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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167710/influence-of-nicotine-on-machined-and-anodized-surface-implants-histometric-analysis
#1
Maria-Salete-Sandini Linden, Luiz-Renato Paranhos, João-Paulo De Carli, Micheline-Sandini Trentin, Marcos-Eugênio de Bittencourt, Pâmela-Letícia Santos, Francisco-Carlos Groppo, Juliana-Camma Ramacciato
Background: The nicotine may generate a influence on bone repair and longevity of dental implants. This fact makes studies to improve the surface of the implants are constantly conducted. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of subcutaneous nicotine injection in the osseointegration process on different implant surfaces, through histomorphometric analysis. Material and Methods: Therefore, twenty-two male rabbits were randomly distributed into two groups according to the subcutaneous injections: (1) nicotine, 3 mg/day/kg and (2) 0...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165573/an-emerging-role-for-epigenetic-factors-in-relation-to-executive-function
#2
Omar Ibrahim, Heidi G Sutherland, Larisa M Haupt, Lyn R Griffiths
Executive function (EF) includes a range of decision-making and higher-order thinking processes. Although the genetic basis of EF has been studied and reviewed, epigenetic factors that influence EF are an emerging field of interest; here, we summarize the current research. Work relating to different word combinations of 'Executive Function' and 'Epigenetic' was identified through three academic search directories. Inclusion criteria were human populations, EF testing, epigenetic testing or genotyping related to epigenetic regulation...
November 20, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164024/a-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-management-of-patients-with-acute-spinal-cord-injury-and-central-cord-syndrome-recommendations-on-the-timing-%C3%A2-24-hours-versus-24-hours-of-decompressive-surgery
#3
Michael G Fehlings, Lindsay A Tetreault, Jefferson R Wilson, Bizhan Aarabi, Paul Anderson, Paul M Arnold, Darrel S Brodke, Anthony S Burns, Kazuhiro Chiba, Joseph R Dettori, Julio C Furlan, Gregory Hawryluk, Langston T Holly, Susan Howley, Tara Jeji, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Mark Kotter, Shekar Kurpad, Ralph J Marino, Allan R Martin, Eric Massicotte, Geno Merli, James W Middleton, Hiroaki Nakashima, Narihito Nagoshi, Katherine Palmieri, Anoushka Singh, Andrea C Skelly, Eve C Tsai, Alexander Vaccaro, Albert Yee, James S Harrop
Objective: To develop recommendations on the timing of surgical decompression in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and central cord syndrome. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to address key relevant questions. A multidisciplinary guideline development group used this information, along with their clinical expertise, to develop recommendations for the timing of surgical decompression in patients with SCI and central cord syndrome...
September 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156894/clinical-hypnosis-mindfulness-and-spirituality-in-palliative-care
#4
Consuelo Casula
In this article, I do not intend to present the many and well-known treatments for relieving pain and distress symptoms of the physical body, damaged by terminal diseases, such as cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis. In this article, I'd rather focus my attention on clinical hypnosis for subjects who, freed from physical pain, thanks to palliative care, are open to receiving comfort and support for their psychological and spiritual suffering. The intent of this article is to express how clinical hypnosis can harmoniously integrate psychological and spiritual aspects so that the terminal patient can make peace with his/her past, with the people who have hurt him/her, and with the people who will suffer because of his/her death...
September 28, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154235/the-use-of-neurodynamic-techniques-in-the-conservative-treatment-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-critical-appraisal-of-the-literature
#5
Tomasz Wolny
BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral neuropathy, characterized by the presence of many sensory and motor abnormalities. In the physiotherapy of patients with CTS, neurodynamic tech-niques are very common, while the scientific literature does not show clear evidence of beneficial effects obtained by using these techniques. Therefore, the aim of this work was to critically evaluate the use of neurodynamic techniques in the conservative treatment of CTS...
October 31, 2017: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145906/-a-rose-is-a-rose-is-a-rose
#6
C H Vinkers
Over a century ago in 1913, the poet Gertrude Stein wrote these famous words: sometimes things are just what they are. There has been a recent debate centred around the question whether or not schizophrenia exists. Is there a brain disease that can be called schizophrenia? What difference does it make to patients how we define schizophrenia? This editorial explores said questions, concluding that there is still much to be done to improve the recovery of patients diagnosed with disorders of the schizophrenia spectrum...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143595/why-nature-prevails-over-nurture-in-the-making-of-the-elite-athlete
#7
Evelina Georgiades, Vassilis Klissouras, Jamie Baulch, Guan Wang, Yannis Pitsiladis
While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138946/semiotic-systems-with-duality-of-patterning-and-the-issue-of-cultural-replicators
#8
Gerhard Schaden, Cédric Patin
Two major works in recent evolutionary biology have in different ways touched upon the issue of cultural replicators in language, namely Dawkins' Selfish Gene and Maynard Smith and Szathmáry's Major Transitions in Evolution. In the latter, the emergence of language is referred to as the last major transition in evolution (for the time being), a claim we argue to be derived from a crucial property of language, called Duality of Patterning. Prima facie, this property makes natural language look like a structural equivalent to DNA, and its peer in terms of expressive power...
November 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#9
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124777/coherence-in-the-visual-imagination
#10
Michael O Vertolli, Matthew A Kelly, Jim Davies
An incoherent visualization is when aspects of different senses of a word (e.g., the biological "mouse" vs. the computer "mouse") are present in the same visualization (e.g., a visualization of a biological mouse in the same image with a computer tower). We describe and implement a new model of creating contextual coherence in the visual imagination called Coherencer, based on the SOILIE model of imagination. We show that Coherencer is able to generate scene descriptions that are more coherent than SOILIE's original approach as well as a parallel connectionist algorithm that is considered competitive in the literature on general coherence...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114120/free-living-amoebae-in-the-water-resources-of-iran-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Ehsan Saburi, Toktam Rajaii, Asma Behdari, Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Hossein Vazini
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are a group of protozoa with the capabilities of growth in the environment and invasion to the human body which have been isolated from different water sources. Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Balamuthia are the most important FLA. These cause a variety of severe complications of eye and central nervous system. Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the prevalence of FLA in different parts of Iran, there is no comprehensive evaluation and conclusion regarding the pollution of various water sources in Iran...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106269/a-dynamic-approach-to-recognition-memory
#12
Gregory E Cox, Richard M Shiffrin
We present a dynamic model of memory that integrates the processes of perception, retrieval from knowledge, retrieval of events, and decision making as these evolve from 1 moment to the next. The core of the model is that recognition depends on tracking changes in familiarity over time from an initial baseline generally determined by context, with these changes depending on the availability of different kinds of information at different times. A mathematical implementation of this model leads to precise, accurate predictions of accuracy, response time, and speed-accuracy trade-off in episodic recognition at the levels of both groups and individuals across a variety of paradigms...
November 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100951/distinct-cerebellar-regions-related-to-motor-and-cognitive-performance-in-sca6-patients
#13
Zubir Rentiya, Noore-Sabah Khan, Ezgi Ergun, Sarah H Ying, John E Desmond
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a correlation between anatomic regional changes in Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 6 (SCA6) patients and measures of cognitive performance on neuropsychological tests. METHODS: Neurocognitive testing was conducted on 24 SCA6 and 28 control subjects. For each cognitive test, SCA6 patients were compared against the controls using Student's t-test. For the cerebellar patients, using voxel based morphometry, correlations between cerebellar gray matter volume at each voxel and performance on the neuropsychological exams were calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient implemented in SPM8...
October 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094987/self-regulated-learning-of-important-information-under-sequential-and-simultaneous-encoding-conditions
#14
Catherine D Middlebrooks, Alan D Castel
Learners make a number of decisions when attempting to study efficiently: they must choose which information to study, for how long to study it, and whether to restudy it later. The current experiments examine whether documented impairments to self-regulated learning when studying information sequentially, as opposed to simultaneously, extend to the learning of and memory for valuable information. In Experiment 1, participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1-10 points sequentially or simultaneously at a preset presentation rate; in Experiment 2, study was self-paced and participants could choose to restudy...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081910/safety-efficiency-and-cost-effectiveness-of-bivalirudin-a-systematic-review
#15
Melorin Mehrzad, Rasikh Tuktamyshov, Raman Mehrzad
AIM: To review the early and more recent studies of Bivalirudin, to assess the safety, effectiveness, and cost benefits of this drug. METHODS: Literature search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases from 1990 to 2017 using keywords as "bivalirubin" and "angiomax", combined with the words "safety", "effectiveness", "efficiency", "side effects", "toxicity", "adverse effect", and "adverse drug reaction". RESULTS: A total of 66 publications were reviewed...
September 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074769/what-is-consciousness-and-could-machines-have-it
#16
REVIEW
Stanislas Dehaene, Hakwan Lau, Sid Kouider
The controversial question of whether machines may ever be conscious must be based on a careful consideration of how consciousness arises in the only physical system that undoubtedly possesses it: the human brain. We suggest that the word "consciousness" conflates two different types of information-processing computations in the brain: the selection of information for global broadcasting, thus making it flexibly available for computation and report (C1, consciousness in the first sense), and the self-monitoring of those computations, leading to a subjective sense of certainty or error (C2, consciousness in the second sense)...
October 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065147/developing-citizen-report-cards-for-primary-health-care-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-results-from-cognitive-interviews-in-rural-tajikistan
#17
Sebastian Bauhoff, Lila Rabinovich, Lauren A Mayer
Citizen report cards on health care providers have been identified as a potential means to increase citizen engagement, provider accountability and health systems performance. Research in high-income settings indicates that the wording, presentation and display of performance information are critical to achieve these goals. However, there are limited insights on developing effective report card designs for middle- and low-income settings. We conducted cognitive interviews to assess consumers' understanding, interpretation of and preferences for displaying information for a health care report card in rural Tajikistan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060399/evaluation-of-different-cochlear-implants-in-unilateral-hearing-patients-during-word-listening-tasks-a-brain-connectivity-study
#18
Anton Giulio Maglione, Giulia Cartocci, Enrica Modica, Dario Rossi, Alfredo Colosimo, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Ambra Brizi, Isotta Venuti, Maria Zinfollino, Paolo Malerba, Nicola Quaranta, Fabio Babiloni
Advanced methodologies used for the biomedical signal interpretation allow using cerebral signals to assess important cognitive functions in humans. In the present study, as parameter of cerebral effort, has been employed the isolated effective coherence, in order to estimate the effective connectivity and network organization. The hypothesis was that the lower the number of inter-connections engaged, the lower the cerebral effort induced by the experimental condition. In the present research this index has been applied to test the reaction to the use of different cochlear implant processors (Freedom, CP810 and CP910 - Cochlear Ltd), with the aim to identify the most performing device during a word in noise recognition task...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059270/comprehension-of-an-elevated-amyloid-positron-emission-tomography-biomarker-result-by-cognitively-normal-older-adults
#19
Jessica Mozersky, Pamela Sankar, Kristin Harkins, Sara Hachey, Jason Karlawish
Importance: The goal of Alzheimer disease (AD) prevention together with advances in understanding the pathophysiology of AD have led to clinical trials testing drugs in cognitively unimpaired persons who show evidence of AD biomarkers. Data are needed to inform the processes of describing AD biomarkers to cognitively normal adults and assessing their understanding of this knowledge. Objective: To determine the comprehension of an elevated amyloid positron emission tomographic (PET) biomarker result by cognitively unimpaired adults...
October 23, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035067/executive-functioning-in-relation-to-coping-in-mild-versus-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Sandra E Rakers, Myrthe E Scheenen, Herma J Westerhof-Evers, Myrthe E de Koning, Harm J van der Horn, Joukje van der Naalt, Jacoba M Spikman
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between executive functioning (EF) and coping styles, separately for mild and moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the chronic phase postinjury. METHOD: Patients with mild (n = 47) and moderate-severe TBI (n = 59) were included, in addition to healthy controls (HCs; n = 51). Assessment consisted of EF tests (Trail Making Test, Zoo Map Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test) and questionnaires examining EF (Dysexecutive Questionnaire) and coping styles (Utrecht Coping List)...
October 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
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