically diagnosed of an anterior cruciate ligament non-contact rupture and non-affected progenitors (father and mother) were subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis...
September 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687816/upholding-wag-rij-rats-as-a-model-of-absence-epileptogenesis-hidden-mechanisms-and-a-new-theory-on-seizure-development
#12
REVIEW
Emilio Russo, Rita Citraro, Andrew Constanti, Antonio Leo, Annika Lüttjohann, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Giovambattista De Sarro
The WAG/Rij rat model has recently gathered attention as a suitable animal model of absence epileptogenesis. This latter term has a broad definition encompassing any possible cause that determines the development of spontaneous seizures; however, most of, if not all, preclinical knowledge on epileptogenesis is confined to the study of post-brain insult models such as traumatic brain injury or post-status epilepticus models. WAG/Rij rats, but also synapsin 2 knockout, Kv7 current-deficient mice represent the first examples of genetic models where an efficacious antiepileptogenic treatment (ethosuximide) was started before seizure onset...
September 26, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658515/effect-of-environmental-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-exposure-on-inflammatory-mediators-and-serotonin-metabolism-in-a-human-neuroblastoma-cell-line
#13
Marcella Reale, Chiara D Angelo, Erica Costantini, Ada Maria Tata, Francesca Regen, Julian Hellmann-Regen
Exposure to environmental extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in everyday life is increasing and it is a matter of great debate whether exposure to ELF-EMF can be harmful to human health. The neuropathology and symptoms of neurodegenerative disease depends on factors involving other than genetic predispositions, such as environmental exposure to disease-related risk factors. Research focusing on a possible contribution of ELF-EMF to cell injury and to the development of neurodegenerative disorders is characterized by conflicting data from epidemiological and animal studies...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646644/pile-driving-into-the-skull-and-suspending-the-bridging-veins-an-undescribed-role-of-arachnoid-granulations
#14
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
PURPOSE: Arachnoid granulations (AGs) occasionally appear to protrude into the calvarial convexity, lying close to the bridging veins (BVs). This study aims to characterize such AGs and BVs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Ninety-five patients were enrolled in this study. Initially, stepwise frontal craniotomy was performed in an injected cadaver head. Next, examinations with contrast MRI were performed involving the whole cranial vault. RESULTS: In cadaveric dissection, the AGs located in the parasagittal regions appeared as outward protrusions through the dura mater and in contact with the diploic veins...
September 19, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606784/hypertension-hypertrophy-and-reperfusion-injury
#15
Pasquale Pagliaro, Claudia Penna
The heart of patients with hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy is more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Here we discuss the main mechanisms of IRI and possible targets for cardioprotection. In particular, we consider the viewpoint that hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy may act synergistically in increasing the predisposition to cardiovascular accidents and in worsening IRI. There is no doubt that hypertrophic hearts may be redirected to be less vulnerable to IRI. Some experimental evidences suggest that antihypertensive drugs may have beneficial effects, some of which are not directly related to hypertension-lowering effect...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590903/the-association-of-genetic-predisposition-to-depressive-symptoms-with-non-suicidal-and-suicidal-self-injuries
#16
Dominique F Maciejewski, Miguel E Renteria, Abdel Abdellaoui, Sarah E Medland, Lauren R Few, Scott D Gordon, Pamela A F Madden, Grant Montgomery, Timothy J Trull, Andrew C Heath, Dixie J Statham, Nicholas G Martin, Brendan P Zietsch, Karin J H Verweij
Non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury are very destructive, yet surprisingly common behaviours. Depressed mood is a major risk factor for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conducted a genetic risk prediction study to examine the polygenic overlap of depressive symptoms with lifetime NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in a sample of 6237 Australian adult twins and their family members (3740 females, mean age = 42.4 years). Polygenic risk scores for depressive symptoms significantly predicted suicidal ideation, and some predictive ability was found for suicide attempts; the polygenic risk scores explained a significant amount of variance in suicidal ideation (lowest p = 0...
September 2, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587455/current-practices-and-the-provider-perspectives-on-inconclusive-genetic-test-results-for-osteogenesis-imperfecta-in-children-with-unexplained-fractures-elsi-implications
#17
Emily Youngblom, Mitzi Leah Murray, Peter H Byers
Genetic testing can be used to determine if unexplained fractures in children could have resulted from a predisposition to bone fractures, e.g., osteogenesis imperfecta. However, uncertainty is introduced if a variant of unknown significance (VUS) is identified. Proper interpretation of VUS in these situations is critical because of its influence on clinical care and in court rulings. This study sought to understand how VUS are interpreted and used by practitioners when there is a differential diagnosis including both osteogenesis imperfecta and non-accidental injury...
September 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562211/osteotropic-nanoscale-drug-delivery-systems-based-on-small-molecule-bone-targeting-moieties
#18
REVIEW
Erica J Carbone, Komal Rajpura, Brittany N Allen, Emily Cheng, Bret D Ulery, Kevin W-H Lo
Bone-targeted drug delivery is an active research area because successful clinical applications of this technology can significantly advance the treatment of bone injuries and disorders. Molecules with bone-targeting potential have been actively investigated as promising moieties in targeted drug delivery systems. In general, bone-targeting molecules are characterized by their high affinity for bone and their predisposition to persist in bone tissue for prolonged periods, while maintaining low systemic concentrations...
August 22, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541846/deadly-falls-operative-versus-nonoperative-management-of-type-ii-odontoid-process-fracture-in-octogenarians
#19
Christopher S Graffeo, Avital Perry, Ross C Puffer, Lucas P Carlstrom, Wendy Chang, Grant W Mallory, Michelle J Clarke
OBJECTIVE Type II odontoid fracture is a common injury among elderly patients, particularly given their predisposition toward low-energy falls. Previous studies have demonstrated a survival advantage following early surgery among patients older than 65 years, yet octogenarians represent a medically distinct and rapidly growing population. The authors compared operative and nonoperative management in patients older than 79 years. METHODS A single-center prospectively maintained trauma database was reviewed using ICD-9 codes to identify octogenarians with C-2 cervical fractures between 1998 and 2014...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535425/mouse-genetic-background-contributes-to-hepatocyte-susceptibility-to-fas-mediated-apoptosis
#20
Sujith V W Weerasinghe, Min-Jung Park, Daniel A Portney, M Bishr Omary
Liver disease progression is modulated by genetic modifiers in mouse strains and across human races and ethnicities. We hypothesized that hepatocyte culture duration and genetic background regulate hepatocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. Hepatocytes were isolated from FVB/N, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice and cultured or treated with Fas ligand or acetaminophen after different culture times. Protein and mRNA expressions of Fas receptor, caspases-3/7/8, and Bak/Bax/Bid proteins were determined. FVB/N hepatocytes manifested rapid decreases of caspases-3/7 but not caspase-8 as culture time increased, which paralleled decreased susceptibility to apoptosis...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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