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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199073/cognitive-control-deficits-differentiate-adolescent-suicide-ideators-from-attempters
#1
Jeremy G Stewart, Catherine R Glenn, Erika C Esposito, Christine B Cha, Matthew K Nock, Randy P Auerbach
OBJECTIVE: Mental illness and suicidal ideation are among the strongest correlates of suicidal behaviors, but few adolescents with these risk factors make a suicide attempt. Therefore, it is critical to identify factors associated with the transition from suicide ideation to attempts. The present study tested whether deficits in cognitive control in the context of suicide-relevant stimuli (ie, suicide interference) reliably differentiated adolescent ideators and attempters. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 99; 71 girls) aged 13-18 years (mean = 15...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198077/translation-strategies-contradiction-and-the-theory-of-social-representations-why-discussing-needles-may-improve-blood-donor-retention
#2
Gail Moloney, Jane Hayman, Marguerite Gamble, Geoff Smith, Rob Hall
Retaining blood donors is a cost-effective way of ensuring a safe blood supply, yet despite the plethora of research, only 5.1% of the eligible population in Australia donate blood and 40% of these do not make a second donation. We offer an alternative to traditional approaches by conceptualizing blood donation within social representations theory as socially derived symbolic knowledge with a specific focus on cognitive polyphasia and Guimelli's (1998) normative and functional dimensions. An online survey, completed by 703 residents from NSW Australia, comprised a blood donation word association task, Likert-style questions constructed from previous word association data and contextualized blood donation statements...
February 15, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185593/decentralization-and-health-system-performance-a-focused-review-of-dimensions-difficulties-and-derivatives-in-india
#3
REVIEW
Bhuputra Panda, Harshad P Thakur
INTRODUCTION: One of the principal goals of any health care system is to improve health through the provision of clinical and public health services. Decentralization as a reform measure aims to improve inputs, management processes and health outcomes, and has political, administrative and financial connotations. It is argued that the robustness of a health system in achieving desirable outcomes is contingent upon the width and depth of 'decision space' at the local level. Studies have used different approaches to examine one or more facets of decentralization and its effect on health system functioning; however, lack of consensus on an acceptable framework is a critical gap in determining its quantum and quality...
October 31, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155646/a-study-on-the-application-of-topic-models-to-motif-finding-algorithms
#4
Josep Basha Gutierrez, Kenta Nakai
BACKGROUND: Topic models are statistical algorithms which try to discover the structure of a set of documents according to the abstract topics contained in them. Here we try to apply this approach to the discovery of the structure of the transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) contained in a set of biological sequences, which is a fundamental problem in molecular biology research for the understanding of transcriptional regulation. Here we present two methods that make use of topic models for motif finding...
December 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150989/dialectical-thinking-and-fairness-based-perspectives-of-affirmative-action
#5
Ivona Hideg, D Lance Ferris
Affirmative action (AA) policies are among the most effective means for enhancing diversity and equality in the workplace, yet are also often viewed with scorn by the wider public. Fairness-based explanations for this scorn suggest AA policies provide preferential treatment to minorities, violating procedural fairness principles of consistent treatment. In other words, to promote equality in the workplace, effective AA policies promote inequality when selecting employees, and the broader public perceives this to be procedurally unfair...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149479/prophylaxis-and-antibiotic-therapy-in-management-protocols-of-patients-treated-with-oral-and-intravenous-bisphosphonates
#6
REVIEW
Elena-Beatriz Bermúdez-Bejarano, María-Ángeles Serrera-Figallo, Aida Gutiérrez-Corrales, Manuel-María Romero-Ruiz, Raquel Castillo-de-Oyagüe, José-Luis Gutiérrez-Pérez, Daniel Torres-Lagares
INTRODUCTION: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) linked to bisphosphonate treatment has specific characteristics that render its therapeutic management challenging for clinicians. Poor response to standard treatment makes it essential to take special precautions when treating this type of disease; therefore, antibiotic prophylaxis and/or antibiotic therapy have been proposed as effective and helpful tools in these situations. OBJECTIVES: This article seeks to assess published evidence in order to evaluate the different protocols used for antibiotic prophylaxis and/or antibiotic therapy in the general context of patients treated with bisphosphonates...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143488/disorder-recognition-in-clinical-texts-using-multi-label-structured-svm
#7
Wutao Lin, Donghong Ji, Yanan Lu
BACKGROUND: Information extraction in clinical texts enables medical workers to find out problems of patients faster as well as makes intelligent diagnosis possible in the future. There has been a lot of work about disorder mention recognition in clinical narratives. But recognition of some more complicated disorder mentions like overlapping ones is still an open issue. This paper proposes a multi-label structured Support Vector Machine (SVM) based method for disorder mention recognition...
January 31, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121427/riboswitch-based-reversible-dual-color-sensor
#8
Svetlana V Harbaugh, Michael S Goodson, Kateri Dillon, Sarah Zabarnick, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane
Riboswitches are RNA-based 'sensors' that utilize chemically-induced structural changes in the 5'-untranslated region of mRNA to regulate expression of downstream genes. Coupling a specific riboswitch with a reporter gene system translates chemical detection by the cell into a quantifiable reporter protein signal. For the majority of reporter gene systems the readout signal is only expressed in the presence of the target analyte. This makes it difficult to determine the viability and localization of the uninduced biosensor when it is used for 'real-word' applications...
January 25, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114674/influence-of-information-framing-on-patient-decisions-to-treat-actinic-keratosis
#9
Katherine Berry, Melissa Butt, Joslyn S Kirby
Importance: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a skin growth induced by UV light exposure that requires long-term management because a small proportion of the disease can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. The influence of how clinicians frame or present information to patients may affect decision making about AK. Objective: To evaluate the differences in patients' decisions on whether to receive treatment for AK related to information presentation or choice framing. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective survey study was performed from June 1 to July 31, 2016, in participants who were able to read English...
January 18, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113860/switching-eeg-headsets-made-easy-reducing-offline-calibration-effort-using-active-weighted-adaptation-regularization
#10
Dongrui Wu, Vernon Lawhern, David Hairston, Brent Lance
Electroencephalography (EEG) headsets are the most commonly used sensing devices for Brain-Computer Interface. In real-world applications, there are advantages to extrapolating data from one user session to another. However, these advantages are limited if the data arise from different hardware systems, which often vary between application spaces. Currently, this creates a need to recalibrate classifiers, which negatively affects people's interest in using such systems. In this paper, we employ active weighted adaptation regularization (AwAR), which integrates weighted adaptation regularization (wAR) and active learning, to expedite the calibration process...
March 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110889/reliability-and-validity-of-culturally-adapted-executive-function-performance-test-for-koreans-with-stroke
#11
Hee Kim, Yu-Na Lee, Eun-Mi Jo, Eun-Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Executive Function Performance Test was unusable in Asia because of cultural differences, although evaluating the effect that executive function has on real life is essential to people with stroke. The aims of this study were to report the development and standardization of culturally appropriate Executive Function Performance Test for Koreans (EFPT-K) and to verify its reliability and validity in the stroke population. METHODS: EFPT-K was developed by going through the process of translation, back-translation, and an expert committee's conference on cultural adaptation...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077212/decoding-the-content-of-recollection-within-the-core-recollection-network-and-beyond
#12
Preston P Thakral, Tracy H Wang, Michael D Rugg
Recollection - retrieval of qualitative information about a past event - is associated with enhanced neural activity in a consistent set of neural regions (the 'core recollection network') seemingly regardless of the nature of the recollected content. Here, we employed multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to assess whether retrieval-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity in core recollection regions - including the hippocampus, angular gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortex, and middle temporal gyrus - contain information about studied content and thus demonstrate retrieval-related 'reinstatement' effects...
December 22, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077120/altered-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-associated-with-cognitive-dysfunction-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-major-depressive-disorder-patients
#13
Manli Huang, Shaojia Lu, Liang Yu, Lingjiang Li, Peng Zhang, Jianbo Hu, Weihua Zhou, Shaohua Hu, Ning Wei, Jinwen Huang, Jian Weng, Yi Xu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that abnormities of both resting-state brain activity and cognitive dysfunction are frequently observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the underlying relationship between these two aspects is less investigated. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cognitive dysfunction and altered resting-state brain function in first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients. METHODS: Twenty-five drug-naïve MDD patients and twenty-six age-, sex-, and education-matched normal controls were recruited in this study...
January 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068937/the-efficacy-and-roles-of-combining-temozolomide-with-whole-brain-radiotherapy-in-protection-neurocognitive-function-and-improvement-quality-of-life-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-with-brain-metastases
#14
Xia Deng, Zhen Zheng, Baochai Lin, Huafang Su, Hanbin Chen, Shaoran Fei, Zhenghua Fei, Lihao Zhao, Xiance Jin, Cong-Ying Xie
BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis (BM) is a poor prognostic factor for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The efficacy and roles of combining temozolomide (TMZ) with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in protection neurocognitive function (NCF) and improvement quality of life (QOL) were investigated and compared with WBRT alone in the treatment of NSCLC patients with BM. METHODS: A total of 238 NSCLC patients with BM were reviewed and categorized into WBRT plus TMZ (RCT) arm and WBRT alone (RT), respectively...
January 10, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053894/effect-of-yoga-program-on-executive-functions-of-adolescents-dwelling-in-an-orphan-home-a-randomized-controlled-study
#15
Satya Prakash Purohit, Balaram Pradhan
Executive function (EF) is important for physical and mental health of children. Studies have shown that children with poverty and early life stress have reduced EF. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Yoga program on the EF of orphan adolescents. Seventy two apparently healthy orphan adolescents randomized and allocated into two groups as Yoga group (n = 40; 14 girls, age = 12.69 ± 1.35 yrs) and Wait List Control (WLC) group (n = 32, 13 girls, age = 12.58 ± 1.52 yrs). Yoga group underwent three months of Yoga program in a schedule of 90 min per day, four days per week whereas the WLC group followed the routine activities...
January 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045838/effect-of-context-and-hearing-loss-on-time-gated-word-recognition-in-children
#16
Dawna Lewis, Judy Kopun, Ryan McCreery, Marc Brennan, Kanae Nishi, Evan Cordrey, Pat Stelmachowicz, Mary Pat Moeller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine word recognition in children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) in response to time-gated words presented in high- versus low-predictability sentences (HP, LP), where semantic cues were manipulated. Findings inform our understanding of how CHH combine cognitive-linguistic and acoustic-phonetic cues to support spoken word recognition. It was hypothesized that both groups of children would be able to make use of linguistic cues provided by HP sentences to support word recognition...
December 30, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039860/a-right-ear-bias-of-auditory-selective-attention-is-evident-in-alpha-oscillations
#17
Lisa Payne, Chad S Rogers, Arthur Wingfield, Robert Sekuler
Auditory selective attention makes it possible to pick out one speech stream that is embedded in a multispeaker environment. We adapted a cued dichotic listening task to examine suppression of a speech stream lateralized to the nonattended ear, and to evaluate the effects of attention on the right ear's well-known advantage in the perception of linguistic stimuli. After being cued to attend to input from either their left or right ear, participants heard two different four-word streams presented simultaneously to the separate ears...
December 31, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031037/tesa-a-distributional-measure-for-calculating-semantic-relatedness
#18
Maciej Rybinski, José Francisco Aldana-Montes
BACKGROUND: Semantic relatedness is a measure that quantifies the strength of a semantic link between two concepts. Often, it can be efficiently approximated with methods that operate on words, which represent these concepts. Approximating semantic relatedness between texts and concepts represented by these texts is an important part of many text and knowledge processing tasks of crucial importance in the ever growing domain of biomedical informatics. The problem of most state-of-the-art methods for calculating semantic relatedness is their dependence on highly specialized, structured knowledge resources, which makes these methods poorly adaptable for many usage scenarios...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009082/patient-expectations-for-management-of-chronic-non-cancer-pain-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Jose W Geurts, Paul C Willems, Craig Lockwood, Maarten van Kleef, Jos Kleijnen, Carmen Dirksen
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a major economic and social health problem. Up to 79% of chronic pain patients are unsatisfied with their pain management. Meeting patients' expectations is likely to produce greater satisfaction with care. The challenge is to explore patients' genuine expectations and needs. However, the term expectation encompasses several concepts and may concern different aspects of health-care provision. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to systematically collect information on types and subject of patients' expectations for chronic pain management...
December 23, 2016: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989776/language-in-context-characterizing-the-comprehension-of-referential-expressions-with-meg
#20
Christian Brodbeck, Liina Pylkkänen
A critical component of comprehending language in context is identifying the entities that individual linguistic expressions refer to. While previous research has shown that language comprehenders resolve reference quickly and incrementally, little is currently known about the neural basis of successful reference resolution. Using source localized MEG, we provide evidence across 3 experiments and 2 languages that successful reference resolution in simple visual displays is associated with increased activation in the medial parietal lobe...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
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