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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647765/epidemiology-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-target-population-for-surveillance-and-diagnosis
#1
REVIEW
An Tang, Oussama Hallouch, Victoria Chernyak, Aya Kamaya, Claude B Sirlin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates of liver cancer vary widely between geographic regions and are highest in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, the incidence of HCC has increased since the 1980s. HCC detection at an early stage through surveillance and curative therapy has considerably improved the 5-year survival. Therefore, medical societies advocate systematic screening and surveillance of target populations at particularly high risk for developing HCC to facilitate early-stage detection...
June 24, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647755/namib-desert-soil-microbial-community-diversity-assembly-and-function-along-a-natural-xeric-gradient
#2
Vincent Scola, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Aline Frossard, Olivier Zablocki, Evelien M Adriaenssens, Riegardt M Johnson, Mary Seely, Don A Cowan
The hyperarid Namib desert is a coastal desert in southwestern Africa and one of the oldest and driest deserts on the planet. It is characterized by a west/east increasing precipitation gradient and by regular coastal fog events (extending up to 75 km inland) that can also provide soil moisture. In this study, we evaluated the role of this natural aridity and xeric gradient on edaphic microbial community structure and function in the Namib desert. A total of 80 individual soil samples were collected at 10-km intervals along a 190-km transect from the fog-dominated western coastal region to the eastern desert boundary...
June 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647581/development-of-field-applicable-tests-for-rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-candidatus-phytoplasma-oryzae
#3
Lillian Wambua, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones, Daniel Masiga, Charles Midega, Zeyaur Khan, Joerg Jores, Anne Fischer
Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD) is a severe disease of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in Eastern Africa, caused by the leafhopper-transmitted bacterium Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae. The pathogen severely impairs the growth of Napier grass, the major fodder for dairy cattle in Eastern Africa. NSD is associated with biomass losses of up to 70% of infected plants. Diagnosis of NSD is done by nested PCR targeting the phytoplasma DNA, which is difficult to perform in developing countries with little infrastructure...
June 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647178/traditional-usage-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-croton-sylvaticus-hochst-ex-c-krauss
#4
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Croton sylvaticus (C. sylvaticus) is widely used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of tropical Africa. The potential of C. sylvaticus as herbal medicine, the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of its parts used as herbal medicines are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that C. sylvaticus is traditionally used to treat or manage at least 24 human and animal diseases and ailments. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as abdominal pains, boils, fever, inflammation, malaria, rheumatism, swellings and tuberculosis and as ethnoveterinary medicine...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647173/an-update-on-zika-virus-infection
#5
REVIEW
David Baud, Duane J Gubler, Bruno Schaub, Marion C Lanteri, Didier Musso
The epidemic history of Zika virus began in 2007, with its emergence in Yap Island in the western Pacific, followed in 2013-14 by a larger epidemic in French Polynesia, south Pacific, where the first severe complications and non-vector-borne transmission of the virus were reported. Zika virus emerged in Brazil in 2015 and was declared a national public health emergency after local researchers and physicians reported an increase in microcephaly cases. In 2016, WHO declared the recent cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders reported in Brazil a global public health emergency...
June 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647155/quantifying-trade-offs-between-future-yield-levels-food-availability-and-forest-and-woodland-conservation-in-benin
#6
Confidence Duku, Sander J Zwart, Lenny G J van Bussel, Lars Hein
Meeting the dual objectives of food security and ecosystem protection is a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To this end agricultural intensification is considered desirable, yet, there remain uncertainties regarding the impact of climate change on opportunities for agricultural intensification and the adequacy of intensification options given the rapid population growth. We quantify trade-offs between levels of yield gap closure, food availability and forest and woodland conservation under different scenarios...
June 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646958/new-tools-for-malaria-control-using-them-wisely
#7
Brian Greenwood
The incidence of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is falling and in many countries on the continent the pattern of malaria infection within the country is becoming more heterogeneous. National malaria control programmes need to take this into account and the 'one size fits all' approach to malaria control may no longer be appropriate, with individual approaches being needed in different parts of a country. This applies particularly to decisions on the introduction of new control tools. Recent experience with Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention and with the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine provides examples of interventions which need to be deployed on a restricted rather than a national basis, taking account of differences in climate and the intensity of malaria infection between regions within a country...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646921/factors-associated-with-intimate-partner-physical-violence-among-women-attending-antenatal-care-in-shire-endaselassie-town-tigray-northern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study-july-2015
#8
Berhane Hailu Gebrezgi, Marta Berta Badi, Endashaw Admassu Cherkose, Negassie Berhe Weldehaweria
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner physical violence is a common global phenomenon. About 30.00% and 38.83% of women in the world and in sub-Saharan Africa experienced physical violence by their partner respectively in 2013. Though intimate partner violence has serious adverse health consequences, there is limited information about partner violence during pregnancy in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalnce of physical intimate partner violence during pregnancy and associated factors among women attending antenatal care in Shire Endaselassie town, Tigray, northen Ethiopia METHODS: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 3 to July 6, 2015...
June 24, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646248/-psychiatric-care-of-refugees-in-africa-and-the-middle-east-challenges-and-solutions
#9
REVIEW
K Adorjan, S Mulugeta, M Odenwald, D M Ndetei, A H Osman, M Hautzinger, S Wolf, M Othman, J I Kizilhan, O Pogarell, T G Schulze
Violence, flight, famine, and natural disasters as well as the absence of a psychosocial healthcare system are major psychological burdens for refugees. The level of provision of mental healthcare is particularly low in developing countries. Internally displaced people and refugees place high demands on the healthcare system because they often suffer from psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. We present first initiatives to improve psychiatric care in refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Sudan...
June 23, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646132/global-rainfall-erosivity-assessment-based-on-high-temporal-resolution-rainfall-records
#10
Panos Panagos, Pasquale Borrelli, Katrin Meusburger, Bofu Yu, Andreas Klik, Kyoung Jae Lim, Jae E Yang, Jinren Ni, Chiyuan Miao, Nabansu Chattopadhyay, Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi, Zeinab Hazbavi, Mohsen Zabihi, Gennady A Larionov, Sergey F Krasnov, Andrey V Gorobets, Yoav Levi, Gunay Erpul, Christian Birkel, Natalia Hoyos, Victoria Naipal, Paulo Tarso S Oliveira, Carlos A Bonilla, Mohamed Meddi, Werner Nel, Hassan Al Dashti, Martino Boni, Nazzareno Diodato, Kristof Van Oost, Mark Nearing, Cristiano Ballabio
The exposure of the Earth's surface to the energetic input of rainfall is one of the key factors controlling water erosion. While water erosion is identified as the most serious cause of soil degradation globally, global patterns of rainfall erosivity remain poorly quantified and estimates have large uncertainties. This hampers the implementation of effective soil degradation mitigation and restoration strategies. Quantifying rainfall erosivity is challenging as it requires high temporal resolution(<30 min) and high fidelity rainfall recordings...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645947/role-structure-and-effects-of-medical-tourism-in-africa-a-systematic-scoping-review-protocol
#11
John Jo Mogaka, Joyce M Tsoka-Gwegweni, Lucia M Mupara, Tivani Mashamba-Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Some patients travel out of, while others come into Africa for medical care through a growing global phenomenon referred to as medical tourism (MT): the travel in search of medical care that is either unavailable, unaffordable or proscribed at home healthcare systems. While some castigate MT as promoting healthcare inequity, others endorse it as a revenue generator, promising local healthcare system strengthening. Currently, however, the understanding of this component of healthcare in Africa is inadequate...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645921/the-east-asian-origin-of-the-giant-lobelias
#12
Eric B Knox, Chunjiao Li
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Rapid radiations are difficult to reconstruct when organismal diversification and biogeographic movement outpace the evolution of genes typically used in phylogenetic analyses. The 125 kb of unique sequence from complete plastid genomes (= plastomes) largely solves the molecular sampling problem, and taxon sampling that triangulates the base of each major subclade largely solves the long-branch attraction problem. This combination of molecular and phylogenetic sampling is used to reconstruct the cosmopolitan radiation of lobeliads, with special focus on the origin of the giant lobelias...
June 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645255/haemoglobin-changes-and-risk-of-anaemia-following-treatment-for-uncomplicated-falciparum-malaria-in-sub-saharan-africa
#13
Julien Zwang, Umberto D'Alessandro, Jean-Louis Ndiaye, Abdoulaye A Djimdé, Grant Dorsey, Andreas A Mårtensson, Corine Karema, Piero L Olliaro
BACKGROUND: Anaemia is common in malaria. It is important to quantitate the risk of anaemia and to distinguish factors related to the natural history of disease from potential drug toxicity. METHODS: Individual-patient data analysis based on nine randomized controlled trials of treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria from 13 sub-Saharan African countries. Risk factors for reduced haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and anaemia on presentation and after treatment were analysed using mixed effect models...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645250/labour-market-marginalisation-after-mental-disorders-among-young-natives-and-immigrants-living-in-sweden
#14
Magnus Helgesson, Petter Tinghög, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler, Fredrik Saboonchi, Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz
BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the associations between mental disorders and three different measures of labour-market marginalisation, and differences between native Swedes and immigrants. METHODS: The study comprised 1,753,544 individuals, aged 20-35 years, and resident in Sweden 2004. They were followed 2005-2011 with regard to disability pension, sickness absence (≥90 days) and unemployment (≥180 days). Immigrants were born in Western countries (Nordic countries, EU, Europe outside EU or North-America/Oceania), or in non-Western countries (Africa, Asia or South-America)...
June 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645239/cassava-mosaic-and-brown-streak-diseases-current-perspectives-and-beyond
#15
Chrissie Rey, Hervé Vanderschuren Vanderschuren
Cassava is the fourth largest source of calories in the world but is subject to economically important yield losses due to viral diseases, including cassava brown streak disease and cassava mosaic disease. Cassava mosaic disease occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asian subcontinent and is associated with nine begomovirus species, whereas cassava brown streak disease has to date been reported only in sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by two distinct ipomovirus species. We present an overview of key milestones and their significance in the understanding and characterization of these two major diseases as well as their associated viruses and whitefly vector...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645050/land-use-affects-total-dissolved-nitrogen-and-nitrate-concentrations-in-tropical-montane-streams-in-kenya
#16
Suzanne R Jacobs, Lutz Breuer, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, David E Pelster, Mariana C Rufino
African tropical montane forests are facing fast and dynamic changes in land use. However, the impacts of these changes on stream water quality are understudied. This paper aims at assessing the effect of land use and physical catchment characteristics on stream water concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), nitrate (NO3-N) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in the Mau Forest, the largest tropical montane forest in Kenya. We conducted five synoptic stream water sampling campaigns at the outlets of 13-16 catchments dominated by either natural forest, smallholder agriculture or commercial tea and tree plantations...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645048/phytolith-carbon-sequestration-in-global-terrestrial-biomes
#17
Zhaoliang Song, Hongyan Liu, Caroline A E Strömberg, Xiaomin Yang, Xiaodong Zhang
Terrestrial biogeochemical carbon (C) sequestration is coupled with the biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle through mechanisms such as phytolith C sequestration, but the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink remain unclear. Here, we estimate phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes. We used biome data including productivity, phytolith and silica contents, and the phytolith stability factor to preliminarily determine the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink in global terrestrial biomes...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645046/a-paradigm-shift-for-socioeconomic-justice-and%C3%A2-health-from-focusing-on-inequalities-to%C3%A2-aiming%C3%A2-at-sustainable-equity
#18
Juan E Garay, David E Chiriboga
OBJECTIVES: To measure the 'best possible health for all', incorporating sustainability, and to establish the magnitude of global health inequity. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, retrospective. METHODS: We identified countries with three criteria: (1) a healthy population-life expectancy above world average; (2) living conditions feasible to replicate worldwide-per-capita gross domestic product (GDP-pc) below the world average; and (3) sustainability-per-capita carbon dioxide emissions lower than the planetary pollution boundary...
June 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644900/suppression-of-chikungunya-virus-replication-and-differential-innate-responses-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-during-co-infection-with-dengue-virus
#19
Mariana Ruiz Silva, José A Aguilar Briseño, Vinit Upasani, Heidi van der Ende-Metselaar, Jolanda M Smit, Izabela A Rodenhuis-Zybert
Dengue and chikungunya are viral diseases transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. With an estimated 390 million infected people per year dengue virus (DENV) currently causes the most prevalent arboviral disease. During the last decade chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large outbreaks and has expanded its territory causing millions of cases in Asia, Africa and America. The viruses share a common mosquito vector and during the acute phase cause similar flu-like symptoms that can proceed to more severe or debilitating symptoms...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644416/evaluation-of-trace-element-and-metal-accumulation-and-edibility-risk-associated-with-consumption-of-labeo-umbratus-from-the-vaal-dam-south-africa
#20
Beric M Gilbert, Ebrahim Hussain, Franz Jirsa, Annemariè Avenant-Oldewage
With the occurrence of recreational and small scale subsistence fishing activities at the Vaal Dam, South Africa, consumption of fish from this dam may result in health risks associated with trace elements and metals. The Vaal Dam is one of the largest dams in South Africa, located between the Gauteng Province and Orange Free State, and supplies water to approximately 11.6 million people. A total of 38 specimens of the benthic cyprinid fish Labeo umbratus were collected from the Vaal Dam during two surveys, in 2011 and 2016...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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