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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527158/asymptomatic-cryptococcal-antigenemia-in-people-living-with-hiv-plhiv-with-severe-immunosuppression-is-routine-crag-screening-indicated-in-india
#1
S Anuradha, Abhaya Narayana H, Richa Dewan, Ravinder Kaur, K Rajeshwari
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a common, life-threatening opportunistic infection (OI) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Serum Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) positivity is predictive of future occurrence of CM and pre-emptive treatment reduces its mortality. Routine CrAg screening among PLHIV is not adopted by India's national programme. This study evaluated the prevalence of CrAg and assessed CrAg positivity in predicting all-cause mortality among PLHIV. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care, public health facility in New Delhi, India...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526869/blocking-of-carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1-potently-reduces-stress-induced-depression-in-rat-highlighting-a-pivotal-role-of-lipid-metabolism
#2
Anne Skøttrup Mørkholt, Ove Wiborg, Jette G K Nieland, Søren Nielsen, John Dirk Nieland
Major depressive disorder is a complex and common mental disease, for which the pathology has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to provide knowledge about the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulated lipid metabolism and inflammation. Mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a) is a key molecule involved in lipid metabolism and mutations in CPT1a causing reduced function is hypothesized to have a protective role in the development of depression. Moreover, CPT1a is found to be upregulated in suicide patients with history of depression...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526661/the-parasol-protocol-an-implementation-science-study-of-hiv-continuum-of-care-interventions-for-gay-men-and-transgender-women-in-burma-myanmar
#3
Andrea L Wirtz, Soe Naing, Emily Clouse, Kaung Htet Thu, Sandra Hsu Hnin Mon, Zin Min Tun, Stefan Baral, Aung Zayar Paing, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among people living with HIV and reduce onward transmission of HIV rely on innovative interventions along multiple steps of the HIV care continuum. These innovative methods are particularly important for key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). The HIV epidemic in Myanmar is concentrated among key populations, and national efforts now focus on reducing stigma and improving engagement of MSM and TW in HIV prevention and care...
May 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526324/on-viewer-motivation-unit-of-analysis-and-the-vimap-comment-on-move-me-astonish-me-delight-my-eyes-and-brain-the-vienna-integrated-model-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-processes-in-art-perception-vimap-and-corresponding-affective-evaluative-and-neurophysiological
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526318/is-there-really-an-evolved-capacity-for-number
#5
REVIEW
Rafael E Núñez
Humans and other species have biologically endowed abilities for discriminating quantities. A widely accepted view sees such abilities as an evolved capacity specific for number and arithmetic. This view, however, is based on an implicit teleological rationale, builds on inaccurate conceptions of biological evolution, downplays human data from non-industrialized cultures, overinterprets results from trained animals, and is enabled by loose terminology that facilitates teleological argumentation. A distinction between quantical (e...
April 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526212/3d-deeply-supervised-network-for-automated-segmentation-of-volumetric-medical-images
#6
Qi Dou, Lequan Yu, Hao Chen, Yueming Jin, Xin Yang, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng
While deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved remarkable success in 2D medical image segmentation, it is still a difficult task for CNNs to segment important organs or structures from 3D medical images owing to several mutually affected challenges, including the complicated anatomical environments in volumetric images, optimization difficulties of 3D networks and inadequacy of training samples. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient 3D fully convolutional network equipped with a 3D deep supervision mechanism to comprehensively address these challenges; we call it 3D DSN...
May 8, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526169/the-second-victim-a-review
#7
REVIEW
B Coughlan, D Powell, M F Higgins
Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be "never events" and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved - the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims). If the perceived expectation of patients on all clinicians is that of perfection, then clinicians may suffer the consequences of adverse outcomes in isolation and silence...
June 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526128/is-there-really-an-evolved-capacity-for-number
#8
REVIEW
Rafael E Núñez
Humans and other species have biologically endowed abilities for discriminating quantities. A widely accepted view sees such abilities as an evolved capacity specific for number and arithmetic. This view, however, is based on an implicit teleological rationale, builds on inaccurate conceptions of biological evolution, downplays human data from non-industrialized cultures, overinterprets results from trained animals, and is enabled by loose terminology that facilitates teleological argumentation. A distinction between quantical (e...
June 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525685/asymmetric-synthesis-of-secondary-and-tertiary-boronic-esters
#9
Varinder Kumar Aggarwal, Beatrice Collins, Claire Wilson, Eddie Myers
Non-racemic chiral boronic esters are recognised as immensely valuable building blocks in modern organic synthesis. Their stereospecific transformation into a variety of functional group - from amines and halides to arenes and alkynes - along with their air and moisture stability, has established them as an important target for asymmetric synthesis. Efforts towards the stereoselective synthesis of secondary and tertiary alkyl boronic esters have spanned over five decades and are underpinned by a wealth of reactivity platforms, drawing on the unique and varied reactivity of boron...
May 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525596/antiretroviral-therapy-containing-hiv-protease-inhibitors-enhances-fracture-risk-by-impairing-osteoblast-differentiation-and-bone-quality
#10
Hiroyuki Hirakawa, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Hiroki Ochi, Toru Fukuda, Satoko Sunamura, Shinichi Oka, Shu Takeda, Shingo Sato
Long-term ART is associated with increased fracture risk, but the mechanism remains elusive. We measured serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin and pentosidine (markers of poor bone quality) in HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors (PIs) or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-containing regimens. The results demonstrated significantly higher undercarboxylated osteocalcin and pentosidine in PIs-treated patients. Switching to INSTI resulted in significant decrease in these markers. We also showed impaired bone mechanical properties with higher undercarboxylated osteocalcin level in PIs-treated mice and inhibited osteoblast differentiation in PIs-treated osteogenic cells...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525531/phyd3-a-phylogenetic-tree-viewer-with-extended-phyloxml-support-for-functional-genomics-data-visualization
#11
Lukasz Kreft, Alexander Botzki, Frederik Coppens, Klaas Vandepoele, Michiel Van Bel
Motivation: Comparative and evolutionary studies utilise phylogenetic trees to analyse and visualise biological data. Recently, several web-based tools for the display, manipulation, and annotation of phylogenetic trees, such as iTOL and Evolview, have released updates to be compatible with the latest web technologies. While those web tools operate an open server access model with a multitude of registered users, a feature-rich open source solution using current web technologies is not available...
May 19, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525319/preparation-for-sexual-and-reproductive-self-care-in-iranian-adolescent-girls-a-qualitative-study
#12
Zainab Alimoradi, Nourossadat Kariman, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Masoumeh Simbar
Background Adolescence is one of the most important stages in every individual's life. Pubertal changes and acquiring reproduction capability require adolescents to perform special health care processes. Also the possibility of involvement in high-risk sexual behaviors endangers adolescent girls' sexual and reproductive health. Objective Increase and deepen the understanding and knowledge of the factors affecting Iranian adolescent girls' readiness to take care of their sexual and reproductive health. Materials and methods The present qualitative study was conducted using conventional content analysis method...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524891/how-can-i-promote-healing-outside-of-my-clinical-setting-for-patients-in-need-of-a-transplantation
#13
Adrienne Schleisman
Nurses are individuals called to both care for patients and families and facilitate the healing process. Our profession fills a unique role in health care as oncology nurses combine medical science with the art of interpersonal relationships to provide both physical and emotional support for patients. Promoting healing and facilitating adjustment draws individuals to become exceptional nurses and is an innate quality of oncology nurses (American Nurses Association, 2016). It is a characteristic not easily separated from one's personality...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524668/emerging-trends-in-micro-and-nanoscale-technologies-in-medicine-from-basic-discoveries-to-translation
#14
Mario M Alvarez, Joanna Aizenberg, Mostafa Analoui, Anne M Andrews, Gili Bisker, Edward S Boyden, Roger D Kamm, Jeffrey M Karp, David J Mooney, Rahmi Oklu, Dan Peer, Michelle Stolzoff, Michael S Strano, Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago, Thomas J Webster, Paul S Weiss, Ali Khademhosseini
We discuss the state of the art and innovative micro- and nanoscale technologies that are finding niches and opening up new opportunities in medicine, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We take the design of point-of-care applications and the capture of circulating tumor cells as illustrative examples of the integration of micro- and nanotechnologies into solutions of diagnostic challenges. We describe several novel nanotechnologies that enable imaging cellular structures and molecular events...
May 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523559/techniques-for-single-molecule-mrna-imaging-in-living-cells
#15
Kevin Czaplinski
Typical measurement of macromolecules in a biological sample typically averages the result over all the cells or molecules within the sample, and while these types of measurements provide very useful information, they completely miss heterogeneity among the components within the sample that could be a very important aspect of the sample's function. These techniques are also limited in their ability to examine intracellular spatial orientation of molecular activity, which is often a critical component to the regulation of biological processes, particularly in cells with unique spatial relationships, such as neurons...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523557/single-cell-genomics-unravels-brain-cell-type-complexity
#16
Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Holger Heyn
The brain is the most complex tissue in terms of cell types that it comprises, to the extent that it is still poorly understood. Single cell genome and transcriptome profiling allow to disentangle the neuronal heterogeneity, enabling the categorization of individual neurons into groups with similar molecular signatures. Herein, we unravel the current state of knowledge in single cell neurogenomics. We describe the molecular understanding of the cellular architecture of the mammalian nervous system in health and in disease; from the discovery of unrecognized cell types to the validation of known ones, applying these state-of-the-art technologies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523494/-a-future-amalgamation-between-the-scientist-and-the-clinician
#17
Sarah Haywood-Small
Personalized medicine is gaining momentum and analytical methods such as MS are ideally situated to provide coherent imaging of human disease. The cancer research field is already starting to benefit from the MS imaging applications; non-cancerous diseases will hopefully enjoy the same success. Often, the way forward is to embrace several techniques, which can complement and verify each other. This approach can be seen as less confrontational as everyone can play a part in the development of a new working practice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523282/comparative-study-of-computational-visual-attention-models-on-two-dimensional-medical-images
#18
Gezheng Wen, Brenda Rodriguez-Niño, Furkan Y Pecen, David J Vining, Naveen Garg, Mia K Markey
Computational modeling of visual attention is an active area of research. These models have been successfully employed in applications such as robotics. However, most computational models of visual attention are developed in the context of natural scenes, and their role with medical images is not well investigated. As radiologists interpret a large number of clinical images in a limited time, an efficient strategy to deploy their visual attention is necessary. Visual saliency maps, highlighting image regions that differ dramatically from their surroundings, are expected to be predictive of where radiologists fixate their gaze...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522879/comparison-of-different-bonding-techniques-for-efficient-strain-transfer-using-piezoelectric-actuators
#19
Dorian Ziss, Javier Martín-Sánchez, Thomas Lettner, Alma Halilovic, Giovanna Trevisi, Rinaldo Trotta, Armando Rastelli, Julian Stangl
In this paper, strain transfer efficiencies from a single crystalline piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate substrate to a GaAs semiconductor membrane bonded on top are investigated using state-of-the-art x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and finite-element-method (FEM) simulations. Two different bonding techniques are studied, namely, gold-thermo-compression and polymer-based SU8 bonding. Our results show a much higher strain-transfer for the "soft" SU8 bonding in comparison to the "hard" bonding via gold-thermo-compression...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522831/scaling-of-average-receiving-time-on-weighted-polymer-networks-with-some-topological-properties
#20
Dandan Ye, Song Liu, Jia Li, Fei Zhang, Changling Han, Wei Chen, Yingze Zhang
In this paper, a family of the weighted polymer networks is introduced depending on the number of copies f and a weight factor r. The topological properties of weighted polymer networks can be completely analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters and/or of the fractal dimension. Moreover, assuming that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves to any of its neighbors with probability proportional to the weight of edge linking them, namely weight-dependent walk. Then, we calculate the average receiving time (ART) with weighted-dependent walks, which is the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes absorpt at the trap located at the central node as a recursive relation...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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