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Injury predisposition

Zhaoyang Hu, Sheng Hu, Shuai Yang, Mou Chen, Ping Zhang, Jin Liu, Geoffrey W Abbott
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning stimuli conducted in remote organs can protect the heart against subsequent ischemic injury, but effects on arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of remote liver ischemia preconditioning (RLIPC) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in vivo, and determined the potential role of ERK/GSK-3βsignaling. METHODS/RESULTS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to sham-operated, control, or RLIPC groups...
2016: PloS One
Mamdooh Abdullah Gari, Mohammed AlKaff, Haneen S Alsehli, Ashraf Dallol, Abdullah Gari, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Roaa Kadam, Mohammed F Abuzinadah, Mazin Gari, Adel M Abuzenadah, Kalamegam Gauthaman, Heba Alkhatabi, Mohammed M Abbas
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease characterized by gradual degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the cartilage and bone. The ECM of cartilage is a highly specified structure that is mainly composed of type II collagen and provides tensile strength to the tissue via aggrecan and proteoglycans. However, changes in the ECM composition and structure can lead to loss of collagen type II and network integrity. Several risk factors have been correlated with OA including age, genetic predisposition, hereditary factors, obesity, mechanical injuries, and joint trauma...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Freek R van de Schoor, Vincent L Aengevaeren, Maria T E Hopman, David L Oxborough, Keith P George, Paul D Thompson, Thijs M H Eijsvogels
Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is a common phenomenon in the late stages of diverse cardiac diseases and is a predictive factor for sudden cardiac death. Myocardial fibrosis detected by magnetic resonance imaging has also been reported in athletes. Regular exercise improves cardiovascular health, but there may be a limit of benefit in the exercise dose-response relationship. Intense exercise training could induce pathologic cardiac remodeling, ultimately leading to MF, but the clinical implications of MF in athletes are unknown...
October 6, 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Enrique Caso, Antonio Maestro, Cristina C Sabiers, Manuel Godino, Zaira Caracuel, Joana Pons, F Jesus Gonzalez, Rocio Bautista, M Gonzalo Claros, Jaime Caso-Onzain, Elena Viejo-Allende, Peter V Giannoudis, Sara Alvarez, Paolo Maietta, Enrique Guerado
Familial predisposition is among the major genetic risk factors for non-contact musculoskeletal tissue injuries. Personal genome sequence shows that different polymorphism profiles may account for the number and the degree of injuries and the recovery time. Genotyping studies allow investigation into genome factors with potential impact on pathogenesis of non-contact ligament injuries. We have studied a family with twin sibling males surgically diagnosed of an anterior cruciate ligament non-contact rupture and non-affected progenitors (father and mother) were subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis...
September 2016: Injury
Emilio Russo, Rita Citraro, Andrew Constanti, Antonio Leo, Annika Lüttjohann, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Giovambattista De Sarro
The WAG/Rij rat model has recently gathered attention as a suitable animal model of absence epileptogenesis. This latter term has a broad definition encompassing any possible cause that determines the development of spontaneous seizures; however, most of, if not all, preclinical knowledge on epileptogenesis is confined to the study of post-brain insult models such as traumatic brain injury or post-status epilepticus models. WAG/Rij rats, but also synapsin 2 knockout, Kv7 current-deficient mice represent the first examples of genetic models where an efficacious antiepileptogenic treatment (ethosuximide) was started before seizure onset...
September 26, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Marcella Reale, Chiara D Angelo, Erica Costantini, Ada Maria Tata, Francesca Regen, Julian Hellmann-Regen
Exposure to environmental extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in everyday life is increasing and it is a matter of great debate whether exposure to ELF-EMF can be harmful to human health. The neuropathology and symptoms of neurodegenerative disease depends on factors involving other than genetic predispositions, such as environmental exposure to disease-related risk factors. Research focusing on a possible contribution of ELF-EMF to cell injury and to the development of neurodegenerative disorders is characterized by conflicting data from epidemiological and animal studies...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
PURPOSE: Arachnoid granulations (AGs) occasionally appear to protrude into the calvarial convexity, lying close to the bridging veins (BVs). This study aims to characterize such AGs and BVs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Ninety-five patients were enrolled in this study. Initially, stepwise frontal craniotomy was performed in an injected cadaver head. Next, examinations with contrast MRI were performed involving the whole cranial vault. RESULTS: In cadaveric dissection, the AGs located in the parasagittal regions appeared as outward protrusions through the dura mater and in contact with the diploic veins...
September 19, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Pasquale Pagliaro, Claudia Penna
The heart of patients with hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy is more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Here we discuss the main mechanisms of IRI and possible targets for cardioprotection. In particular, we consider the viewpoint that hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy may act synergistically in increasing the predisposition to cardiovascular accidents and in worsening IRI. There is no doubt that hypertrophic hearts may be redirected to be less vulnerable to IRI. Some experimental evidences suggest that antihypertensive drugs may have beneficial effects, some of which are not directly related to hypertension-lowering effect...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Dominique F Maciejewski, Miguel E Renteria, Abdel Abdellaoui, Sarah E Medland, Lauren R Few, Scott D Gordon, Pamela A F Madden, Grant Montgomery, Timothy J Trull, Andrew C Heath, Dixie J Statham, Nicholas G Martin, Brendan P Zietsch, Karin J H Verweij
Non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury are very destructive, yet surprisingly common behaviours. Depressed mood is a major risk factor for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conducted a genetic risk prediction study to examine the polygenic overlap of depressive symptoms with lifetime NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in a sample of 6237 Australian adult twins and their family members (3740 females, mean age = 42.4 years). Polygenic risk scores for depressive symptoms significantly predicted suicidal ideation, and some predictive ability was found for suicide attempts; the polygenic risk scores explained a significant amount of variance in suicidal ideation (lowest p = 0...
September 2, 2016: Behavior Genetics
Emily Youngblom, Mitzi Leah Murray, Peter H Byers
Genetic testing can be used to determine if unexplained fractures in children could have resulted from a predisposition to bone fractures, e.g., osteogenesis imperfecta. However, uncertainty is introduced if a variant of unknown significance (VUS) is identified. Proper interpretation of VUS in these situations is critical because of its influence on clinical care and in court rulings. This study sought to understand how VUS are interpreted and used by practitioners when there is a differential diagnosis including both osteogenesis imperfecta and non-accidental injury...
September 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Erica J Carbone, Komal Rajpura, Brittany N Allen, Emily Cheng, Bret D Ulery, Kevin W-H Lo
Bone-targeted drug delivery is an active research area because successful clinical applications of this technology can significantly advance the treatment of bone injuries and disorders. Molecules with bone-targeting potential have been actively investigated as promising moieties in targeted drug delivery systems. In general, bone-targeting molecules are characterized by their high affinity for bone and their predisposition to persist in bone tissue for prolonged periods, while maintaining low systemic concentrations...
August 22, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Christopher S Graffeo, Avital Perry, Ross C Puffer, Lucas P Carlstrom, Wendy Chang, Grant W Mallory, Michelle J Clarke
OBJECTIVE Type II odontoid fracture is a common injury among elderly patients, particularly given their predisposition toward low-energy falls. Previous studies have demonstrated a survival advantage following early surgery among patients older than 65 years, yet octogenarians represent a medically distinct and rapidly growing population. The authors compared operative and nonoperative management in patients older than 79 years. METHODS A single-center prospectively maintained trauma database was reviewed using ICD-9 codes to identify octogenarians with C-2 cervical fractures between 1998 and 2014...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Sujith V W Weerasinghe, Min-Jung Park, Daniel A Portney, M Bishr Omary
Liver disease progression is modulated by genetic modifiers in mouse strains and across human races and ethnicities. We hypothesized that hepatocyte culture duration and genetic background regulate hepatocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. Hepatocytes were isolated from FVB/N, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice and cultured or treated with Fas ligand or acetaminophen after different culture times. Protein and mRNA expressions of Fas receptor, caspases-3/7/8, and Bak/Bax/Bid proteins were determined. FVB/N hepatocytes manifested rapid decreases of caspases-3/7 but not caspase-8 as culture time increased, which paralleled decreased susceptibility to apoptosis...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
K Intziegianni, M Cassel, S Rauf, S White, M Rector, H Kaplick, G Wahmkow, S Kratzenstein, F Mayer
Prevalence of Achilles tendinopathy increases with age leading to a weaker tendon with predisposition to rupture. Conclusive evidence of the influence of age and pathology on Achilles tendon (AT) properties remains limited, as previous studies are based on standardized isometric conditions. The study investigates the influence of age and pathology on AT properties during single-leg vertical jump (SLVJ). 10 children (C), 10 asymptomatic adults (A), and 10 tendinopathic patients (T) were included. AT elongation [mm] from rest to maximal displacement during a SLVJ on a force-plate was sonographically assessed...
August 8, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
J Pazik, Z Lewandowski, M Oldak, D Oziębło, A Perkowska Ptasinska, A Sadowska, E Nowacka-Cieciura, M Nowaczyk, J Malejczyk, A Kwiatkowski, M Durlik
Allelic variants of the MYH9 gene, encoding myosin nonmuscle heavy chain type IIA, have been shown to correlate with diminished glomerular filtration rates and end-stage kidney disease in individuals of Caucasian ancestry. Myosin nonmuscle heavy chain type IIA is expressed during development as well as in injured vessels and kidney structures. We hypothesized that MYH9 risk variants may correlate with kidney artery injury and dysfunctional healing, such as transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS). Our study aimed at evaluating the association of MYH9 risk allelic variants (rs4821480, rs4821481, rs3752462, rs11089788, rs136211, rs5756168, rs2032487, and rs2239784) with TRAS, defined as >50% renal artery lumen reduction...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Saraladevi Naicker
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a major public health problem, is especially challenging for patients and healthcare personnel in Africa, a region with poor economic resources and a massive shortage of health-care workers. The burden of kidney disease is increased in poorly-resourced regions due to increased exposure to infections, poverty, poor access to healthcare, and genetic predisposition to kidney disease, contributing further to the problems when managing CKD and acute kidney injury. The vast majority of patients do not have access to renal replacement therapy...
July 29, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Rosanne E Jepson
In cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the most common histopathologic finding is tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. However, these changes reflect a nonspecific response of the kidney to any inciting injury. The risk of developing CKD is likely to reflect the composite effects of genetic predisposition, aging, and environmental and individual factors that affect renal function over the course of a cat's life. However, there is still little information available to determine exactly which individual risk factors predispose a cat to develop CKD...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Renato Polimanti, Chia-Yen Chen, Robert J Ursano, Steven G Heeringa, Sonia Jain, Ronald C Kessler, Matthew K Nock, Jordan Smoller, Xiaoying Sun, Joel Gelernter, Murray B Stein
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to the increased rates of suicide and post-traumatic stress disorder in military personnel and veterans; and it is also associated with the risk of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. A cross-phenotype high-resolution polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis of persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) was conducted in 845 U.S. Army soldiers who sustained TBI during their deployment. We used a prospective longitudinal survey of three Brigade Combat Teams to assess deployment-acquired TBI and persistent physical, cognitive, and emotional PCS...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
V Patella, M Bocchino, G Steinhilber
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow limitation. Despite respiratory symptoms may be episodic, progressive changes occur in the structure of the airway, leading to its irreversible remodeling. Changes include mucus hypersecretion, injury to epithelial cells, smooth muscle hypertrophy, sub-basement membrane fibrosis and angiogenesis. The risk factors for developing asthma are a combination of genetic predisposition along with environmental exposure to inhaled substances and particles that may provoke allergic reactions or irritate the airways, such as in- and out-door allergens, tobacco smoke, chemical irritants in the workplace and air pollution...
August 2015: Minerva Medica
Justin S Yang, Jeffrey G Stepan, Lucas Dvoracek, Rick W Wright, Robert H Brophy, Matthew V Smith
BACKGROUND: Fast-pitch softball is one of the fastest growing sports, but there is little research regarding pitcher fatigue. Currently, there are no pitch limits or game counts. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To study the effect of fatigue on youth fast-pitch softball pitchers during a high school season, we hypothesized increased games pitched during the season would correlate with increased player-reported pain and fatigue and decreased with upper extremity strength and range of motion (ROM)...
July 2016: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
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