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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346622/future-of-family-medicine-faculty-development-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Paul R Larson, Patrick Chege, Bruce Dahlman, Christine Gibson, Ann Evensen, Maria C Colon-Gonzalez, Stephanie Onguka, Roberta Lamptey, William E Cayley, Bich-May Nguyen, Brian Johnson, Sawra Getnet, Memoona Hasnain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High-quality family medicine education is needed in sub-Saharan Africa to facilitate the future growth of primary care health systems. Current faculty educators recognize the value of dedicated teacher training and ongoing faculty development. However, they are constrained by inadequate faculty development program availability and institutional support. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct a qualitative needs assessment comprised of 37 in-depth, semi-structured interviews of individual faculty trainers from postgraduate family medicine training programs in eight sub-Saharan African countries...
March 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346621/current-status-of-family-medicine-faculty-development-in-sub-saharan-africa
#2
Paul R Larson, Patrick Chege, Bruce Dahlman, Christine Gibson, Ann Evensen, Maria C Colon-Gonzalez, Stephanie Onguka, Roberta Lamptey, William E Cayley, Bich-May Nguyen, Brian Johnson, Sawra Getnet, Memoona Hasnain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reducing the shortage of primary care physicians in sub-Saharan Africa requires expansion of training programs in family medicine. Challenges remain in preparing, recruiting, and retaining faculty qualified to teach in these pioneering programs. Little is known about the unique faculty development needs of family medicine faculty within the sub-Saharan African context. The purpose of this study was to assess the current status and future needs for developing robust family medicine faculty in sub-Saharan Africa...
March 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346527/a-qualitative-study-of-secondary-distribution-of-hiv-self-test-kits-by-female-sex-workers-in-kenya
#3
Suzanne Maman, Katherine R Murray, Sue Napierala Mavedzenge, Lennah Oluoch, Florence Sijenje, Kawango Agot, Harsha Thirumurthy
Promoting awareness of serostatus and frequent HIV testing is especially important among high risk populations such as female sex workers (FSW) and their sexual partners. HIV self-testing is an approach that is gaining ground in sub-Saharan Africa as a strategy to increase knowledge of HIV status and promote safer sexual decisions. However, little is known about self-test distribution strategies that are optimal for increasing testing access among hard-to-reach and high risk individuals. We conducted a qualitative study with 18 FSW who participated in a larger study that provided them with five oral fluid-based self-tests, training on how to use the tests, and encouragement to offer the self-tests to their sexual partners using their discretion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346373/harmful-use-of-alcohol-a-shadow-over-sub-saharan-africa-in-need-of-workable-solutions
#4
Carina Ferreira-Borges, Charles D H Parry, Thomas F Babor
Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activities in many countries, alcohol's negative role in society and contribution to countries' burden of disease are rarely questioned. After the momentum created by the adoption in 2010 of the WHO Global Strategy and the WHO Regional Strategy (for Africa) to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, in 2013, little seems to have been done to address the increasing use of alcohol, its associated burden and the new challenges that derive from the growing influence of the alcohol industry in Africa...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346340/a-place-to-call-home-an-analysis-of-the-bacterial-communities-in-two-tethya-rubra-samaai-and-gibbons-2005-populations-in-algoa-bay-south-africa
#5
Samantha C Waterworth, Meesbah Jiwaji, Jarmo-Charles J Kalinski, Shirley Parker-Nance, Rosemary A Dorrington
Sponges are important sources of bioactive secondary metabolites. These compounds are frequently synthesized by bacterial symbionts, which may be recruited from the surrounding seawater or transferred to the sponge progeny by the parent. In this study, we investigated the bacterial communities associated with the sponge Tethya rubra Samaai and Gibbons 2005. Sponge specimens were collected from Evans Peak and RIY Banks reefs in Algoa Bay, South Africa and taxonomically identified by spicule analysis and molecular barcoding...
March 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346109/assessing-process-of-paediatric-care-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-cross-sectional-audit-of-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#6
Celestin Hategeka, Jeannie Shoveller, Lisine Tuyisenge, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Routine assessment of quality of care helps identify deficiencies which need to be improved. While gaps in the emergency care of children have been documented across sub-Saharan Africa, data from Rwanda are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the care of sick infants and children admitted to Rwandan district hospitals and the extent to which it follows currently recommended clinical practice guidelines in Rwanda. METHODS: Data were gathered during a retrospective cross-sectional audit of eight district hospitals across Rwanda in 2012/2013...
March 27, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345819/outbreak-investigations-and-molecular-characterization-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-circulating-in-south-west-niger
#7
B Souley Kouato, F M Elliot, D P King, J Hyera, N J Knowles, A B Ludi, V Mioulet, G Matlho, K De Clercq, E Thys, H Marichatou, S Issa, C Saegerman
In Niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. This study aimed (i) to identify Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. Epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of Niger. Testing of clinical material revealed the presence of FMDV serotype O that was characterized within the O/WEST AFRICA topotype...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345672/cyclophilins-and-nucleoporins-are-required-for-infection-mediated-by-capsids-from-circulating-hiv-2-primary-isolates
#8
João I Mamede, Florence Damond, Ariel de Bernardo, Sophie Matheron, Diane Descamps, Jean-Luc Battini, Marc Sitbon, Valérie Courgnaud
HIV-2 groups have emerged from sooty mangabey SIV and entered the human population in Africa on several separate occasions. Compared to world pandemic HIV-1 that arose from the chimpanzee SIVcpz virus, the SIVsm-derived HIV-2, largely confined to West Africa, is less replicative, less transmissible and less pathogenic. Here, we evaluated the interactions between host cellular factors, which control HIV-1 infection and target the capsid, and HIV-2 capsids obtained from primary isolates from patients with different disease progression status...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345563/chlamydial-eye-infections-current-perspectives
#9
Gita Satpathy, Himanshu Sekhar Behera, Nishat Hussain Ahmed
Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide. Improvement in socioeconomic and living conditions, availability of antibiotics, and introduction of National Trachoma Control Programmes reduced the prevalence in developed countries, but it persisted in resource-poor settings of Africa and Asia, including India. In 2016, as per the WHO report, trachoma is restricted to 42 countries, causing blindness/visual impairment in ~1...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345494/adaptation-and-validation-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-assessment-scale-cognitive-adas-cog-in-a-low-literacy-setting-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Stella-Maria Paddick, Aloyce Kisoli, Sarah Mkenda, Godfrey Mbowe, William Keith Gray, Catherine Dotchin, Adesola Ogunniyi, John Kisima, Olaide Olakehinde, Declare Mushi, Richard William Walker
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the feasibility of a low-literacy adaptation of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) for use in rural sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for interventional studies in dementia. No such adaptations currently exist. METHODS: Tanzanian and Nigerian health professionals adapted the ADAS-Cog by consensus. Validation took place in a cross-sectional sample of 34 rural-dwelling older adults with mild/moderate dementia alongside 32 non-demented controls in Tanzania...
March 27, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345302/outcome-of-subsequent-pregnancies-in-patients-with-a-history-of-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#11
Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Arash Haghikia, David Masuko, Justus Nonhoff, Dominik Held, Elena Libhaber, Mark C Petrie, Niki L Walker, Edith Podewski, Dominik Berliner, Johann Bauersachs, Karen Sliwa
AIMS: Subsequent pregnancies (SSPs) in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) have a high risk of heart failure relapse. We report on outcome of SSPs in PPCM patients in Germany, Scotland, and South Africa. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 34 PPCM patients with a SSP, pregnancy ended prematurely in four patients while it was full-term in 30. Overall relapse rate [left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF <50% or death after at least 6-month follow-up] was 56% with 12% (4/34) mortality...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345293/detection-of-zaire-ebolavirus-in-swine-assay-development-and-optimization
#12
B S Pickering, B Collignon, G Smith, P Marszal, G Kobinger, H M Weingartl
Ebolaviruses (family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales) cause often fatal, haemorrhagic fever in primates including humans. Pigs have been identified as a species susceptible to Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) infection, with indicated transmission to humans in the Philippines; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. To perform surveillance studies, detection of ebolavirus requires a prerequisite validation of viral RNA and antibody detection methods in swine samples. These diagnostic tests also need to be suitable for deployment to low-level containment laboratories...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344929/comparing-regional-precipitation-and-temperature-extremes-in-climate-model-and-reanalysis-products
#13
Oliver Angélil, Sarah Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Lisa V Alexander, Dáithí Stone, Markus G Donat, Michael Wehner, Hideo Shiogama, Andrew Ciavarella, Nikolaos Christidis
A growing field of research aims to characterise the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the likelihood of extreme weather and climate events. These analyses can be sensitive to the shapes of the tails of simulated distributions. If tails are found to be unrealistically short or long, the anthropogenic signal emerges more or less clearly, respectively, from the noise of possible weather. Here we compare the chance of daily land-surface precipitation and near-surface temperature extremes generated by three Atmospheric Global Climate Models typically used for event attribution, with distributions from six reanalysis products...
September 2016: Weather Clim Extrem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344815/occupational-exposure-to-sharps-injury-among-healthcare-providers-in-ethiopia-regional-hospitals
#14
Nigussie Tadesse Sharew, Getaneh Baye Mulu, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Kefyalew Dagne Gizachew
BACKGROUND: Sharps injury is a penetrating stab wound from a needle, scalpel, or another sharp object that may result in exposure to blood or other body fluids. According to World Health Organization pooled estimate, the annual incidence of sharps injury in Africa was ranged from 2.10 to 4.68 per person per year, but research data in Ethiopia is limited. The aim of the study was to investigate sharps injury prevalence and associated risk factors. METHODS: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 200 healthcare providers (HCP) in Northeast Ethiopia...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344639/aflatoxin-b1-inhibits-the-type-1-interferon-response-pathway-via-stat1-suggesting-another-mechanism-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Patrick W Narkwa, David J Blackbourn, Mohamed Mutocheluh
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of food is very high in most sub-Saharan African countries. AFB1 is known to cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by inducing mutation in the tumour suppressor gene TP53. The number of new HCC cases is high in West Africa with an accompanying high mortality. The type I interferon (IFN) pathway of the innate immune system limits viral infections and exerts its anti-cancer property by up-regulating tumour suppressor activities and pro-apoptotic pathways...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344493/volatile-constituents-and-biological-activities-of-the-leaf-and-root-of-echinacea-species-from-south-africa
#16
M Nyalambisa, I A Oyemitan, R Matewu, O O Oyedeji, O S Oluwafemi, S P Songca, B N Nkeh-Chungag, A O Oyedeji
Echinacea is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various diseases such as cough, respiratory infections, and bronchitis among other uses in Eastern Cape region of South Africa. This study evaluated the volatile components of the essential oil of the plant, its toxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rodents. Dried leaf and root of the plant were separately processed by hydrodistillation for 4 h and their essential oils (EOs) were collected. Extracted oils were subjected to GC/GC-MS analysis...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344403/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-meat-animals-from-africa-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-sero-epidemiological-studies
#17
Aretas Babatoundé Nounnagnon Tonouhewa, Yao Akpo, Philippe Sessou, Camus Adoligbe, Eric Yessinou, Yaovi Gildas Hounmanou, Marc Napoléon Assogba, Issaka Youssao, Souaïbou Farougou
AIM: Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which causes toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. Felids especially cats are definitive hosts and almost all warm-blooded mammals, including livestock and human can serve as intermediate hosts. Food animals can be reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. The objective of this study is to collect serological data on the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody, and risk factors for certain food animals from Africa to provide a quantitative estimate of T...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344011/the-epidemiology-pathogenesis-transmission-diagnosis-and-management-of-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-and-incurable-tuberculosis
#18
REVIEW
Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo, Gary Maartens, Kelly E Dooley, Ruth McNerney, Megan Murray, Jennifer Furin, Edward A Nardell, Leslie London, Erica Lessem, Grant Theron, Paul van Helden, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, David Dowdy, Annelies Van Rie, Gilman K H Siu, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Camilla Rodrigues, Taane G Clark, Frik A Sirgel, Aliasgar Esmail, Hsien-Ho Lin, Sachin R Atre, H Simon Schaaf, Kwok Chiu Chang, Christoph Lange, Payam Nahid, Zarir F Udwadia, C Robert Horsburgh, Gavin J Churchyard, Dick Menzies, Anneke C Hesseling, Eric Nuermberger, Helen McIlleron, Kevin P Fennelly, Eric Goemaere, Ernesto Jaramillo, Marcus Low, Carolina Morán Jara, Nesri Padayatchi, Robin M Warren
Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis)...
March 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343359/characterization-of-pm2-5-chemical-composition-at-the-demokritos-suburban-station-in-athens-greece-the-influence-of-saharan-dust
#19
Vasiliki Vasilatou, Evangelia Diapouli, Dimitrios Abatzoglou, Evangelos B Bakeas, Michael Scoullos, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
The aim of this work is to study the atmospheric concentrations of selected major and trace elements and ions found in PM2.5, at a suburban site in Athens, Greece, and discuss on the impact of the different sources. Special focus is given to the influence of Saharan dust episodes. The seasonal variability in the metal and ion concentrations is also examined. The results show that PM2.5 mass concentrations are significantly influenced by Saharan dust events; it is observed that when the PM2.5 concentration is higher than 25 μg/m(3), five out of six times, the air mass crossed North Africa at an altitude within the boundary layer...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343255/giving-voice-to-african-thought-in-medical-research-ethics
#20
Godfrey B Tangwa
In this article, I consider the virtual absence of an African voice and perspective in global discourses of medical research ethics against the backdrop of the high burden of diseases and epidemics on the continent and the fact that the continent is actually the scene of numerous and sundry medical research studies. I consider some reasons for this state of affairs as well as how the situation might be redressed. Using examples from the HIV/AIDS and Ebola epidemics, I attempt to show that the marginalization of Africa in medical research and medical research ethics is deliberate rather than accidental...
March 25, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
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