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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549368/developing-population-models-a-systematic-approach-for-pesticide-risk-assessment-using-herbaceous-plants-as-an-example
#1
Amelie Schmolke, Katherine E Kapo, Pamela Rueda-Cediel, Pernille Thorbek, Richard Brain, Valery Forbes
Population models are used as tools in species management and conservation and are increasingly recognized as important tools in pesticide risk assessments. A wide variety of population model applications and resources on modeling techniques, evaluation and documentation can be found in the literature. In this paper, we add to these resources by introducing a systematic, transparent approach to developing population models. The decision guide that we propose is intended to help model developers systematically address data availability for their purpose and the steps that need to be taken in any model development...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549123/working-conditions-in-the-explanation-of-occupational-inequalities-in-sickness-absence-in-the-french-sumer-study
#2
Isabelle Niedhammer, Thomas Lesuffleur, Sarah Memmi, Jean-François Chastang
: Explanations of social inequalities in sickness absence are lacking in the literature. Our objectives were to evaluate the contribution of various occupational exposures in explaining these inequalities in a national representative sample of employees. : The study was based on the cross-sectional sample of the SUMER 2010 survey that included 46 962 employees, 26 883 men and 20 079 women. Both sickness absence spells and days within the last 12 months, as health indicators, were studied. Occupation was used as a marker of social position...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548917/family-experiences-of-the-transition-to-palliative-care-in-aged-residential-care-arc-a-qualitative-study
#3
Rosemary Frey, Susan Foster, Michal Boyd, Jackie Robinson, Merryn Gott
PURPOSE: To address a gap in the literature by exploring bereaved families' perceptions of the transition to palliative care for their relative in long-term care. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of twenty-six family members who were most involved in the care of residents who had died within the last 12 months. Interviews explored care, perceptions of staff palliative care knowledge, communication with staff, care planning and decision-making...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548893/dynamic-decision-making-learning-processes-and-new-research-directions
#4
Cleotilde Gonzalez, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome Busemeyer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to provide a review of contemporary research and applications on dynamic decision making (DDM). BACKGROUND: Since early DDM studies, there has been little systematic progress in understanding decision making in complex, dynamic systems. Our review contributes to better understanding of decision making processes in dynamic tasks. METHOD: We discuss new research directions in DDM to highlight the value of simplification in the study of complex decision processes, divided into experimental and theoretical/computational approaches, and focus on problems involving control tasks and search-and-choice tasks...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548460/internally-generated-hippocampal-sequences-as-a-vantage-point-to-probe-future-oriented-cognition
#5
REVIEW
Giovanni Pezzulo, Caleb Kemere, Matthijs A A van der Meer
Information processing in the rodent hippocampus is fundamentally shaped by internally generated sequences (IGSs), expressed during two different network states: theta sequences, which repeat and reset at the ∼8 Hz theta rhythm associated with active behavior, and punctate sharp wave-ripple (SWR) sequences associated with wakeful rest or slow-wave sleep. A potpourri of diverse functional roles has been proposed for these IGSs, resulting in a fragmented conceptual landscape. Here, we advance a unitary view of IGSs, proposing that they reflect an inferential process that samples a policy from the animal's generative model, supported by hippocampus-specific priors...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547373/research-on-efficiency-evaluation-model-of-integrated-energy-system-based-on-hybrid-multi-attribute-decision-making
#6
Yan Li
The efficiency evaluation model of integrated energy system, involving many influencing factors, and the attribute values are heterogeneous and non-deterministic, usually cannot give specific numerical or accurate probability distribution characteristics, making the final evaluation result deviation. According to the characteristics of the integrated energy system, a hybrid multi-attribute decision-making model is constructed. The evaluation model considers the decision maker's risk preference. In the evaluation of the efficiency of the integrated energy system, the evaluation value of some evaluation indexes is linguistic value, or the evaluation value of the evaluation experts is not consistent...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547293/nonsurgical-facial-rejuvenation-outcomes-and-safety-of-neuromodulator-and-soft-tissue-filler-procedures-performed-in-a-resident-cosmetic-clinic
#7
Ali A Qureshi, Rajiv P Parikh, Ketan Sharma, Terence M Myckatyn, Marissa M Tenenbaum
BACKGROUND: The ability to perform nonsurgical facial rejuvenation procedures is a core competency requirement for plastic surgery residents. However, limited data exist on training models to achieve competency in nonsurgical facial rejuvenation and on outcomes of these procedures performed by residents. The purpose here is to evaluate patient-reported outcomes and safety of nonsurgical facial rejuvenation procedures performed by plastic surgery residents. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 50 patients undergoing neuromodulator and/or soft-tissue filler injections in a resident cosmetic clinic between April and August 2016...
May 25, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547003/why-did-people-move-during-the-great-recession-the-role-of-economics-in-migration-decisions
#8
Brian L Levy, Ted Mouw, Anthony Daniel Perez
Labor migration offers an important mechanism to reallocate workers when there are regional differences in employment conditions. Whereas conventional wisdom suggests migration rates should increase during recessions as workers move out of areas that are hit hardest, initial evidence suggested that overall migration rates declined during the Great Recession, despite large regional differences in unemployment and growth rates. In this paper, we use data from the American Community Survey to analyze internal migration trends before and during the economic downturn...
April 2017: Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences: RSF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546644/engaging-gatekeepers-optimizing-decision-making-and-mitigating-bias-design-specifications-for-systemic-diversity-interventions
#9
Claartje J Vinkenburg
In this contribution to the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Special Issue on Understanding Diversity Dynamics in Systems: Social Equality as an Organization Change Issue, I develop and describe design specifications for systemic diversity interventions in upward mobility career systems, aimed at optimizing decision making through mitigating bias by engaging gatekeepers. These interventions address the paradox of meritocracy that underlies the surprising lack of diversity at the top of the career pyramid in these systems...
June 2017: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546453/familial-caregiver-and-physician-perceptions-of-the-family-physician-interactions-during-interfacility-transfers
#10
Jennifer L Rosenthal, Su-Ting T Li, Lenore Hernandez, Michelle Alvarez, Roberta S Rehm, Megumi J Okumura
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) have frequent hospitalizations and high specialty care utilization. If they initially present to a medical facility not capable of providing their definitive care, these children often experience an interfacility transfer. This transition has potential to impose hardships on familial caregivers. The goal of this study was to explore family-physician interactions during interfacility transfers from the perspectives of referring and accepting physicians and familial caregivers, and then develop a conceptual model for effective patient- and family-centered interfacility transfers that leverages the family-physician interaction...
May 25, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546309/inferential-learning-of-serial-order-of-perceptual-categories-by-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#11
Natalie Tanner, Greg Jensen, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Category learning in animals is typically trained explicitly, in most instances by varying the exemplars of a single category in a matching-to-sample task. Here, we show that male rhesus macaques can learn categories by a transitive inference paradigm in which novel exemplars of five categories were presented throughout training. Instead of requiring decisions about a constant set of repetitively presented stimuli, we studied the macaque's ability to determine the relative order of multiple exemplars of particular stimuli that were rarely repeated...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545887/how-to-identify-high-radiation-burden-from-computed-tomography-an-example-in-obese-children
#12
Daniel L Lodwick, Jennifer N Cooper, Brent Adler, Choonsik Lee, Kelly Kelleher, Peter C Minneci, Katherine J Deans
BACKGROUND: Radiation burden from the use of computed tomography (CT) imaging may not be evenly distributed. We tested whether overweight and obese children receive higher radiation burden from CT imaging. METHODS: An automated software tool (DoseWizard) assessed patient-level radiation dose from CT and merged results with clinical data from the electronic health record. CT scans of the head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis (A/P) performed at our institution from January 2013 to August 2015 on patients aged <16 y were processed using this software...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545882/emerging-infectious-diseases-and-blood-safety-modeling-the-transfusion-transmission-risk
#13
REVIEW
Philip Kiely, Manoj Gambhir, Allen C Cheng, Zoe K McQuilten, Clive R Seed, Erica M Wood
While the transfusion-transmission (TT) risk associated with the major transfusion-relevant viruses such as HIV is now very low, during the last 20 years there has been a growing awareness of the threat to blood safety from emerging infectious diseases, a number of which are known to be, or are potentially, transfusion transmissible. Two published models for estimating the transfusion-transmission risk from EIDs, referred to as the Biggerstaff-Petersen model and the European Upfront Risk Assessment Tool (EUFRAT), respectively, have been applied to several EIDs in outbreak situations...
May 15, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545823/novel-molecular-subgroups-for-clinical-classification-and-outcome-prediction-in-childhood-medulloblastoma-a-cohort-study
#14
Edward C Schwalbe, Janet C Lindsey, Sirintra Nakjang, Stephen Crosier, Amanda J Smith, Debbie Hicks, Gholamreza Rafiee, Rebecca M Hill, Alice Iliasova, Thomas Stone, Barry Pizer, Antony Michalski, Abhijit Joshi, Stephen B Wharton, Thomas S Jacques, Simon Bailey, Daniel Williamson, Steven C Clifford
BACKGROUND: International consensus recognises four medulloblastoma molecular subgroups: WNT (MBWNT), SHH (MBSHH), group 3 (MBGrp3), and group 4 (MBGrp4), each defined by their characteristic genome-wide transcriptomic and DNA methylomic profiles. These subgroups have distinct clinicopathological and molecular features, and underpin current disease subclassification and initial subgroup-directed therapies that are underway in clinical trials. However, substantial biological heterogeneity and differences in survival are apparent within each subgroup, which remain to be resolved...
May 22, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545779/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-patient-education-for-acute-low-back-pain-prevent-trial-statistical-analysis-plan
#15
REVIEW
Adrian C Traeger, Ian W Skinner, Markus Hübscher, Hopin Lee, G Lorimer Moseley, Michael K Nicholas, Nicholas Henschke, Kathryn M Refshauge, Fiona M Blyth, Chris J Main, Julia M Hush, Garry Pearce, Serigne Lo, James H McAuley
BACKGROUND: Statistical analysis plans increase the transparency of decisions made in the analysis of clinical trial results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the planned analyses for the PREVENT trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of patient education for acute low back pain. RESULTS: We report the pre-specified principles, methods, and procedures to be adhered to in the main analysis of the PREVENT trial data. The primary outcome analysis will be based on Mixed Models for Repeated Measures (MMRM), which can test treatment effects at specific time points, and the assumptions of this analysis are outlined...
April 14, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545607/dynamically-weighted-evolutionary-ordinal-neural-network-for-solving-an-imbalanced-liver-transplantation-problem
#16
Manuel Dorado-Moreno, María Pérez-Ortiz, Pedro A Gutiérrez, Rubén Ciria, Javier Briceño, César Hervás-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: Create an efficient decision-support model to assist medical experts in the process of organ allocation in liver transplantation. The mathematical model proposed here uses different sources of information to predict the probability of organ survival at different thresholds for each donor-recipient pair considered. Currently, this decision is mainly based on the Model for End-stage Liver Disease, which depends only on the severity of the recipient and obviates donor-recipient compatibility...
March 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545391/a-random-effects-model-for-the-identification-of-differential-splicing-reids-using-exon-and-hta-arrays
#17
Marijke Van Moerbeke, Adetayo Kasim, Willem Talloen, Joke Reumers, Hinrick W H Göhlmann, Ziv Shkedy
BACKGROUND: Alternative gene splicing is a common phenomenon in which a single gene gives rise to multiple transcript isoforms. The process is strictly guided and involves a multitude of proteins and regulatory complexes. Unfortunately, aberrant splicing events do occur which have been linked to genetic disorders, such as several types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (Fan et al., Theor Biol Med Model 3:19, 2006). Therefore, understanding the mechanism of alternative splicing and identifying the difference in splicing events between diseased and healthy tissue is crucial in biomedical research with the potential of applications in personalized medicine as well as in drug development...
May 25, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545121/measurement-of-macular-structure-function-relationships-using-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-sd-oct-and-pattern-electroretinograms-perg
#18
Keunheung Park, Jinmi Kim, Jiwoong Lee
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a common cause of loss of vision during glaucoma. Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) is an objective measure of the central retinal function that correlates with macular GCL thickness. The aim of this study is to determine possible relationships between the N95 amplitude of pattern electroretinogram (PERGamp) and macular ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT). METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a retrospective and comparative study including 74 glaucoma patients (44 early stage and 30 advanced stage cases) and 66 normal control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544666/identifying-target-reference-points-for-harvesting-assessment-limited-wildlife-populations-a-case-study
#19
Bryan S Stevens, James R Bence, William F Porter, Michael L Jones
Identifying appropriate strategies for sustainable harvest is a challenge for many terrestrial vertebrate species because of uncertain system dynamics, limited data to inform population models, and potentially conflicting objectives that seek to harvest and maintain populations at desirable levels. The absence of monitoring and assessment infrastructure needed to regularly estimate abundance accentuates this challenge for many species, and limits application of rigorous state-dependent frameworks for decision making that are commonly advocated in natural resource management...
May 22, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544476/usefulness-of-a-decision-tree-model-for-the-analysis-of-adverse-drug-reactions-evaluation-of-a-risk-prediction-model-of-vancomycin-associated-nephrotoxicity-constructed-using-a-data-mining-procedure
#20
Shungo Imai, Takehiro Yamada, Kumiko Kasashi, Masaki Kobayashi, Ken Iseki
OBJECTIVES: Several publications concerning decision tree (DT) analysis in medical fields have recently demonstrated its usefulness for defining prognostic factors in various diseases. However, there are minimal reports on the predictors of adverse drug reactions. We attempted to use DT analysis to discover combinations of multiple risk factors that would increase the risk of nephrotoxicity associated with vancomycin (VCM). To demonstrate the usefulness of DT analysis, we compared its predictive performance with that of multiple logistic regression analysis...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
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