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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777827/is-reward-prediction-error-encoding-reliable-during-development
#1
Hanna Keren, Gang Chen, Brenda Benson, Monique Ernst, Ellen Leibenluft, Nathan A Fox, Daniel S Pine, Argyris Stringaris
Reward Prediction Errors (RPEs), defined as the difference between the expected and received outcomes, are integral to reinforcement learning models and play an important role in development and psychopathology. In humans, RPE encoding can be estimated using fMRI recordings, however, a basic measurement property of RPE signals, their test-retest reliability across different time scales, remains an open question. In this paper, we examine the 3-month and 3-year reliability of RPE encoding in youth (mean age at baseline = 10...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777165/hiv-1-proteins-dysregulate-motivational-processes-and-dopamine-circuitry
#2
Sarah J Bertrand, Charles F Mactutus, Steven B Harrod, Landhing M Moran, Rosemarie M Booze
Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#3
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775722/inflammatory-and-oxidative-mechanisms-potentiate-bifenthrin-induced-neurological-alterations-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-rats
#4
Brahim Gargouri, Harsharan S Bhatia, Michèle Bouchard, Bernd L Fiebich, Hamadi Fetoui
Bifenthrin (BF) is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide widely used in several countries to manage insect pests on diverse agricultural crops. Growing evidence indicates that BF exposure is associated with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanisms by which BF induces neurological and anxiety alterations in the frontal cortex and striatum are not well known. The present in vivo study was carried out to determine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation are involved in such alterations...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774458/effects-of-rs591323-on-serotonin-transporter-availability-in-healthy-male-subjects
#5
Kyoungjune Pak, Hyun-Yeol Nam, Seunghyeon Shin, Keunyoung Kim, Myung Jun Lee, Eun-Joo Kim, Jae Meen Lee, Seong-Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association between genetic factors of SNPs dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) availabilities in healthy controls. METHODS: The study population consisted of healthy controls with screening 123 I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography. Specific binding of 123 I-FP-CIT regarding DAT and SERT was calculated using a region of interest analysis. VOI template was applied to measure specific binding ratios (SBRs) of caudate nucleus, putamen, striatum, midbrain, and pons...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774449/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-grp78-following-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#6
Xuyan Jin, Dong Kyu Kim, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Mun-Yong Lee
The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a chaperone protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in the injured central nervous system. Our aim was to examine the expression profiles and subcellular distributions of GRP78 and its association with the neuroglial reaction in the rat striatum after transient, focal cerebral ischemia. In sham-operated rats, constitutive, specific immunoreactivity for GRP78 was almost exclusively localized to the rough ER of striatal neurons, with none in the resting, ramified microglia or astrocytes...
May 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774428/inter-individual-differences-in-serotonin-and-glutamate-co-transmission-reflect-differentiation-in-context-induced-conditioned-50-khz-usvs-response-after-morphine-withdrawal
#7
Adam Hamed, Miron Bartosz Kursa
A growing body of research provides compelling evidence that in rats 50-kHz USVs are a form of expression of positive emotions. Context-induced 50-kHz USVs emission is variable among rats, indicating individual differences in contextual response bound up with pharmacological reward. The aims of this study were to: extract the most important neurotransmitters related to context-induced conditioned 50-kHz USVs response; find biological basis of existing inter-individual differences in context-induced conditioned 50-kHz USVs response; create a model of all-to-all neurotransmitters correlations...
May 17, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774142/comparison-of-mri-and-123-i-fp-cit-spect-for-the-evaluation-of-msa-p-clinical-severity
#8
Miki Nishimori, Yoriko Murata, Hitomi Iwasa, Kana Miyatake, Michiko Tadokoro, Shino Kohsaki, Munenobu Nogami, Norihiko Hamada, Hitoshi Ninomiya, Yasushi Osaki, Hirokazu Furuya, Takuji Yamagami
The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 123 I-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane single photon emission computed tomography (123 I-FP-CIT SPECT) for determining the clinical severity of patients with multiple system atrophy with Parkinsonism (MSA-P). MRI and 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT images from 17 patients with MSA-P as diagnosed using the Unified MSA Rating Scale part IV (UMSARS IV) score were compared. Brain MRI scans were available for all 17 patients and 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT images were available for 12 patients...
June 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773980/anatomical-inputs-from-the-sensory-and-value-structures-to-the-tail-of-the-rat-striatum
#9
Haiyan Jiang, Hyoung F Kim
The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS), is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772497/the-role-of-the-vasopressin-system-and-dopamine-d1-receptors-in-the-effects-of-social-housing-condition-on-morphine-reward
#10
M L Shawn Bates, Rebeca S Hofford, Michael A Emery, Paul J Wellman, Shoshana Eitan
BACKGROUND: The association with opioid-abusing individuals or even the perception of opioid abuse by peers are risk factors for the initiation and escalation of abuse. Similarly, we demonstrated that morphine-treated animals housed with only morphine-treated animals (referred to as morphine only) acquire morphine conditioned place-preference (CPP) more readily than morphine-treated animals housed with drug-naïve animals (referred to as morphine cage-mates). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still elusive...
April 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770921/neuronal-adenosine-a-2a-receptor-overexpression-is-neuroprotective-towards-3-nitropropionic-acid-induced-striatal-toxicity-a-rat-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#11
Maria Rosaria Domenici, Valentina Chiodi, Mirko Averna, Monica Armida, Antonella Pèzzola, Rita Pepponi, Antonella Ferrante, Michael Bader, Kjell Fuxe, Patrizia Popoli
The A2A adenosine receptor (A2A R) is widely distributed on different cellular types in the brain, where it exerts a broad spectrum of pathophysiological functions, and for which a role in different neurodegenerative diseases has been hypothesized or demonstrated. To investigate the role of neuronal A2A Rs in neurodegeneration, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the effect of the neurotoxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in a transgenic rat strain overexpressing A2A Rs under the control of the neural-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A rats)...
May 16, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770111/chronic-caffeine-treatment-protects-against-%C3%AE-synucleinopathy-by-reestablishing-autophagy-activity-in-the-mouse-striatum
#12
Yanan Luan, Xiangpeng Ren, Wu Zheng, Zhenhai Zeng, Yingzi Guo, Zhidong Hou, Wei Guo, Xingjun Chen, Fei Li, Jiang-Fan Chen
Despite converging epidemiological evidence for the inverse relationship of regular caffeine consumption and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) with animal studies demonstrating protective effect of caffeine in various neurotoxin models of PD, whether caffeine can protect against mutant α-synuclein (α-Syn) A53T-induced neurotoxicity in intact animals has not been examined. Here, we determined the effect of chronic caffeine treatment using the α-Syn fibril model of PD by intra-striatal injection of preformed A53T α-Syn fibrils...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769266/regulation-of-bdnf-release-by-arms-kidins220-through-modulation-of-synaptotagmin-iv-levels
#13
Saray López-Benito, Julia Sánchez-Sánchez, Verónica Brito, Laura Calvo, Silvia Lisa, María Torres-Valle, Mary E Palko, Cristina Vicente-García, Seila Fernández-Fernández, Juan P Bolaños, Silvia Ginés, Lino Tessarollo, Juan C Arévalo
BDNF is a growth factor with important roles in the nervous system in both physiological and pathological conditions, but the mechanisms controlling its secretion are not completely understood. Here, we show that ARMS/Kidins220 negatively regulates BDNF secretion in neurons from the central and peripheral nervous systems. Downregulation of the ARMS/Kidins220 protein in the adult mouse brain increases regulated BDNF secretion leading to its accumulation in the striatum. Interestingly, two mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD) showed increased levels of ARMS/Kidins220 in the hippocampus and regulated BDNF secretion deficits...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768882/grape-seed-extract-alone-or-combined-with-atropine-in-treatment-of-malathion-induced-neuro-and-genotoxicity
#14
Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Asmaa F Galal, Mahrousa M Hassanane, Lamiaa M Salem, Somaia A Nada, Fatma A Morsy
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with grape seed extract (GSE) on the neurotoxic and genotoxic effects of acute malathion exposure. Rats received malathion (150 mg/kg by i.p. injection) for two successive days alone or combined with GSE at doses of 150 or 300 mg/kg, orally or with GSE at 300 mg/kg and atropine at a dose of 2 mg/kg, i.p. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, paraoxonase (PON1) were determined in cortex, striatum, and rest of brain tissue (subcortex)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766664/tissue-engineered-nigrostriatal-pathway-for-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Laura A Struzyna, Kevin D Browne, Zachary D Brodnik, Justin C Burrell, James P Harris, H Isaac Chen, John A Wolf, Kate V Panzer, James Lim, John E Duda, Rodrigo A España, D Kacy Cullen
The classic motor deficits of Parkinson's disease are caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, resulting in the loss of their long-distance axonal projections that modulate the striatum. Current treatments only minimize the symptoms of this disconnection as there is no approach capable of replacing the nigrostriatal pathway. We are applying micro-tissue engineering techniques to create living, implantable constructs that mimic the architecture and function of the nigrostriatal pathway...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766045/post-stroke-intranasal-naloxone-delivery-reduces-microglial-activation-and-improves-behavioral-recovery-from-ischemic-injury
#16
Jenni E Anttila, Katrina Albert, Emily S Wires, Kert Mätlik, Lisa C Loram, Linda R Watkins, Kenner C Rice, Yun Wang, Brandon K Harvey, Mikko Airavaara
Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability, and effective therapeutic strategies are needed to promote complete recovery. Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in stroke pathophysiology, and there is limited understanding of how it affects recovery. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatiotemporal expression profile of microglial activation and whether dampening microglial/macrophage activation post-stroke facilitates the recovery. For dampening microglial/macrophage activation, we chose intranasal administration of naloxone, a drug that is already in clinical use for opioid overdose and is known to decrease microglia/macrophage activation...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765454/the-effects-of-ketamine-and-thiopental-used-alone-or-in-combination-on-the-brain-heart-and-bronchial-tissues-of-rats
#17
Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu, Pelin Aydin, Ali Ahiskalioglu, Bahadir Suleyman, Ufuk Kuyrukluyildiz, Nezahat Kurt, Durdu Altuner, Resit Coskun, Halis Suleyman
Introduction: We compared the side effects of ketamine and thiopental used alone and of a ketamine/thiopental combination dose on the brain,heart, and bronchial tissues of rats. Material and methods: Three groups received intraperitoneal injections of 30 mg/kg ketamine (K-30); 15 mg/kg thiopental (T-15); or of both in combination (KTSA). These doses were doubled in another set of study groups (K-60, T-30, and KTA groups, respectively). Optimal anesthesia duration was examined in all groups...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765415/human-recombinant-peptide-sponge-enables-novel-less-invasive-cell-therapy-for-ischemic-stroke
#18
Michiyuki Miyamoto, Kentaro Nakamura, Hideo Shichinohe, Tomohiro Yamauchi, Masaki Ito, Hisayasu Saito, Masahito Kawabori, Toshiya Osanai, Tasuku Sasaki, Kiyohiro Houkin, Satoshi Kuroda
Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation has the therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke. However, it is unclear which delivery routes would yield both safety and maximal therapeutic benefits. We assessed whether a novel recombinant peptide (RCP) sponge, that resembles human collagen, could act as a less invasive and beneficial scaffold in cell therapy for ischemic stroke. BMSCs from green fluorescent protein-transgenic rats were cultured and Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765308/diverse-long-range-axonal-projections-of-excitatory-layer-2-3-neurons-in-mouse-barrel-cortex
#19
Takayuki Yamashita, Angeliki Vavladeli, Aurélie Pala, Katia Galan, Sylvain Crochet, Sara S A Petersen, Carl C H Petersen
Excitatory projection neurons of the neocortex are thought to play important roles in perceptual and cognitive functions of the brain by directly connecting diverse cortical and subcortical areas. However, many aspects of the anatomical organization of these inter-areal connections are unknown. Here, we studied long-range axonal projections of excitatory layer 2/3 neurons with cell bodies located in mouse primary somatosensory barrel cortex (wS1). As a population, these neurons densely projected to secondary whisker somatosensory cortex (wS2) and primary/secondary whisker motor cortex (wM1/2), with additional axon in the dysgranular zone surrounding the barrel field, perirhinal temporal association cortex and striatum...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761060/loss-anticipation-and-outcome-during-the-monetary-incentive-delay-task-a-neuroimaging-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Jules R Dugré, Alexandre Dumais, Nathalie Bitar, Stéphane Potvin
Background: Reward seeking and avoidance of punishment are key motivational processes. Brain-imaging studies often use the Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT) to evaluate motivational processes involved in maladaptive behavior. Although the bulk of research has been done on the MIDT reward events, little is known about the neural basis of avoidance of punishment. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain activations during anticipation and receipt of monetary losses in healthy controls...
2018: PeerJ
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