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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245081/safety-in-stigmatizing-instrumental-stigma-beliefs-and-protective-sexual-behavior-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
David A Cort, Hsin Fei Tu
How are people's expression of HIV stigma beliefs connected to their own personal decisions concerning safe sexual practices? Does this relationship vary across countries and by the national context in which people reside? To answer these questions, we develop and test individual, contextual, and cross-level interactional hypotheses of the impact of instrumental HIV stigma attitudes on several measures of protective sexual behavior. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 467,656 unpartnered individuals across 34 sub-Saharan African countries, we first find that counterintuitively, conservative HIV stigma attitudes are associated with lower likelihoods of participating in all types of protective sexual behaviors...
December 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244988/chemotherapy-use-at-the-end-of-life-in-uganda
#2
Daniel Low, Emily C Merkel, Manoj Menon, Gary H Lyman, Henry Ddungu, Elizabeth Namukwaya, Mhoira Leng, Corey Casper
Purpose Avoiding chemotherapy during the last 30 days of life has become a goal of cancer care in the United States and Europe, yet end-of-life chemotherapy administration remains a common practice worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of and factors predicting end-of-life chemotherapy administration in Uganda. Methods Retrospective chart review and surveys and interviews of providers were performed at the Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI), the only comprehensive cancer center in the area, which serves a catchment area of greater than 100 million people...
December 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244986/breast-cancer-in-ghana-demonstrating-the-need-for-population-based-cancer-registries-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Abigail S Thomas, Kelley M Kidwell, Joseph K Oppong, Ernest K Adjei, Ernest Osei-Bonsu, Angela Boahene, Evelyn Jiggae, Kofi Gyan, Sofia D Merajver
Purpose Breast cancer, the most common cancer worldwide, is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Ghanaian women. Previous studies find Ghanaian women are diagnosed at a younger age and at more advanced stages (III and IV), and have tumors with characteristics similar to African American women. We sought to remedy gaps in knowledge about breast cancer survival in Ghana and its relation to demographic and biologic factors of the tumors at diagnosis to assist in cancer control and registration planning. Methods Individuals with a breast cancer diagnosis who sought care at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital from 2009 to 2014 were identified via medical records...
December 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244829/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-introducing-malaria-diagnostic-testing-in-drug-shops-a-cluster-randomised-trial-in-uganda
#4
Kristian Schultz Hansen, Siân E Clarke, Sham Lal, Pascal Magnussen, Anthony K Mbonye
BACKGROUND: Private sector drug shops are an important source of malaria treatment in Africa, yet diagnosis without parasitological testing is common among these providers. Accurate rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) require limited training and present an opportunity to increase access to correct diagnosis. The present study was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of mRDTs in Ugandan drug shops. METHODS: Drug shop vendors were trained to perform and sell subsidised mRDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the intervention arm while vendors offered ACTs following presumptive diagnosis of malaria in the control arm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244809/hiv-1-viraemia-and-drug-resistance-amongst-female-sex-workers-in-soweto-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Jenny Coetzee, Gillian Hunt, Maya Jaffer, Kennedy Otwombe, Lesley Scott, Asiashu Bongwe, Johanna Ledwaba, Sephonono Molema, Rachel Jewkes, Glenda E Gray
BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs), where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options. Currently in South Africa, there is a dearth in evidence and no ongoing surveillance of HIVDR amongst sex work populations. This study aims to describe the prevalence of HIVDR amongst a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) from Soweto, South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244807/socioeconomic-position-and-ten-year-survival-and-virologic-outcomes-in-a-ugandan-hiv-cohort-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Andrew G Flynn, Godwin Anguzu, Frank Mubiru, Agnes N Kiragga, Moses Kamya, David B Meya, David R Boulware, Andrew Kambugu, Barbara C Castelnuovo
Lifelong ART is essential to reducing HIV mortality and ending the epidemic, however the interplay between socioeconomic position and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Furthering the understanding of factors related to long-term ART outcomes in this important region will aid the successful scale-up of ART programs. We enrolled 559 HIV-infected Ugandan adults starting ART in 2004-2005 at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda and followed them for 10 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244190/self-other-agreement-in-personality-traits-and-profiles-across-cultures-a-multirater-multiscale-study-in-blacks-and-whites-in-south-africa
#7
Velichko H Fetvadjiev, Deon Meiring, Fons J R van de Vijver, J Alewyn Nel, François De Kock
OBJECTIVE: Despite the importance of self-other agreement for the validity of trait models, few studies have assessed cultural differences systematically. We examined self-other agreement in traits and profiles in the more collectivistic Black group and the more individualistic White group in South Africa. METHOD: Participants were 172 Black and 198 White students, and one relative and one friend of each student. Participants completed a behavior-based and a trait-adjective-based inventory...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243867/factors-for-incomplete-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-including-drug-refill-and-clinic-visits-among-older-adults-living-with-hiv-cross-sectional-study-in-south-africa
#8
Abbie Barry, Nathan Ford, Ziad El-Khatib
OBJECTIVES: To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. RESULTS: PLHIV ≥50 years (n=103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25 - 49 years (OR 2...
December 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243580/coumarins-as-promising-scaffold-for-the-treatment-of-age-related-diseases-an-overview-of-the-last-five-years
#9
Giovanna Lucia Delogu, Maria Joao Matos
Degenerative diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent with the aging of the human population. The twentieth century witnessed a significant demographic change in the industrialized world that is currently followed by a similar shift of life expectancy to upper age ranges in Asia, Africa, and Middle and South America. A rising tide of chronic age-dependent diseases will soon present serious challenges for these countries. Age-related diseases are commonly seen in older patients. More than 40% of adults 60 and older have a combination of risk factors known as metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk for developing degenerative disorders, and certain cancers...
December 14, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243537/migration-and-health-at-older-age-in-rural-malawi
#10
Jacob Kendall, Philip Anglewicz
The connection between migration and health has long been established, but relatively little is known about this relationship for older persons, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this paper, we examine migration selection with regards to health status among older individuals in Malawi, by testing whether older migrants differ from non-migrants in health status before migration. To do so, we use data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, a longitudinal panel dataset that includes a relatively large number of individuals at older ages...
December 15, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243498/-cart-intensification-by-the-hiv-1-tat-b-clade-vaccine-progress-to-phase-iii-efficacy-studies
#11
Aurelio Cafaro, Cecilia Sgadari, Orietta Picconi, Antonella Tripiciano, Sonia Moretti, Vittorio Francavilla, Maria Rosaria Pavone Cossut, Stefano Buttò, Giovanni Cozzone, Fabrizio Ensoli, Paolo Monini, Barbara Ensoli
In spite of its success at suppressing HIV replication, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) only partially reduces immune dysregulation and loss of immune functions. These cART-unmet needs appear to be due to persistent virus replication and cell-to-cell transmission in reservoirs, and are causes of increased patients' morbidity and mortality. Up to now, therapeutic interventions aimed at cART-intensification by attacking the virus reservoir have failed. Areas covered: We briefly review the rationale and clinical development of Tat therapeutic vaccine in cART-treated subjects in Italy and South Africa (SA)...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243409/thermophilic-bacterial-communities-inhabiting-the-microbial-mats-of-indifferent-and-chalybeate-iron-rich-thermal-springs-diversity-and-biotechnological-analysis
#12
Ramganesh Selvarajan, Timothy Sibanda, Memory Tekere
Microbial mats are occasionally reported in thermal springs and information on such mats is very scarce. In this study, microbial mats were collected from two hot springs (Brandvlei (BV) and Calitzdorp (CA)), South Africa and subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and targeted 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Spring water temperature was 55°C for Brandvlei and 58°C for Calitzdorp while the pH of both springs was slightly acidic, with an almost identical pH range (6...
December 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243406/the-national-burden-of-influenza-associated-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-hospitalization-in-zambia-2011-2014
#13
Andros Theo, Stefano Tempia, Adam L Cohen, Paul Simusika, Edward Chentulo, Chikama Mukwangole Chikamukwa, Mwaka Monze
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization are limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the national number of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalization in Zambia. METHODS: We conducted active prospective hospital-based surveillance for SARI at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) situated in Lusaka Province during 2011-2014. Upper respiratory tract samples were tested for influenza virus using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay...
December 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243385/assessing-the-impact-of-early-learning-programs-in-africa
#14
REVIEW
Amber Gove, Tracy Brunette, Jennae Bulat, Bidemi Carrol, Catherine Henny, Wykia Macon, Evangeline Nderu, Yasmin Sitabkhan
We present results from early learning programs in six African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. In partnership with ministries of education, RTI International has worked within government systems to support the design and deployment of locally contextualized materials, training, and assessment tools, with the goal of improving outcomes for early learners in primary schools, and in Kenya and Tanzania preprimary as well. Here we report on the experience and evidence of impact from specific programs in each country, including summary assessment results when available...
December 2017: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243377/mindfulness-in-nursing-students-the-five-facet-mindfulness-questionnaire-in-samples-of-nursing-students-in-china-the-philippines-and-south-africa
#15
David Arthur, Doroteo Dizon, Karien Jooste, Zheng Li, Mathew Salvador, Xiuyu Yao
Mindfulness as a clinical strategy for helping manage physical and psychological symptoms is gathering an impressive evidence base. It is also being embraced widely for personal and professional development. As a therapeutic intervention for nurses working across a spectrum of settings, it helps expand practice, and integrating mindfulness in nursing undergraduate and graduate curricula is imminent. In the present study, we outline the development and measurement of mindfulness as a personality trait and therapeutic intervention, and advocate the use of a questionnaire alternative to expensive and impractical laboratory measures...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243247/randomized-cross-over-trial-comparing-the-diagnosis-of-gestational-diabetes-by-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-and-a-designed-breakfast-glucose-profile
#16
Colin Marais, David R Hall, Lourentia van Wyk, Magda Conradie
OBJECTIVE: To compare a glucose test based on a standardized, designed breakfast to the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), comparing venous and capillary glucose values for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: The present prospective, randomized, cross-over trial enrolled patients at high risk of developing GDM who were attending the High-Risk Antenatal Clinic of Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, between March 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242776/new-species-of-auritella-inocybaceae-from-cameroon-with-a-worldwide-key-to-the-known-species
#17
P Brandon Matheny, Terry W Henkel, Olivier Séné, Hailee B Korotkin, Bryn T M Dentinger, M Catherine Aime
Two new species in the genus Auritella (Inocybaceae) are described as new from tropical rainforest in Cameroon. Descriptions, photographs, line drawings, and a worldwide taxonomic key to the described species of Auritella are presented. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA and rpb2 nucleotide sequence data suggests at least five phylogenetic species that can be ascribed to Auritella occur in the region comprising Cameroon and Gabon and constitute a strongly supported monophyletic subgroup within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data supports the conspecificity of numerous collections attributed to the two new species as well as the monophyly of Australian species of Auritella...
December 2017: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242749/setting-the-research-and-implementation-agenda-for-equitable-access-to-surgical-care-in-south-africa
#18
REVIEW
Sarah Rayne, Sule Burger, Stephanie Van Straten, Bruce Biccard, Mathume Joseph Phaahla, Martin Smith
South Africa is an upper-middle-income country with widespread social and geographical inequality of surgical provision. The National Forum on Surgery and Anaesthesia in South Africa brought together various stakeholders, including government, societies, academic clinicians and the biomedical industry, to define the core strategy for a national surgical plan. During the forum, presentations and breakaway workshops explored and reported the challenges and opportunities these stakeholders may have in sustaining and improving surgical provision in South Africa...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242708/physical-attractiveness-and-women-s-hiv-risk-in-rural-malawi
#19
Margaret Frye, Sophia Chae
BACKGROUND: Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. OBJECTIVE: We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic...
2017: Demographic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242707/the-mental-health-of-youth-and-young-adults-during-the-transition-to-adulthood-in-egypt
#20
Jenny Liu, Sepideh Modrek, Maia Sieverding
BACKGROUND: There has been growing interest in the stalled transition to adulthood in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and its consequences for young people's socioeconomic outcomes. However, little is known about how important life transitions relate to youth psychosocial well-being in the region. OBJECTIVE: Drawing on a life course framework, we estimate the associations between making transitions in education, employment, and marriage with changes in mental health among young people in Egypt...
2017: Demographic Research
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