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External granule layer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895708/a-peptidomic-approach-to-characterize-peptides-involved-in-cerebellar-cortex-development-leads-to-the-identification-of-the-neurotrophic-effects-of-nociceptin
#1
Auriane Corbière, Marie-Laure Walet-Balieu, Philippe Chan, Magali Basille-Dugay, Julie Hardouin, David Vaudry
The cerebellum is a brain structure involved in motor and cognitive functions. The development of the cerebellar cortex (the external part of the cerebellum) is under the control of numerous factors. Among these factors, neuropeptides including PACAP or somatostatin modulate the survival, migration and/or differentiation of cerebellar granule cells. Interestingly, such peptides contributing to cerebellar ontogenesis usually exhibit a specific transient expression profile with a low abundance at birth, a high expression level during the developmental processes, which take place within the first two postnatal weeks in rodents, and a gradual decline toward adulthood...
June 12, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888765/cdc42-regulates-neuronal-polarity-during-cerebellar-axon-formation-and-glial-guided-migration
#2
Eve-Ellen Govek, Zhuhao Wu, Devrim Acehan, Henrik Molina, Keith Rivera, Xiaodong Zhu, Yin Fang, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Mary Elizabeth Hatten
CNS cortical histogenesis depends on polarity signaling pathways that regulate cell adhesion and motility. Here we report that conditional deletion of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 in cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) results in abnormalities in cerebellar foliation revealed by iDISCO clearing methodology, a loss of columnar organization of proliferating GCPs in the external germinal layer (EGL), disordered parallel fiber organization in the molecular layer (ML), and a failure to extend a leading process and form a neuron-glial junction during migration along Bergmann glia (BG)...
March 23, 2018: iScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879109/mettl3-mediated-m6a-modification-is-required-for-cerebellar-development
#3
Chen-Xin Wang, Guan-Shen Cui, Xiuying Liu, Kai Xu, Meng Wang, Xin-Xin Zhang, Li-Yuan Jiang, Ang Li, Ying Yang, Wei-Yi Lai, Bao-Fa Sun, Gui-Bin Jiang, Hai-Lin Wang, Wei-Min Tong, Wei Li, Xiu-Jie Wang, Yun-Gui Yang, Qi Zhou
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation is the most abundant modification on mRNAs and plays important roles in various biological processes. The formation of m6A is catalyzed by a methyltransferase complex including methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) as a key factor. However, the in vivo functions of METTL3 and m6A modification in mammalian development remain unclear. Here, we show that specific inactivation of Mettl3 in mouse nervous system causes severe developmental defects in the brain. Mettl3 conditional knockout (cKO) mice manifest cerebellar hypoplasia caused by drastically enhanced apoptosis of newborn cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) in the external granular layer (EGL)...
June 7, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#4
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763885/intrauterine-growth-restriction-affects-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-the-developing-guinea-pig-brain
#5
Mary Tolcos, Annie McDougall, Amy Shields, Yoonyoung Chung, Rachael O'Dowd, Ann Turnley, Megan Wallace, Sandra Rees
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae in postnatal life. However, the effects of IUGR on the cerebellum are still to be fully elucidated. A major determinant of growth and development of the cerebellum is proliferation and subsequent migration of cerebellar granule cells. Our objective was to determine whether IUGR, induced by chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) in guinea pigs, results in abnormal cerebellar development due to deficits suggestive of impaired granule cell proliferation and/or migration...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572837/cholecystokinin-selectively-activates-short-axon-cells-to-enhance-inhibition-of-olfactory-bulb-output-neurons
#6
Xiang Liu, Shaolin Liu
KEY POINTS: Cholecystokinin (CCK) via CCK-B receptors significantly enhances the GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition of principal olfactory bulb (OB) output neurons. This CCK action requires action potentials in presynaptic neurons. The enhanced inhibition of OB output neurons is a result of CCK-elevated inhibitory input from the glomerular circuit. CCK modulation of the glomerular circuit also leads to potentiated presynaptic inhibition of olfactory nerve terminals and postsynaptic inhibition of glomerular neurons...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555564/neurogenesis-in-the-postnatal-cerebellum-after-injury
#7
REVIEW
Julia P Andreotti, Pedro H D M Prazeres, Luiz A V Magno, Marco A Romano-Silva, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
The cerebellum plays major role in motor coordination and learning. It contains half of the neurons in the brain. Thus, deciphering the mechanisms by which cerebellar neurons are generated is essential to understand the cerebellar functions and the pathologies associated with it. In a recent study, Wojcinski et al. (2017) by using in vivo Cre/loxP technologies reveal that Nestin-expressing progenitors repopulated the external granular cell layer after injury. Depletion of postnatal external granular cell layer is not sufficient to induce motor behavior defects in adults, as the cerebellum recovers these neurons...
June 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401176/correlations-between-changes-in-photoreceptor-layer-and-other-clinical-characteristics-in-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#8
Jia Yu, Chunhui Jiang, Gezhi Xu
PURPOSE: To clarify the correlations between changes in the photoreceptor layer (PRL) and other clinical characteristics during central serous chorioretinopathy. METHODS: Patients with central serous chorioretinopathy with one eye affected were enrolled. Photoreceptor layer appearance within the detached area was evaluated, and its correlations with symptom duration, best-corrected visual acuity, and the difference in the foveal outer nuclear layer thickness between the affected and contralateral eyes were analyzed...
February 2, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330522/the-racgap-%C3%AE-chimaerin-is-essential-for-cerebellar-granule-cell-migration
#9
Jason A Estep, Wenny Wong, Yiu-Cheung E Wong, Brian M Loui, Martin M Riccomagno
During mammalian cerebellar development, postnatal granule cell progenitors proliferate in the outer part of the External Granule Layer (EGL). Postmitotic granule progenitors migrate tangentially in the inner EGL before switching to migrate radially inward, past the Purkinje cell layer, to achieve their final position in the mature Granule Cell Layer (GCL). Here, we show that the RacGAP β-chimaerin is expressed by a small population of late-born, premigratory granule cells. β-chimaerin deficiency causes a subset of granule cells to become arrested in the EGL, where they differentiate and form ectopic neuronal clusters...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307116/discovery-of-transcription-factors-novel-to-mouse-cerebellar-granule-cell-development-through-laser-capture-microdissection
#10
Peter G Y Zhang, Joanna Yeung, Ishita Gupta, Miguel Ramirez, Thomas Ha, Douglas J Swanson, Sayaka Nagao-Sato, Masayoshi Itoh, Hideya Kawaji, Timo Lassmann, Carsten O Daub, Erik Arner, Michiel de Hoon, Piero Carninci, Alistair R R Forrest, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Dan Goldowitz
Laser-capture microdissection was used to isolate external germinal layer tissue from three developmental periods of mouse cerebellar development: embryonic days 13, 15, and 18. The cerebellar granule cell-enriched mRNA library was generated with next-generation sequencing using the Helicos technology. Our objective was to discover transcriptional regulators that could be important for the development of cerebellar granule cells-the most numerous neuron in the central nervous system. Through differential expression analysis, we have identified 82 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) from a total of 1311 differentially expressed genes...
January 6, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249940/propofol-exposure-in-early-life-induced-developmental-impairments-in-the-mouse-cerebellum
#11
Rui Xiao, Dan Yu, Xin Li, Jing Huang, Sheng Jing, Xiaohang Bao, Tiande Yang, Xiaotang Fan
Propofol is a widely used anesthetic in the clinic while several studies have demonstrated that propofol exposure may cause neurotoxicity in the developing brain. However, the effects of early propofol exposure on cerebellar development are not well understood. Propofol (30 or 60 mg/kg) was administered to mice on postnatal day (P)7; Purkinje cell dendritogenesis and Bergmann glial cell development were evaluated on P8, and granule neuron migration was analyzed on P10. The results indicated that exposure to propofol on P7 resulted in a significant reduction in calbindin-labeled Purkinje cells and their dendrite length...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037668/measurement-and-characterization-of-external-oil-in-the-fried-waxy-maize-starch-granules-using-atr-ftir-and-xrd
#12
Long Chen, Yaoqi Tian, Binghua Sun, Canxin Cai, Rongrong Ma, Zhengyu Jin
Concerns regarding increased dietary oil uptake have prompted efforts to investigate the oil absorption and distribution in fried starchy foods. In the present study, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, together with a chloroform-methanol method, was used to analyze the external and internal oil contents in fried starchy samples. The micromorphology of fried starchy samples was further investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), polarized light microscope (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030097/transient-vimentin-expression-during-the-embryonic-development-of-the-chicken-cerebellum
#13
Vasiliki Kommata, Catherine R Dermon
Complex morphogenetic events, critical for the development of normal cerebellum foliation and layering, are known to involve type III intermediate filament protein such as vimentin expressed by Bergmann glia. The present study aimed to determine aspects of intermediate and late embryonic pattern of vimentin expression during the corticogenesis of chicken cerebellum at embryonic days 10-19 (E10-E19), using single and double immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence. Vimentin expression showed partial co-localization with the glial markers GFAP and BLBP...
April 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974424/lkb1-regulates-granule-cell-migration-and-cortical-folding-of-the-cerebellar-cortex
#14
Kaitlyn E Ryan, Patrick S Kim, Jonathan T Fleming, Emily Brignola, Frances Y Cheng, Ying Litingtung, Chin Chiang
Cerebellar growth and foliation require the Hedgehog-driven proliferation of granule cell precursors (GCPs) in the external granule layer (EGL). However, that increased or extended GCP proliferation generally does not elicit ectopic folds suggests that additional determinants control cortical expansion and foliation during cerebellar development. Here, we find that genetic loss of the serine-threonine kinase Liver Kinase B1 (Lkb1) in GCPs increased cerebellar cortical size and foliation independent of changes in proliferation or Hedgehog signaling...
December 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970050/the-biology-of-mucus-composition-synthesis-and-organization
#15
REVIEW
Rama Bansil, Bradley S Turner
In this review we discuss mucus, the viscoelastic secretion from goblet or mucous producing cells that lines the epithelial surfaces of all organs exposed to the external world. Mucus is a complex aqueous fluid that owes its viscoelastic, lubricating and hydration properties to the glycoprotein mucin combined with electrolytes, lipids and other smaller proteins. Electron microscopy of mucosal surfaces reveals a highly convoluted surface with a network of fibers and pores of varying sizes. The major structural and functional component, mucin is a complex glycoprotein coded by about 20 mucin genes which produce a protein backbone having multiple tandem repeats of Serine, Threonine (ST repeats) where oligosaccharides are covalently O-linked...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939329/potential-deficit-from-decreased-cerebellar-granule-cell-migration-in-serine-racemase-deficient-mice-is-reversed-by-increased-expression-of-glun2b-and-elevated-levels-of-nmdar-agonists
#16
He Zhang, Liping Song, Yuhua Chang, Mengjuan Wu, Xiuli Kuang, Haiyan Jiang, Shengzhou Wu
Inward migration of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) after birth is critical for lamination in the cerebellar cortex. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor (NMDAR) tethering CGCs into Bergmann glial fibers mediates the inward movement during the glial-dependent migratory phase. Activation of NMDAR depends on simultaneous binding of the GluN2 subunit by glutamate, and of the GluN1 subunit by d-serine or glycine; d-serine is believed to be an endogenous ligand of NMDAR. We hypothesized that lamination of the cerebellar cortex may be compromised in Srr (the gene for serine racemase (SR)) mutated mice (Srrnull) because of significantly low levels of d-serine per se...
September 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768156/the-syk-kinases-orchestrate-cerebellar-granule-cell-tangential-migration
#17
Aurélien Benon, Choua Ya, Laurent Martin, Chantal Watrin, Naura Chounlamountri, Iness Jaaoini, Jérôme Honnorat, Véronique Pellier-Monnin, Nelly Noraz
The tyrosine kinases of the Syk family are essential components of the well-characterized immunoreceptor ITAM-based signaling pathway. However, ITAM-based signaling typically does not function in isolation. Instead, it is enmeshed in the molecular network controlling cellular adhesion and chemotaxis. Consistent with the increasing number of data involving ITAM-bearing molecules in neuronal functions, we previously depicted a role for Syk kinases in the establishment of neuronal connectivity. In the developing cerebellum, we found that Syk is essentially expressed in the granule cells (GC) and more importantly, phosphorylated on tyrosine residues representative of an active form of the kinase in tangentially migrating GC...
July 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633908/dynamics-of-the-cell-division-orientation-of-granule-cell-precursors-during-cerebellar-development
#18
Satoshi Miyashita, Toma Adachi, Mariko Yamashita, Takayuki Sota, Mikio Hoshino
The cerebellar granule cell (GC) system provides a good model for studying neuronal development. In the external granule layer (EGL), granule cell precursors (GCPs) rapidly and continuously divide to produce numerous GCs as well as GCPs. In some brain regions, the orientation of cell division affects daughter cell fate, thus the direction of GCP division is related to whether it produces a GCP or a GC. Therefore, we tried to characterize the orientation of GCP division from embryonic to postnatal stages and to identify an environmental cue that regulates the orientation...
October 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619543/circumferential-three-dimensional-printed-tracheal-grafts-research-model-feasibility-and-early-results
#19
Faiz Y Bhora, Erik E Lewis, Sadiq S Rehmani, Adil Ayub, Wissam Raad, Adnan M Al-Ayoubi, Robert S Lebovics
BACKGROUND: Methods for tracheal graft research have presented persistent challenges to investigators, and three-dimensional (3D)-printed biosynthetic grafts offer one potential development platform. We aimed to develop an efficient research platform for customizable circumferential 3D-printed tracheal grafts and evaluate feasibility and early structural integrity with a large-animal model. METHODS: Virtual 3D models of porcine subject tracheas were generated using preoperative computed tomography scans...
September 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587295/postnatal-migration-of-cerebellar-interneurons
#20
REVIEW
Ludovic Galas, Magalie Bénard, Alexis Lebon, Yutaro Komuro, Damien Schapman, Hubert Vaudry, David Vaudry, Hitoshi Komuro
Due to its continuing development after birth, the cerebellum represents a unique model for studying the postnatal orchestration of interneuron migration. The combination of fluorescent labeling and ex/in vivo imaging revealed a cellular highway network within cerebellar cortical layers (the external granular layer, the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer, and the internal granular layer). During the first two postnatal weeks, saltatory movements, transient stop phases, cell-cell interaction/contact, and degradation of the extracellular matrix mark out the route of cerebellar interneurons, notably granule cells and basket/stellate cells, to their final location...
June 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
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