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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339973/day-to-day-variability-in-self-reported-cigarettes-per-day
#1
John R Hughes, Saul Shiffman, Shelly Naud, Erica N Peters
Background and Aims: Nicotine addiction theory predicts small day to day variability in cigarettes/day (CPD) whereas social learning theory predicts large variability. A description of the variability in CPD over multiple days is not available. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of two natural history studies with daily smokers - one of smokers not intending to quit, and one of smokers intending to quit sometime in the next 3 months. In the former, smokers recorded their smoking during the day by Ecological Momentary Assessment, using a palm-top computer...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315806/paroxysmal-nonepileptic-events-in-children-with-epilepsy
#2
Yuji Ito, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Tamiko Negoro, Masaharu Tanaka, Yu Okai, Yoko Sakaguchi, Chikako Ogawa, Tomoya Takeuchi, Atsuko Ohno, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Tomohiko Nakata, Satoshi Maesawa, Kazuyoshi Watanabe, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Jun Natsume
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of paroxysmal nonepileptic events (PNEs) suspected as being epileptic seizures by families of children with epilepsy. METHODS: The video-EEG (vEEG) recordings of habitual paroxysmal events in children with epilepsy at Nagoya University Hospital between October 2006 and January 2016 were reviewed. Based on the doctor's suspicion before the vEEG, the PNEs were divided into two groups that included PNEs suspected as epileptic seizures and PNEs suspected as PNEs...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272783/variations-of-stereotypies-in-individuals-with-rett-syndrome-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study-in-taiwan
#3
Lee Chin Wong, Pi-Lien Hung, Tz-Yun Jan, Wang-Tso Lee
Individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) can have variable manifestations of stereotypies. In this nation-wide cross-sectional study, we recruited all individuals with RTT in Taiwan diagnosed as RTT by neurologists based on genetic findings and diagnostic criteria. The data were collected using questionnaire. A total 43 cases of typical RTT and 15 cases of atypical RTT, aged from 2.1 to 40.1 years, were enrolled. They included 3 (5.2%) in stage II, 42 (72.4%) in stage III, and 13 (22.4%) in stage IV. All individuals presented with at least one stereotypy...
March 8, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236994/-electroconvulsive-therapy-and-level-of-evidence-from-causality-to-dose-effect-relationship
#4
J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Quilès, M Cermolacce, R Belzeaux, M Adida, E Fakra, J-M Azorin
OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this article is to summarize the history of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in psychiatry in order to highlight the transition from clinical level of evidence based on phenomenological descriptions to controlled trial establishing causal relationship. The second objective is to apply the criteria of causation for ECT, to focus on the dose-effect relationship criteria, and thus to analyze the conditions of application of these criteria for ECT. METHODS: A literature review exploring the use of electricity, ECT and electroencephalography (EEG) in psychiatry was conducted...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213761/psychomotor-effect-differences-between-l-methamphetamine-and-d-methamphetamine-are-independent-of-murine-plasma-and-brain-pharmacokinetics-profiles
#5
Tetsuya Nishimura, Kazue Takahata, Yuri Kosugi, Takaaki Tanabe, Shizuko Muraoka
l-Methamphetamine has been occasionally referred to as a stimulant similar to d-methamphetamine, probably owing to insufficient comparative studies. Here, we directly compared psychomotor efficacies and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine enantiomers in mice. Only d-methamphetamine, but not l-methamphetamine, induced stereotypy and sensitization at 1-10 mg/kg. However, plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of 10 mg/kg l-methamphetamine were ≥tenfold those of 1 mg/kg d-methamphetamine. These results clearly indicate that differential psychomotor efficacies of methamphetamine enantiomers are independent of their pharmacokinetic profiles...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137450/crf1-receptor-deficiency-increases-cocaine-reward
#6
Angelo Contarino, Pierre Kitchener, Monique Vallée, Francesco Papaleo, Pier-Vincenzo Piazza
Stimulant drugs produce reward but also activate stress-responsive systems. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-responsive systems are activated by stimulant drugs. However, their role in stimulant drug-induced reward remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that CRF1 receptor-deficient (CRF1-/-), but not wild-type, mice show conditioned place preference (CPP) responses to a relatively low cocaine dose (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, wild-type, but not CRF1-/-, mice display CPP responses to a relatively high cocaine dose (20 mg/kg, i...
January 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117842/histamine-h3r-receptor-activation-in-the-dorsal-striatum-triggers-stereotypies-in-a-mouse-model-of-tic-disorders
#7
M Rapanelli, L Frick, V Pogorelov, H Ohtsu, H Bito, C Pittenger
Tic disorders affect ~5% of the population and are frequently comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, and attention deficit disorder. Histamine dysregulation has been identified as a rare genetic cause of tic disorders; mice with a knockout of the histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) gene represent a promising pathophysiologically grounded model. How alterations in the histamine system lead to tics and other neuropsychiatric pathology, however, remains unclear. We found elevated expression of the histamine H3 receptor in the striatum of Hdc knockout mice...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115237/initial-characterization-of-behavior-and-ketamine-response-in-a-mouse-knockout-of-the-post-synaptic-effector-gene-anks1b
#8
Rachel M Enga, Ann C Rice, Pamela Weller, Mark A Subler, Daiyoon Lee, Chelsea P Hall, Jolene J Windle, Patrick M Beardsley, Edwin J van den Oord, Joseph L McClay
The human ANKS1B gene encodes an activity-dependent effector of post-synaptic signaling. It was recently associated with neuropsychiatric phenotypes in genome-wide studies. While the biological function of ANKS1B has been partly elucidated, its role in behavior is poorly understood. Here, we breed and characterize a full knockout (KO) for murine Anks1b. We found that the homozygous KO genotype was partially lethal, showing significant deviation from expected segregation ratios at weaning. Behaviorally, KOs exhibited no difference in baseline acoustic startle response, but showed deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI)...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107477/effects-of-ambient-environmental-factors-on-the-stereotypic-behaviors-of-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#9
He Liu, Hejun Duan, Cheng Wang
Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068407/significant-association-of-urinary-toxic-metals-and-autism-related-symptoms-a-nonlinear-statistical-analysis-with-cross-validation
#10
James Adams, Daniel P Howsmon, Uwe Kruger, Elizabeth Geis, Eva Gehn, Valeria Fimbres, Elena Pollard, Jessica Mitchell, Julie Ingram, Robert Hellmers, David Quig, Juergen Hahn
INTRODUCTION: A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. METHODS: In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054806/early-amygdala-or-hippocampus-damage-influences-adolescent-female-social-behavior-during-group-formation
#11
Gilda Moadab, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Melissa D Bauman, David G Amaral
This study continues a longitudinal analysis of rhesus macaque social behavior following bilateral neonatal ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations. The social behavior of female subjects was evaluated at a critical developmental time point-the transition to adulthood. At approximately 4 years of age, female subjects were housed in small groups with other female subjects and reproductively viable adult males. As compared with neurologically intact control animals and animals with early amygdala damage, animals with early hippocampal damage were more social with their female peers...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039330/dissecting-the-influence-of-two-structural-substituents-on-the-differential-neurotoxic-effects-of-methamphetamine-and-mephedrone-on-dopamine-nerve-endings-with-the-use-of-4-methylmethamphetamine-and-methcathinone
#12
John H Anneken, Mariana Angoa-Perez, Girish C Sati, David Crich, Donald M Kuhn
Mephedrone (MEPH) is a β-ketoamphetamine stimulant drug of abuse that is often a constituent of illicit bath salts formulations. While MEPH bears remarkable similarities to methamphetamine (METH) in terms of chemical structure, as well as its neurochemical and behavioral effects, it has been shown to have a reduced neurotoxic profile compared to METH. The addition of a β-keto moiety and a 4-methyl ring substituent to METH yields MEPH, and a loss of direct neurotoxic potential. In the present study, 2 analogs of METH, methcathinone (MeCa) and 4-methylmethamphetamine (4MM), were assessed for their effects on mouse dopamine (DA) nerve endings to determine the relative contribution of each individual moiety to the loss of direct neurotoxicity in MEPH...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025035/resveratrol-suppresses-neuroinflammation-in-the-experimental-paradigm-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
Ranjana Bhandari, Anurag Kuhad
BACKGROUND: Neuronal dysfunction caused by neuroinflammation triggered by the stimulation of matrix metalloproteinases and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as a result of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, is one of the probable mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of the present study was to explore the ameliorative potential of resveratrol on neuroinflammation in the experimental paradigm of neuroinflammatory model of ASD in rats...
February 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024909/dose-response-characteristics-of-intravenous-ketamine-on-dissociative-stereotypy-locomotion-sensorimotor-gating-and-nociception-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#14
Kennett D Radford, Thomas Y Park, Bong Hyo Lee, Sean Moran, Lisa A Osborne, Kwang H Choi
Clinicians administer subanesthetic intravenous (IV) ketamine infusions for treatment of refractory depression, chronic pain, and post-traumatic stress disorder in humans. However, ketamine is administered via the subcutaneous (SC) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes to rodents in most pre-clinical research, which may limit translational application. The present study characterized the dose-response of a subanesthetic IV ketamine bolus (2 and 5mg/kg) and 1-h infusion (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/h) on dissociative stereotypy, locomotion, sensorimotor gating, and thermal nociception in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017854/the-effects-of-neonatal-amygdala-or-hippocampus-lesions-on-adult-social-behavior
#15
Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Gilda Moadab, Anthony Santistevan, David G Amaral
The present report details the final phase of a longitudinal evaluation of the social behavior in a cohort of adult rhesus monkeys that received bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations at 2 weeks of age. Results were compared to previous studies in which adult animals received amygdala lesions and were tested in a similar fashion. Social testing with four novel interaction partners occurred when the animals were between 7 and 8 years of age. Experimental animals interacted with two male and two female partners in two conditions - one in which physical access was restricted (the constrained social access condition) and a second in which physical access was unrestricted (the unconstrained social access condition)...
March 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010153/a-systematic-review-and-evaluation-of-inhibitory-stimulus-control-procedures-as-a-treatment-for-stereotyped-behavior-among-individuals-with-autism
#16
Sinéad Lydon, Laura Moran, Olive Healy, Teresa Mulhern, Kerie Enright Young
PURPOSE: Stereotypy is pervasive among persons with autism and may impact negatively on social inclusion and learning. The implementation of resource-intensive behavioral interventions to decrease these behaviors has been questioned. Inhibitory stimulus control procedures (ISCPs) comprise a type of antecedent-based intervention that has been proposed as an effective treatment approach for stereotypy but has received limited research attention to date. METHOD: The current systematic review sought to examine and synthesize the literature reporting applications of ISCPs in the treatment of stereotypy among persons with autism...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933285/developmental-profile-and-diagnoses-in-children-presenting-with-motor-stereotypies
#17
Francesco Cardona, Francesca Valente, Daniela Miraglia, Caterina D'Ardia, Valentina Baglioni, Flavia Chiarotti
INTRODUCTION: Motor stereotypies represent a typical example of the difficulty in distinguishing non-clinical behaviors (physiological and transient) from symptoms or among different disorders ["primary stereotypies," associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disabilities, genetic syndromes, and sensory impairment]. The aim of this study was to obtain an accurate assessment on the relationship between stereotypies and neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: We studied 23 children (3 girls), aged 36-95 months, who requested a consultation due to the persistence or increased severity of motor stereotypies...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917385/effects-of-sheltering-on-behavior-and-fecal-corticosterone-level-of-elderly-dogs
#18
Katsuji Uetake, Chu Han Yang, Aki Endo, Toshio Tanaka
In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess stress levels and demonstrate stress responses of elderly dogs just after admission to an animal shelter. As stress indicators, fecal corticosterone levels and changes in the ethogram of the dogs were investigated during the first week of admittance...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895554/systemic-radical-scavenger-treatment-of-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-merits-and-limitations-of-the-vitamin-e-derivative-trolox
#19
Oliwia A Janc, Marc A Hüser, Katharina Dietrich, Belinda Kempkes, Christiane Menzfeld, Swen Hülsmann, Michael Müller
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically arising from spontaneous mutations in the X-chromosomal methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The almost exclusively female Rett patients show an apparently normal development during their first 6-18 months of life. Subsequently, cognitive- and motor-impairment, hand stereotypies, loss of learned skills, epilepsy and irregular breathing manifest. Early mitochondrial impairment and oxidative challenge are considered to facilitate disease progression...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888271/investigation-of-the-association-between-motor-stereotypy-behavior-with-fundamental-movement-skills-adaptive-functioning-and-autistic-spectrum-disorder-symptomology-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities
#20
Joanne L Powell, Lydia Pringle, Matt Greig
Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
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