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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429646/rule-violations-sensitise-towards-negative-and-authority-related-stimuli
#1
Robert Wirth, Anna Foerster, Hannah Rendel, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
Rule violations have usually been studied from a third-person perspective, identifying situational factors that render violations more or less likely. A first-person perspective of the agent that actively violates the rules, on the other hand, is only just beginning to emerge. Here we show that committing a rule violation sensitises towards subsequent negative stimuli as well as subsequent authority-related stimuli. In a Prime-Probe design, we used an instructed rule-violation task as the Prime and a word categorisation task as the Probe...
April 21, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426352/the-risky-reading-strategy-revisited-new-simulations-using-e-z-reader
#2
Victoria A McGowan, Erik D Reichle
Eye-movement studies have demonstrated that, relative to college-aged readers, older readers of alphabetic languages like English and German tend to read more slowly, making more frequent, longer fixations, longer saccades, skipping more words, but also making more frequent regressions. These findings have led to suggestions that older readers either adopt a "risky" strategy of using context to "guess" words as a way of compensating for slower rates of lexical processing (Rayner, Reichle, Stroud, Williams, & Pollatsek, 2006), or that they have a smaller and more asymmetrical perceptual span (Laubrock, Kliegl, & Engbert, 2005)...
April 20, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423844/identifying-emerging-trends-in-medical-informatics-a-synthesis-approach
#3
Yasmin Van Kasteren, Patricia A H Williams, Anthony Maeder
Medical informatics is a young and rapidly evolving field, influenced by and impacting on many different knowledge domains. Recent contributions on scoping the associated body of knowledge are confounded both by variations in popular use of terminology for established areas, and by the advent of new areas without yet established terminology. Determining the scope of a topic through online bibliographic search filters is a well-established approach in scientific research and has been developed as a human-directed task...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407284/executive-functions-in-adolescents-with-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity
#4
Rebekka Kittel, Ricarda Schmidt, Anja Hilbert
OBJECTIVE: Binge-eating disorder (BED) in adults is associated with alterations in executive functions (EF) and obesity. Much less is known about these relationships in adolescents, including whether poor EF are associated with eating disorder psychopathology and/or elevated body mass index. This study examined EF in response to neutral stimuli in youth with BED. METHOD: Adolescents with BED and obesity (n = 22), individually matched adolescents with obesity (n = 22), and normal weight (n = 22) completed neuropsychological tests targeting inhibition (Color-Word Interference Test), sustained attention (D2 Concentration Endurance Test), cognitive flexibility (Comprehensive Trail Making Test), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task)...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406688/reading-sentences-of-uniform-word-length-evidence-for-the-adaptation-of-the-preferred-saccade-length-during-reading
#5
Michael G Cutter, Denis Drieghe, Simon P Liversedge
In the current study, the effect of removing word length variability within sentences on spatial aspects of eye movements during reading was investigated. Participants read sentences that were uniform in terms of word length, with each sentence consisting entirely of three-, four-, or five-letter words, or a combination of these word lengths. Several interesting findings emerged. Adaptation of the preferred saccade length occurred for sentences with different uniform word length; participants would be more accurate at making short saccades while reading uniform sentences of three-letter words, while they would be more accurate at making long saccades while reading uniform sentences of five-letter words...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403694/resilient-memory-for-melodies-the-number-of-intervening-melodies-does-not-influence-novel-melody-recognition
#6
Steffen A Herff, Kirk N Olsen, Roger T Dean
In many memory domains, a decrease in recognition performance between the first and second presentation of an object is observed as the number of intervening items increases. However, this effect is not universal. Within the auditory domain, this form of interference has been demonstrated in word and single-note recognition, but has yet to be substantiated using relatively complex musical material such as a melody. Indeed, it is becoming clear that music shows intriguing properties when it comes to memory. This study investigated how the number of intervening items influences memory for melodies...
April 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398625/novel-creation-of-a-rum-flavor-lexicon-through-the-use-of-web-based-material
#7
Chelsea M Ickes, Soo-Yeun Lee, Keith R Cadwallader
Flavor lexicons help both manufacturers and consumers communicate the intricacies of flavor nuances they experience within a product. Lexicon development typically requires the use of a trained sensory panel to evaluate a representative sample set of the product category to generate terms that describe certain product attributes. In the case of rum, there is considerable variation in terms of style, flavor characteristics, and the sheer number of rums produced making it difficult to create a lexicon in this manner...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387586/separating-erp-effects-for-conceptual-fluency-and-episodic-familiarity
#8
Regine Bader, Axel Mecklinger
ERP old/new effects have been associated with different subprocesses of episodic recognition memory. The notion that recollection is reflected in the left parietal old/new effect seems to be uncontested. However, an association between episodic familiarity and the mid-frontal old/new effect is not uncontroversial. It has been argued that the mid-frontal old/new effect is functionally equivalent to the N400 and hence merely reflects differences in conceptual fluency between old and new items. Therefore, it is related to episodic familiarity only in situations in which conceptual fluency covaries with familiarity...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368153/reducing-reports-of-illusory-posttraumatic-growth-a-revised-version-of-the-stress-related-growth-scale-srgs-r
#9
Adriel Boals, Keke L Schuler
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated a revised version of the Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS-R) against the original version (SRGS) and the most commonly used measure of posttraumatic growth, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). The SRGS-R differs from the SRGS in that (a) the wording of each item was modified from implying positive change to neutral wording and (b) the rating scale includes both positive and negative impacts, which we believe makes the SRGS-R less prone to reports of illusory growth...
April 3, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355227/when-music-is-salty-the-crossmodal-associations-between-sound-and-taste
#10
Rachel Guetta, Psyche Loui
Here we investigate associations between complex auditory and complex taste stimuli. A novel piece of music was composed and recorded in four different styles of musical articulation to reflect the four basic tastes groups (sweet, sour, salty, bitter). In Experiment 1, participants performed above chance at pairing the music clips with corresponding taste words. Experiment 2 uses multidimensional scaling to interpret how participants categorize these musical stimuli, and to show that auditory categories can be organized in a similar manner as taste categories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346755/editorial-child-psychology-and-psychiatry-using-science-to-make-a-difference
#11
EDITORIAL
R M Pasco Fearon
The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry has, I think it is fair to say, a special place in the hearts of scientists and scientist-practitioners working broadly in the field of developmental psychopathology. How would you put into words what it is we all love about the journal? Answers on a postcard please! For me, in addition to the high quality of the science, there is something unique about JCPP's open-minded, eclectic yet rigorous and methodologically pluralistic style that makes it stand out from the rest...
April 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326053/improving-financial-management-via-contemplation-novel-interventions-and-findings-in-laboratory-and-applied-settings
#12
Ben Harkin
The present research tackles two main areas of financial mismanagement, namely avoiding debt-related information and underestimating expenditure. We draw upon research which has shown that inviting people to think about reasons for avoiding something actually serves to reduce the likelihood that they will then avoid it, and potentially improves what they know about it. Therefore, in three studies we investigated if prompting participants to contemplate their debt (Studies 1 and 2) and expenditure (Study 3) would decrease avoidance of debt-related information and improve estimates of expenditure, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323747/supporting-a-youth-with-cerebellar-ataxia-into-adolescence
#13
Veronica Meneses, Zurisadai Gonzalez-Castillo, Veronica B Edgar, Marilyn Augustyn
Zoe, a 13-year-old white girl, presents as a new patient to your pediatric clinic with complaints of frequent emesis, anxiety, and learning problems, and previous diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia. Parents accompany Zoe and state, "it is really hard for her to go out, she gets sick and falls easily." She was born full term by vaginal delivery without complications. Given globally delayed milestones, she received early intervention services. Feeding problems began at infancy, including gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration pneumonia...
April 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318151/idiom-variation-experimental-data-and-a-blueprint-of-a-computational-model
#14
Kristina Geeraert, John Newman, R Harald Baayen
Corpus surveys have shown that the exact forms with which idioms are realized are subject to variation. We report a rating experiment showing that such alternative realizations have varying degrees of acceptability. Idiom variation challenges processing theories associating idioms with fixed multi-word form units (Bobrow & Bell, 1973), fixed configurations of words (Cacciari & Tabossi, 1988), or fixed superlemmas (Sprenger, Levelt, & Kempen, 2006), as they do not explain how it can be that speakers produce variant forms that listeners can still make sense of...
March 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303097/language-learning-enhanced-by-massive-multiple-online-role-playing-games-mmorpgs-and-the-underlying-behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Yongjun Zhang, Hongwen Song, Xiaoming Liu, Dinghong Tang, Yue-E Chen, Xiaochu Zhang
Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs' appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers' attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs' positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers' overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296973/quantitative-analysis-of-disfluency-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-or-language-impairment
#16
Heather MacFarlane, Kyle Gorman, Rosemary Ingham, Alison Presmanes Hill, Katina Papadakis, Géza Kiss, Jan van Santen
Deficits in social communication, particularly pragmatic language, are characteristic of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Speech disfluencies may serve pragmatic functions such as cueing speaking problems. Previous studies have found that speakers with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) speakers in the types and patterns of disfluencies they produce, but fail to provide sufficiently detailed characterizations of the methods used to categorize and quantify disfluency, making cross-study comparison difficult...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287972/videography-based-unconstrained-video-analysis
#17
Kang Li, Sheng Li, Sangmin Oh, Yun Fu
Video analysis and understanding play a central role in visual intelligence. In this paper, we aim to analyze unconstrained videos, by designing features and approaches to represent and analyze videography styles in the videos. Videography denotes the process of making videos. The unconstrained videos are defined as the long duration consumer videos that usually have diverse editing artifacts and significant complexity of contents. We propose to construct a videography dictionary, which can be utilized to represent every video clip as a sequence of videography words...
May 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278611/specific-words-and-experience-matter-to-surrogates-when-making-end-of-life-decisions
#18
Dawn E Fairlie
This grant funded preliminary study investigated the relationship between end-of-life terminologies and decisional conflict in surrogate decision makers using a convenience sample of 234 adults aged 50 and older. Participants were randomized into two groups; each received a survey packet that varied only in the use of the words "Do Not Resuscitate (DNR)" and "Allow Natural Death (AND)." The Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) was administered and demographic data were collected. No difference was found in the total DCS scores based on the AND and DNR versions...
February 17, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265753/you-cannot-speak-and-listen-at-the-same-time-a-probabilistic-model-of-turn-taking
#19
Francesco Donnarumma, Haris Dindo, Pierpaolo Iodice, Giovanni Pezzulo
Turn-taking is a preverbal skill whose mastering constitutes an important precondition for many social interactions and joint actions. However, the cognitive mechanisms supporting turn-taking abilities are still poorly understood. Here, we propose a computational analysis of turn-taking in terms of two general mechanisms supporting joint actions: action prediction (e.g., recognizing the interlocutor's message and predicting the end of turn) and signaling (e.g., modifying one's own speech to make it more predictable and discriminable)...
March 6, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253948/-long-term-outcomes-of-the-treatment-of-pediatric-femoral-shaft-fractures-treated-with-bryant-s-vertical-traction
#20
J Urban, P Toufar, M Kloub
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The paper aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of the treatment of diaphyseal femur fractures in children treated with Bryant's vertical traction. Moreover, we also assessed the size of overgrowth in the injured femur. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 23 patients with 23 femoral shaft fractures treated with Bryant's vertical traction at our department in 2009-2014. The following parameters were assessed: sex, ïnjured side, weight, age, mechanism of injury, potential abuse, type of fracture, duration of traction, and total length of hospital stay...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
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