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External granule layer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512198/novel-role-of-rac-mid1-signaling-in-medial-cerebellar-development
#1
Takashi Nakamura, Takehiko Ueyama, Yuzuru Ninoyu, Hirofumi Sakaguchi, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Yoshitaka Hishikawa, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Masaaki Kohta, Mizuho Sakahara, Ivan de Curtis, Eiji Kohmura, Yasuo Hisa, Atsu Aiba, Naoaki Saito
Rac signaling impacts a relatively large number of downstream targets; however, few studies have established an association between Rac pathways and pathological conditions. In the present study, we generated mice with double knockout of Rac1 and Rac3 (Atoh1-Cre;Rac1(flox/flox);Rac3(-/-) ) in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). We observed impaired tangential migration at E16.5, as well as numerous apoptotic CGNs at the deepest layer of the external granule layer (EGL) in the medial cerebellum of Atoh1-Cre;Rac1(flox/flox);Rac3(-/-) mice at P8...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483977/uncoupling-of-unc5c-with-polymerized-tubb3-in-microtubules-mediates-netrin-1-repulsion
#2
Qiangqiang Shao, Tao Yang, Huai Huang, Farrah Alarmanazi, Guofa Liu
Modulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics is a key event of cytoskeleton remodeling in the growth cone (GC) during axon outgrowth and pathfinding. Our previous studies have shown that the direct interaction of netrin receptor DCC and DSCAM with polymerized TUBB3, a neuron-specific MT subunit in the brain, is required for netrin-1-mediated axon outgrowth, branching and attraction. Here, we show that uncoupling of polymerized TUBB3 with netrin-1 repulsive receptor UNC5C is involved in netrin-1-mediated axonal repulsion...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450263/wls-expression-in-the-rhombic-lip-orchestrates-the-embryonic-development-of-the-mouse-cerebellum
#3
Joanna Yeung, Daniel Goldowitz
Wntless (Wls) is implicated in the Wnt signaling pathway by regulating the secretion of Wnt molecules. During brain development, Wls is expressed in the isthmic organizer (ISO) and rhombic lip (RL). Wls regulates Wnt1 secretion at the ISO which is required to induce midbrain-hindbrain structures. However, Wls function in the RL is not known. Here, we employed Nestin-cre to delete Wls specifically in the RL during mid-gestation. The loss-of-Wls leads to an abnormal RL during development and cerebellar vermis hypoplasia at birth...
April 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448983/intrauterine-growth-restriction-alters-the-postnatal-development-of-the-rat-cerebellum
#4
Annie R A McDougall, Vanny Wiradjaja, Aminath Azhan, Anqi Li, Nadia Hale, Mary E Wlodek, Stuart B Hooper, Megan J Wallace, Mary Tolcos
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of antenatal brain injury. We aimed to characterize cerebellar deficits following IUGR and to investigate the potential underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. At embryonic day 18, pregnant rats underwent either sham surgery (controls; n = 23) or bilateral uterine vessel ligation to restrict blood flow to fetuses (IUGR; n = 20). Offspring were collected at postnatal day 2 (P2), P7, and P35. Body weights were reduced at P2, P7, and P35 in IUGR offspring (p < 0...
April 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434864/sensorimotor-representations-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dense-spatially-organized-and-non-temporally-patterned
#5
Laura D Knogler, Daniil A Markov, Elena I Dragomir, Vilim Štih, Ruben Portugues
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals integrate external sensory information from their environment with self-generated motor and sensory signals in order to guide motor behavior and adaptation. The cerebellum is a vertebrate hindbrain region where all of these signals converge and that has been implicated in the acquisition, coordination, and calibration of motor activity. Theories of cerebellar function postulate that granule cells encode a variety of sensorimotor signals in the cerebellar input layer...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382975/radiation-induces-progenitor-cell-death-microglia-activation-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage-in-the-juvenile-rat-cerebellum
#6
Kai Zhou, Martina Boström, C Joakim Ek, Tao Li, Cuicui Xie, Yiran Xu, Yanyan Sun, Klas Blomgren, Changlian Zhu
Posterior fossa tumors are the most common childhood intracranial tumors, and radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments. However, irradiation induces long-term adverse effects that can have significant negative impacts on the patient's quality of life. The purpose of this study was to characterize irradiation-induced cellular and molecular changes in the cerebellum. We found that irradiation-induced cell death occurred mainly in the external germinal layer (EGL) of the juvenile rat cerebellum. The number of proliferating cells in the EGL decreased, and 82...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238089/comparative-morphology-of-the-odoriferous-system-in-three-predatory-stink-bugs-heteroptera-asopinae
#7
Luis Carlos Martínez, Angelica Plata-Rueda, José Cola Zanuncio, Wagner de Souza Tavares, José Eduardo Serrão
The metathoracic scent system in Heteroptera produces and releases defensive volatile compounds. The odor produced by predatory stink bugs differs from phytophagous bugs, suggesting a variation between the structure and function of the metathoracic scent system. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the external thoracic efferent system, scent gland, and reservoir in the stink bug predators Brontocoris tabidus, Podisus nigrispinus, and Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Asopinae) were studied. External thoracic efferent systems of B...
February 25, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097666/understanding-external-cervical-resorption-patterns-in-endodontically-treated-teeth
#8
A-M Mavridou, E Hauben, M Wevers, E Schepers, L Bergmans, P Lambrechts
AIM: To understand the patterns of external cervical resorption (ECR) in endodontically treated teeth. To compare characteristics and mechanisms of ECR in root filled teeth with those established in teeth with vital pulps. METHODOLOGY: Seven cases of endodontically treated permanent teeth displaying ECR were investigated. ECR diagnosis was based on clinical findings and radiographic examination with cone-beam computed tomography. The extracted teeth were further analysed by a nano-focus computed tomographic (nano-CT) system, hard-tissue histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 18, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879339/mct8-deficiency-in-purkinje-cells-disrupts-embryonic-chicken-cerebellar-development
#9
Joke Delbaere, Pieter Vancamp, Stijn L J Van Herck, Nele M A Bourgeois, Mary J Green, Richard J T Wingate, Veerle M Darras
Inactivating mutations in the human SLC16A2 gene encoding the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) result in the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome accompanied by severe locomotor deficits. The underlying mechanisms of the associated cerebellar maldevelopment were studied using the chicken as a model. Electroporation of an MCT8-RNAi vector into the cerebellar anlage of a 3-day-old embryo allowed knockdown of MCT8 in Purkinje cell precursors. This resulted in the downregulation of the thyroid hormone-responsive gene RORα and the Purkinje cell-specific differentiation marker LHX1/5 at day 6...
February 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878595/cell-type-specific-expression-of-nfix-in-the-developing-and-adult-cerebellum
#10
James Fraser, Alexandra Essebier, Richard M Gronostajski, Mikael Boden, Brandon J Wainwright, Tracey J Harvey, Michael Piper
Transcription factors from the nuclear factor one (NFI) family have been shown to play a central role in regulating neural progenitor cell differentiation within the embryonic and post-natal brain. NFIA and NFIB, for instance, promote the differentiation and functional maturation of granule neurons within the cerebellum. Mice lacking Nfix exhibit delays in the development of neuronal and glial lineages within the cerebellum, but the cell-type-specific expression of this transcription factor remains undefined...
November 23, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734996/stem-progenitor-cells-in-the-developing-human-cerebellum-an-immunohistochemical-study
#11
V Pibiri, A Ravarino, C Gerosa, M C Pintus, V Fanos, G Faa
The aim of this study was to analyze, by immunohistochemistry, the occurrence of stem/progenitor cells localized in the different niches of the developing human cerebellum. To this end, cerebellar samples were obtained from 3 fetuses and 3 newborns ranging, respectively, from 11 to 24 and from 30 to 38 weeks of gestation. Specimens were 10% formalin-fixed, routinely processed and paraffin-embedded; 3 μm-tick sections were immunostained with anti-SOX2 and PAX6 antibodies. Our study evidenced SOX2 and PAX6 immunoreactivity in precursors cells in all six developing human cerebella...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601242/developmental-injury-to-the-cerebellar-cortex-following-hydroxyurea-treatment-in-early-postnatal-life-an-immunohistochemical-and-electron-microscopic-study
#12
Joaquín Martí, Vanesa Molina, M C Santa-Cruz, José P Hervás
Postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex was studied in rats administered with a single dose (2 mg/g) of the cytotoxic agent hydroxyurea (HU) on postnatal day (P) 9 and collected at appropriate times ranging from 6 h to 45 days. Quantification of several parameters such as the density of pyknotic, mitotic, BrdU-positive, and vimentin-stained cells revealed that HU compromises the survival of the external granular layer (EGL) cells. Moreover, vimentin immunocytochemistry revealed overexpression and thicker immunoreactive glial processes in HU-treated rats...
September 6, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559168/task-learning-promotes-plasticity-of-interneuron-connectivity-maps-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#13
Longwen Huang, Kevin Ung, Isabella Garcia, Kathleen B Quast, Keith Cordiner, Peter Saggau, Benjamin R Arenkiel
UNLABELLED: Elucidating patterns of functional synaptic connectivity and deciphering mechanisms of how plasticity influences such connectivity is essential toward understanding brain function. In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), principal neurons (mitral/tufted cells) make reciprocal connections with local inhibitory interneurons, including granule cells (GCs) and external plexiform layer (EPL) interneurons. Our current understanding of the functional connectivity between these cell types, as well as their experience-dependent plasticity, remains incomplete...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487661/-expression-of-doublecortin-and-neun-in-the-developing-cerebellar-neurons-in-rat
#14
S M Zimatkin, O A Karniushko
This work was performed on the offspring of 5 outbred female albino rats to give a comparative immunohistochemical evaluation of doublecortin (DCX) and NeuN expression in the neurons of the cerebellar cortex and nucleus interpositus in the early postnatal ontogenesis (postnatal days 2-15). DCX expression was detected in postmitotic neurons of the external granular layer and migrating neurons of the cerebellar cortex. At postnatal days 2 and 7 DCX expression in neocerebellum was higher than in paleocerebellum...
2016: Morfologi︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452274/regulation-of-tlx3-by-pax6-is-required-for-the-restricted-expression-of-chrn%C3%AE-3-in-cerebellar-granule-neuron-progenitors-during-development
#15
Thulasi Sheela Divya, Soundararajan Lalitha, Surendran Parvathy, Chandramohan Subashini, Rajendran Sanalkumar, Sivadasan Bindu Dhanesh, Vazhanthodi Abdul Rasheed, Mundackal Sivaraman Divya, Shubha Tole, Jackson James
Homeobox gene Tlx3 is known to promote glutamatergic differentiation and is expressed in post-mitotic neurons of CNS. Contrary to this here, we discovered that Tlx3 is expressed in the proliferating progenitors of the external granule layer in the cerebellum, and examined factors that regulate this expression. Using Pax6(-/-)Sey mouse model and molecular interaction studies we demonstrate Pax6 is a key activator of Tlx3 specifically in cerebellum, and induces its expression starting at embryonic day (E)15. By Postnatal day (PN)7, Tlx3 is expressed in a highly restricted manner in the cerebellar granule neurons of the posterior cerebellar lobes, where it is required for the restricted expression of nicotinic cholinergic receptor-α3 subunit (Chrnα3) and other genes involved in formation of synaptic connections and neuronal migration...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444290/shh-desmoplastic-nodular-medulloblastoma-and-gorlin-syndrome-in-the-setting-of-down-syndrome-case-report-molecular-profiling-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Ross Mangum, Elizabeth Varga, Daniel R Boué, David Capper, Martin Benesch, Jeffrey Leonard, Diana S Osorio, Christopher R Pierson, Nicholas Zumberge, Felix Sahm, Daniel Schrimpf, Stefan M Pfister, Jonathan L Finlay
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of acute leukemia compared to a markedly decreased incidence of solid tumors. Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, is particularly rare in the DS population, with only one published case. As demonstrated in a mouse model, DS is associated with cerebellar hypoplasia and a decreased number of cerebellar granule neuron progenitor cells (CGNPs) in the external granule cell layer (EGL)...
December 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434667/proneurotrophin-3-promotes-cell-cycle-withdrawal-of-developing-cerebellar-granule-cell-progenitors-via-the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor
#17
Juan Pablo Zanin, Elizabeth Abercrombie, Wilma J Friedman
Cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCP) proliferate extensively in the external granule layer (EGL) of the developing cerebellum prior to differentiating and migrating. Mechanisms that regulate the appropriate timing of cell cycle withdrawal of these neuronal progenitors during brain development are not well defined. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is highly expressed in the proliferating GCPs, but is downregulated once the cells leave the cell cycle. This receptor has primarily been characterized as a death receptor for its ability to induce neuronal apoptosis following injury...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423908/localization-of-%C3%AE-1-2-fucose-glycan-in-the-mouse-olfactory-pathway
#18
Daisuke Kondoh, Akihiro Kamikawa, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura
Glycoconjugates in the olfactory system play critical roles in neuronal formation, and α1-2 fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan mediates neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. Histochemical findings of α1-2Fuc glycan in the mouse olfactory system detected using Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) vary. This study histochemically assessed the main olfactory and vomeronasal pathways in male and female ICR and C57BL/6J mice aged 3-4 months using UEA-I. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I reacted with most receptor cells arranged mainly at the basal region of the olfactory epithelium...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413119/induction-of-the-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a1-during-the-perinatal-period-can-cause-neurodevelopmental-toxicity
#19
Rika Hirashima, Hirofumi Michimae, Hiroaki Takemoto, Aya Sasaki, Yoshinori Kobayashi, Tomoo Itoh, Robert H Tukey, Ryoichi Fujiwara
Anticonvulsants can increase the risk of developing neurotoxicity in infants; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated to date. Thyroxine [3,5,3',5'-l-tetraiodothyronine (T4)] plays crucial roles in the development of the central nervous system. In this study, we hypothesized that induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1)-an enzyme involved in the metabolism of T4-by anticonvulsants would reduce serum T4 levels and cause neurodevelopmental toxicity. Exposure of mice to phenytoin during both the prenatal and postnatal periods significantly induced UGT1A1 and decreased serum T4 levels on postnatal day 14...
September 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369072/lxr-agonist-rescued-the-deficit-in-the-proliferation-of-the-cerebellar-granule-cells-induced-by-dexamethasone
#20
Xuting Bian, Hongyu Zhong, Fen Li, Yulong Cai, Xin Li, Lian Wang, Xiaotang Fan
Dexamethasone (DEX) exposure during early postnatal life produces permanent neuromotor and intellectual deficits and stunts cerebellar growth. The liver X receptor (LXR) plays important roles in CNS development. However, the effects of LXR on the DEX-mediated impairment of cerebellar development remain undetermined. Thus, mice were pretreated with LXR agonist TO901317 (TO) and were later exposed to DEX to evaluate its protective effects on DEX-mediated deficit during cerebellar development. The results showed that an acute exposure of DEX on postnatal day 7 resulted in a significant impairment in cerebellar development and decreased the proliferation of granule neuron precursors in the external granule layer of cerebellum...
September 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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