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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107750/effect-of-clinically-approved-hdac-inhibitors-on-plasmodium-leishmania-and-schistosoma-parasite-growth
#1
Ming Jang Chua, Megan S J Arnold, Weijun Xu, Julien Lancelot, Suzanne Lamotte, Gerald F Späth, Eric Prina, Raymond J Pierce, David P Fairlie, Tina S Skinner-Adams, Katherine T Andrews
Malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniases are among the most prevalent tropical parasitic diseases and each requires new innovative treatments. Targeting essential parasite pathways, such as those that regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression, is a key strategy for discovering new drug leads. In this study, four clinically approved anti-cancer drugs (Vorinostat, Belinostat, Panobinostat and Romidepsin) that target histone/lysine deacetylase enzymes were examined for in vitro activity against Plasmodium knowlesi, Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania amazonensis and L...
December 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107409/targeted-deletion-of-a-plasmodium-site-2-protease-impairs-life-cycle-progression-in-the-mammalian-host
#2
Konstantinos Koussis, Evi Goulielmaki, Anna Chalari, Chrislaine Withers-Martinez, Inga Siden-Kiamos, Kai Matuschewski, Thanasis G Loukeris
Site-2 proteases (S2P) belong to the M50 family of metalloproteases, which typically perform essential roles by mediating activation of membrane-bound transcription factors through regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). Protease-dependent liberation of dormant transcription factors triggers diverse cellular responses, such as sterol regulation, Notch signalling and the unfolded protein response. Plasmodium parasites rely on regulated proteolysis for controlling essential pathways throughout the life cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107347/whole-genome-amplification-and-reduced-representation-genome-sequencing-of-schistosoma-japonicum-miracidia
#3
Jonathan A Shortt, Daren C Card, Drew R Schield, Yang Liu, Bo Zhong, Todd A Castoe, Elizabeth J Carlton, David D Pollock
BACKGROUND: In areas where schistosomiasis control programs have been implemented, morbidity and prevalence have been greatly reduced. However, to sustain these reductions and move towards interruption of transmission, new tools for disease surveillance are needed. Genomic methods have the potential to help trace the sources of new infections, and allow us to monitor drug resistance. Large-scale genotyping efforts for schistosome species have been hindered by cost, limited numbers of established target loci, and the small amount of DNA obtained from miracidia, the life stage most readily acquired from humans...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105714/gyrodactylus-salmonis-infection-impairs-the-olfactory-system-of-rainbow-trout
#4
E Lari, G G Pyle
Monogenean worms are ectoparasites that are known to be infectious to a wide variety of fish. Few species of monogenean parasites have been reported in the olfactory chamber of fish in current peer-reviewed literature. However, the impacts of these parasites on the olfactory system are not well understood. In this study, the effects of Gyrodactylus salmonis on the olfactory system structure and performance were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The olfactory performance of the infected fish was examined using an electro-olfactography (EOG) technique, while the ultrastructure of the olfactory rosette was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105681/salmon-gill-poxvirus-a-recently-characterized-infectious-agent-of-multifactorial-gill-disease-in-freshwater-and-seawater-reared-atlantic-salmon
#5
REVIEW
M C Gjessing, E Thoen, T Tengs, S A Skotheim, O B Dale
Gill diseases cause considerable losses in Norwegian salmon farming. In 2015, we characterized salmon gill poxvirus (SGPV) and associated gill disease. Using newly developed diagnostic tools, we show here that SGPV infection is more widely distributed than previously assumed. We present seven cases of complex gill disease in Atlantic salmon farmed in seawater and freshwater from different parts of Norway. Apoptosis, the hallmark of acute SGPV infection, was not easily observed in these cases, and qPCR analysis was critical for identification of the presence of SGPV...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105680/are-hybrids-between-atlantic-salmon-and-brown-trout-suitable-long-term-hosts-of-gyrodactylus-salaris-during-winter
#6
R Knudsen, E H Henriksen, K Ø Gjelland, H Hansen, D K Hendrichsen, R Kristoffersen, K Olstad
The monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus salaris poses serious threats to many Atlantic salmon populations and presents many conservation and management questions/foci and challenges. It is therefore critical to identify potential vectors for infection. To test whether hybrids of native Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) × brown trout (Salmo trutta) are suitable as reservoir hosts for G. salaris during winter, infected hybrid parr were released into a natural subarctic brook in the autumn. Six months later, 23.9% of the pit-tagged fish were recaptured...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105582/-control-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-infection-for-cholangiocarcinoma-prevention
#7
Y Buisson
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified two liver flukes as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1): Opisthorchis viverrini in 1994 and Clonorchis sinensis in 2009. This review is focused on O. viverrini, the most studied of these two trematodes, which infects nearly 10 million people in Southeast Asia. The life cycle involves two intermediate hosts living in fresh water: a snail of the genus Bithynia and a ciprinid fish. The definitive hosts (human, cat, dog) become infected by ingesting raw fish containing metacercariae, the infective stage of the parasite...
January 19, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104679/genome-sequencing-of-the-behaviour-manipulating-virus-lbfv-reveals-a-possible-new-virus-family
#8
D Lepetit, B Gillet, S Hughes, K Kraaijeveld, J Varaldi
Parasites are sometimes able to manipulate the behaviour of their hosts. However, the molecular cues underlying this phenomenon are poorly documented. We previously reported that the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi which develops from Drosophila larvae is often infected by an inherited DNA virus. In addition to being maternally transmitted, the virus benefits from horizontal transmission in superparasitized larvae (Drosophila that have been parasitized several times). Interestingly, the virus forces infected females to lay eggs in already parasitized larvae, thus increasing the chance of being horizontally transmitted...
January 19, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104671/lack-of-association-of-cd55-receptor-genetic-variants-and-severe-malaria-in-ghanaian-children
#9
Kathrin Schuldt, Christa Ehmen, Juergen Sievertsen, Jennifer Evans, Juergen May, Daniel Ansong, Birgit Muntau, Gerd Ruge, Christian Timmann, Tsiri Agbenyega, Rolf D Horstmann, Thorsten Thye
In a recent report the cellular receptor CD55 was identified as a molecule essential for the invasion of human erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum, the causal agent of the most severe form of malaria. As this invasion process represents a critical step during the infection with the parasite, it was hypothesized that genetic variants in the gene could affect severe malaria susceptibility. We performed high-resolution variant discovery of rare and common genetic variants in the human CD55 gene. Association testing of these variants in over 1 700 severe malaria cases and unaffected control individuals from a malaria-endemic Ashanti Region in Ghana, West Africa, were performed on the basis of single variants, combined rare variant analyses, and reconstructed haplotypes...
January 18, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104454/ecology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-i-genotypes-across-rhodnius-prolixus-captured-in-attalea-butyracea-palms
#10
Cristina Poveda, Adriana Higuera, Plutarco Urbano, Juan David Ramírez
Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease exhibits significant genetic diversity. This parasite is divided into six discrete typing units (DTUs) where T. cruzi I (TcI) is the most widespread in the Americas. TcI genotypes have been associated to domestic and sylvatic cycles of transmission (TcIDom and sylvatic TcI). Due to the importance of the enzootic transmission, we determined the frequency of TcI genotypes present in Rhodnius prolixus captured in different regions of the palm A. butyracea to understand the ecology of the disease and the importance of A...
January 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104352/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-two-pathogenic-tritrichomonas-foetus-genotypes-there-is-more-to-the-proteome-than-meets-the-eye
#11
Leah J Stroud, Jan Šlapeta, Matthew P Padula, Dylan Druery, George Tsiotsioras, Jens R Coorssen, Colin M Stack
Certain clinical isolates of Tritrichomonas foetus infect the urogenital tract of cattle while others infect the gastrointestinal tract of cats. Previous studies have identified subtle genetic differences between these isolates with the term "genotype" adopted to reflect host origin. The aim of this work was to seek evidence of host-specific adaptation and to clarify the relationship between T. foetus genotypes. To do this we characterised the proteomes of both genotypes using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) coupled with LC-MS/MS...
January 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103964/epidemiology-of-soil-transmitted-helminthiases-related-mortality-in-brazil
#12
Francisco R Martins-Melo, Alberto N Ramos, Carlos H Alencar, Mauricélia S Lima, Jorg Heukelbach
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study including all deaths in Brazil from 2000 to 2011, in which STHs (ascariasis, trichuriasis and/or hookworm infection) were mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated causes of death. Epidemiological characteristics, time trends and spatial analysis of STH-related mortality were analysed. STHs was identified on 853/12 491 280 death certificates: 827 (97·0%) deaths related to ascariasis, 25 (2·9%) to hookworm infections, and 1 (0·1%) to trichuriasis...
January 20, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103957/rna-interference-mediated-knockdown-of-brugia-malayi-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-severely-affects-parasite-viability-embryogenesis-and-in-vivo-development-of-infective-larvae
#13
Sweta Misra, Jyoti Gupta, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Galactofuranose is an essential cell surface component present in bacteria, fungi and several nematodes such as Caenorhabditis spp., Brugia spp., Onchocerca spp. and Strongyloides spp. This sugar maintains the integrity of parasite surface and is essential for virulence. UDP-Galactopyranose mutase (bmugm) plays a key role in Galf biosynthesis by catalyzing conversion of UDP-Galactopyranose into UDP-galactofuranose and knockout studies of the gene in Leishmania major, Mycobacterium and Aspergillus fumigatus displayed attenuated virulence while RNA interference study in C...
January 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103905/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-the-genetic-diversity-and-complexity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-in-kedougou-southeastern-senegal
#14
Makhtar Niang, Laty G Thiam, Cheikh Loucoubar, Abdourahmane Sow, Bacary D Sadio, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Aissatou Toure-Balde
BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses of the malaria parasite population and its temporal and spatial dynamics could provide an assessment of the effectiveness of disease control strategies. The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum has been poorly documented in Senegal, and limited data are available from the Kedougou Region. This study examines the spatial and temporal variation of the genetic diversity and complexity of P. falciparum infections in acute febrile patients in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal...
January 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103801/parasite-infection-of-public-databases-a-data-mining-approach-to-identify-apicomplexan-contaminations-in-animal-genome-and-transcriptome-assemblies
#15
Janus Borner, Thorsten Burmester
BACKGROUND: Contaminations from various exogenous sources are a common problem in next-generation sequencing. Another possible source of contaminating DNA are endogenous parasites. On the one hand, undiscovered contaminations of animal sequence assemblies may lead to erroneous interpretation of data; on the other hand, when identified, parasite-derived sequences may provide a valuable source of information. RESULTS: Here we show that sequences deriving from apicomplexan parasites can be found in many animal genome and transcriptome projects, which in most cases derived from an infection of the sequenced host specimen...
January 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103386/paraoxonase-1-activity-is-related-to-trichinella-spiralis-induced-hepatitis-in-rats
#16
Ayman Samir Farid, Eman Mohamed Fath, Shogo Mido, Nariaki Nonaka, Yoichiro Horii
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the potential adverse effects of a chronic zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis infection on hepatic inflammation and its relationship to paraoxonase (PON)-1 and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of T. spiralis infection on hepatic synthesis of PON1. METHODS: Wistar rats were infected with 2500 first-stage larvae of T. spiralis and serum PON1 and BuChE activities were evaluated...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103294/community-based-entomological-surveillance-reveals-urban-foci-of-chagas-disease-vectors-in-sobral-state-of-cear%C3%A3-northeastern-brazil
#17
Cynara Carvalho Parente, Fernando S M Bezerra, Plutarco I Parente, Raimundo V Dias-Neto, Samanta C C Xavier, Alberto N Ramos, Filipe A Carvalho-Costa, Marli M Lima
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to explore the potential risk of vector-borne Chagas disease in urban districts in northeastern Brazil, by analyzing the spatiotemporal distributions and natural infection rates with Trypanosoma cruzi of triatomine species captured in recent years. The main motivation of this work was an acute human case of Chagas disease reported in 2008 in the municipality of Sobral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from community-based entomological surveillance carried out from 2010 to 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103263/splenic-cd4-t-cells-in-progressive-visceral-leishmaniasis-show-a-mixed-effector-regulatory-phenotype-and-impair-macrophage-effector-function-through-inhibitory-receptor-expression
#18
Audrie A Medina-Colorado, Elvia Y Osorio, Omar A Saldarriaga, Bruno L Travi, Fanping Kong, Heidi Spratt, Lynn Soong, Peter C Melby
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by infection with the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani, is a chronic progressive disease with a relentlessly increasing parasite burden in the spleen, liver and bone marrow. The disease is characterized by fever, splenomegaly, cachexia, and pancytopenia, and progresses to death if not treated. Control of Leishmania infection is mediated by Th1 (IFNγ-producing) CD4+ T cells, which activate macrophages to produce nitric oxide and kill intracellular parasites. However, despite expansion of CD4+ T cells and increased IFNγ expression in the spleen, humans with active VL do not control the infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101534/pathogenicity-determinants-of-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum-have-ancient-origins
#19
Andrew J Brazier, Marion Avril, Maria Bernabeu, Maxwell Benjamin, Joseph D Smith
Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly of the human malaria parasites, is a member of the Laverania subgenus that also infects African Great Apes. The virulence of P. falciparum is related to cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes in microvasculature, but the origin of dangerous parasite adhesion traits is poorly understood. To investigate the evolutionary history of the P. falciparum cytoadhesion pathogenicity determinant, we studied adhesion domains from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi. We demonstrate that the P...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101308/antibacterial-resistance-in-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Sehnaz Alp, Murat Akova
Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at substantial risk of bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections depending on the time elapsed since transplantation, presence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and the degree of immunosuppression. Infectious complications in HSCT recipients are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Bacterial infections constitute the major cause of infectious complications, especially in the early post-transplant period. The emergence of antibacterial resistance complicates the management of bacterial infections in this patient group...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
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