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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933013/on-elementary-affective-decisions-to-like-or-not-to-like-that-is-the-question
#1
Arthur Jacobs, Markus J Hofmann, Annette Kinder
Perhaps the most ubiquitous and basic affective decision of daily life is deciding whether we like or dislike something/somebody, or, in terms of psychological emotion theories, whether the object/subject has positive or negative valence. Indeed, people constantly make such liking decisions within a glimpse and, importantly, often without expecting any obvious benefit or knowing the exact reasons for their judgment. In this paper, we review research on such elementary affective decisions (EADs) that entail no direct overt reward with a special focus on Neurocognitive Poetics and discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of EADs to verbal materials with differing degrees of complexity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913152/development-and-validation-of-an-objective-scoring-tool-for-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-prostatectomy-assessment-and-competency-evaluation-pace
#2
Ahmed A Hussein, Khurshid R Ghani, James Peabody, Richard Sarle, Ronney Abaza, Daniel Eun, Jim Hu, Michael Fumo, Brian Lane, Jeffrey Montgomery, Nobuyuki Hinata, Deborah Rooney, Bryan Comstock, Hei Kit Chan, Sridhar S Mane, James L Mohler, Gregory Wilding, David Miller, Khurshid A Guru
INTRODUCTION: and Background: Comprehensive training and skill acquisition by urologic surgeons are vital to optimize surgical outcomes and patient safety. We sought to develop and validate an objective and procedure specific tool to assess the quality of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)-Prostatectomy Assessment and Competence Evaluation (PACE) METHODS: Development and content validation of PACE was performed by deconstruction of RARP into seven key domains utilizing the Delphi methodology...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906971/nullomers-and-high-order-nullomers-in-genomic-sequences
#3
Davide Vergni, Daniele Santoni
A nullomer is an oligomer that does not occur as a subsequence in a given DNA sequence, i.e. it is an absent word of that sequence. The importance of nullomers in several applications, from drug discovery to forensic practice, is now debated in the literature. Here, we investigated the nature of nullomers, whether their absence in genomes has just a statistical explanation or it is a peculiar feature of genomic sequences. We introduced an extension of the notion of nullomer, namely high order nullomers, which are nullomers whose mutated sequences are still nullomers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906934/can-unilateral-kyphoplasty-replace-bilateral-kyphoplasty-in-treatment-of-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Han Sun, Pei-Pei Lu, Yi-Jie Liu, Xu Yang, Ping-Hui Zhou, Xiao-Feng Shen, Si-Wei Sun, Huilin Yang
BACKGROUND: Kyphoplasty has been proven to be an efficient method to relieve patient suffering from osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Because of its technological superiority, unilateral kyphoplasty consumes less operative time and bone cement than traditional bilateral kyphoplasty. However, there is controversy about which method is most efficient in the treatment of OVCFs. Thus, an overall analysis should be performed to shed light on the facts corroborating both procedures...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893284/biomarkers-and-metabolic-patterns-in-the-sediments-of-evolving-glacial-lakes-as-a-proxy-for-planetary-lake-exploration
#5
Víctor Parro, Yolanda Blanco, Fernando Puente-Sánchez, Luis A Rivas, Mercedes Moreno-Paz, Alex Echeverría, Guillermo Chong-Díaz, Cecilia Demergasso, Nathalie A Cabrol
Oligotrophic glacial lakes in the Andes Mountains serve as models to study the effects of climate change on natural biological systems. The persistent high UV regime and evolution of the lake biota due to deglaciation make Andean lake ecosystems potential analogues in the search for life on other planetary bodies. Our objective was to identify microbial biomarkers and metabolic patterns that represent time points in the evolutionary history of Andean glacial lakes, as these may be used in long-term studies as microscale indicators of climate change processes...
November 28, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892699/genetics-of-consanguinity-and-inbreeding-in-health-and-disease
#6
Mohd Fareed, Mohammad Afzal
CONTEXT: Inbreeding increases the level of homozygotes for autosomal recessive disorders and is the major objective in clinical studies. The prevalence of consanguinity and the degree of inbreeding vary from one population to another depending on ethnicity, religion, culture and geography. Global epidemiological studies have revealed that consanguineous unions have been significantly associated with increased susceptibility to various forms of inherited diseases Objective: The study aimed to determine the role of consanguinity in human health and to highlight the associated risks for various diseases or disorders...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888834/exploring-the-impact-of-word-of-mouth-about-physicians-service-quality-on-patient-choice-based-on-online-health-communities
#7
Naiji Lu, Hong Wu
BACKGROUND: Health care service is a high-credence service and patients may face difficulties ascertaining service quality in order to make choices about their available treatment options. Online health communities (OHCs) provide a convenient channel for patients to search for physicians' information, such as Word-of-Mouth (WOM), particularly on physicians' service quality evaluated by other patients. Existing studies from other service domains have proved that WOM impacts consumer choice...
November 26, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888257/a-flexible-question-and-answer-task-for-measuring-speech-understanding
#8
Virginia Best, Timothy Streeter, Elin Roverud, Christine R Mason, Gerald Kidd
This report introduces a new speech task based on simple questions and answers. The task differs from a traditional sentence recall task in that it involves an element of comprehension and can be implemented in an ongoing fashion. It also contains two target items (the question and the answer) that may be associated with different voices and locations to create dynamic listening scenarios. A set of 227 questions was created, covering six broad categories (days of the week, months of the year, numbers, colors, opposites, and sizes)...
November 24, 2016: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887665/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-to-make-global-health-estimates-useful-make-them-more-socially-robust
#9
Elizabeth Pisani, Maarten Kok
A plethora of new development goals and funding institutions have greatly increased the demand for internationally comparable health estimates in recent years and have brought important new players into the field of health estimate production. These changes have rekindled debates about the validity and legitimacy of global health estimates. This paper draws on country case studies and personal experience to support our opinion that the production and use of estimates are deeply embedded in specific social, economic, political, and ideational contexts, which vary at different levels of the global health architecture...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880025/attitudes-to-decisions-about-extremely-premature-infants-differed-between-swiss-linguistic-regions-in-population-based-study
#10
Manya J Hendriks, Sabine D Klein, Hans Ulrich Bucher, Ruth Baumann-Hölzle, Jürg C Streuli, Jean-Claude Fauchère
AIM: Studies have provided insights into the different attitudes and values of healthcare professionals and parents toward extreme prematurity. This study explored societal attitudes and values in Switzerland with regard to this patient group. METHODS: A nationwide trilingual telephone survey was conducted in the French, German and Italian speaking regions of Switzerland to explore the general population's attitudes and values with regard to extreme prematurity...
November 23, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873349/not-only-size-matters-early-talker-and-late-talker-vocabularies-support-different-word-learning-biases-in-babies-and-networks
#11
Eliana Colunga, Clare E Sims
In typical development, word learning goes from slow and laborious to fast and seemingly effortless. Typically developing 2-year-olds seem to intuit the whole range of things in a category from hearing a single instance named-they have word-learning biases. This is not the case for children with relatively small vocabularies (late talkers). We present a computational model that accounts for the emergence of word-learning biases in children at both ends of the vocabulary spectrum based solely on vocabulary structure...
November 21, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871960/useful-implications-of-low-dose-long-term-use-of-pde-5-inhibitors
#12
REVIEW
Taymour Mostafa
INTRODUCTION: Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) hydrolyzes cyclic guanylate monophosphate (cGMP) specifically to 5' GMP, promoting successful corporeal vascular relaxation and penile erection during sexual stimulation. Oral PDE-5 inhibitors such as sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, and avanafil have provided noninvasive, effective, well-tolerated treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) patients and, at the same time, stimulated both academic and clinical interests. Lately, some oral PDE-5 inhibitors were released as low-dose preparations with the concept of potential daily administration and long-term use...
July 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805953/seven-dirty-words-hot-button-language-that-undermines-interprofessional-education-and-practice
#13
Peter S Cahn
An increasingly common goal of health professions education is preparing learners to collaborate with the full range of members on a health care team. While curriculum developers have identified many logistical and conceptual barriers to interprofessional education, one overlooked factor threatens to undermine interprofessional education and practice: language. Language reveals the mental metaphors governing thoughts and actions. The words that faculty members and health care providers use send messages that can-consciously or not-undermine explicit lessons about valuing each member of the care team...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799703/effects-of-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-on-event-related-potentials
#14
Jeong-Woo Lee, Woong-Sik Park, Se-Won Yoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on event-related potentials. [Subjects and Methods] Forty normal female adult subjects were randomly distributed to a galvanic vestibular stimulation application group (20 subjects) and sham group (20 subjects). For galvanic vestibular stimulation application, a positive electrode was applied to the right mastoid process, and a negative electrode was applied to the left mastoid process; simulation was applied for 10 minutes...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797549/does-text-contrast-mediate-binocular-advantages-in-reading
#15
Stephanie Jainta, Mirela Nikolova, Simon P Liversedge
Humans typically make use of both of their eyes in reading and efficient processes of binocular vision provide a stable, single percept of the text. Binocular reading also comes with an advantage: reading speed is high and word frequency effects (i.e., faster lexical processing of words that are more often encountered in a language) emerge during fixations, which is not the case for monocular reading (Jainta, Blythe, & Liversedge, 2014). A potential contributor to this benefit is the reduced contrast in monocular reading: reduced text contrasts in binocular reading are known to slow down reading and word identification (Reingold & Rayner, 2006)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770254/updating-metacognitive-control-in-response-to-expected-retention-intervals
#16
Joshua L Fiechter, Aaron S Benjamin
In five experiments, we investigated whether expected retention intervals affect subjects' encoding strategies. In the first four experiments, our subjects studied paired associates consisting of words from the Graduate Record Exam and a synonym. They were told to expect a test on a word pair after either a short or a longer interval. Subjects were tested on most pairs after the expected retention interval. For some pairs, however, subjects were tested after the other retention interval, allowing for a comparison of performance at a given retention interval conditional upon the expected retention interval...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754162/pl-03-3-the-future-development-of-drug-therapy-for-hypertension
#17
Sverre Kjeldsen
There is a whole armament of good drugs for treatment of hypertension including diuretics, calcium antagonist, angiotensin receptor antagonists and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Secondary drugs mostly used for special indications include beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (aldosterone antagonists), renin-inhibitors, centrally acting drugs, direct vasodilators and others.A variety of new drugs targeting different pressor mechanism exist and have partly been studies experimentally but will unlikely make it to clinical use in human hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754069/os-18-01-correlation-between-cognitive-decline-and-blood-pressure-in-elderly-patients-with-controlled-hypertension
#18
Adrian Noriega De La Colina, Rong Wu, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Pierre Larochelle, Maxime Lamarre-Cliche, Louis Bherer, Hélène Girouard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance in older adults treated and controlled for blood pressure (BP) when compared to untreated normotensive subjects, and to determine whether blood pressure still correlates with poorer cognitive performances. DESIGN AND METHOD: Forty-eight older adults aged between 65 and 85 years were recruited in the community and divided into two groups: normotensive (n = 26) and controlled hypertensive (n = 22)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752305/dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-cognitive-function-in-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-cohort
#19
Keith E Pearson, Virginia G Wadley, Leslie A McClure, James M Shikany, Fred W Unverzagt, Suzanne E Judd
Identifying factors that contribute to the preservation of cognitive function is imperative to maintaining quality of life in advanced years. Of modifiable risk factors, diet quality has emerged as a promising candidate to make an impact on cognition. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between empirically derived dietary patterns and cognitive function. This study included 18 080 black and white participants aged 45 years and older from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741270/can-learning-a-foreign-language-foster-analytic-thinking-evidence-from-chinese-efl-learners-writings
#20
Jingyang Jiang, Jinghui Ouyang, Haitao Liu
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT...
2016: PloS One
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