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Jeffrey J Starns
Heck and Erdfelder (2016) developed a model that extends discrete-state multinomial processing tree models to response time (RT) data. Their model is an important advance, but it does not have a mechanism to produce the speed-accuracy trade-off, the bedrock empirical observation that rushed decisions are less accurate. I present a similar model, the "discrete-race" model, with a simple mechanism for the speed-accuracy trade-off. In the model, information that supports detection of the stimulus type is available for some proportion of items and unavailable for others...
March 12, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ulrike Schild, Claudia K Friedrich
It is a matter of debate, whether and how improved auditory discrimination abilities enable speeded speech comprehension in congenitally blind adults. Previous research concentrated on semantic and syntactic aspects of processing. Here we investigated phonologically mediated spoken word access processes by means of word onset priming. Blind adults and age- and gender-matched sighted adults listened to spoken word onsets (primes) followed by complete words (targets). Phonological overlap between primes and targets varied...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Wang Li, Qian Zhaopeng, Feng Yijun, Niu Haijun
An electrolarynx (EL) is one of the most popular voice rehabilitation technologies used after laryngectomy. However, most ELs generate monotonic EL speech, which has been shown to create a particular deficit in speech intelligibility, especially for Chinese Mandarin (Mandarin). Mandarin is a tonal language that makes lexical distinctions using variations in tone. Our purpose is to design an EL that can produce the four Mandarin tones, and to evaluate its performance. We designed a fundamental frequency (F0) control method for Mandarin EL speech and manufactured a touch-controlled electrolarynx (T-EL) prototype...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Jan Novak, Julie Bienertová Vašků, Miroslav Souček
The human genome contains about 22 000 protein-coding genes that are transcribed to an even larger amount of messenger RNAs (mRNA). Interestingly, the results of the project ENCODE from 2012 show, that despite up to 90 % of our genome being actively transcribed, protein-coding mRNAs make up only 2-3 % of the total amount of the transcribed RNA. The rest of RNA transcripts is not translated to proteins and that is why they are referred to as "non-coding RNAs". Earlier the non-coding RNA was considered "the dark matter of genome", or "the junk", whose genes has accumulated in our DNA during the course of evolution...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Antony S R Manstead
Drawing on recent research on the psychology of social class, I argue that the material conditions in which people grow up and live have a lasting impact on their personal and social identities and that this influences both the way they think and feel about their social environment and key aspects of their social behaviour. Relative to middle-class counterparts, lower/working-class individuals are less likely to define themselves in terms of their socioeconomic status and are more likely to have interdependent self-concepts; they are also more inclined to explain social events in situational terms, as a result of having a lower sense of personal control...
February 28, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Jessica Greene, Rebecca M Sacks
OBJECTIVE: To identify approaches to presenting cost and resource use measures that support consumers in selecting high-value hospitals. DATA SOURCES: Survey data were collected from U.S. employees of Analog Devices (n = 420). STUDY DESIGN: In two online experiments, participants viewed comparative data on four hospitals. In one experiment, participants were randomized to view one of five versions of the same comparative cost data, and in the other experiment they viewed different versions of the same readmissions data...
February 25, 2018: Health Services Research
Anne-Sophie Heimes, Kathrin Stewen, Annette Hasenburg
Background: Only little is known about the psychosocial aspects of breast cancer patients after mastectomy with immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction. Methods: We systematically screened PubMed using the following key words: mastectomy, immediate vs. delayed reconstruction, psychosocial aspects and quality of life. To highlight different psychological outcomes, studies were categorized into those describing: anxiety, depression, body image and satisfaction with the surgical outcome...
December 2017: Breast Care
Alexandra S Dylman, Mariko Kikutani
Research on Japanese reading has generally indicated that processing of the logographic script Kanji primarily involves whole-word lexical processing and follows a semantics-to-phonology route, while the two phonological scripts Hiragana and Katakana (collectively called Kana) are processed via a sub-lexical route, and more in a phonology-to-semantics manner. Therefore, switching between the two scripts often involves switching between two reading processes, which results in a delayed response for the second script (a script switch cost)...
2018: Reading and Writing
Adriana A Zekveld, Marieke Pronk, Henrik Danielsson, Jerker Rönnberg
Purpose: The visual Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test (Zekveld et al., 2007) has been designed to assess modality-general factors relevant for speech perception in noise. In the last decade, the test has been adopted in audiology labs worldwide. The 1st aim of this study was to examine which factors best predict interindividual differences in the TRT. Second, we aimed to assess the relationships between the TRT and the speech reception thresholds (SRTs) estimated in various conditions...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
David Playfoot, Jac Billington, Jeremy J Tree
This paper describes longitudinal testing of two Semantic Dementia (SD) cases. It is common for patients with SD to present with deficits in reading aloud irregular words (i.e. surface dyslexia), and in lexical decision. Theorists from the connectionist tradition (e.g. Woollams, et al., 2007) argue that in SD cases with concurrent surface dyslexia, the deterioration of irregular word reading and recognition performance is related to the extent of the deterioration of the semantic system. The Dual Route Cascaded model (DRC; Coltheart et al...
February 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ching-Ping Liang, Jui-Sheng Chen, Yi-Chi Chien, Ching-Fang Chen
A long-term groundwater quality survey in northeastern Taiwan's Lanyang Plain has revealed obvious contamination of the groundwater in some areas, with measured As concentrations in excess of the acceptable level of 10μg/L. Efforts for assessing the health risk associated with the intake of As through the drinking of contaminated groundwater are a necessary part of the important work of health risk management. However, the standard approach to assessing risks to human health does not adequately account for spatial heterogeneity in the measured As concentrations...
February 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shukhan Ng, Brennan R Payne, Elizabeth A L Stine-Morrow, Kara D Federmeier
We investigated how struggling adult readers make use of sentence context to facilitate word processing when comprehending spoken language, conditions under which print decoding is not a barrier to comprehension. Stimuli were strongly and weakly constraining sentences (as measured by cloze probability), which ended with the most expected word based on those constraints or an unexpected but plausible word. Community-dwelling adults with varying literacy skills listened to continuous speech while their EEG was recorded...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jed A Diekfuss, Jessica De Larwelle, Susan H McFadden
Background/Study Context: Employing the stereotype content model and terror management theory, we examined whether stereotypes and feelings about persons with dementia vary depending on the type of dementia diagnosis and purported causes of the dementia. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four vignettes that depicted a man who consulted his doctor because of memory problems. All vignettes described the same symptoms and diagnostic tests, but each of four groups read a different result: all tests normal (Normal); Alzheimer's disease (AD); Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) associated with alcohol abuse; and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) associated with head injuries from playing football in high school and college...
March 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Matthew MacKisack
Since antiquity the mind has been conceived to operate via images and words. Pre-scientific thinkers (and some scientific) who presented the mind as operating in such a way tended to i) bias one representational mode over the other, and ii) claim the dominance of the mode to be the case universally. The rise of empirical psychological science in the late 19th-century rehearses the word/image division of thought but makes universal statements - e.g., that recollection is a verbal process for everyone - untenable...
December 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Rebecca A Gilbert, Matthew H Davis, M Gareth Gaskell, Jennifer M Rodd
Research has shown that adults' lexical-semantic representations are surprisingly malleable. For instance, the interpretation of ambiguous words (e.g., bark) is influenced by experience such that recently encountered meanings become more readily available (Rodd et al., 2016, 2013). However, the mechanism underlying this word-meaning priming effect remains unclear, and competing accounts make different predictions about the extent to which information about word meanings that is gained within one modality (e...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Haneen Al-Alyani, Haifa A Al-Turki, Omar N Al-Essa, Fawaz M Alani, Mir Sadat-Ali
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to determine from published data the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in the Saudi population. METHODS: An extensive and meticulous search was conducted for studies published in MEDLINE, EMBASE the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2008-2015), and the Science Citation Index published data from the Annals of Saudi Medicine and Saudi Medical Journal with the key words: Vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and Saudi Arabians...
January 2018: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Michael E Hyland, Joseph W Lanario, Jill Pooler, Matthew Masoli, Rupert C Jones
BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that existing asthma quality of life questionnaires fail to measure the burden of oral corticosteroids that can be used to treat severe asthma, and are therefore not fit for purpose for severe asthma according to the USA's Federal Drug Authority's (FDA) criteria for content validity. Patient input and documentation of that input is key to achieving content validity according to FDA guidelines. This paper describes the process of constructing a new questionnaire to measure the burden of asthma symptoms and burden of treatment in severe asthma, using criteria specified by the FDA...
January 27, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Q Fu, D H Wang, L Xu, G Yuan
Nonlinear oscillators are usually utilized by bionic scientists for establishing central pattern generator models for imitating rhythmic motions by bionic scientists. In the natural word, many rhythmic motions possess asymmetric time ratios, which means that the forward and the backward motions of an oscillating process sustain different times within one period. In order to model rhythmic motions with asymmetric time ratios, nonlinear oscillators with asymmetric forward and backward trajectories within one period should be studied...
January 13, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
Dror Dotan, Naama Friedmann
We propose a detailed cognitive model of multi-digit number reading. The model postulates separate processes for visual analysis of the digit string and for oral production of the verbal number. Within visual analysis, separate sub-processes encode the digit identities and the digit order, and additional sub-processes encode the number's decimal structure: its length, the positions of 0, and the way it is parsed into triplets (e.g., 314987 → 314,987). Verbal production consists of a process that generates the verbal structure of the number, and another process that retrieves the phonological forms of each number word...
November 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Emel Kurt, Erol Yildirim, Volkan Topçuoğlu
Introduction: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired cognitive functions, including attention, verbal and visual memory, and visual-spatial abilities as well as executive function But some studies did not show any disturbance in executive function of patients with OCD. To date, only few studies have been conducted on neuropsychological functioning of patients with panic disorder (PD). There are limited studies to reach a definite conclusion on executive functions of patients with OCD and those with PD...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
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