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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161680/prediction-of-violent-crime-on-discharge-from-secure-psychiatric-hospitals-a-clinical-prediction-rule-fovox
#1
A Wolf, T R Fanshawe, A Sariaslan, R Cornish, H Larsson, S Fazel
BACKGROUND: Current approaches to assess violence risk in secure hospitals are resource intensive, limited by accuracy and authorship bias and may have reached a performance ceiling. This study seeks to develop scalable predictive models for violent offending following discharge from secure psychiatric hospitals. METHODS: We identified all patients discharged from secure hospitals in Sweden between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2013. Using multiple Cox regression, pre-specified criminal, sociodemographic, and clinical risk factors were included in a model that was tested for discrimination and calibration in the prediction of violent crime at 12 and 24 months post-discharge...
August 4, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161277/women-s-opinion-on-the-justification-of-physical-spousal-violence-a-quantitative-approach-to-model-the-most-vulnerable-households-in-bangladesh
#2
Raaj Kishore Biswas, Nusma Rahman, Enamul Kabir, Farabi Raihan
Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161192/patient-preferences-in-subglottic-stenosis-treatment-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#3
Matthew R Naunheim, Margaret L Naunheim, Vinay K Rathi, Ramon A Franco, Mark G Shrime, Phillip C Song
Objectives Subglottic stenosis can be addressed with several different surgical techniques, but patient preferences for these treatment modalities are poorly understood. Economic methods are increasingly being used to understand how patients make decisions. The objective of this pilot study was to assess preferences in subglottic stenosis treatment using patient-centric stated preference techniques. Study Design Discrete choice experiment (DCE). Setting Academic research facility. Subjects and Methods A computer-based DCE was administered in a monitored setting to volunteers from the general population...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161189/outlying-observation-diagnostics-in-growth-curve-modeling
#4
Xin Tong, Zhiyong Zhang
Growth curve models are widely used for investigating growth and change phenomena. Many studies in social and behavioral sciences have demonstrated that data without any outlying observation are rather an exception, especially for data collected longitudinally. Ignoring the existence of outlying observations may lead to inaccurate or even incorrect statistical inferences. Therefore, it is crucial to identify outlying observations in growth curve modeling. This study comparatively evaluates six methods in outlying observation diagnostics through a Monte Carlo simulation study on a linear growth curve model, by varying factors of sample size, number of measurement occasions, as well as proportion, geometry, and type of outlying observations...
November 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160930/brain-responses-to-social-norms-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#5
Oksana Zinchenko, Marie Arsalidou
Social norms have a critical role in everyday decision-making, as frequent interaction with others regulates our behavior. Neuroimaging studies show that social-based and fairness-related decision-making activates an inconsistent set of areas, which sometimes includes the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and others lateral prefrontal cortices. Social-based decision-making is complex and variability in findings may be driven by socio-cognitive activities related to social norms. To distinguish among social-cognitive activities related to social norms, we identified 36 eligible articles in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, which we separate into two categories (a) social norm representation and (b) norm violations...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159777/prognostic-factors-for-survival-in-adult-patients-with-recurrent-glioblastoma-a-decision-tree-based-model
#6
Etienne Audureau, Anaïs Chivet, Renata Ursu, Robert Corns, Philippe Metellus, Georges Noel, Sonia Zouaoui, Jacques Guyotat, Pierre-Jean Le Reste, Thierry Faillot, Fabien Litre, Nicolas Desse, Antoine Petit, Evelyne Emery, Emmanuelle Lechapt-Zalcman, Johann Peltier, Julien Duntze, Edouard Dezamis, Jimmy Voirin, Philippe Menei, François Caire, Phong Dam Hieu, Jean-Luc Barat, Olivier Langlois, Jean-Rodolphe Vignes, Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Adeline Riondel, Elodie Sorbets, Marc Zanello, Alexandre Roux, Antoine Carpentier, Luc Bauchet, Johan Pallud
We assessed prognostic factors in relation to OS from progression in recurrent glioblastomas. Retrospective multicentric study enrolling 407 (training set) and 370 (external validation set) adult patients with a recurrent supratentorial glioblastoma treated by surgical resection and standard combined chemoradiotherapy as first-line treatment. Four complementary multivariate prognostic models were evaluated: Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, single-tree recursive partitioning, random survival forest, conditional random forest...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159541/automated-detection-of-exudative-age-related-macular-degeneration-in-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-using-deep-learning
#7
Maximilian Treder, Jost Lennart Lauermann, Nicole Eter
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to use deep learning for the automated detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: A total of 1112 cross-section SD-OCT images of patients with exudative AMD and a healthy control group were used for this study. In the first step, an open-source multi-layer deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), which was pretrained with 1.2 million images from ImageNet, was trained and validated with 1012 cross-section SD-OCT scans (AMD: 701; healthy: 311)...
November 20, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159537/relationship-between-empowerment-and-wealth-trends-and-predictors-in-kenya-between-2003-and-2008-2009
#8
Delia Voronca, Rebekah J Walker, Leonard E Egede
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association between women's empowerment and wealth over time in Kenya. METHODS: Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 2003 and 2008-2009 were used. Eligible women and men were either married or living with a partner. Two scales were used for empowerment: female participation in decision-making, and attitudes toward domestic violence against female partners. Hierarchical linear models were used based on theoretical blocks of covariates...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159405/management-of-tiny-unruptured-intracranial-aneurysms-a-comparative-effectiveness-analysis
#9
Ajay Malhotra, Xiao Wu, Howard P Forman, Charles C Matouk, Dheeraj Gandhi, Pina Sanelli
Importance: Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are relatively common in the general population and are being increasingly diagnosed; a significant proportion are tiny (≤3 mm) aneurysms. There is significant heterogeneity in practice and lack of clear guidelines on the management of incidental, tiny UIAs. It is important to quantify the implications of different management strategies in terms of health benefits to patients. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of routine treatment (aneurysm coiling) vs 3 strategies for imaging surveillance compared with no preventive treatment or routine follow-up of tiny UIAs...
November 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159273/a-health-economic-evaluation-of-needle-based-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-cysts
#10
Claude Le Pen, Laurent Palazzo, Bertrand Napoléon
Background and study aims:  The low sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), especially for the diagnosis of serous cystadenomas (SCAs), can be associated with diagnostic uncertainty that can regularly lead to unnecessary surgical procedures. Needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE) used with EUS-FNA improves diagnostic accuracy, helping to reduce unnecessary surgery and patient follow-up. This study was conducted to evaluate the economic benefit of EUS-FNA + nCLE...
October 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158140/consequences-of-an-uncertain-mass-mortality-regime-triggered-by-climate-variability-on-giant-clam-population-management-in-the-pacific-ocean
#11
Simon Van Wynsberge, Serge Andréfouët, Nabila Gaertner-Mazouni, Georges Remoissenet
Despite actions to manage sustainably tropical Pacific Ocean reef fisheries, managers have faced failures and frustrations because of unpredicted mass mortality events triggered by climate variability. The consequences of these events on the long-term population dynamics of living resources need to be better understood for better management decisions. Here, we use a giant clam (Tridacna maxima) spatially explicit population model to compare the efficiency of several management strategies under various scenarios of natural mortality, including mass mortality due to climatic anomalies...
November 17, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158018/centile-curves-for-velocity-time-integral-times-heart-rate-as-a-function-of-ventricular-length-the%C3%A2-use-of-minute-distance-is-advantageous-to%C3%A2-enhance-clinical-reliability-in-children
#12
Anna Solinski, Elmar Klusmeier, Jan-Pit Horst, Hermann Körperich, Nikolaus A Haas, Deniz Kececioglu, Kai Thorsten Laser
BACKGROUND: The generation of velocity-time integrals (VTIs) from Doppler signals is an essential component of standard echocardiographic investigations. The most effective algorithm to compensate for growth in children has, however, not yet been identified. This study was initiated to establish pediatric reference values for VTI and to enhance the interpretability of those values, considering technical and physiological factors. METHODS: The echocardiographic data sets of healthy children and adolescents (N = 349; age range, 0-20 years) were recorded in a prospective approach and subsequently analyzed...
November 18, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157515/legal-capacity-of-persons-with-disabilities-in-ethiopia-the-need-to-reform-existing-legal-frameworks
#13
Mohammed Hamza Marishet
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making...
November 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157442/a-deep-learning-based-multi-model-ensemble-method-for-cancer-prediction
#14
Yawen Xiao, Jun Wu, Zongli Lin, Xiaodong Zhao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cancer is a complex worldwide health problem associated with high mortality. With the rapid development of the high-throughput sequencing technology and the application of various machine learning methods that have emerged in recent years, progress in cancer prediction has been increasingly made based on gene expression, providing insight into effective and accurate treatment decision making. Thus, developing machine learning methods, which can successfully distinguish cancer patients from healthy persons, is of great current interest...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157376/epidemiological-and-partial-budget-analysis-for-treatment-of-subclinical-staphylococcus-aureus-intramammary-infections-considering-microbiological-and-cytological-scenarios
#15
Inge-Marié Petzer, Eric M C Etter, Edward F Donkin, Edward C Webb, Joanne Karzis
An innovative method was investigated to aid in the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) intramammary infections (IMI) from dairy herds. A stochastic model explore the economic benefit of three-day or eight-day treatment of subclinical IMI in all S. aureus infected cows or in only those with a somatic cell count (SCC) exceeding 200,000 cells/ml. An epidemiological model was developed to run parallel to the economic model that would predict the S. aureus IMI likely to persist, develop new infections and clinical mastitis...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157366/culling-from-the-actors-perspectives-decision-making-criteria-for-culling-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-dairy-herds-enrolled-in-a-veterinary-preventive-medicine-program
#16
Denis Haine, Roger Cue, Asheber Sewalem, Kevin Wade, René Lacroix, Daniel Lefebvre, Jonathan Rushton, Julie Arsenault, Émile Bouchard, Jocelyn Dubuc
The series of events leading to the decision to cull a cow is complex, involving both individual-level and herd-level factors. While the decision is guided by financial returns, it is also influenced by social and psychological factors. Research studies on the motivational and behavioural aspects of farmers' decision utility are sparse, and nonexistent regarding culling expectations and its decision process. Our goal was to identify shared criteria on culling decisions held by dairy producers and farm advisers, with the help of the Q-methodology...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157115/subgroup-analysis-based-on-prognostic-and-predictive-gene-signatures-for-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#17
Hojin Moon, Yuan Zhao, Dustin Pluta, Hongshik Ahn
In treating patients diagnosed with early Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), doctors must choose surgery alone, Adjuvant Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy (ACT) alone or both. For patients with resected stages IB to IIIA, clinical trials have shown a survival advantage from 4-15% with the adoption of ACT. However, due to the inherent toxicity of chemotherapy, it is necessary for doctors to identify patients whose chance of success with ACT is sufficient to justify the risks. This research seeks to use gene expression profiling in the development of a statistical decision-making algorithm to identify patients whose survival rates will improve from ACT treatment...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157019/patients-needs-during-a-surgical-intervention-process-for-dupuytren-s-disease
#18
Christina Turesson, Joanna Kvist, Barbro Krevers
PURPOSE: To explore and describe clients' needs during a surgical intervention process for Dupuytren's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design: Interview study with 21 men undergoing surgical intervention for Dupuytren's disease. Qualitative content analysis was performed with the model of Patient Evaluation Process as a theoretical framework. RESULTS: The primary reason for seeking medical care was to receive an intervention to improve hand function...
November 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156653/dual-competing-photovoltaic-supply-chains-a-social-welfare-maximization-perspective
#19
Zhisong Chen, Shong-Iee Ivan Su
In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156498/first-things-first-risk-model-performance-metrics-should-reflect-the-clinical-application
#20
Kathleen F Kerr, Holly Janes
Developing new measures of risk model performance is an active line of research, often motivated by the conventional wisdom that area under the ROC curve is an 'insensitive' measure of the additional predictive capacity offered by new biomarkers. Without endorsing area under the ROC curve, we argue that this charge is not substantiated. Three articles in this issue discuss alternative metrics of risk model performance: NRI(p) (two-category net reclassification index at the event rate), integrated discrimination index, and R-squared statistics...
December 10, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
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