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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449387/sustaining-nurse-led-task-shifting-strategies-for-hypertension-control-a-concept-mapping-study-to-inform-evidence-based-practice
#1
Sarah Blackstone, Juliet Iwelunmor, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Joyce Gyamfi, Nana Kofi Quakyi, Micheal Ntim, Gbenga Ogedegbe
BACKGROUND: The use of task-shifting is an increasingly widespread delivery approach for health interventions targeting prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension in adults living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Addressing a gap in the literature, this research examined the sustainability of an ongoing task-shifting strategy for hypertension (TASSH) from the perspectives of community health nurses (CHNs) implementing the program. METHODS: We used concept-mapping, a mixed-methods participatory approach to understand CHNs' perceptions of barriers and enablers to sustaining a task-shifting program...
April 27, 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449385/linkage-to-hiv-care-after-home-based-hiv-counselling-and-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Eugene Ruzagira, Kathy Baisley, Anatoli Kamali, Samuel Biraro, Heiner Grosskurth
BACKGROUND: Home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) has the potential to increase HIV testing uptake in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) but data on linkage to HIV care after HBHCT are scarce. We conducted a systematic review of linkage to care after HBHCT in SSA. METHODS: Five databases were searched for studies published between 1(st) January 2000 and 19(th) August 2016 that reported on linkage to care among adults newly identified with HIV infection through HBHCT...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449332/behavioural-disinhibition-in-the-general-population-during-the-antiretroviral-therapy-roll-out-in-sub-saharan-africa-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Eva M Legemate, Jan A C Hontelez, Caspar W N Looman, Sake J De Vlas
OBJECTIVES: Improved life expectancy and reduced transmission probabilities due to ART may result in behavioural disinhibition - i.e. an increase in sexual risk behaviour in response to a perceived lower risk of HIV. We examined trends in sexual risk behaviour in the general population of sub-Saharan African countries 1999 - 2015. METHODS: We systematically reviewed scientific literature of sexual behaviour, and reviewed trends in Demographic and Health Surveys...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449319/comparison-of-administrative-and-survey-data-for-estimating-vitamin-a-supplementation-and-deworming-coverage-of-children-under-five-years-of-age-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
Amynah Janmohamed, David Doledec
OBJECTIVE: To compare administrative coverage data to results from household coverage surveys for vitamin A supplementation (VAS) and deworming campaigns conducted during 2010-2015 in 12 African countries. METHODS: Paired t-tests examined differences between administrative and survey coverage for 52 VAS and 34 deworming dyads. Independent t-tests measured VAS and deworming coverage differences between data sources for door-to-door and fixed-site delivery strategies and VAS coverage differences between 6 to 11 and 12 to 59-month age groups...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449238/exposure-response-relationship-of-neighbourhood-sanitation-and-children-s-diarrhea
#5
Youngmee Tiffany Jung, Wendy Lou, Yu-Ling Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrheal morbidity, and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. METHODS: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was 2-week incidence of diarrhea in children under 5 years of age (N=300426). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrheal morbidity...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449225/transfusion-research-priorities-for-blood-services-in-sub-saharan-africa
#6
REVIEW
Imelda Bates, Oliver Hassall, Tonderai Mapako
Evidence to support many blood transfusion policies and practices in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is weak or lacking. SSA cannot extrapolate from wealthy countries' research findings because its environment, users and structures are very different and SSA has critical blood shortages. SSA needs to generate its own evidence but research funds are very scarce and need to be carefully targeted to match need. This study aimed to define this need by determining research priorities for blood services in SSA. Thirty-five stakeholders representing diverse blood services' interests and expertise participated in a workshop...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449198/systematic-review-of-sex-work-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-examining-combination-prevention-approaches
#7
George Awungafac, Therese Delvaux, Bea Vuylsteke
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. METHODS: Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between January 1, 2000 and July 22, 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529)...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449111/migrant-women-living-with-hiv-in-europe-are-they-facing-inequalities-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-the-european-pregnancy-and-paediatric-hiv-cohort-collaboration-eppicc-study-group-in-eurocoord
#8
G Favarato, H Bailey, F Burns, L Prieto, A Soriano-Arandes, C Thorne
In pregnancy early interventions are recommended for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We examined whether pregnant women who live with HIV in Europe and are migrants encounter barriers in accessing HIV testing and care. Four cohorts within the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration provided data for pooled analysis of 11 795 pregnant women who delivered in 2002-12 across ten European countries. We defined a migrant as a woman delivering in a country different from her country of birth and grouped the countries into seven world regions...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448753/road-traffic-injury-in-sub-saharan-african-countries-a-systematic-review-and-summary-of-observational-studies
#9
João Ricardo N Vissoci, Daniel J Shogilev, Elizabeth Krebs, Luciano de Andrade, Igor Fiorese Vieira, Nicole Toomey, Adelia Portero Batilana, Michael Haglund, Catherine A Staton
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate, through a systematic review of hospital based studies, the proportion of road traffic injuries and fatalities in SSA. METHODS: In accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines we searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Africa-Wide Information, Global Health, and Web of Science. Articles were eligible if they measured proportion of RTIs in SSA by using hospital based studies. In addition, a reference and citation analysis was conducted as well as a data quality assessment...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448611/insights-into-intercontinental-spread-of-zika-virus
#10
Dachao Liang, Ross Ka Kit Leung, Shui Shan Lee, Kai Man Kam
The epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in South America has led to World Health Organization's declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. To further inform effective public health policy, an understanding of ZIKV's transmission mechanisms is crucial. To characterize the intercontinental transmission of ZIKV, we compiled and analyzed more than 250 gene sequences together with their sequence-related geographic and temporal information, sampled across 27 countries spanning from 1947 to 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448179/comparison-of-arterial-stiffness-in-preeclamptic-and-normotensive-pregnant-women-from-a-semi-rural-region-of-south-africa
#11
A Namugowa, J Iputo, J Wandabwa, A Meeme, G A B Buga
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is associated with arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction. The pathophysiology of arterial tone in preeclampsia has not been well described in rural African population, where the incidence is higher. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare arterial tone of preeclamptic with pregnant normotensive women assessed with noninvasive techniques, using applanation tonometry with SphygmoCor. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447646/a-130-000-year-old-archaeological-site-in-southern-california-usa
#12
Steven R Holen, Thomas A Deméré, Daniel C Fisher, Richard Fullagar, James B Paces, George T Jefferson, Jared M Beeton, Richard A Cerutti, Adam N Rountrey, Lawrence Vescera, Kathleen A Holen
The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum)...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447639/frequency-of-extreme-sahelian-storms-tripled-since-1982-in-satellite-observations
#13
Christopher M Taylor, Danijel Belušić, Françoise Guichard, Douglas J Parker, Théo Vischel, Olivier Bock, Phil P Harris, Serge Janicot, Cornelia Klein, Gérémy Panthou
The hydrological cycle is expected to intensify under global warming, with studies reporting more frequent extreme rain events in many regions of the world, and predicting increases in future flood frequency. Such early, predominantly mid-latitude observations are essential because of shortcomings within climate models in their depiction of convective rainfall. A globally important group of intense storms-mesoscale convective systems (MCSs)-poses a particular challenge, because they organize dynamically on spatial scales that cannot be resolved by conventional climate models...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447512/centella-asiatica-enhances-hepatic-antioxidant-status-and-regulates-hepatic-inflammatory-cytokines-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#14
Ayodeji B Oyenihi, Novel N Chegou, Oluwafemi O Oguntibeju, Bubuya Masola
CONTEXT: Neutralizing the over-activation of oxidative stress and inflammation remains an important goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae) (CA) has been used in traditional folklore in Africa and Asia to treat various ailments including diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of methanol extract of CA leaves in T2DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T2DM was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with 10% fructose in drinking water for 14 days followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg b...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447308/determinants-of-stage-at-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-in-nigerian-women-sociodemographic-breast-cancer-awareness-health-care-access-and-clinical-factors
#15
Elima Jedy-Agba, Valerie McCormack, Oluwole Olaomi, Wunmi Badejo, Monday Yilkudi, Terna Yawe, Emmanuel Ezeome, Iliya Salu, Elijah Miner, Ikechukwu Anosike, Sally N Adebamowo, Benjamin Achusi, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Clement Adebamowo
PURPOSE: Advanced stage at diagnosis is a common feature of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), contributing to poor survival rates. Understanding its determinants is key to preventing deaths from this cancer in SSA. METHODS: Within the Nigerian Integrative Epidemiology of Breast Cancer Study, a multicentred case-control study on breast cancer, we studied factors affecting stage at diagnosis of cases, i.e. women diagnosed with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer between January 2014 and July 2016 at six secondary and tertiary hospitals in Nigeria...
April 26, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447193/ebola-and-marburg-virus-vaccines
#16
REVIEW
Pierce Reynolds, Andrea Marzi
The filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV), and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most pathogenic viruses known to man and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Africa with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Nearly 30,000 infections were observed in the latest EBOV epidemic in West Africa; previous outbreaks were much smaller, typically only affecting less than a few hundred people. Compared to other diseases such as AIDS or Malaria with millions of cases annually, filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) is one of the neglected infectious diseases...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446831/antinociceptive-and-antioxidant-activities-of-the-methanolic-extract-of-telfairia-occidentalis-seeds
#17
Olukemi Adetutu Osukoya, Daniel Adegbenro, Sunday A Onikanni, Oluwafemi A Ojo, Amos Onasanya
CONTEXT: The seeds of Telfairia occidentalis have been known to possess different biological properties and are used in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia to treat many ailments. The plant is particularly noted traditionally for its healing properties and is usually consumed in the form of herbal decoctions/concoctions as a blood tonic, to treat sudden attacks of convulsions, pain, malaria and anaemia. AIMS: In the present study, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies were done on the methanolic extract of the seeds of Telfairia occidentalis to evaluate its antioxidant and antinociceptive properties to substantiate its traditional use...
October 2016: Ancient Science of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446210/cognitive-changes-in-alcohol-induced-psychotic-disorder
#18
Melany L Hendricks, R A Emsley, D G Nel, H B Thornton, G P Jordaan
AIMS: This study aimed to explore the neuro-cognitive deficits of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder as compared to the cognitive deficits of uncomplicated alcohol dependence. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the acute psychiatric admission wards of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch and Stikland and Tygerberg Academic Hospitals in the Western-Cape, South Africa. Participants who met DSM IV TR criteria (American Psychiatric Association...
April 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446173/impact-of-the-ebola-outbreak-on-routine-immunization-in-western-area-sierra-leone-a-field-survey-from-an-ebola-epidemic-area
#19
Xiaojin Sun, T T Samba, Jianyi Yao, Wenwu Yin, Lin Xiao, Fuqiang Liu, Xiaoqiang Liu, Jikun Zhou, Zengqiang Kou, Hongwei Fan, Hao Zhang, Aqnes Williams, Paul M Lansana, Zundong Yin
BACKGROUND: Since March 2014, the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa disrupted health care systems - especially in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone - with a consequential stress on the area's routine immunization programs. To address perceived decreased vaccination coverage, Sierra Leone conducted a catch-up vaccination campaign during 24-27 April 2015. We conducted a vaccination coverage survey and report coverage estimates surrounding the time of the EVD outbreak and the catch-up campaign...
April 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445544/pressure-flaking-to-serrate-bifacial-points-for-the-hunt-during-the-mis5-at-sibudu-cave-south-africa
#20
Veerle Rots, Carol Lentfer, Viola C Schmid, Guillaume Porraz, Nicholas J Conard
Projectile technology is considered to appear early in the southern African Middle Stone Age (MSA) and the rich and high resolution MSA sequence of Sibudu Cave in KwaZulu-Natal has provided many new insights about the use and hafting of various projectile forms. We present the results of a functional and technological analysis on a series of unpublished serrated bifacial points recently recovered from the basal deposits of Sibudu Cave. These serrated tools, which only find equivalents in the neighbouring site of Umhlatuzana, precede the Still Bay techno-complex and are older than 77 ka BP...
2017: PloS One
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