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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434169/inflammation-immune-activation-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv
#1
REVIEW
Corrilynn O Hileman, Nicholas T Funderburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the differential effects of contemporary antiretrovirals on systemic inflammation as heightened immune activation is linked to important co-morbidities and mortality with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces dramatically systemic inflammation and immune activation, but not to levels synchronous with HIV-uninfected populations. In one ART initiation trial, integrase inhibitors appear to reduce inflammation to a greater degree than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); however, it is not clear that there are beneficial effects on inflammation resulting from treatment with integrase inhibitors compared to PIs, between PIs and NNRTIs, between specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or with maraviroc in ART-naïve patients...
April 22, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433961/harnessing-the-medical-humanities-for-experiential-learning
#2
Satendra Singh, Purnima Barua, Upreet Dhaliwal, Navjeevan Singh
A month-long workshop on medical humanities was held in the Jorhat Medical College, Assam in September 2015. It employed experiential learning (both online and onsite) using humanities tools, such as the theatre of the oppressed, art, literature, reflective narratives, movies, the history of medicine, graphic medicine, poetry and diversity studies. As a result of the interactions, 28 volunteer participants, comprising students and faculty members, wrote reflective narratives on doctor​-patient relationships, produced a newsletter and a logo for their medical humanities group, and staged cultural performances and forum theatre...
March 29, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433887/effects-of-clay-art-therapy-on-adults-outpatients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Joshua K M Nan, Rainbow T H Ho
BACKGROUND: Depression has become a critical global health problem, affecting millions of people. Cost-effective nonpharmacological treatment in community settings has been proposed to complement medical treatment. Short-term clay art therapy (CAT) is an alternative treatment that promotes the enhancement of various aspects of mental health for depressed individuals. METHODS: One-hundred and six adults with depression were randomized into a CAT group or visual art (VA) control group for six 2...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433722/high-precision-genome-sequencing-of-engineered-g-oxydans-621h-by-combining-long-nanopore-and-short-accurate-illumina-reads
#4
Angela Kranz, Alexander Vogel, Ursula Degner, Ines Kiefler, Michael Bott, Björn Usadel, Tino Polen
State of the art and novel high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies enable fascinating opportunities and applications in the life sciences including microbial genomics. Short high-quality read data already enable not only microbial genome sequencing, yet can be inadequately to solve problems in genome assemblies and for the analysis of structural variants, especially in engineered microbial cell factories. Single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies generating long reads promise to solve such assembly problems...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433640/partial-gland-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-utilizing-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-in-the-primary-and-salvage-setting-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Ron Golan, Adrien N Bernstein, Timothy D McClure, Art Sedrakyan, Neal A Patel, Dipen J Parekh, Leonard S Marks, Jim C Hu
PURPOSE: Advances in prostate imaging, biopsy and ablative technologies have been accompanied by growing enthusiasm for partial gland ablation, particularly using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for treating prostate cancer. The preservation of non-cancerous prostate tissue and minimizing damage to the neurovascular bundles and external urethral sphincter may improve functional outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was performed following the PRISMA guidelines using a combination of MeSH terms, free-text search, and review of relevant bibliographies using Medline and Embase from the inception of each database through October 10, 2016...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433241/mechanics-of-additively-manufactured-biomaterials
#6
EDITORIAL
Amir A Zadpoor
Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has found many applications in healthcare including fabrication of biomaterials as well as bioprinting of tissues and organs. Additively manufactured (AM) biomaterials may possess arbitrarily complex micro-architectures that give rise to novel mechanical, physical, and biological properties. The mechanical behavior of such porous biomaterials including their quasi-static mechanical properties and fatigue resistance is not yet well understood. It is particularly important to understand the relationship between the designed micro-architecture (topology) and the resulting mechanical properties...
June 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432928/a-humanized-mouse-based-hiv-1-viral-outgrowth-assay-with-higher-sensitivity-than-in-vitro-qvoa-in-detecting-latently-infected-cells-from-individuals-on-art-with-undetectable-viral-loads
#7
Paige Charlins, Kimberly Schmitt, Leila Remling-Mulder, Louise E Hogan, Emily Hanhauser, Kristen S Hobbs, Frederick Hecht, Steven G Deeks, Timothy J Henrich, Ramesh Akkina
Assays that can verify full viral eradication are essential in the context of achieving a cure for HIV/AIDS. In vitro quantitative viral out growth assays (qVOA) are currently the gold standard for measuring latent HIV-1 but these assays often fail to detect very low levels of replication-competent virus. Here we investigated an alternative in vivo approach for sensitive viral detection using humanized mice (hmVOA). Peripheral blood CD4+ T cell samples from HIV subjects on stable ART with undetectable viral loads by RT-PCR were first assayed by in vitro qVOA...
April 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432464/insights-into-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-by-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#8
REVIEW
Britta Diedrich, Jörn Dengjel
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common monogenetic disorder that is caused by mutations in the genes PKD1 and PKD2 encoding polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively. Polycystin-1 and -2 form a complex, interact with several proteins involved in signal transduction and localize to discrete subcellular positions, most importantly the primary cilium. Whereas the causative mutations leading to ADPKD are known, the underlying deregulated cellular pathways are not well understood. In the current review, we introduce state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic techniques and summarize their use in kidney and ADPKD research...
April 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432182/toward-a-direct-and-scalable-identification-of-reduced-models-for-categorical-processes
#9
Susanne Gerber, Illia Horenko
The applicability of many computational approaches is dwelling on the identification of reduced models defined on a small set of collective variables (colvars). A methodology for scalable probability-preserving identification of reduced models and colvars directly from the data is derived-not relying on the availability of the full relation matrices at any stage of the resulting algorithm, allowing for a robust quantification of reduced model uncertainty and allowing us to impose a priori available physical information...
April 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431843/on-the-complex-interaction-between-mathematics-and-the-sciences-of-living-systems-comment-on-move-me-astonish-me-delight-my-eyes-and-brain-the-vienna-integrated-model-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-processes-in-art-perception-vimap-and-corresponding-affective-evaluative
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431303/circular-shape-constrained-fuzzy-clustering-ciscfc-for-nucleus-segmentation-in-pap-smear-images
#11
Ratna Saha, Mariusz Bajger, Gobert Lee
Accurate detection and segmentation of cell nucleus is the precursor step towards computer aided analysis of Pap smear images. This is a challenging and complex task due to degree of overlap, inconsistent staining and poor contrast. In this paper, a novel nucleus segmentation method is proposed by incorporating a circular shape function in fuzzy clustering. The proposed method was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively using the Overlapping Cervical Cytology Image Segmentation Challenge - ISBI 2014 challenge dataset comprised of 945 overlapping Pap smear images...
April 14, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431275/learning-non-rigid-deformations-for-robust-constrained-point-based-registration-in-image-guided-mr-trus-prostate-intervention
#12
John A Onofrey, Lawrence H Staib, Saradwata Sarkar, Rajesh Venkataraman, Cayce B Nawaf, Preston C Sprenkle, Xenophon Papademetris
Accurate and robust non-rigid registration of pre-procedure magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to intra-procedure trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) is critical for image-guided biopsies of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States. TRUS-guided biopsy is the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis and assessment. State-of-the-art, clinical MR-TRUS image fusion relies upon semi-automated segmentations of the prostate in both the MR and the TRUS images to perform non-rigid surface-based registration of the gland...
April 12, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430844/effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-depressive-symptoms-on-all-cause-mortality-among-hiv-infected-women
#13
Jonathan V Todd, Stephen R Cole, Brian W Pence, Catherine R Lesko, Peter Bacchetti, Mardge H Cohen, Daniel J Feaster, Stephen Gange, Michael E Griswold, Wendy Mack, Anna Rubtsova, Cuiwei Wang, Jeremy Weedon, Kathryn Anastos, Adaora A Adimora
Depression affects up to 30% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. We estimated joint effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and depressive symptoms on time to death using a joint marginal structural model and data from a cohort of HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (conducted in the United States) from 1998-2011. Among 848 women contributing 6,721 years of follow-up, 194 participants died during follow-up, resulting in a crude mortality rate of 2.9 per 100 women-years...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430575/nested-tensions-in-care
#14
Merel Visse
This project presents research-based art works that inquire into the tensions in everyday life from an ethical viewpoint of care, which sees people as embedded, "nested" in care-based relationships. Trust is the glue that holds these "nests" together. Care is the air that lifts them up, but tensions exist as well-between dependency and autonomy, vulnerability and strength, for example. The pull of these ideas exist in a kind of "check" and run through our relations and being.
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430560/database-centric-method-for-automated-high-throughput-deconvolution-and-analysis-of-kinetic-antibody-screening-data
#15
R Paul Nobrega, Michael Brown, Cody Williams, Chris Sumner, Patricia Estep, Isabelle Caffry, Yao Yu, Heather Lynaugh, Irina Burnina, Asparouh Lilov, Jordan Desroches, John Bukowski, Tingwan Sun, Jonathan P Belk, Kirt Johnson, Yingda Xu
The state-of-the-art industrial drug discovery approach is the empirical interrogation of a library of drug candidates against a target molecule. The advantage of high-throughput kinetic measurements over equilibrium assessments is the ability to measure each of the kinetic components of binding affinity. Although high-throughput capabilities have improved with advances in instrument hardware, three bottlenecks in data processing remain: (1) intrinsic molecular properties that lead to poor biophysical quality in vitro are not accounted for in commercially available analysis models, (2) processing data through a user interface is time-consuming and not amenable to parallelized data collection, and (3) a commercial solution that includes historical kinetic data in the analysis of kinetic competition data does not exist...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430514/essential-conditions-for-dynamic-interference
#16
Mehrdad Baghery, Ulf Saalmann, Jan M Rost
We develop general quantitative criteria for dynamic interference, a manifestation of a double-slit interference in time which should be realizable with brilliant state-of-the-art high-frequency laser sources. Our analysis reveals that the observation of dynamic interference hinges upon maximizing the difference between the dynamic polarization of the initial bound and the final continuum states of the electron during the light pulse while keeping depletion of the initial state small. These two properties, Stark shift and depletion, can be determined from electronic structure calculations avoiding expensive propagation in time...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430481/ultimate-limit-in-the-spectral-resolution-of-extreme-ultraviolet-frequency-combs
#17
C Corsi, I Liontos, M Bellini, S Cavalieri, P Cancio Pastor, M Siciliani de Cumis, R Eramo
We present the results of direct interferometric measurements on the pulse-to-pulse phase jitter of a metrological, fiber-based, infrared (IR) frequency comb. We show that the short-time evolution of such phase fluctuations, which cannot be actively controlled by any feedback system, imposes a stringent limit on the tooth linewidth of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) combs produced by high-order harmonic conversion, thus explaining the difference of 9 orders of magnitude between the coherence times of state-of-the-art IR and XUV frequency combs...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430480/superconducting-grid-bus-surface-code-architecture-for-hole-spin-qubits
#18
Simon E Nigg, Andreas Fuhrer, Daniel Loss
We present a scalable hybrid architecture for the 2D surface code combining superconducting resonators and hole-spin qubits in nanowires with tunable direct Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The backbone of this architecture is a square lattice of capacitively coupled coplanar waveguide resonators each of which hosts a nanowire hole-spin qubit. Both the frequency of the qubits and their coupling to the microwave field are tunable by a static electric field applied via the resonator center pin. In the dispersive regime, an entangling two-qubit gate can be realized via a third order process, whereby a virtual photon in one resonator is created by a first qubit, coherently transferred to a neighboring resonator, and absorbed by a second qubit in that resonator...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430109/acquisition-of-electrocardiogram-signals-during-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Julien Oster, Gari Clifford
The recording of the electrocardiogram (ECG) during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) acquisition is of great interest and importance. Firstly, MRI acquisition is a relatively slow process, which therefore complicates the imaging of moving organs. Cardiac MRI requires the development of strategies for acquiring high quality images, which is mainly achieved by synchronising the image acquisition with a specific time during the cardiac cycle. The ECG is used to monitor the heart's activity, and the detection of the largest and steepest peak in the cardiac cycle (the QRS complex) triggers the acquisition of slices of the k-space...
April 21, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430088/informatics-for-health-2017-advancing-both-science-and-practice
#20
Philip J Scott, Ronald Cornet, Colin McCowan, Niels Peek, Paolo Fraccaro, Nophar Geifman, Wouter T Gude, William Hulme, Glen P Martin, Richard Williams
INTRODUCTION: The Informatics for Health congress, 24-26 April 2017, in Manchester, UK, brought together the Medical Informatics Europe (MIE) conference and the Farr Institute International Conference. This special issue of the Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics contains 113 presentation abstracts and 149 poster abstracts from the congress. DISCUSSION: The twin programmes of "Big Data" and "Digital Health" are not always joined up by coherent policy and investment priorities...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
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