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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915513/the-influence-of-executive-functions-on-phonemic-processing-in-children-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#1
Jayanthi Sasisekaran, Shriya Basu
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate dual-task performance in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not to investigate if the groups differed in the ability to attend and allocate cognitive resources effectively during task performance. Method: Participants were 24 children (12 CWS) in both groups matched for age and sex. For the primary task, participants performed a phoneme monitoring in a picture-written word interference task. For the secondary task, participants made pitch judgments on tones presented at varying (short, long) stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) from the onset of the picture...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912737/neuropsychological-profile-of-specific-executive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-deficit-and-non-deficit-schizophrenia
#2
Ernest Tyburski, Justyna Pełka-Wysiecka, Monika Mak, Agnieszka Samochowiec, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Jerzy Samochowiec
Objectives: Although it has been shown that there are more profound deficits present in deficit schizophrenia (DS) patients than in non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS) patients, there still remain some matters requiring further investigation. In this context, we formulated three research aims: (1) to compare executive functions between the investigated groups, (2) to determine the relationship between particular aspects of executive functions within the groups, and (3) to draw up a neuropsychological profile for executive functions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894825/hearing-loss-as-a-risk-factor-for-dementia-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Rhett S Thomson, Priscilla Auduong, Alexander T Miller, Richard K Gurgel
OBJECTIVES: To review evidence of hearing loss as a risk factor for dementia. Data Sources: PubMed Review methods: A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed database using the search terms (hearing loss OR presbycusis) AND (dementia OR cognitive decline). Initially, 488 articles were obtained. Only those studies evaluating an association between hearing loss and incident dementia or cognitive decline were included in the analysis. This resulted in 17 articles which were thoroughly evaluated with consideration for study design, method for determining hearing loss and cognitive status, relevant covariates and confounding factors, and key findings...
April 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887811/great-ape-gestures-intentional-communication-with-a-rich-set-of-innate-signals
#4
EDITORIAL
R W Byrne, E Cartmill, E Genty, K E Graham, C Hobaiter, J Tanner
Great apes give gestures deliberately and voluntarily, in order to influence particular target audiences, whose direction of attention they take into account when choosing which type of gesture to use. These facts make the study of ape gesture directly relevant to understanding the evolutionary precursors of human language; here we present an assessment of ape gesture from that perspective, focusing on the work of the "St Andrews Group" of researchers. Intended meanings of ape gestures are relatively few and simple...
September 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881963/deep-learning-with-word-embeddings-improves-biomedical-named-entity-recognition
#5
Maryam Habibi, Leon Weber, Mariana Neves, David Luis Wiegandt, Ulf Leser
Motivation: Text mining has become an important tool for biomedical research. The most fundamental text-mining task is the recognition of biomedical named entities (NER), such as genes, chemicals and diseases. Current NER methods rely on pre-defined features which try to capture the specific surface properties of entity types, properties of the typical local context, background knowledge, and linguistic information. State-of-the-art tools are entity-specific, as dictionaries and empirically optimal feature sets differ between entity types, which makes their development costly...
July 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879442/comparing-eye-trackers-by-correlating-their-eye-metric-data
#6
Johannes Titz, Agnes Scholz, Peter Sedlmeier
Up to now, the potential of eye tracking in science as well as in everyday life has not been fully realized because of the high acquisition cost of trackers. Recently, manufacturers have introduced low-cost devices, preparing the way for wider use of this underutilized technology. As soon as scientists show independently of the manufacturers that low-cost devices are accurate enough for application and research, the real advent of eye trackers will have arrived. To facilitate this development, we propose a simple approach for comparing two eye trackers by adopting a method that psychologists have been practicing in diagnostics for decades: correlating constructs to show reliability and validity...
September 6, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869500/using-na%C3%A3-ve-bayesian-analysis-to-determine-imaging-characteristics-of-kras-mutations-in-metastatic-colon-cancer
#7
Yash Pershad, Siddharth Govindan, Amy K Hara, Mitesh J Borad, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Alex Wallace, Hassan Albadawi, Rahmi Oklu
Genotype, particularly Ras status, greatly affects prognosis and treatment of liver metastasis in colon cancer patients. This pilot aimed to apply word frequency analysis and a naive Bayes classifier on radiology reports to extract distinguishing imaging descriptors of wild-type colon cancer patients and those with v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations. In this institutional-review-board-approved study, we compiled a SNaPshot mutation analysis dataset from 457 colon adenocarcinoma patients...
September 2, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863146/involvement-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-time-based-prospective-memory-task-monitoring-an-eeg-analysis-of-brain-sources-using-independent-component-and-measure-projection-analysis
#8
Gabriela Cruz, Pablo Burgos, Kerry Kilborn, Jonathan J Evans
OBJECTIVE: Time-based prospective memory (PM), remembering to do something at a particular moment in the future, is considered to depend upon self-initiated strategic monitoring, involving a retrieval mode (sustained maintenance of the intention) plus target checking (intermittent time checks). The present experiment was designed to explore what brain regions and brain activity are associated with these components of strategic monitoring in time-based PM tasks. METHOD: 24 participants were asked to reset a clock every four minutes, while performing a foreground ongoing word categorisation task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859134/are-baboons-learning-orthographic-representations-probably-not
#9
Maja Linke, Franziska Bröker, Michael Ramscar, Harald Baayen
The ability of Baboons (papio papio) to distinguish between English words and nonwords has been modeled using a deep learning convolutional network model that simulates a ventral pathway in which lexical representations of different granularity develop. However, given that pigeons (columba livia), whose brain morphology is drastically different, can also be trained to distinguish between English words and nonwords, it appears that a less species-specific learning algorithm may be required to explain this behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855036/-enhanced-lung-recovery-after-surgery-is-it-a-necessary-for-precision-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Guowei Che, Lunxu Liu
The concept of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has already been accepted by almost all the clinicians and nurses, the practice of which is based on interdisciplinary cooperation. The reason is still unclear why the effect of ERAS varies a lot though the same ERAS scheme is used. The main cause may be the same ERAS scheme can not be suitable for different patients. In other words, does ERAS also need to conform to Precision Medicine Theory? This study is focused on the necessity and clinical efficacy of "Precision ERAS" performed in lung cancer patients...
August 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828156/comparative-evaluation-of-shear-bond-strength-of-universal-dental-adhesives-an-in-vitro-study
#11
Arun Jayasheel, Nandini Niranjan, Hemanthkumar Pamidi, Mayuri B Suryakanth
BACKGROUND: Patient demand for tooth colored restorations and desire for minimally invasive restorations have made composites an indispensable part of the restorative process. An important factor affecting the intra-oral performance of composite restorations is bonding. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninty six freshly extracted molar teeth were collected and occlusal 3mm is removed using a diamond disc to expose dentine. Following with samples were divided in to two main groups (self-etch & total etch)...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791919/the-study-of-memory-and-executive-dysfunction-in-patients-infected-with-helicobacter-pylori
#12
Farzaneh Rezvani, Mohammad Sayadnasiri, Omid Rezaei
Background Infectious agents are considered as potential causes of Alzheimer's disease. Recently, evidence of a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients with Alzheimer's disease has been observed. The aim of this study was to investigate memory and executive function in H. pylori positive persons not suffering from Alzheimer's or other marked cognitive disorders. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. A total 140 participants were selected using purposive sampling from the patients within the age group of 18-60 years old at Fayyaz Bakhsh Hospital, Tehran in spring 2016...
August 9, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769856/when-meaning-is-not-enough-distributional-and-semantic-cues-to-word-categorization-in-child-directed-speech
#13
Sara Feijoo, Carmen Muñoz, Anna Amadó, Elisabet Serrat
One of the most important tasks in first language development is assigning words to their grammatical category. The Semantic Bootstrapping Hypothesis postulates that, in order to accomplish this task, children are guided by a neat correspondence between semantic and grammatical categories, since nouns typically refer to objects and verbs to actions. It is this correspondence that guides children's initial word categorization. Other approaches, on the other hand, suggest that children might make use of distributional cues and word contexts to accomplish the word categorization task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762120/-the-zanzu-web-portal-a%C3%A2-contribution-to-the-sexual-health-of-migrants
#14
REVIEW
Ilona Renner, Christine Winkelmann
BACKGROUND: "Zanzu - my body in words and images" - zanzu.de is a multilingual web portal that brings together information about different aspects of sexual health. It was developed to address specific needs of migrants, including barriers to access. Zanzu provides quality-assured information on the topics of body, sexuality, HIV/STIs, family planning, sexuality and rights. METHOD: A few months after launching the web portal, a formative evaluation was conducted...
July 31, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760860/on-the-structure-of-cortical-micro-circuits-inferred-from-small-sample-sizes
#15
Marina Vegué, Rodrigo Perin, Alex Roxin
The structure in cortical micro-circuits deviates from what would be expected in a purely random network, which has been seen as evidence of clustering. To address this issue we sought to reproduce the non-random features of cortical circuits by considering several distinct classes of network topology, including clustered networks, networks with distance-dependent connectivity and those with broad degree distributions. To our surprise we found that all these qualitatively distinct topologies could account equally well for all reported non-random features, despite being easily distinguishable from one another at the network level...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756412/heartfelt-images-learning-cardiac-science-artistically
#16
Carol Ann Courneya
There are limited curricular options for medical students to engage in art-making during their training. Yet, it is known that art-making confers a variety of benefits related to learning. This qualitative study utilises a visual methodology to explore students' art-making in the context of the cardiovascular sciences. The existence of a multiyear repository of medical/dental student generated, cardiac-inspired art, collected over 6 years, provided the opportunity to explore the nature of the art made. The aim was to categorise the art produced, as well as the depth and breadth of understanding required to produce the art...
July 29, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753383/quantifying-heuristic-bias-anchoring-availability-and-representativeness
#17
Megan Richie, S Andrew Josephson
Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. BACKGROUND: Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740420/a-cross-cultural-perspective-of-medical-clowning-comparison-of-its-effectiveness-in-reducing-pain-and-anxiety-among-hospitalized-bedouin-and-jewish-israeli-children
#18
Zehavit Gilboa-Negari, Sarah Abu-Kaf, Ephrat Huss, Gavriel Hain, Asher Moser
PURPOSE: Medical clowning has proven effective for reducing pain, anxiety, and stress, however, its differential effects on children from different cultures have not yet been researched. This study evaluated the effects of medical-clowning intervention on anxiety and pain among Jewish and Bedouin children, and anxiety among their parents, in southern Israel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in hospital pediatric departments and employed a pre-post design involving quantitative and qualitative methods...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726177/the-reliability-paradox-why-robust-cognitive-tasks-do-not-produce-reliable-individual-differences
#19
Craig Hedge, Georgina Powell, Petroc Sumner
Individual differences in cognitive paradigms are increasingly employed to relate cognition to brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, such efforts are often unfruitful, even with the most well established tasks. Here we offer an explanation for failures in the application of robust cognitive paradigms to the study of individual differences. Experimental effects become well established - and thus those tasks become popular - when between-subject variability is low. However, low between-subject variability causes low reliability for individual differences, destroying replicable correlations with other factors and potentially undermining published conclusions drawn from correlational relationships...
July 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719651/link-prediction-on-twitter
#20
Sanda Martinčić-Ipšić, Edvin Močibob, Matjaž Perc
With over 300 million active users, Twitter is among the largest online news and social networking services in existence today. Open access to information on Twitter makes it a valuable source of data for research on social interactions, sentiment analysis, content diffusion, link prediction, and the dynamics behind human collective behaviour in general. Here we use Twitter data to construct co-occurrence language networks based on hashtags and based on all the words in tweets, and we use these networks to study link prediction by means of different methods and evaluation metrics...
2017: PloS One
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