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Sarah Hamilton Dugan, Noah Silbert, Tara McAllister, Jonathan L Preston, Carolyn Sotto, Suzanne E Boyce
This study investigates category goodness judgments of /r/ in adults and children with and without residual speech errors (RSEs) using natural speech stimuli. Thirty adults, 38 children with RSE (ages 7-16) and 35 age-matched typically developing (TD) children provided category goodness judgments on whole words, recorded from 27 child speakers, with /r/ in various phonetic environments. The salient acoustic property of /r/ - the lowered third formant (F3) - was normalized in two ways. A logistic mixed-effect model quantified the relationships between listeners' responses and the third formant frequency, vowel context and clinical group status...
May 24, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Gabriella Vigliocco, Marta Ponari, Courtenay Norbury
The paper describes two plausible hypotheses concerning the learning of abstract words and concepts. According to a first hypothesis, children would learn abstract words by extracting co-occurrences among words in linguistic input, using, for example, mechanisms as described by models of Distributional Semantics. According to a second hypothesis, children would exploit the fact that abstract words tend to have more emotional associations than concrete words to infer that they refer to internal/mental states...
May 21, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Julia Braverman, Rita Dunn, Andrey Vyshedskiy
Mental synthesis is the conscious purposeful process of synthesizing novel mental images from objects stored in memory. Mental synthesis ability is essential for understanding complex syntax, spatial prepositions, and verb tenses. In typical children, the timeline of mental synthesis acquisition is highly correlated with an increasing vocabulary. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), on the other hand, may learn hundreds of words but never acquire mental synthesis. In these individuals, tests assessing vocabulary comprehension may fail to demonstrate the profound deficit in mental synthesis...
May 20, 2018: Children
Yvonne Teuschl, Hege Ihle-Hansen, Karl Matz, Alexandra Dachenhausen, Paulina Ratajczak, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Marie Helene Ursin, Guri Hagberg, Bente Thommessen, Anne Rita Øksengård, Michael Brainin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this pooled patient-level data analysis was to test if multidomain interventions, addressing several modifiable vascular risk factors simultaneously, is more effective than usual post-stroke care for the prevention of cognitive decline after stroke. METHODS: This pooled patient-level data analysis includes two randomised controlled trials using a multidomain approach to target vascular risk factors in stroke patients and cognition as primary outcome...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Isabelle Dautriche, Laia Fibla, Anne-Caroline Fievet, Anne Christophe
Even though ambiguous words are common in languages, children find it hard to learn homophones, where a single label applies to several distinct meanings (e.g., Mazzocco, 1997). The present work addresses this apparent discrepancy between learning abilities and typological pattern, with respect to homophony in the lexicon. In a series of five experiments, 20-month-old French children easily learnt a pair of homophones if the two meanings associated with the phonological form belonged to different syntactic categories, or to different semantic categories...
May 16, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
Mireia Jofre-Bonet, Joseph Kamara
PURPOSE: The objective of this project is to study the willingness to pay (WTP) for health insurance (HI) of individuals working in the informal sector in Sierra Leone, using a purposely-designed survey of a representative sample of this sector. METHODS: We elicit the WTP using the Double-Bounded Dichotomous Choice with Follow Up method. We also examine the factors that are positively and negatively associated with the likelihood of the respondents to answer affirmatively to joining a HI scheme and to paying three different possible premiums, to join the HI scheme...
2018: PloS One
David Černý
The current discussion of the moral admissibility or inadmissibility of euthanasia should, in my opinion, consider the greatest possible number of the shared premises of the two opinion camps. That is why I followed a thesis in this paper that the question of the good life is the focus of ethical interest, as this is what connects the advocates and the opponents to euthanasia. In the first part of the paper I critically discuss the two main theories of the good life widely embraced among the advocates of euthanasia: hedonism and desire-fulfilment theory...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Skye A Miner, Stephanie Robins, Yu Jia Zhu, Kathelijne Keeren, Vivian Gu, Suzanne C Read, Phyllis Zelkowitz
BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are sometimes used by individuals who desire to improve the outcomes of their fertility treatment and/or mental health during fertility treatment. However, there is little comprehensive information available that analyzes various CAM methods across treatment outcomes and includes information that is published in languages other than English. METHOD: This scoping review examines the evidence for 12 different CAM methods used to improve female and male fertility outcomes as well as their association with improving mental health outcomes during fertility treatment...
May 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Hyunji Kim, Eunbee Kim, Eunkook M Suh, Mitchell J Callan
The current research developed and validated a Korean-translated version of the Personal Relative Deprivation Scale (PRDS). The PRDS measures individual differences in people's tendencies to feel resentful about what they have compared to what other people like them have. Across 2 studies, Exploratory Factor Analyses revealed that the two reverse-worded items from the original PRDS did not load onto the primary factor for the Korean-translated PRDS. A reduced 3-item Korean PRDS, however, showed good convergent validity...
2018: PloS One
Muping Gan, Daniel Heller, Serena Chen
Across five experiments (total N = 715), we propose that people can gain a subjective sense of power by being authentic-in other words, state authenticity breeds power. Supporting this, participants reported feeling more powerful when they visualized themselves behaving authentically versus inauthentically (Study 1), or recalled a time when they felt authentic versus inauthentic (Studies 2-4). Studies 3 and 4 revealed that authenticity (vs. inauthenticity) likely drives the authenticity-to-power effect. Finally, Study 5 showed that perceivers infer others' power and make important downstream judgments (i...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Carmen López-Escribano, Judith Suro Sánchez, Fernando Leal Carretero
A recent concern in the field of dyslexia studies is the lack of awareness and attention to university students suffering from this condition. If this problem is serious in countries where the relative opacity of the writing system allows for an early detection and, therefore, effective interventions, it is most critical in countries where transparent spelling makes such detection difficult, except in the most severe cases. In Spain, the diagnosis of dyslexia is rare among university-level adults. The present study pursues three aims: (a) to put forward a screening instrument for the detection of university students at risk of dyslexia, (b) to determine the ratio of university students that could be at risk of dyslexia by means of two different procedures, and (c) to create awareness for a disorder that causes hitherto unrecognized difficulties for an important subgroup of the college population...
May 8, 2018: Brain Sciences
Itaru Tamura, Asako Takei, Shinsuke Hamada, Hiroyuki Soma, Michio Nonaka, Sanae Homma, Fumio Moriwaka
The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive functions of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3(SCA3). We examined 15 patients with genetically confirmed SCA3 and 15 healthy control subjects matched for age, years of education, and intellectual ability. We administered verbal memory (word recall and word recognition) and executive function tasks (word fluency test, forward and backward digit and visual span tests, Kana Pick-out Test, Trail Making Test, and conflicting instructions and a Go/NoGo task from the Frontal Assessment Battery)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Susan Nittrouer, Letitia M Krieg, Joanna H Lowenstein
PURPOSE: Developmental dyslexia is commonly viewed as a phonological deficit that makes it difficult to decode written language. But children with dyslexia typically exhibit other problems, as well, including poor speech recognition in noise. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the speech-in-noise problems of children with dyslexia are related to their reading problems, and if so, if a common underlying factor might explain both. The specific hypothesis examined was that a spectral processing disorder results in these children receiving smeared signals, which could explain both the diminished sensitivity to phonological structure - leading to reading problems - and the speech recognition in noise difficulties...
June 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mirjam J Nijdam, Irene J M Martens, Johannes B Reitsma, Berthold P R Gersons, Miranda Olff
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have neurocognitive deficits in verbal memory and executive functioning. In this study, we examined whether memory and executive functioning changed over the course of treatment and which clinical variables were associated with change. DESIGN: Neuropsychological assessments were administered at baseline and endpoint of a randomized controlled trial as secondary outcome. METHODS: Trauma survivors (n = 88) diagnosed with PTSD received trauma-focused psychotherapy within a 17-week randomized controlled trial...
May 1, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Emily L Coderre
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have characteristic deficits in understanding the meaning of language, or semantic processing. However, some evidence indicates that semantic processing of non-linguistic stimuli is intact, suggesting that semantic deficits may be language-specific. To appropriately characterize semantic processing deficits in individuals with ASD, comparison of within-modality linguistic (e.g., written words) and non-linguistic (e.g., pictures) stimuli is required. This paper describes such a methodology that makes use of a semantic priming paradigm during concurrent recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) data...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Athulya Aravind, Jill de Villiers, Amy Pace, Hannah Valentine, Roberta Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsch-Pasek, Aquiles Iglesias, Mary Sweig Wilson
Do children learn a new word by tracking co-occurrences between words and referents across multiple instances ("cross-situational learning" models), or is word-learning a "one-track" process, where learners maintain a single hypothesis about the possible referent, which may be verified or falsified in future occurrences ("propose-but-verify" models)? Using a novel word-learning task, we ask which learning procedure is utilized by preschool-aged children. We report on findings from three studies comparing the word-learning strategies across different populations of child learners: monolingual English learners, Spanish - English dual language learners, and learners at risk for language-delay...
April 25, 2018: Cognition
Erik Walinda, Daichi Morimoto, Kenji Sugase
Among the tools of structural biology, NMR spectroscopy is unique in that it not only derives a static three-dimensional structure, but also provides an atomic-level description of the local fluctuations and global dynamics around this static structure. A battery of NMR experiments is now available to probe the motions of proteins and nucleic acids over the whole biologically relevant timescale from picoseconds to hours. Here we focus on one of these methods, relaxation dispersion, which resolves dynamics on the micro- to millisecond timescale...
April 25, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Gregory E Cox, Pernille Hemmer, William R Aue, Amy H Criss
The development of memory theory has been constrained by a focus on isolated tasks rather than the processes and information that are common to situations in which memory is engaged. We present results from a study in which 453 participants took part in five different memory tasks: single-item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, free recall, and lexical decision. Using hierarchical Bayesian techniques, we jointly analyzed the correlations between tasks within individuals-reflecting the degree to which tasks rely on shared cognitive processes-and within items-reflecting the degree to which tasks rely on the same information conveyed by the item...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Michael G Cutter, Denis Drieghe, Simon P Liversedge
In the current study we investigated whether readers adjust their preferred saccade length (PSL) during reading on a trial-by-trial basis. The PSL refers to the distance between a saccade launch site and saccade target (i.e., the word center during reading) when participants neither undershoot nor overshoot this target (McConkie, Kerr, Reddix, & Zola in Vision Research, 28, 1107-1118, 1988). The tendency for saccades longer or shorter than the PSL to under or overshoot their target is referred to as the range error...
April 25, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Luisa Girelli, Paola Previtali, Lisa S Arduino
Expert readers have been repeatedly reported to misperceive the centre of visual stimuli, shifting systematically to the left the bisection of any lines (pseudoneglect) while showing a cross-over effect while bisecting different types of orthographic strings (Arduino et al., 2010, Neuropsychologia, 48, 2140). This difference has been attributed to asymmetrical allocation of attention that visuo-verbal material receives when lexical access occurs (e.g., Fischer, 2004, Cognitive Brain Research, 4, 163). The aim of this study was to further examine which visual features guide recognition of potentially orthographic materials...
April 22, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
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