keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Africa

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036215/reduction-of-in-utero-lead-exposures-in-south-african-populations-positive-impact-of-unleaded-petrol
#1
Halina B Röllin, Bukola Olutola, Kalavati Channa, Jon Ø Odland
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) has been shown to have negative and irreversible health impacts on foetal and early childhood development, affecting morbidity and mortality in adulthood. This study aimed to assess in utero Pb exposure, examine birth outcomes, and identify confounding factors in the large cohort of South African population, following the legislated removal of Pb from petrol. METHODS: Lead was measured in the maternal blood, urine and cord blood using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036208/transitioning-couple-s-voluntary-hiv-counseling-and-testing-cvct-from-stand-alone-weekend-services-into-routine-antenatal-and-vct-services-in-government-clinics-in-zambia-s-two-largest-cities
#2
Mubiana Inambao, William Kilembe, Lauren A Canary, Nancy L Czaicki, Matilda Kakungu-Simpungwe, Roy Chavuma, Kristin M Wall, Amanda Tichacek, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Elwyn Chomba, Susan A Allen
INTRODUCTION: Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC) and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described. METHODS: Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036174/equity-in-international-health-research-collaborations-in-africa-perceptions-and-expectations-of-african-researchers
#3
Nchangwi Syntia Munung, Bongani M Mayosi, Jantina de Vries
INTRODUCTION AND METHOD: Africa is currently host to a number of international genomics research and biobanking consortia, each with a mandate to advance genomics research and biobanking in Africa. Whilst most of these consortia promise to transform the way international health research is done in Africa, few have articulated exactly how they propose to go about this. In this paper, we report on a qualitative interviewing study in which we involved 17 genomics researchers in Africa. We describe their perceptions and expectations of international genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036171/costs-of-facility-based-hiv-testing-in-malawi-zambia-and-zimbabwe
#4
Lawrence Mwenge, Linda Sande, Collin Mangenah, Nurilign Ahmed, Sarah Kanema, Marc d'Elbée, Euphemia Sibanda, Thokozani Kalua, Gertrude Ncube, Cheryl C Johnson, Karin Hatzold, Frances M Cowan, Elizabeth L Corbett, Helen Ayles, Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Fern Terris-Prestholt
BACKGROUND: Providing HIV testing at health facilities remains the most common approach to ensuring access to HIV treatment and prevention services for the millions of undiagnosed HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to explore the costs of providing these services across three southern African countries with high HIV burden. METHODS: Primary costing studies were undertaken in 54 health facilities providing HIV testing services (HTS) in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035251/how-well-can-we-quantify-dust-deposition-to-the-ocean
#5
R F Anderson, H Cheng, R L Edwards, M Q Fleisher, C T Hayes, K-F Huang, D Kadko, P J Lam, W M Landing, Y Lao, Y Lu, C I Measures, S B Moran, P L Morton, D C Ohnemus, L F Robinson, R U Shelley
Deposition of continental mineral aerosols (dust) in the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic Ocean, between the coast of Africa and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, was estimated using several strategies based on the measurement of aerosols, trace metals dissolved in seawater, particulate material filtered from the water column, particles collected by sediment traps and sediments. Most of the data used in this synthesis involve samples collected during US GEOTRACES expeditions in 2010 and 2011, although some results from the literature are also used...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035166/strengthening-expertise-for-health-technology-assessment-and-priority-setting-in-africa
#6
Jane E Doherty, Thomas Wilkinson, Ijeoma Edoka, Karen Hofman
BACKGROUND: Achieving sustainable universal health coverage depends partly on fair priority-setting processes that ensure countries spend scarce resources wisely. While general health economics capacity-strengthening initiatives exist in Africa, less attention has been paid to developing the capacity of individuals, institutions and networks to apply economic evaluation in support of health technology assessment and effective priority-setting. OBJECTIVE: On the basis of international  lessons, to identify how research organisations and partnerships could contribute to capacity strengthening for health technology assessment and priority-setting in Africa...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034876/quantifying-the-contribution-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-to-febrile-illness-amongst-african-children
#7
Ursula Dalrymple, Ewan Cameron, Samir Bhatt, Daniel J Weiss, Sunetra Gupta, Peter W Gething
Suspected malaria cases in Africa increasingly receive a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before antimalarials are prescribed. While this ensures efficient use of resources to clear parasites, the underlying cause of the individual's fever remains unknown due to potential coinfection with a non-malarial febrile illness. Widespread use of RDTs does not necessarily prevent over-estimation of clinical malaria cases or sub-optimal case management of febrile patients. We present a new approach that allows inference of the spatiotemporal prevalence of both Plasmodium falciparum malaria-attributable and non-malarial fever in sub-Saharan African children from 2006-2014...
October 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034724/prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-yaounde-barrier-to-care
#8
C C Landefeld, L A Fomenou, F Ateba, P Msellati
Most HIV-infected children in Sub-Saharan Africa are born where programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) exist but are not universally operational. The expansion of PMTCT programs in Cameroon was among the largest in francophone Africa, but despite highly variable estimates of PMTCT uptake (ranging from 20% to 66%), it is clear that not enough HIV-infected pregnant Cameroonian women benefit from treatment to prevent HIV transmission to their children. The reasons why HIV-infected women in Cameroon do not use treatments to prevent this transmission remain partially unidentified...
October 16, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034662/-the-lessons-of-the-ebola-epidemic-for-a-more-effective-preparedness-face-to-health-crises
#9
Anne Fortin, Joseph Vroh Benie Bi, Abdelkrim Soulimane
Although uncommon, public health crises cause considerable human suffering and death and have major political, economic and social impacts. For many years, countries have made considerable efforts to prepare for emergencies. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa, as well as recent events and emerging public health threats force countries to strengthen, adapt or implement their Emergency Preparedness Plans. Emergency Preparedness is a difficult process. Some authors would even say that it is an impossible mission...
October 2, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034661/-the-2013-2016-ebola-epidemic-in-west-africa-critical-analysis-of-a-crisis-primarily-social
#10
Clélia Gasquet-Blanchard
The health crisis in West Africa between 2013 and 2016 is coming to an end. The various political, health, and institutional players, involved at various levels, either directly or indirectly in the field, have drawn lessons from this dramatic event, which comprised a number of management errors. The first article of this issue proposes a framework assessment of the concepts and notions involved during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in order to identify the modalities of management of the crisis. This more objective view is based on our experience in the field between 2005 and 2007 following the Ebola epidemic in Central Africa...
October 2, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034551/early-breastfeeding-practices-descriptive-analysis-of-recent-demographic-and-health-surveys
#11
Laura Oakley, Lenka Benova, David Macleod, Caroline A Lynch, Oona M R Campbell
The aim of this study was to describe early breastfeeding practices (initiation within 1 hr of birth, no prelacteal feeding, and a combination of both-"optimal" early breastfeeding) according to childbirth location in low- and middle-income countries. Using data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (2000-2013) for 57 countries, we extracted information on the most recent birth for women aged 15-49 with a live birth in the preceding 24 months. Childbirth setting was self-reported by location (home or facility) and subtype (home delivery with or without a skilled birth attendant; public or private facility)...
October 16, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034365/ethnicity-sex-and-age-are-determinants-of-red-blood-cell-storage-and-stress-hemolysis-results-of-the-reds-iii-rbc-omics-study
#12
Tamir Kanias, Marion C Lanteri, Grier P Page, Yuelong Guo, Stacy M Endres, Mars Stone, Sheila Keating, Alan E Mast, Ritchard G Cable, Darrell J Triulzi, Joseph E Kiss, Edward L Murphy, Steve Kleinman, Michael P Busch, Mark T Gladwin
Genetic polymorphisms in blood donors may contribute to donor-specific differences in the survival of red blood cells (RBCs) during cold storage and after transfusion. Genetic variability is anticipated to be high in donors with racial admixture from malaria endemic regions such as Africa and Asia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that donor genetic background, reflected by sex and self-reported ethnicity, significantly modulates RBC phenotypes in storage. High throughput hemolysis assays were developed and used to evaluate stored RBC samples from 11 115 African American, Asian, white, and Hispanic blood donors from 4 geographically diverse regions in the United States...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033977/the-empirical-distribution-of-singletons-for-geographic-samples-of-dna-sequences
#13
Philippe Cubry, Yves Vigouroux, Olivier François
Rare variants are important for drawing inference about past demographic events in a species history. A singleton is a rare variant for which genetic variation is carried by a unique chromosome in a sample. How singletons are distributed across geographic space provides a local measure of genetic diversity that can be measured at the individual level. Here, we define the empirical distribution of singletons in a sample of chromosomes as the proportion of the total number of singletons that each chromosome carries, and we present a theoretical background for studying this distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033943/human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-and-type-i-interferons-where-sex-makes-a-difference
#14
REVIEW
Susanne Maria Ziegler, Marcus Altfeld
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 epidemic continues to represent a global health problem that is over-proportionally affecting women from sub-Saharan Africa. Besides social and environmental factors, the modulation of immunological pathways by sex hormones and gene dosage effects of X chromosomal-encoded genes have been suggested to lead to differential outcomes in HIV-1 disease. Women present with lower HIV-1 loads early in infection. However, the progression to AIDS for the same level of viremia is faster in women than in men...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033578/right-ventricular-systolic-function-in-hypertensive-heart-failure
#15
O A Oketona, M O Balogun, A O Akintomide, O E Ajayi, R A Adebayo, T O Mene-Afejuku, O T Oketona, O J Bamikole
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of cardiovascular admissions and hypertensive heart failure (HHF) is the most common cause of HF admissions in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is being increasingly recognized in HF and found to be an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in HF. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction in HHF by several echocardiographic parameters. METHODOLOGY: One hundred subjects with HHF were recruited consecutively into the study along with 50 age and sex-matched controls...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033398/intensive-education-of-health-care-workers-improves-the-outcome-of-ebola-virus-disease-lessons-learned-from-the-2014-outbreak-in-sierra-leone
#16
Tracey Elizabeth Claire Jones-Konneh, Aya Murakami, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Shinichi Egawa
The rare and deadly Ebola virus disease (EVD) is caused by Ebola virus (EBOV) infection. The 2014-2015 EVD outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented. Person-to-person transmission of EBOV by direct contact with the body or bodily fluids of an infected person through broken skin or unprotected mucous membrane caused rapid outbreak in communities. Nosocomial infection was the cause of death of many health care workers (HCWs). This paper aims to reveal the importance and effect of intensive education of HCWs when combating an outbreak such as EVD...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033034/antimicrobial-resistance-among-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
REVIEW
Phoebe C M Williams, David Isaacs, James A Berkley
Antimicrobial resistance is an important threat to international health. Therapeutic guidelines for empirical treatment of common life-threatening infections depend on available information regarding microbial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility, but sub-Saharan Africa lacks diagnostic capacity and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. We systematically reviewed studies of antimicrobial resistance among children in sub-Saharan Africa since 2005. 18 of 1075 articles reviewed met inclusion criteria, providing data from 67 451 invasive bacterial isolates from inconsistently defined populations in predominantly urban tertiary settings...
October 9, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032986/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-induce-strain-specific-cytokine-and-chemokine-response-in-pulmonary-epithelial-cells
#18
Nontobeko E Mvubu, Balakrishna Pillay, Lyle R McKinnon, Manormoney Pillay
M. tuberculosis F15/LAM4/KZN has been associated with high transmission rates of drug resistant tuberculosis in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The current study elucidated the cytokine/chemokine responses induced by representatives of the F15/LAM4/KZN and other dominant strain families in pulmonary epithelial cells. Multiplex cytokine analyses were performed at 24, 48 and 72h post infection of the A549 pulmonary epithelial cell line with the F15/LAM4/KZN, F28, F11, Beijing, Unique and H37Rv strains at an MOI of ∼10:1...
October 9, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032747/development-of-potential-small-molecule-therapeutics-for-treatment-of-ebola-virus
#19
Adam Michael Schafer, Han Cheng, Charles Lee, Ruikun Du, Julianna Han, Jasmine Perez, Norton Peet, Balaji Manicassamy, Lijun Rong
Ebola virus has caused 26 outbreaks in 10 different countries since its identification in 1976, making it one of the deadliest emerging viral pathogens. The most recent outbreak in West Africa from 2014-16 was the deadliest yet and culminated in 11,310 deaths out of 28,616 confirmed cases. Currently there are no FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines to treat Ebola virus infections. The slow development of effective vaccines combined with the severity of past outbreaks emphasizes the need to accelerate research into understanding the virus lifecycle and the development of therapeutics for post exposure treatment...
October 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032396/assessing-adherence-to-antihypertensive-therapy-in-primary-health-care-in-namibia-findings-and-implications
#20
M M Nashilongo, B Singu, F Kalemeera, M Mubita, E Naikaku, A Baker, A Ferrario, B Godman, L Achieng, D Kibuule
INTRODUCTION: Namibia has the highest burden and incidence of hypertension in sub-Sahara Africa. Though non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy is an important cardiovascular risk factor, little is known about potential ways to improve adherence in Namibia following universal access. The objective of this study is to validate the Hill-Bone compliance scale and determine the level and predictors of adherence to antihypertensive treatment in primary health care settings in sub-urban townships of Windhoek, Namibia...
October 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
keyword
keyword
1520
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"