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Yuri da Silva Ventura Faustino-da-Silva, Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, André Oliveira Werneck, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle Robinson Lynch, Isabella Neto Exupério, Igor Hideki Ito, Romulo Araújo Fernandes
Background: Osteoporosis is considered a public health problem with high worldwide prevalence. One approach to prevention is through the promotion of physical activity, especially exercise, during adolescence. Methods: This study compared bone variables in different body segments in adolescents according to participation in track and field. The study included 34 adolescents (22 boys), of whom 17 were track and field athletes and 17 were control subjects. Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2 ) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were analyzed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (total body stratified by body segments)...
February 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
Judith M Scholing, Margreet R Olthof, Femkje Am Jonker, Tanja Gm Vrijkotte
OBJECTIVE: Inadequate maternal micronutrient status during pregnancy can lead to short- and long-term health risks for mother and offspring. The present study investigated the association between pre-pregnancy weight status and micronutrient status during pregnancy. DESIGN: Maternal blood samples were collected during early pregnancy (median 13, interquartile range 12-15 weeks) and were assayed for serum folate, ferritin, Fe and vitamin B12. Regression modelling was used to assess the association between pre-pregnancy underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity, and micronutrient levels, as well as the odds for deficiencies...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Krista M Lisdahl, Kenneth J Sher, Kevin P Conway, Raul Gonzalez, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Sara Jo Nixon, Susan Tapert, Hauke Bartsch, Rita Z Goldstein, Mary Heitzeg
One of the objectives of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study ( is to establish a national longitudinal cohort of 9 and 10 year olds that will be followed for 10 years in order to prospectively study the risk and protective factors influencing substance use and its consequences, examine the impact of substance use on neurocognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes, and to understand the relationship between substance use and psychopathology. This article provides an overview of the ABCD Study Substance Use Workgroup, provides the goals for the workgroup, rationale for the substance use battery, and includes details on the substance use module methods and measurement tools used during baseline, 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessment time-points...
February 21, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Valérie Zimmerlé, Emeline Laurent, Valérie Tauveron, Annabel Maruani, Emmanuelle Le Bidre, Mahtab Samimi, Laurent Machet
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous cancers are very common, easily visible on skin. The general practitioner (GP) is in the front line to manage the lesions. He has to recognize malignancy and refer most often to the specialist for excision, or consider that the lesion is benign and in ambiguous cases, offer clinical monitoring. The current low medical density in the Centre Val de Loire area makes access to general practitioners (GP) and dermatologists harder. The aim of this study was to evaluate GPs' everyday practice in cutaneous cancers screening in general, and particularly in melanoma screening, in a rural region of France...
March 16, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Owaid M Almalki, Wei-Jei Lee, Keong Chong, Kong-Han Ser, Yi-Chih Lee, Shu-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: In recent years, gastric bypass surgery has been found to have therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the difference between 2 bypass procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and another single anastomosis gastric bypass (SAGB), is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences between SAGB and RYGB in the efficacy of T2D remission in obese patients. SETTING: Tertiary teaching hospital...
April 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
A V Efimov
In proteins, the polypeptide chain forms a number of right- and left-handed helices and superhelices, right- and left-turned hairpins, and some other structures that are nonsuperimposable, although they are not mirror images of each other as the L-amino acids are not converted to the D-amino acids. This property of protein structures will be referred to here as pseudo-chirality - or handedness. It has been shown that there are two kinds of handedness in proteins - helical handedness and handedness of arrangement...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Siavash Atashgahi, Bastian Hornung, Marcelle J van der Waals, Ulisses Nunes da Rocha, Floor Hugenholtz, Bart Nijsse, Douwe Molenaar, Rob van Spanning, Alfons J M Stams, Jan Gerritse, Hauke Smidt
In this study, we report transcription of genes involved in aerobic and anaerobic benzene degradation pathways in a benzene-degrading denitrifying continuous culture. Transcripts associated with the family Peptococcaceae dominated all samples (21-36% relative abundance) indicating their key role in the community. We found a highly transcribed gene cluster encoding a presumed anaerobic benzene carboxylase (AbcA and AbcD) and a benzoate-coenzyme A ligase (BzlA). Predicted gene products showed >96% amino acid identity and similar gene order to the corresponding benzene degradation gene cluster described previously, providing further evidence for anaerobic benzene activation via carboxylation...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cláudia Lopes Carvalho, Ariella Fornachari Ribeiro Belan, Leila Regina de Castro, Márcia Radanovic
PURPOSE: To characterize the linguistic profile of adults and elderly with Down Syndrome (DS) using the Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders of Dementia (ABCD). METHODS: Thirty adult individuals with DS were evaluated through the MoCA cognitive battery, four functional scales (Pfeffer, Lawton-IADL, Katz-IADL and IQCODE) and the ABCD battery, which evaluates Mental State, Episodic Memory, Linguistic Expression, Linguistic Comprehension and Visuospatial Construction...
March 12, 2018: CoDAS
Ipek Candemir, Pinar Ergun, Dicle Kaymaz, Filiz Tasdemir, Nurcan Egesel
BACKGROUND: There are limited number of studies that investigate clinical variables instead of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) management according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 classification. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there was a difference between GOLD 2017 classification and spirometric stage in clinical variables in patients with COPD. The data of 427 male patients with stable COPD were investigated retrospectively...
March 7, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Jung-Chien Chen, Nan-Yung Hsu, Wei-Jei Lee, Shu-Chun Chen, Kong-Han Ser, Yi-Chih Lee
BACKGROUND: Metabolic surgery has become increasingly accepted for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is limited evidence regarding the optimal candidate and surgical procedure. Although a new individualized metabolic surgery (IMS) score was recently proposed for procedure selection, it has yet to be validated. OBJECTIVE: To validate the IMS score with regard to remission of T2D after metabolic surgery and compare it with the age, body mass index, C-peptide level, and duration of T2D (ABCD) score...
January 31, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
M Luciana, J M Bjork, B J Nagel, D M Barch, R Gonzalez, S J Nixon, M T Banich
Adolescence is characterized by numerous social, hormonal and physical changes, as well as a marked increase in risk-taking behaviors. Dual systems models attribute adolescent risk-taking to tensions between developing capacities for cognitive control and motivational strivings, which may peak at this time. A comprehensive understanding of neurocognitive development during the adolescent period is necessary to permit the distinction between premorbid vulnerabilities and consequences of behaviors such as substance use...
February 21, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Koichi Yoneyama, Xiaonan Xie, Kaori Yoneyama, Takaya Kisugi, Takahito Nomura, Yoshifumi Nakatani, Kohki Akiyama, Christopher S P McErlean
Strigolactones (SLs) can be classified into two structurally distinct groups: canonical and non-canonical SLs. Canonical SLs contain the ABCD ring system, and non-canonical SLs lack the A, B, or C ring but have the enol ether-D ring moiety which is essential for biological activities. The simplest non-canonical SL is the SL biosynthetic intermediate carlactone (CL). In plants, CL and its oxidized metabolites such as carlactonoic acid and methyl carlactonoate, are present in root and shoot tissues. In some plant species including black oat (Avena strigosa), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and maize (Zea mays), non-canonical SLs are major germination stimulants in the root exudates...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gholamreza Honarasa
In this paper, the propagation of controllable dark-hollow beams (CDHBs) passing through a quadratic-index medium is studied. An analytical expression for the propagation of CDHBs in a quadratic-index medium is presented based on the ABCD matrix method, and the effect of the beam parameters on the evolution of a CDHB is investigated. It is found that the intensity distribution of CDHBs evolves periodically during propagation in the quadratic-index medium. The results indicate that the distance in which the dark-hollow center of a CDHB disappears can be increased by the beam parameters...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Titus Josef Brinker, Bianca Lisa Faria, Martina Gatzka, Olber Moreira de Faria, Markus V Heppt, Michael C Kirchberger, Dirk Schadendorf, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Fabian Buslaff, Oscar Campos Lisboa, Ana Carla Cruz Oliveira, Henrique Augusto Lino, Breno Bernardes-Souza
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. The Southeast of Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to UV radiation represents a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation for adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that harnesses the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance may represent a novel method to improve skin cancer prevention...
March 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Yosuke Seki, Kazunori Kasama, Kazuki Yasuda, Renzo Yokoyama, Jose Paolo Porciuncula, Yoshimochi Kurokawa
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with duodenojejunal bypass (LSG-DJB) is a combination of sleeve gastrectomy and proximal intestinal bypass through duodenal exclusion. This technique has shown excellent weight loss and anti-diabetic effects in severely obese patients. In this retrospective study, we examined the clinical effects of LSG-DJB on mildly obese patients (body mass index (BMI) < 35 kg/m2 ) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and analyzed factors contributing to the successful postoperative glycemic control...
March 3, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Terry L Jernigan, Sandra A Brown
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal, observational study of over 10,000 youth recruited at 21 sites throughout the United States. Comprehensive biennial assessments and more limited interim assessments measure health, mental health, neurocognition, family, cultural and environmental variables, substance use, genetic and other biomarkers, and structural and functional brain development. Within this Special Issue, readers will find much information about the rationale and objectives of the study, the broad ranging assessment protocols and new as well as traditional methodologies applied at baseline, the recruitment and retention strategies, and the anticipated final composition of the cohort...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Julien J Caubel, Troy E Cados, Thomas W Kirchstetter
Low-cost air pollution sensors are emerging and increasingly being deployed in densely distributed wireless networks that provide more spatial resolution than is typical in traditional monitoring of ambient air quality. However, a low-cost option to measure black carbon (BC)-a major component of particulate matter pollution associated with adverse human health risks-is missing. This paper presents a new BC sensor designed to fill this gap, the Aerosol Black Carbon Detector (ABCD), which incorporates a compact weatherproof enclosure, solar-powered rechargeable battery, and cellular communication to enable long-term, remote operation...
March 1, 2018: Sensors
Martha Dixon
Patients in acute settings may present with a variety of signs and symptoms; however, the principles of assessment are applicable to all acutely unwell patients. This article details a case study of a patient who presented to the author's medical ward in a catatonic state, and was assessed using the ABCDE (airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure) approach. Catatonia is a disturbed mental state in which a patient exhibits abnormal behaviour, such as the inability to speak and non-responsiveness to stimuli, alongside immobility...
February 28, 2018: Nursing Standard
Lindsay McCORMACK, Elena B Hawryluk
Pediatric melanoma is a rare disease that affects approximately 6 out of every one million children and accounts for 1-4 percent of all melanomas. This article reviews the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pediatric melanoma - with particular attention to recent updates in the literature. While awareness of melanoma increases among the general population, recent data suggest stable and even declining incidence rates among certain pediatric populations. Studies have examined clinical features and presentations of melanoma among the pediatric population and the conventional ABCDE criteria used to diagnosis adult melanoma may not be entirely appropriate for pediatric melanoma; as such, additional pediatric-ABCD and CUP criteria have been proposed...
February 26, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Séverine Tasker, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Sándor Belák, Tadeusz Frymus, Diane D Addie, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Corine Boucraut-Baralon, Herman Egberink, Katrin Hartmann, Margaret J Hosie, Albert Lloret, Fulvio Marsilio, Alan D Radford, Etienne Thiry, Uwe Truyen, Karin Möstl
OVERVIEW: Haemoplasmas are haemotropic bacteria that can induce anaemia in a wide range of mammalian species. Infection in cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic of the three main feline haemoplasma species known to infect cats. ' Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and ' Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' are less pathogenic but can result in disease in immunocompromised cats. Male, non-pedigree cats with outdoor access are more likely to be haemoplasma infected, and ' Candidatus M haemominutum' is more common in older cats...
March 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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