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Sandor Schrijner, Jeroen Smits
Globally an estimated 159 million children under 5 years of age are being too short for one's age (stunted). More than one third of these children is living in Africa. Given the substantial number of sub-Saharan African (SSA) children living in households with co-residing grandparents and the negative effects of stunting on productivity and economic growth, gaining insight into the role grandparents play for children's stunting, has become increasingly important. By applying multilevel logistic regression analysis on a database with information on 344,748 children aged 6-60 months living in 31 SSA countries, the strength of the relationship between grandparental co-residence and children's stunting is examined...
March 26, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Nicolene van der Sandt, Natalie Schellack, Lindi A Mabope, Mothahadini Pb Mawela, Danie Kruger, Brian Godman
BACKGROUND: Appropriate use of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is a concern in view of its impact on morbidity, mortality and costs. Little is currently known about SAP in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: Assess compliance to SAP guidelines for pediatric patients undergoing surgery in one of four surgical sub-specialties among hospitals in South Africa. METHODS: Eight month retrospective chart review in both a teaching hospital and a private hospital between February and August 2015...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Natalie H Aneck-Hahn, Magdalena C Van Zijl, Pieter Swart, Barry Truebody, Bettina Genthe, Jessica Charmier, Christiaan De Jager
Potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in bottled water from various countries. In South Africa (SA), increased bottled water consumption and concomitant increases in plastic packaging create important consequences for public health. This study aimed to screen SA bottled water for estrogenic activity, selected target chemicals and assessing potential health risks. Ten bottled water brands were exposed to 20 °C and 40 °C over 10 days. Estrogenic activity was assessed using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Charles Kim, Hannah Jary, Kevin Mortimer, Kelly S Schweitzer, Doug Curran-Everett, Stephen Gordon, Irina Petrache
RATIONALE: Household air pollution (HAP) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are associated with increased risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Both HAP and HIV are widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Malawi, where HIV has 10.6% prevalence in patients 15-49 years old. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that HIV infection (HIV+ ) and habitual exposure to HAP (HAP+ ) synergize to cause systemic inflammation and vascular injury, which may herald early onset of chronic respiratory diseases...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2018: Lancet
Manel Ouji, Jean-Michel Augereau, Lucie Paloque, Françoise Benoit-Vical
The use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), which combine an artemisinin derivative with a partner drug, in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria has largely been responsible for the significant reduction in malaria-related mortality in tropical and subtropical regions. ACTs have also played a significant role in the 18% decline in the incidence of malaria cases from 2010 to 2016. However, this progress is seriously threatened by the reduced clinical efficacy of artemisinins, which is characterised by delayed parasitic clearance and a high rate of recrudescence, as reported in 2008 in Western Cambodia...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
L Claassens, A N Hodgson
This study investigated aspects of the population ecology of the endangered Knysna seahorse Hippocampus capensis within different habitat types. High densities of H. capensis were found within artificial Reno mattress habitat, within the Knysna Estuary, South Africa. Monthly surveys at three sites were conducted from October 2015 to August 2016 to compare population densities of H. capensis in this artificial habitat with natural eel grass Zostera capensis habitat. Hippocampus capensis densities varied significantly across all sites and highest population densities were consistently observed within the Reno mattress habitat...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
František Šťáhlavský, Vera Opatova, Pavel Just, Leon N Lotz, Charles R Haddad
The knowledge of cytogenetics in the harvestmen family Phalangiidae has been based on taxa from the Northern Hemisphere. We performed cytogenetic analysis on Guruia africana (Karsch, 1878) (2n=24) and four species of the genus Rhampsinitus Simon, 1879 (2n=24, 26, 34) from South Africa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe was used to analyze the number and the distribution of this cluster in the family Phalangiidae for the first time. The results support the cytogenetic characteristics typical for the majority of harvestmen taxa, i...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
José Carlos Otero, José Manuel Pereira
A new species of Micrambe Thomson, 1863 (Coleoptera, Cryptophagidae), Micrambe camerunensis sp. n. from Cameroon is described and illustrated. No other record of any Cryptophagidae of Cameroon is known. The differential diagnosis is established in relation to a group of other species of the genus.
2018: ZooKeys
Hsi-Te Shih, Benny K K Chan, Peter K L Ng
A new pseudocryptic species of fiddler crab, Tubuca alcocki sp. n. , is described from the northern Indian Ocean. The new species was previously identified with T. urvillei (H. Milne Edwards, 1852), but can be distinguished by the structures of the anterolateral angle of the carapace and male first gonopod. The molecular data of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene shows that both are sister taxa and the divergence time is estimated at 2.2 million years ago, around the beginning of the Pleistocene...
2018: ZooKeys
Benjamin Wipfler, Tobias Theska, Reinhard Predel
Two new species and two new genera ( Kuboesphasma , Minutophasma ) of Mantophasmatodea that occur in the Richtersveld region of South Africa are described. Kuboesphasma compactum gen. n., sp. n. was found only in a small area near the village of Kuboes, while Minutophasma richtersveldense gen. n., sp. n. apparently inhabits a larger area in the Richtersveld. With these two new species, a total of four different mantophasmatodeans are known to live in this area. This is a remarkable exception to the remaining representatives of this order, where even a common occurrence of only two species is rare...
2018: ZooKeys
Paola D'Alessandro, Maurizio Biondi
In this contribution, Ugandaltica wagneri gen. n. and sp. n. , collected from the canopies in the Budongo Forest, Uganda, is described. Similarities and affinities with other small-sized and convex-shaped flea beetle genera, occurring in the Afrotropical region, are discussed. Micrographs of diagnostic characters, including male and female genitalia, are supplied. Finally, some considerations on the ecology of canopy flea beetles are also reported.
2018: ZooKeys
Mariam I Adeoba, Ronny Kabongo, Herman Van der Bank, Kowiyou Yessoufou
Specimen identification in the absence of diagnostic morphological characters (e.g., larvae) can be problematic even for experts. The goal of the present study was to assess the performance of COI in discriminating specimens of the fish family Cyprinidae in Africa, and to explore whether COI-phylogeny can be reliably used for phylogenetic comparative analysis. The main objective was to analyse a matrix of COI sequences for 315 specimens from 15 genera of African Cyprinidae using various distance-based identification methods alongside multiple tests of DNA barcode efficacy (barcode gap, species monophyly on NJ tree)...
2018: ZooKeys
Yoshiaki Kai, Ronald Fricke
Three valid species of Parabembras are recognized: P. curta , P. robinsoni , and the new species P. multisquamata . Parabembras robinsoni from the southwestern Indian Ocean (South Africa to Mozambique) is easily distinguishable from the other species in having eleven spines in the first dorsal fin, a distinct symphyseal knob on the lower jaw, two preocular spines, and a single lachrymal spine. Parabembras multisquamata from the southwestern Pacific (Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea) and the Philippines, and P. curta , known from the northwestern Pacific (southern Japan to South China Sea), are similar in sharing the absence of a symphyseal knob on the lower jaw, the presence of two lachrymal spines, and a single preocular spine, but the former is clearly distinguished from the latter in usually having 10 spines in the first dorsal fin (vs...
2018: ZooKeys
Felisa A Smith, Rosemary E Elliott Smith, S Kathleen Lyons, Jonathan L Payne
Since the late Pleistocene, large-bodied mammals have been extirpated from much of Earth. Although all habitable continents once harbored giant mammals, the few remaining species are largely confined to Africa. This decline is coincident with the global expansion of hominins over the late Quaternary. Here, we quantify mammalian extinction selectivity, continental body size distributions, and taxonomic diversity over five time periods spanning the past 125,000 years and stretching approximately 200 years into the future...
April 20, 2018: Science
Marisa Oliveira, Diana P Saraiva, Bruno Cavadas, Verónica Fernandes, Nicole Pedro, Isabelle Casademont, Fanny Koeth, Farida Alshamali, Nourdin Harich, Lotfi Cherni, Beatriz Sierra, Maria G Guzman, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Luisa Pereira
Population genetics theory predicted that rare frequent markers would be the main contributors for heritability of complex diseases, but meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies are revealing otherwise common markers, present in all population groups, as the identified candidate genes. In this work, we applied a population-genetics informed meta-analysis to 10 markers located in seven genes said to be associated with dengue fever disease. Seven markers (in PLCE1, CD32, CD209, OAS1 and OAS3 genes) have high-frequency and the other three (in MICB and TNFA genes) have intermediate frequency...
April 16, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Marc Mendelson, Adrian Brink, Joey Gouws, Nontombi Mbelle, Vinny Naidoo, Troy Pople, Natalie Schellack, Moritz van Vuuren, Helen Rees
Increasing reliance on antibiotics of last resort to treat the rising numbers of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in people has focused attention on how shared-use antibiotics are managed and regulated across human and animal health. Discussions at international and national levels have intensified since the identification of new plasmid-mediated genes for colistin resistance in 2016, first in China and subsequently in many other countries, removing the last line of defense against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections with carbapenem resistance...
April 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Paula Regina Simões de Oliveira, Felipe Silva de França, Isadora Maria Villas Boas, Marisa Maria Teixeira da Rocha, Sávio Stefanini Sant'Anna, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Denise V Tambourgi
Snakebite is a public health problem in many countries of world. These accidents are considered a Neglected Tropical Disease and are responsible for a high morbidity and mortality index in the South and Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Angolan snake venoms are poorly investigated and no specific antivenom against them is available in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and immunogenic properties of male and female venoms from Naja nigricollis, Bitis arietans and Bitis gabonica snakes...
April 16, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Rebecca Richman, Diawo Diallo, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Oumar Faye, Cheikh T Diagne, Ibrahima Dia, Scott C Weaver, Kathryn A Hanley, Michaela Buenemann
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) originated in a sylvatic cycle of transmission between non-human animal hosts and vector mosquitoes in the forests of Africa. Subsequently the virus jumped out of this ancestral cycle into a human-endemic transmission cycle vectored by anthropophilic mosquitoes. Sylvatic CHIKV cycles persist in Africa and continue to spill over into humans, creating the potential for new CHIKV strains to enter human-endemic transmission. To mitigate such spillover, it is first necessary to delineate the distributions of the sylvatic mosquito vectors of CHIKV, to identify the environmental factors that shape these distributions, and to determine the association of mosquito presence with key drivers of virus spillover, including mosquito and CHIKV abundance...
April 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Antony Gatebe Kironji, Peter Hodkinson, Sarah Stewart de Ramirez, Trisha Anest, Lee Wallis, Junaid Razzak, Alexander Jenson, Bhakti Hansoti
BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital emergency care (OHEC), also known as prehospital care, has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality from serious illness. We sought to summarize literature for low and low-middle income countries to identify barriers to and key interventions for OHEC delivery. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the peer reviewed literature from January 2005 to March 2015 in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science. All articles referencing research from low and low-middle income countries addressing OHEC, emergency medical services, or transport/transfer of patients were included...
April 19, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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