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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769856/when-meaning-is-not-enough-distributional-and-semantic-cues-to-word-categorization-in-child-directed-speech
#1
Sara Feijoo, Carmen Muñoz, Anna Amadó, Elisabet Serrat
One of the most important tasks in first language development is assigning words to their grammatical category. The Semantic Bootstrapping Hypothesis postulates that, in order to accomplish this task, children are guided by a neat correspondence between semantic and grammatical categories, since nouns typically refer to objects and verbs to actions. It is this correspondence that guides children's initial word categorization. Other approaches, on the other hand, suggest that children might make use of distributional cues and word contexts to accomplish the word categorization task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762120/-the-zanzu-web-portal-a%C3%A2-contribution-to-the-sexual-health-of-migrants
#2
REVIEW
Ilona Renner, Christine Winkelmann
BACKGROUND: "Zanzu - my body in words and images" - zanzu.de is a multilingual web portal that brings together information about different aspects of sexual health. It was developed to address specific needs of migrants, including barriers to access. Zanzu provides quality-assured information on the topics of body, sexuality, HIV/STIs, family planning, sexuality and rights. METHOD: A few months after launching the web portal, a formative evaluation was conducted...
July 31, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760860/on-the-structure-of-cortical-micro-circuits-inferred-from-small-sample-sizes
#3
Marina Vegué, Rodrigo Perin, Alex Roxin
The structure in cortical micro-circuits deviates from what would be expected in a purely random network, which has been seen as evidence of clustering. To address this issue we sought to reproduce the non-random features of cortical circuits by considering several distinct classes of network topology, including clustered networks, networks with distance-dependent connectivity and those with broad degree distributions. To our surprise we found that all these qualitatively distinct topologies could account equally well for all reported non-random features, despite being easily distinguishable from one another at the network level...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756412/heartfelt-images-learning-cardiac-science-artistically
#4
Carol Ann Courneya
There are limited curricular options for medical students to engage in art-making during their training. Yet, it is known that art-making confers a variety of benefits related to learning. This qualitative study utilises a visual methodology to explore students' art-making in the context of the cardiovascular sciences. The existence of a multiyear repository of medical/dental student generated, cardiac-inspired art, collected over 6 years, provided the opportunity to explore the nature of the art made. The aim was to categorise the art produced, as well as the depth and breadth of understanding required to produce the art...
July 29, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753383/quantifying-heuristic-bias-anchoring-availability-and-representativeness
#5
Megan Richie, S Andrew Josephson
Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. BACKGROUND: Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740420/a-cross-cultural-perspective-of-medical-clowning-comparison-of-its-effectiveness-in-reducing-pain-and-anxiety-among-hospitalized-bedouin-and-jewish-israeli-children
#6
Zehavit Gilboa-Negari, Sarah Abu-Kaf, Ephrat Huss, Gavriel Hain, Asher Moser
PURPOSE: Medical clowning has proven effective for reducing pain, anxiety, and stress, however, its differential effects on children from different cultures have not yet been researched. This study evaluated the effects of medical-clowning intervention on anxiety and pain among Jewish and Bedouin children, and anxiety among their parents, in southern Israel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in hospital pediatric departments and employed a pre-post design involving quantitative and qualitative methods...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726177/the-reliability-paradox-why-robust-cognitive-tasks-do-not-produce-reliable-individual-differences
#7
Craig Hedge, Georgina Powell, Petroc Sumner
Individual differences in cognitive paradigms are increasingly employed to relate cognition to brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, such efforts are often unfruitful, even with the most well established tasks. Here we offer an explanation for failures in the application of robust cognitive paradigms to the study of individual differences. Experimental effects become well established - and thus those tasks become popular - when between-subject variability is low. However, low between-subject variability causes low reliability for individual differences, destroying replicable correlations with other factors and potentially undermining published conclusions drawn from correlational relationships...
July 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719651/link-prediction-on-twitter
#8
Sanda Martinčić-Ipšić, Edvin Močibob, Matjaž Perc
With over 300 million active users, Twitter is among the largest online news and social networking services in existence today. Open access to information on Twitter makes it a valuable source of data for research on social interactions, sentiment analysis, content diffusion, link prediction, and the dynamics behind human collective behaviour in general. Here we use Twitter data to construct co-occurrence language networks based on hashtags and based on all the words in tweets, and we use these networks to study link prediction by means of different methods and evaluation metrics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718087/speaking-two-languages-in-america-a-semantic-space-analysis-of-how-presidential-candidates-and-their-supporters-represent-abstract-political-concepts-differently
#9
Ping Li, Benjamin Schloss, D Jake Follmer
In this article we report a computational semantic analysis of the presidential candidates' speeches in the two major political parties in the USA. In Study One, we modeled the political semantic spaces as a function of party, candidate, and time of election, and findings revealed patterns of differences in the semantic representation of key political concepts and the changing landscapes in which the presidential candidates align or misalign with their parties in terms of the representation and organization of politically central concepts...
July 17, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698318/words-do-matter-a-systematic-review-on-how-different-terminology-for-the-same-condition-influences-management-preferences
#10
Brooke Nickel, Alexandra Barratt, Tessa Copp, Ray Moynihan, Kirsten McCaffery
OBJECTIVES: Changing terminology for low-risk, screen-detected conditions has now been recommended by several expert groups in order to prevent overdiagnosis and reduce the associated harms of overtreatment. However, the effect of terminology on patients' preferences for management is not well understood. This review aims to synthesise existing studies on terminology and its impact on management decision making. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Studies were included that compared two or more terminologies to describe the same condition and measured the effect on treatment or management preferences and/or choices...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681313/an-independent-survival-prognostic-role-for-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-in-gastric-cancer-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#11
Y Wang, L He, Y Cheng
BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive is associated with poor outcomes in gastric cancer (GC), whereas another inconsistent studies make the situation confused. This meta-analysis was performed to determine whether HER2 played an independent prognostic role in clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of GC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Combination of GC and human epidermal growth factor 2 or HER2 or HER2/neu or erbB-2 or cerbB-2 or c-erbB2 or CD340 or p185 were used as key words...
July 5, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678079/cantonese-tone-perception-for-children-who-use-a-hearing-aid-and-a-cochlear-implant-in-opposite-ears
#12
Mansze Mok, Colleen M Holt, Kathy Y S Lee, Richard C Dowell, Adam P Vogel
OBJECTIVES: The ability to recognize tones is vital for speech perception in tonal languages. Cantonese has six tones, which are differentiated almost exclusively by pitch cues (tones 1 to 6). The differences in pitch contours among the tones are subtle, making Cantonese a challenging language for cochlear implant users. The addition of a hearing aid has been shown to improve speech perception in nontonal languages and in Mandarin Chinese. This study (1) investigates the Cantonese tone perception ability of children who use a cochlear implant and a hearing aid in opposite ears; (2) evaluates the effect of varying pitch height and pitch contour cues on Cantonese tone perception for these children; and (3) compares the Cantonese tone perception ability for using a hearing aid and a cochlear implant together versus an implant alone...
July 1, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676773/intuitive-face-judgments-rely-on-holistic-eye-movement-pattern
#13
Laura F Mega, Kirsten G Volz
Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an 'intuitive group,' instructed to rely on their "gut feeling" for the authenticity judgments, and a 'deliberative group,' instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651360/novel-reproductive-technologies-to-prevent-mitochondrial-disease
#14
Lyndsey Craven, Mao-Xing Tang, Gráinne S Gorman, Petra De Sutter, Björn Heindryckx
BACKGROUND: The use of nuclear transfer (NT) has been proposed as a novel reproductive treatment to overcome the transmission of maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Pathogenic mutations in mtDNA can cause a wide-spectrum of life-limiting disorders, collectively known as mtDNA disease, for which there are currently few effective treatments and no known cures. The many unique features of mtDNA make genetic counselling challenging for women harbouring pathogenic mtDNA mutations but reproductive options that involve medical intervention are available that will minimize the risk of mtDNA disease in their offspring...
June 23, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650352/the-effect-of-aging-and-priming-on-same-different-judgments-between-text-and-partially-masked-speech
#15
Richard L Freyman, Jenna Terpening, Angela C Costanzi, Karen S Helfer
OBJECTIVES: It is well known from previous research that when listeners are told what they are about to hear before a degraded or partially masked auditory signal is presented, the speech signal "pops out" of the background and becomes considerably more intelligible. The goal of this research was to explore whether this priming effect is as strong in older adults as in younger adults. DESIGN: Fifty-six adults-28 older and 28 younger-listened to "nonsense" sentences spoken by a female talker in the presence of a 2-talker speech masker (also female) or a fluctuating speech-like noise masker at 5 signal-to-noise ratios...
June 22, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649979/hot-pressed-polymer-nanofiber-supported-graphene-membrane-for-high-performance-nanofiltration
#16
Zhao Wang, Rajesh Sahadevan, Che-Ning Yeh, Todd J Menkhaus, Jiaxing Huang, Hao Fong
Graphene oxide (GO) sheets can be readily surface-overlaid on hot-pressed electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber membrane to form a continuous and crack-free layer; upon thermal reduction at 150 oC for 12 h, the resulting reduced GO (rGO) layer can reject ~90% MgSO4 with high water flux (due to the size exclusion mechanism), making the prepared PAN-rGO membranes promising nanofiltration media for water purification. It is important to note that no delamination of GO/rGO sheet layers has been observed throughout this study...
June 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648571/the-neuro-cognitive-representations-of-symbols-the-case-of-concrete-words
#17
Valentina Borghesani, Manuela Piazza
We live our lives surrounded by symbols (e.g., road signs, logos, but especially words and numbers), and throughout our life we use them to evoke, communicate and reflect upon ideas and things that are not currently present to our senses. Symbols are represented in our brains at different levels of complexity: at the first and most simple level, as physical entities, in the corresponding primary and secondary sensory cortices. The crucial property of symbols, however, is that, despite the simplicity of their surface forms, they have the power of evoking higher order multifaceted representations that are implemented in distributed neural networks spanning a large portion of the cortex...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647493/associations-between-the-dbh-gene-plasma-dopamine-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-activity-and-cognitive-measures-in-han-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Zuoli Sun, Yun Ma, Wenbiao Li, Jing He, Jun Li, Xue Yang, Peixian Mao, Joseph F Cubells, Yilang Tang
The dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) systems modulate cognitive function. Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) converts DA to NE, and its activity is under strong genetic control. This study examines the association of plasma DβH (pDβH) activity, DBH gene polymorphisms (-1021C>T, rs1611115 and 444G>A, rs1108580) and cognitive deficits in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. We assessed pDβH activity and cognitive function using the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Trail Making Test (TMT) A-B, Stroop color-word test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in 200 patients with schizophrenia before and after 8weeks of antipsychotic treatment (96 patients completed assessments at baseline and post-treatment)...
June 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638561/importance-and-methodologies-of-endodontic-microleakage-studies-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Farnaz Jafari, Sanaz Jafari
INTRODUCTION: It is very important to obtain a tight seal in obturated root canal, making it necessary to conduct clinical or laboratory studies on the sealability of endodontic materials. Different methodologies have been historically used to assess microleakage of different endodontic materials. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively review different material testing methods used in microleakage studies, their interpretation and importance in endodontic literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in Medline, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638551/effectiveness-of-flossing-loops-in-the-control-of-the-gingival-health
#20
Francisco Azcarate-Velázquez, Roberto Garrido-Serrano, Gabriel Castillo-Dalí, María-Angeles Serrera-Figallo, Alfonso Gañán-Calvo, Daniel Torres-Lagares
BACKGROUND: One of the key factor in the good condition of periodontal tissues is their daily hygiene. Oral hygiene techniques such brushing and a good interdental hygiene by correct flossing are very important. The aim of this study is to compare the use of dental floss in a loop vs traditional floss in the control of Loe-Silness Gingival Index (IG), Turesky´s Plaque Index (IPT), Gingival Bleeding Index (IS) and the values of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comparative study of 40 patients in which each patient was his own control, using during 45 days each one of the devices (new loop floss and conventional floss) of interdental hygiene analysed...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
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