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Dinghai Wang, Na Zhu, Pinhong Chen, Zhenyang Lin, Guosheng Liu
The merger of photoredox catalysis with asymmetric copper catalysis have been realized to convert achiral carboxylic acids into enantiomerically enriched alkyl nitriles. Under mild reaction condition, the reaction exhibits broad substrate scope, high yields and high enantioselectivities. Furthermore, the reaction can be scaled up to synthesize key chiral intermediates to bioactive compounds.
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
P A Evans, S B Cenko, J A Kennea, S W K Emery, N P M Kuin, O Korobkin, R T Wollaeger, C L Fryer, K K Madsen, F A Harrison, Y Xu, E Nakar, K Hotokezaka, A Lien, S Campana, S R Oates, E Troja, A A Breeveld, F E Marshall, S D Barthelmy, A P Beardmore, D N Burrows, G Cusumano, A D'Aì, P D'Avanzo, V D'Elia, M de Pasquale, W P Even, C J Fontes, K Forster, J Garcia, P Giommi, B Grefenstette, C Gronwall, D H Hartmann, M Heida, A L Hungerford, M M Kasliwal, H A Krimm, A J Levan, D Malesani, A Melandri, H Miyasaka, J A Nousek, P T O'Brien, J P Osborne, C Pagani, K L Page, D M Palmer, M Perri, S Pike, J L Racusin, S Rosswog, M H Siegel, T Sakamoto, B Sbarufatti, G Tagliaferri, N R Tanvir, A Tohuvavohu
With the first direct detection of merging black holes in 2015, the era of gravitational wave (GW) astrophysics began. A complete picture of compact object mergers, however, requires the detection of an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We report ultraviolet (UV) and x-ray observations by Swift and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) of the EM counterpart of the binary neutron star merger GW 170817. The bright, rapidly fading ultraviolet emission indicates a high mass (≈ 0.03 solar masses) wind-driven outflow with moderate electron fraction (Ye ≈ 0...
October 16, 2017: Science
I Bartos, Z Haiman, Z Marka, B D Metzger, N C Stone, S Marka
The recent discovery of gravitational waves from stellar-mass binary black hole mergers by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory opened the door to alternative probes of stellar and galactic evolution, cosmology and fundamental physics. Probing the origin of binary black hole mergers will be difficult due to the expected lack of electromagnetic emission and limited localization accuracy. Associations with rare host galaxy types-such as active galactic nuclei-can nevertheless be identified statistically through spatial correlation...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
Mamoru Kato, Daniel A Vasco, Ryuichi Sugino, Daichi Narushima, Alexander Krasnitz
Single-cell sequencing is a promising technology that can address cancer cell evolution by identifying genetic alterations in individual cells. In a recent study, genome-wide DNA copy numbers of single cells were accurately quantified by single-cell sequencing in breast cancers. Phylogenetic-tree analysis revealed genetically distinct populations, each consisting of homogeneous cells. Bioinformatics methods based on population genetics should be further developed to quantitatively analyse the single-cell sequencing data...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Christopher M Petrilli, Elisabetta Mantengoli, Sanjay Saint, Karen E Fowler, Alessandro Bartoloni
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are common and harmful to patients. Effective hand hygiene can help prevent HAIs, however, suboptimal healthcare worker hand hygiene remains problematic across the globe. This study analyses the impact of organisational changes on hand hygiene. METHODS: This observational study assessed hand hygiene by different professions before and after a merger of a recently combined infectious diseases (ID) unit coupled with a qualitative study about barriers to optimal hand hygiene...
May 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
Francesco de Gasperin, Huib T Intema, Timothy W Shimwell, Gianfranco Brunetti, Marcus Brüggen, Torsten A Enßlin, Reinout J van Weeren, Annalisa Bonafede, Huub J A Röttgering
Galaxy clusters are the most massive constituents of the large-scale structure of the universe. Although the hot thermal gas that pervades galaxy clusters is relatively well understood through observations with x-ray satellites, our understanding of the nonthermal part of the intracluster medium (ICM) remains incomplete. With Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations, we have identified a phenomenon that can be unveiled only at extremely low radio frequencies and offers new insights into the nonthermal component...
October 2017: Science Advances
Philip Mocz, Mark Vogelsberger, Victor H Robles, Jesús Zavala, Michael Boylan-Kolchin, Anastasia Fialkov, Lars Hernquist
We present a theoretical analysis of some unexplored aspects of relaxed Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter (BECDM) haloes. This type of ultralight bosonic scalar field dark matter is a viable alternative to the standard cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, as it makes the same large-scale predictions as CDM and potentially overcomes CDM's small-scale problems via a galaxy-scale de Broglie wavelength. We simulate BECDM halo formation through mergers, evolved under the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. The formed haloes consist of a soliton core supported against gravitational collapse by the quantum pressure tensor and an asymptotic r(-3) NFW-like profile...
November 2017: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Elisa Barbieri, Manli Huang, Shenglei Pi, Mattia Tassinari
In places like China, an ageing population coupled with changes in living standards and increases in disposable income, imply a shift of the demand for health-related goods and services which is likely to affect the whole organization of the industries that supply such goods and services at the global level. One of the industries most likely to be affected is the pharmaceutical sector. In the early 2000s China was already the second largest global producer of pharmaceutical ingredients. The pharmaceutical sector has become one of the most important industries promoted by the Chinese government and Five-Year Plan of China's Strategic Emerging Sectors, mergers and acquisition (M&A) activity has been the key strategy to restructure the sector and increase its competitiveness...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michael L Blinov, James C Schaff, Dan Vasilescu, Ion I Moraru, Judy E Bloom, Leslie M Loew
In rule-based modeling, molecular interactions are systematically specified in the form of reaction rules that serve as generators of reactions. This provides a way to account for all the potential molecular complexes and interactions among multivalent or multistate molecules. Recently, we introduced rule-based modeling into the Virtual Cell (VCell) modeling framework, permitting graphical specification of rules and merger of networks generated automatically (using the BioNetGen modeling engine) with hand-specified reaction networks...
October 3, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Paul J Hauptman, Richard J Bookman, Stephen Heinig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
George M Fuller, Alexander Kusenko, Volodymyr Takhistov
We show that some or all of the inventory of r-process nucleosynthesis can be produced in interactions of primordial black holes (PBHs) with neutron stars (NSs) if PBHs with masses 10^{-14}  M_{⊙}<M_{PBH}<10^{-8}  M_{⊙} make up a few percent or more of dark matter. A PBH captured by a NS sinks to the center of the NS and consumes it from the inside. When this occurs in a rotating millisecond-period NS, the resulting spin-up ejects ∼0.1  M_{⊙}-0.5  M_{⊙} of relatively cold neutron-rich material...
August 11, 2017: Physical Review Letters
G R Berdiyorov, M V Milošević, A D Hernández-Nieves, F M Peeters, D Domínguez
The magnetic flux domains in the intermediate state of type-I superconductors are known to resemble fluid droplets, and their dynamics in applied electric current is often cartooned as a "dripping faucet". Here we show, using the time-depended Ginzburg-Landau simulations, that microfluidic principles hold also for the determination of the size of the magnetic flux-droplet as a function of the applied current, as well as for the merger or splitting of those droplets in the presence of the nanoengineered obstacles for droplet motion...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jyoti Nandi, John M Ovian, Christopher B Kelly, Nicholas E Leadbeater
We present a new paradigm for nitroxyl-mediated processes via the merger of oxoammonium cation-mediated oxidation with visible-light photoredox catalysis. The integration of these two forms of catalysis has been realised for the oxidative amidation of aldehydes, furnishing N-acylated heterocycles. Extension of this process to the oxidative amidation of alcohols via the intermediacy of an aldehyde was successfully pursued, thus proffering a general oxidation platform. The activated amides synthesised here are excellent synthetic handles for acylation...
October 11, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
P T S van der Gulik, W D Hoff, D Speijer
BACKGROUND: Recently, important discoveries regarding the archaeon that functioned as the "host" in the merger with a bacterium that led to the eukaryotes, its "complex" nature, and its phylogenetic relationship to eukaryotes, have been reported. Based on these new insights proposals have been put forward to get rid of the three-domain Model of life, and replace it with a two-domain model. RESULTS: We present arguments (both regarding timing, complexity, and chemical nature of specific evolutionary processes, as well as regarding genetic structure) to resist such proposals...
September 19, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Domenico Trombetta, Antonio Rossi, Federico Pio Fabrizio, A Sparaneo, Paolo Graziano, Vito Michele Fazio, Lucia Anna Muscarella
The ErbB network of receptor tyrosine kinases represents one of the best examples of how the understanding of molecular basis of tumor pathogenesis can give a significant improvement for patients treatment, suggesting new therapeutic options to overcome acquired treatment resistance. This amazing bridge between growth factor receptors and cancer has been consolidated during the last decades through the identification of many driver mutations in the gene key of the RTKs network. Unexpected molecular lesions of the NRG1 gene followed by an aberrant ErbB signaling were recently described as a new molecular features of non-small cell lung cancer, but it has been also sporadically reported in other tumors...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Marco Dueñas, Rossana Mastrandrea, Matteo Barigozzi, Giorgio Fagiolo
This paper analyses the world web of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) using a complex network approach. We use data of M&As to build a temporal sequence of binary and weighted-directed networks for the period 1995-2010 and 224 countries (nodes) connected according to their M&As flows (links). We study different geographical and temporal aspects of the international M&A network (IMAN), building sequences of filtered sub-networks whose links belong to specific intervals of distance or time. Given that M&As and trade are complementary ways of reaching foreign markets, we perform our analysis using statistics employed for the study of the international trade network (ITN), highlighting the similarities and differences between the ITN and the IMAN...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sherry A Glied, Stuart H Altman
The United States relies on competition to balance costs and quality in the health care system. But concentration is increasing throughout the hospital, physician, and insurer markets. Midsize community hospitals face declining demand and growing competition from both larger hospitals and smaller freestanding diagnostic and surgical centers, leaving the midsize hospitals vulnerable to closure or merger with other facilities. Competition among insurers has been limited by the development of hospital systems that extend the bargaining power of "must-have" hospitals (those perceived to provide the best care for complex and less common conditions) across local health care markets...
September 1, 2017: Health Affairs
Cory Capps, David Dranove, Christopher Ody
The growing concentration of physician markets throughout the United States has been raising antitrust concerns, yet the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission have challenged only a small number of mergers and acquisitions in this field. Using proprietary claims data from states collectively containing more than 12 percent of the US population, we found that 22 percent of physician markets were highly concentrated in 2013, according to federal merger guidelines. Most of the increases in physician practice size and market concentration resulted from numerous small transactions, rather than a few large transactions...
September 1, 2017: Health Affairs
Mari Salminen-Tuomaala, Liisa Ala-Hynnilä, Kati Hämäläinen, Heikki Ruohomäki
OBJECTIVE: To describe challenges and factors that support coping as anticipated by nursing staff preparing for a merger of intensive and intermediate care units. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: The method of empathy-based stories was employed to collect data from staff. The stories (n=20) were analysed using inductive content analysis. SETTING: Nursing staff from the cardiac observation and evaluation, intensive care and surgical observation units in a central hospital in Finland...
August 28, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Ninfa M Saunders
Finding the best route to navigate the changing landscape of healthcare has become an obsession for many organizations. Their quest to stay competitive, significant, and ultimately relevant is a continuous discovery process. Many hospitals and health systems have considered affiliations and partnerships as important tactical options. Partnerships can range from loose arrangements, such as nonequity collaborations and management agreements, to total affiliation, as in a merger and acquisition. Whichever option an organization decides to pursue, a comprehensive assessment is necessary to find the best partner-the right fit...
October 2017: Frontiers of Health Services Management
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