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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351297/a-fast-combination-method-in-dsmt-and-its-application-to-recommender-system
#1
Yilin Dong, Xinde Li, Yihai Liu
In many applications involving epistemic uncertainties usually modeled by belief functions, it is often necessary to approximate general (non-Bayesian) basic belief assignments (BBAs) to subjective probabilities (called Bayesian BBAs). This necessity occurs if one needs to embed the fusion result in a system based on the probabilistic framework and Bayesian inference (e.g. tracking systems), or if one needs to make a decision in the decision making problems. In this paper, we present a new fast combination method, called modified rigid coarsening (MRC), to obtain the final Bayesian BBAs based on hierarchical decomposition (coarsening) of the frame of discernment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351290/land-use-change-in-oil-palm-dominated-tropical-landscapes-an-agent-based-model-to-explore-ecological-and-socio-economic-trade-offs
#2
Claudia Dislich, Elisabeth Hettig, Jan Salecker, Johannes Heinonen, Jann Lay, Katrin M Meyer, Kerstin Wiegand, Suria Tarigan
Land-use changes have dramatically transformed tropical landscapes. We describe an ecological-economic land-use change model as an integrated, exploratory tool used to analyze how tropical land-use change affects ecological and socio-economic functions. The model analysis seeks to determine what kind of landscape mosaic can improve the ensemble of ecosystem functioning, biodiversity, and economic benefit based on the synergies and trade-offs that we have to account for. More specifically, (1) how do specific ecosystem functions, such as carbon storage, and economic functions, such as household consumption, relate to each other? (2) How do external factors, such as the output prices of crops, affect these relationships? (3) How do these relationships change when production inefficiency differs between smallholder farmers and learning is incorporated? We initialize the ecological-economic model with artificially generated land-use maps parameterized to our study region...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351020/a-dynamic-state-model-of-migratory-behavior-and-physiology-to-assess-the-consequences-of-environmental-variation-and-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-marine-vertebrates
#3
Enrico Pirotta, Marc Mangel, Daniel P Costa, Bruce Mate, Jeremy A Goldbogen, Daniel M Palacios, Luis A Hückstädt, Elizabeth A McHuron, Lisa Schwarz, Leslie New
Integrating behavior and physiology is critical to formulating new hypotheses on the evolution of animal life-history strategies. Migratory capital breeders acquire most of the energy they need to sustain migration, gestation, and lactation before parturition. Therefore, when predicting the impact of environmental variation on such species, a mechanistic understanding of the physiology of their migratory behavior is required. Using baleen whales as a model system, we developed a dynamic state variable model that captures the interplay among behavioral decisions, energy, reproductive needs, and the environment...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350706/symptom-burden-and-self-advocacy-exploring-the-relationship-among-female-cancer-survivors%C3%A2
#4
Teresa L Hagan, Stephanie Gilbertson-White, Susan M Cohen, Jennifer S Temel, Joseph A Greer, Heidi S Donovan
BACKGROUND: Although patient self-advocacy is a critical component of patient-centered care, the association between symptom burden and self-
advocacy has received little attention. 
. OBJECTIVES: This analysis evaluates the degree to which self-advocacy is associated with symptom burden among women with a history of cancer. 
. METHODS: Participants completed online or paper questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and ordinary least squares regression models were used to analyze the association between the three dimensions of self-advocacy and two dimensions of symptom burden...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350694/collaborative-practice-model-improving-the-delivery-of-bad-news
#5
Pamela N Bowman, Kim Slusser, Deborah Allen
Ideal bad news delivery requires skilled communication and team support. The literature has primarily focused on patient preferences, impact on care decisions, healthcare roles, and communication styles, without addressing systematic implementation. This article describes how an interdisciplinary team, led by advanced practice nurses, developed and implemented a collaborative practice model to deliver bad news on a unit that had struggled with inconsistencies. Using evidence-based practices, the authors explored current processes, role perceptions and expectations, and perceived barriers to developing the model, which is now the standard of care and an example of interprofessional team collaboration across the healthcare system...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350603/decision-tree-analysis-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-prediction-of-outcome-parameters-during-the-course-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-using-decision-tree-analysis
#6
Isabel Charlotte Hostettler, Carl Muroi, Johannes Konstantin Richter, Josef Schmid, Marian Christoph Neidert, Martin Seule, Oliver Boss, Athina Pangalu, Menno Robbert Germans, Emanuela Keller
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to create prediction models for outcome parameters by decision tree analysis based on clinical and laboratory data in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS The database consisted of clinical and laboratory parameters of 548 patients with aSAH who were admitted to the Neurocritical Care Unit, University Hospital Zurich. To examine the model performance, the cohort was randomly divided into a derivation cohort (60% [n = 329]; training data set) and a validation cohort (40% [n = 219]; test data set)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350334/the-triglyceride-glucose-index-an-insulin-resistance-marker-in-newborns
#7
Eva Gesteiro, Sara Bastida, Laura Barrios, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
The study aims to assess the utility of the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) as a marker of insulin resistance (IR) in neonates. TyG and the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) values were compared in 196 singleton, term normoweight and without distress newborns. A Decision Tree procedure (CHAID) was used to classify cases into groups or predict values of a dependent (Ln HOMA-IR) variable. Three nodes were drawn for TyG: ≤ 6.7, > 6.7-7.8 and > 7.8 (p < 0.0001; F = 20.52). The predictability of those TyG values vs HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p < 0...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349929/severity-of-cognitive-disability-and-mental-health-court-determinations-about-fitness-to-stand-trial
#8
J T Young, F J Davis, S Wardale, M Vassos, K van Dooren, K Nankervis, N G Lennox
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the socio-demographic, clinical and legal determinants of mental health court decisions of unsoundness of mind and unfitness to stand trial for people with cognitive disability. We aimed to estimate the association between severity of cognitive disability and mental health court determinations of unsoundness or unfitness and describe the socio-demographic, clinical and legal factors that predict these determinations. METHODS: Case file data were extracted on 92 individuals who had a criminal case referred to the Queensland Mental Health Court between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014 due to cognitive disability...
February 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349856/self-responsibility-rationing-and-treatment-decision-making-managing-moral-narratives-alongside-fiscal-reality-in-the-obesity-surgery-clinic
#9
Amanda Owen-Smith, Joanna Coast, Jenny L Donovan
BACKGROUND: Addressing the prevalence of severe obesity and its concomitant morbidities is widely acknowledged as one of the most pressing global health priorities. Nevertheless, a paucity of effective interventions and universal pressure on health-care budgets means that access to obesity treatments is often limited. Although health-care rationing can be conceived as a socially constructed process, little is known about how decisions emerge within the context of face-to-face doctor-patient interactions...
January 19, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349791/predicting-patterns-of-change-and-stability-in-student-performance-across-a-medical-degree
#10
Barbara Griffin, Piers Bayl-Smith, Wendy Hu
CONTEXT: Evidence of predictive validity is essential for making robust selection decisions in high-stakes contexts such as medical student selection. Currently available evidence is limited to the prediction of academic performance at single points in time with little understanding of the factors that might undermine the predictive validity of tests of academic and non-academic qualities considered important for success. This study addressed these issues by predicting students' changing performance across a medical degree and assessing whether factors outside an institution's control (such as the uptake of commercial coaching) impact validity...
January 19, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349590/law-as-clinical-evidence-a-new-constitutivemodel-of-medical-education-and-decision-making
#11
Malcolm Parker, Lindy Willmott, Ben White, Gail Williams, Colleen Cartwright
Over several decades, ethics and law have been applied to medical education and practice in a way that reflects the continuation during the twentieth century of the strong distinction between facts and values. We explain the development of applied ethics and applied medical law and report selected results that reflect this applied model from an empirical project examining doctors' decisions on withdrawing/withholding treatment from patients who lack decision-making capacity. The model is critiqued, and an alternative "constitutive" model is supported on the basis that medicine, medical law, and medical ethics exemplify the inevitable entanglement of facts and values...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349211/who-votes-for-public-health-u-s-senator-characteristics-associated-with-voting-in-concordance-with-public-health-policy-recommendations-1998-2013
#12
Jonathan Purtle, Neal D Goldstein, Eli Edson, Annamarie Hand
Background: The voting behaviors of elected officials shape the public's health. Little is known, however, about the characteristics of elected officials who vote in concordance with public health policy recommendations. This article presents the results of study conducted with the aims of: 1) testing the hypothesis that US Democrat Senators vote in concordance with American Public Health Association (APHA) policy recommendations more frequently than US Republican Senators, 2) identifying US Senator characteristics independently associated with voting in concordance with APHA, and 3) assessing trends in APHA voting concordance by political party...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348924/mortality-and-hospitalizations-in-intensive-dialysis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Anna Mathew, Jody-Ann McLeggon, Nirav Mehta, Samuel Leung, Valerie Barta, Thomas McGinn, Gihad Nesrallah
Background: Survival and hospitalization are critically important outcomes considered when choosing between intensive hemodialysis (HD), conventional HD, and peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, the comparative effectiveness of these modalities is unclear. Objective: We had the following aims: (1) to compare the association of mortality and hospitalization in patients undergoing intensive HD, compared with conventional HD or PD and (2) to appraise the methodological quality of the supporting evidence...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348681/impact-of-a-five-dimensional-framework-on-r-d-productivity-at-astrazeneca
#14
REVIEW
Paul Morgan, Dean G Brown, Simon Lennard, Mark J Anderton, J Carl Barrett, Ulf Eriksson, Mark Fidock, Bengt Hamrén, Anthony Johnson, Ruth E March, James Matcham, Jerome Mettetal, David J Nicholls, Stefan Platz, Steve Rees, Michael A Snowden, Menelas N Pangalos
In 2011, AstraZeneca embarked on a major revision of its research and development (R&D) strategy with the aim of improving R&D productivity, which was below industry averages in 2005-2010. A cornerstone of the revised strategy was to focus decision-making on five technical determinants (the right target, right tissue, right safety, right patient and right commercial potential). In this article, we describe the progress made using this '5R framework' in the hope that our experience could be useful to other companies tackling R&D productivity issues...
January 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348192/differential-contributions-of-nucleus-accumbens-subregions-to-cue-guided-risk-reward-decision-making-and-implementation-of-conditional-rules
#15
Stan B Floresco, David R Montes, Maric M T Tse, Mieke van Holstein
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key node within cortico-limbic circuitry for guiding action selection and cost/benefit decision making in situations involving reward uncertainty. Preclinical studies have typically assessed risk/reward decision making using assays where decisions are guided by internally-generated representations of choice-outcome contingencies. Yet, real-life decisions are often influenced by external stimuli that inform about likelihoods of obtaining rewards. How different subregions of the NAc mediate decision making in such situations is unclear...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347916/cost-effectiveness-of-prostate-cancer-screening-a-systematic-review-of-decision-analytical-models
#16
Sabina Sanghera, Joanna Coast, Richard M Martin, Jenny L Donovan, Syed Mohiuddin
BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about the harms and benefits of a national prostate cancer screening programme. Several model-based cost-effectiveness analyses have been developed to determine whether the benefits of prostate cancer screening outweigh the costs and harms caused by over-detection and over-treatment, and the different approaches may impact results. METHODS: To identify models of prostate cancer used to assess the cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer screening strategies, a systematic review of articles published since 2006 was conducted using the NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Medline, EMBASE and HTA databases...
January 18, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347854/a-systematic-review-of-health-economic-models-and-utility-estimation-methods-in-schizophrenia
#17
B Németh, A N Fasseeh, A Molnár, I Bitter, M Horváth, K Kóczián, Á Götze, B Nagy
There is a growing need for economic evaluations describing the disease course, as well as the costs and clinical outcomes related to the treatment of schizophrenia. Areas covered: A systematic review on studies describing health economic models in schizophrenia and a targeted literature review on utility mapping algorithms in schizophrenia were carried out. Models found in the review were collated and assessed in detail according to their type and various other attributes. Fifty-nine studies were included in the review...
January 19, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347279/narrow-log-periodic-modulations-in-non-markovian-random-walks
#18
R M B Diniz, J C Cressoni, M A A da Silva, A M Mariz, J M de Araújo
What are the necessary ingredients for log-periodicity to appear in the dynamics of a random walk model? Can they be subtle enough to be overlooked? Previous studies suggest that long-range damaged memory and negative feedback together are necessary conditions for the emergence of log-periodic oscillations. The role of negative feedback would then be crucial, forcing the system to change direction. In this paper we show that small-amplitude log-periodic oscillations can emerge when the system is driven by positive feedback...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347229/phase-diagram-and-criticality-of-the-two-dimensional-prisoner-s-dilemma-model
#19
M Santos, A L Ferreira, W Figueiredo
The stationary states of the prisoner's dilemma model are studied on a square lattice taking into account the role of a noise parameter in the decision-making process. Only first neighboring players-defectors and cooperators-are considered in each step of the game. Through Monte Carlo simulations we determined the phase diagrams of the model in the plane noise versus the temptation to defect for a large range of values of the noise parameter. We observed three phases: cooperators and defectors absorbing phases, and a coexistence phase between them...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347197/dynamical-crossover-in-a-stochastic-model-of-cell-fate-decision
#20
Hiroki Yamaguchi, Kyogo Kawaguchi, Takahiro Sagawa
We study the asymptotic behaviors of stochastic cell fate decision between proliferation and differentiation. We propose a model of a self-replicating Langevin system, where cells choose their fate (i.e., proliferation or differentiation) depending on local cell density. Based on this model, we propose a scenario for multicellular organisms to maintain the density of cells (i.e., homeostasis) through finite-ranged cell-cell interactions. Furthermore, we numerically show that the distribution of the number of descendant cells changes over time, thus unifying the previously proposed two models regarding homeostasis: the critical birth death process and the voter model...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
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