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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110473/how-presentation-of-drug-detection-results-changed-reports-of-product-adherence-in-south-africa-uganda-and-zimbabwe
#1
Petina Musara, Elizabeth T Montgomery, Nyaradzo M Mgodi, Kubashni Woeber, Carolyne A Akello, Miriam Hartmann, Helen Cheng, Lisa Levy, Ariana Katz, Cynthia I Grossman, Z Mike Chirenje, Ariane van der Straten, Barbara Mensch
Accurate estimates of study product use are critical to understanding and addressing adherence challenges in HIV prevention trials. The VOICE trial exposed a significant gap between self-reported adherence and drug detection. The VOICE-D qualitative study was designed to better understand non-adherence during VOICE, and was conducted in 2 stages: before (stage 1) and after (stage 2) drug detection results were provided to participants. Transcripts from 44 women who participated in both stages were analysed to understand the effect of presenting drug detection data on narratives of product use...
January 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110156/maternal-childhood-trauma-postpartum-depression-and-infant-outcomes-avoidant-affective-processing-as-a-potential-mechanism
#2
Karmel W Choi, Kathleen J Sikkema, Bavi Vythilingum, Lut Geerts, Sheila C Faure, Melissa H Watt, Annerine Roos, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110108/boys-are-not-exempt-sexual-exploitation-of-adolescents-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Jones K Adjei, Elizabeth M Saewyc
Research on youth sexual exploitation in Africa has largely neglected the experiences of exploited boys. To date, much of the research in sub-Saharan Africa continues to consider boys mainly as exploiters but not as exploited. Using the only publicly available population-based surveys from the National Survey of Adolescents, conducted in four sub-Saharan African countries - Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda-we assessed factors associated with transactional sexual behaviour among never-married adolescent boys and girls...
January 18, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110032/first-experience-open-small-incision-rectus-sheath-approach-renal-transplant-a-case-series
#4
Stephen H Phillips, Sharon K Hill, Lorie D Lipscomb, Joseph B Africa
BACKGROUND: Prevention of wound complications is an important goal in surgery, and reduction of modifiable risks factors are an important step towards protecting patients from further complications. Renal transplantation has sought to be more inclusive giving access to transplantation to complex patient populations, many of which have an increased risk of complications. Surgical techniques continue to advance and may contribute to reducing complications. We hypothesized that the Anterior Rectus Sheath (ARS) Approach would provide an open transplant with minimal damage and less wound complications, including fluid collections such as lymphoceles, when compared to the conventional technique (CON) with equivocal graft function and survival...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109882/is-the-absence-or-intermittent-yf-vaccination-the-major-contributor-to-its-persistent-outbreaks-in-eastern-africa
#5
Marycelin Mandu Baba, Ikusemoran Mayomi
The Europe 2020 strategy and recently ratified Paris agreement are the main documents in the European Union (EU) involving energy and climate policy. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to reveal the possibilities of EU countries to achieve the Europe 2020 strategy and Paris agreement targets. Referring to the regression analysis, the results showed that the growth of economy and primary energy consumption stimulate GHG emissions in EU-28; meanwhile, the increase of RES share decreased them. Moreover, the paper revealed that if the EU will achieve its targets committed in the Europe 2020 strategy, even assuming fast economic growth, the target to reduce GHG emission by 20% by 2020 compared to 1990 will be achieved...
January 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109664/an-anomalous-african-dust-event-and-its-impact-on-aerosol-radiative-forcing-on-the-southwest-atlantic-coast-of-europe-in-february-2016
#6
M Sorribas, J A Adame, E Andrews, M Yela
A desert dust (DD) event that had its origin in North Africa occurred on the 20th-23rd of February 2016. The dust transport phenomenon was exceptional because of its unusual intensity during the coldest season. A historical dataset (2006-2015) of February meteorological scenarios using ECMWF fields, meteorological parameters, aerosol optical properties, surface O3 and AOD retrieved from MODIS at the El Arenosillo observatory (southwestern Spain) were analysed and compared with the levels during the DD event to highlight its exceptionality...
January 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109300/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-in-tamarind-tamarindus-indica-l-use-and-conservation-in-eastern-uganda
#7
Esther Ebifa-Othieno, Antony Mugisha, Philip Nyeko, John David Kabasa
BACKGROUND: Tamarindus indica L is one of the indigenous fruit tree species that traditionally contributes to food security and ecosystem stability in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that the indigenous people of Eastern Uganda have used T. indica for generations and developed practices that promote its conservation and therefore we expected that they possess an elaborate indigenous knowledge (IK) system and that most of them have planted the species. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of IK, attitudes and practices on the use and conservation of T...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109290/characterizing-breast-conditions-at-an-open-access-breast-clinic-in-south-africa-a-model-that-is-more-than-cancer-care-for-a-resource-limited-setting
#8
Sarah Rayne, Naomi Lince-Deroche, Cheryl Hendrickson, Kate Shearer, Faith Moyo, Pam Michelow, Grace Rubin, Carol Benn, Cynthia Firnhaber
BACKGROUND: While most breast-related research focuses on cancer, presentation of symptomatic persons in non-screened environments requires understanding the spectrum of breast diseases so as to plan services in resource-constrained settings. This study presents the variety of breast disease managed at a government, open-access breast clinic in South Africa. METHODS: We performed a retrospective file review using a systematic random sample of patients 18 years and above presenting for breast care over a 14-month period...
January 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109275/insights-of-health-district-managers-on-the-implementation-of-primary-health-care-outreach-teams-in-johannesburg-south-africa-a-descriptive-study-with-focus-group-discussions
#9
Shabir Moosa, Anselme Derese, Wim Peersman
BACKGROUND: Primary health care (PHC) outreach teams are part of a policy of PHC re-engineering in South Africa. It attempts to move the deployment of community health workers (CHWs) from vertical programmes into an integrated generalised team-based approach to care for defined populations in municipal wards. There has little evaluation of PHC outreach teams. Managers' insights are anecdotal. METHODS: This is descriptive qualitative study with focus group discussions with health district managers of Johannesburg, the largest city in South Africa...
January 21, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109255/the-effect-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-test-on-the-time-to-mdr-tb-treatment-initiation-in-a-rural-setting-a-cohort-study-in-south-africa-s-eastern-cape-province
#10
Joshua Iruedo, Don O'Mahony, Sikhumbuzo Mabunda, Graham Wright, Busisiwe Cawe
BACKGROUND: There are significant delays in initiation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR -TB) treatment. The Xpert MTB/RIF test has been shown to reduce the time to diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB predominantly in urban centres. This study describes the time to treatment of MDR-TB and the effect of Xpert MTB/RIF on time to treatment in a deprived rural area in South Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study analysing the medical records of patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in King Sabata Dalindyebo Sub-District between 2009 and 2014...
January 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109118/a-mandible-from-the-middle-pleistocene-hexian-site-and-its-significance-in-relation-to-the-variability-of-asian-homo-erectus
#11
Wu Liu, María Martinón-Torres, Yousuke Kaifu, Xiujie Wu, Reiko T Kono, Chun-Hsiang Chang, Pianpian Wei, Song Xing, Wanbo Huang, José María Bermúdez de Castro
OBJECTIVES: This study presents the first detailed morphological description and comparison of a Middle Pleistocene hominin mandibular fragment (PA 831) and associated teeth from the Hexian site in Eastern China. We aim to investigate where the Hexian mandible fits within the genus Homo variability in the light of an increased and better characterized Asian fossils record. METHODS: Comparative samples include Pleistocene Homo mandibles and teeth from Africa, Asia, and Europe, as well as earlier African hominins (Australopithecus and early Homo) and Holocene recent humans...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108993/experience-from-a-multi-country-initiative-to-improve-the-monitoring-of-selected-reproductive-health-indicators-in-africa
#12
Maria Barreix, Özge Tunçalp, Namuunda Mutombo, Ayotunde A Adegboyega, Lale Say
Universal access to sexual and reproductive health remains part of the unfinished business of global development in the Africa. To achieve it, health interventions should be monitored using programmatic indicators. WHO's Strengthening Measurement of Reproductive Health Indicators in Africa initiative, implemented in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe, aimed to improve national information systems for routine monitoring of reproductive health indicators. Participating countries developed action plans employing a two-pronged strategy: (1) revising, standardizing, and harmonizing existing information-system reproductive health indicators; and (2) building data-collection capacity through training and supervision at select pilot sites...
January 21, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108929/jaboya-sex-for-fish-a-qualitative-analysis-of-contextual-risk-factors-for-extramarital-partnerships-in-the-fishing-communities-in-western-kenya
#13
Zachary A Kwena, Chris A Shisanya, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Janet M Turan, Shari L Dworkin, Grace A Rota, Isaac J Mwanzo
Extramarital partnerships exacerbate high HIV prevalence rates in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored contextual risk factors and suggested interventions to reduce extramarital partnerships among couples in the fishing communities on Lake Victoria, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions with 9-10 participants each (N = 118) and 16 in-depth interviews (N = 16) with fishermen and their spouses. Couples who participated were consented and separated for simultaneous gender-matched discussions/interviews...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108368/efficacy-and-safety-of-intermittent-preventive-treatment-in-schoolchildren-with-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-sp-and-sp-plus-piperaquine-in-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Junior R Matangila, Joachim Y Doua, Patrick Mitashi, Raquel Inocêncio da Luz, Pascal Lutumba, Jean Pierre Van Geertruyden
In endemic areas, malaria and its adverse effects in schoolchildren may be prevented by intermittent preventive treatment (IPTsc). However, the most appropriate drug regimen for IPTsc remains to be identified. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in Kinshasa, DRC. Enrolled schoolchildren were assigned to a passive control arm (n = 212), sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) (n = 202) or SP plus piperaquine (SP/PQ) (n = 202). The primary endpoint was haemoglobin (Hb) change. Secondary endpoints were anaemia, parasitaemia prevalence and clinical malaria incidence...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108138/establishing-the-africa-centres-for-disease-control-and-prevention-responding-to-africa-s-health-threats
#15
John N Nkengasong, Olawale Maiyegun, Matshidiso Moeti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108137/sustainable-clinical-laboratory-capacity-for-health-in-africa
#16
Justine Davies, Alash'le Abimiku, Moses Alobo, Zoë Mullan, Rachel Nugent, Miriam Schneidman, Welile Sikhondze, Philip Onyebujoh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107879/disease-transmission-in-animal-transfer-networks
#17
Dejene W Sintayehu, H H T Prins, I M A Heitkönig, W F de Boer
Infectious diseases transmission is strongly determined by who contacts whom. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a worldwide burden for animal populations. One of the major transmission mechanism between herd is the transfer of infectious animal. In East Africa, pastoralists may receive or bestow livestock to create and strengthen social relationships. Here, we used a network approach to examine the relative importance of such cattle transfer in the transmission of bTB. First, a total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test to assess the presence of bTB infected cattle in the herd...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107867/an-update-on-the-2014-ebola-outbreak-in-western-africa
#18
REVIEW
Haaris A Shiwani, Rebabonye B Pharithi, Barkat Khan, Christian Binoun-A Egom, Peter Kruzliak, Vincent Maher, Emmanuel Eroume-A Egom
The recent Ebola outbreak in Western Africa was the most devastating outbreak witnessed in recent times. There have been remarkable local and international efforts to control the crisis. Ebola Virus Disease is the focus of immense research activity. The progression of events in the region has been evolving swiftly and it is of paramount importance to the medical community to be acquainted with the situation. Over 28000 people were inflicted with the condition, over 11000 have died. Novel data has emerged regarding modes of transmission, providing rationale for recent flare-ups...
January 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107484/resveratrol-co-treatment-attenuates-the-effects-of-hiv-protease-inhibitors-on-rat-body-weight-and-enhances-cardiac-mitochondrial-respiration
#19
Burger Symington, Rudo F Mapanga, Gavin R Norton, M Faadiel Essop
Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV), aspirin (ASP) or vitamin C (VitC) co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107229/is-prep-needed-for-msm-in-west-africa-hiv-incidence-in-a-prospective-multi-country-cohort
#20
Clotilde Couderc, Bintou Dembélé Keita, Camille Anoma, Abdoulaye S Wade, Alou Coulibaly, Sylvain Ehouman, Abdou K Diop, Yves Yomb, Emilie Henry, Bruno Spire, Christian Laurent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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