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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343256/spatiotemporal-deep-imaging-of-syncytium-induced-by-the-soybean-cyst-nematode-heterodera-glycines
#1
Mina Ohtsu, Yoshikatsu Sato, Daisuke Kurihara, Takuya Suzaki, Masayoshi Kawaguchi, Daisuke Maruyama, Tetsuya Higashiyama
Parasite infections cause dramatic anatomical and ultrastructural changes in host plants. Cyst nematodes are parasites that invade host roots and induce a specific feeding structure called a syncytium. A syncytium is a large multinucleate cell formed by cell wall dissolution-mediated cell fusion. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major soybean pathogen. To investigate SCN infection and the syncytium structure, we established an in planta deep imaging system using a clearing solution ClearSee and two-photon excitation microscopy (2PEM)...
March 25, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342885/high-throughput-identification-of-mirnas-of-taenia-ovis-a-cestode-threatening-sheep-industry
#2
Yadong Zheng
Taenia ovis is a tapeworm that is mainly transmitted between dogs and sheep or goats and has an adverse effect on sheep industry. miRNAs are short regulatory non-coding RNAs, involved in parasite development and growth as well as parasite infection. The miRNA profile of T. ovis remains to be established. Herein, 33 known miRNAs belonging to 23 different families were identified in T. ovis metacestodes using deep sequencing approach. Of them, expression of some miRNAs such as tov-miR-10 and -let-7 was absolutely predominant...
March 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342825/association-between-parasitic-infections-and-tuberculin-skin-test-results-in-refugees
#3
Nathaniel S Watts, Mucho M Mizinduko, Elizabeth D Barnett, Laura F White, Natasha S Hochberg
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are known to modulate the immune response necessary for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We sought to investigate species-specific effects of parasite infection on M. tuberculosis infection. METHODS: As part of the Refugee Health Assessment Program, stool examinations and tuberculin skin testing were performed on refugees seen at Boston Medical Center between 1995 and 2012. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and stool examination data were collected for 6669 refugees; 3349 (50...
March 22, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342673/therapeutic-use-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-the-treatment-of-psoroptic-mange-in-naturally-infested-new-zealand-rabbits
#4
Emmanuel Dunstand-Guzmán, Claudia Hallal-Calleros, Jorge Morales-Montor, Víctor Manuel Hernández-Velázquez, Juan José Zárate-Ramos, Kurt L Hoffman, Guadalupe Peña-Chora, Fernando Iván Flores-Pérez
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacteria known for its bioinsecticidal toxins and it has been proposed as an alternative in the treatment of several parasites that infect domestic animals (helminths, ticks, mites). In this work, we evaluated the clinical efficiency of the Bacillus thuringiensis GP532 strain in the treatment of six rabbits naturally infested with the P. cuniculi mite. GP532 extract (10mg/ml) was applied by aspersion in both pinna, with a second application after seven days, and the therapeutic effect was measured in both qualitative and quantitative manner...
March 9, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342671/apoptosis-of-peritoneal-leucocytes-during-early-stages-of-fasciola-hepatica-infections-in-sheep
#5
A Escamilla, R Pérez-Caballero, R Zafra, M J Bautista, I L Pacheco, M T Ruiz, M S Martínez-Cruz, A Martínez-Moreno, V Molina-Hernández, J Pérez
Several immunomodulatory properties have been described in Fasciola hepatica infections. Apoptosis has been shown to be an effective mechanism to avoid the immune response in helminth infections. The aim of the present work was to study apoptosis in peritoneal leucocytes of sheep experimentally infected with F. hepatica during the early stages of infection. Five groups (n=5) of sheep were used. Groups 2-5 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 1, 3, 9 and 18days post-infection (dpi), respectively...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339296/synthetic-parasites-a-successful-mucosal-nanoparticle-vaccine-against-toxoplasma-congenital-infection-in-mice
#6
Céline Ducournau, Thi Tl Nguyen, Rodolphe Carpentier, Isabelle Lantier, Stéphanie Germon, Flavien Précausta, Pierre-Jean Pisella, Hervé Leroux, Nathalie Van Langendonck, Didier Betbeder, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson
AIM: Development of protein vaccine to prevent congenital infection is a major public health priority. Our goal is the design of mucosal synthetic pathogen inducing protective immune responses against congenital toxoplasmosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: Mice were immunized intranasally, establishing pregnancy and challenging orally. Placental immune response, congenital infection, pup growth, parasitic load rates were studied. RESULTS: Pups born to vaccinated infected dams had significantly fewer brain cysts, no intraocular inflammation and normal growth...
March 24, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338804/duplications-and-positive-selection-drive-the-evolution-of-parasitism-associated-gene-families-in-the-nematode-strongyloides-papillosus
#7
Praveen Baskaran, Tegegn G Jaleta, Adrian Streit, Christian Rödelsperger
Gene duplication is one major mechanism playing a role in the evolution of phenotypic complexity and in the generation of novel traits. By comparing parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes, a recent study found that the evolution of parasitism in Strongyloididae is associated with a large expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families.To gain novel insights into the developmental processes in the sheep parasite Strongyloides papillosus, we sequenced transcriptomes of different developmental stages and sexes. Overall, we found that the majority of genes are developmentally regulated and have one-to-one orthologs in the diverged S...
March 2, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338718/identification-and-characterization-of-gra6-gra7-of-neospora-caninum-in-mdbk-cells
#8
Jingquan Dong, Jianhua Li, Jinpeng Wang, Fei Li, Ju Yang, Pengtao Gong, He Li, Xichen Zhang
Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite, is recognized as a major bovine abortifacient. Dense granule antigens (GRAs) play important roles in the formation and modification of parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs) in Toxoplasma gondii. However, a few studies investigating GRAs have been reported in N. caninum. The aim of the present study was to characterize the dense GRA6/GRA7 of N. caninum in PVs using MDBK cells as a host cell model. Neospora caninum was inoculated into MDBK cells, and changes were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338625/-r-aloesaponol-iii-8-methyl-ether-from-eremurus-persicus-a-novel-compound-against-leishmaniosis
#9
Daniela Rossi, Karzan Mahmood Ahmed, Raffaella Gaggeri, Serena Della Volpe, Lauretta Maggi, Giuseppe Mazzeo, Giovanna Longhi, Sergio Abbate, Federica Corana, Emanuela Martino, Marisa Machado, Raquel Varandas, Maria do Céu Sousa, Simona Collina
Leishmaniosis is a neglected tropical disease which affects several millions of people worldwide. The current drug therapies are expensive and often lack efficacy, mainly due to the development of parasite resistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for new drugs effective against Leishmania infections. As a part of our ongoing study on the phytochemical characterization and biological investigation of plants used in the traditional medicine of western and central Asia, in the present study, we focused on Eremurus persicus root extract in order to evaluate its potential in the treatment of leishmaniosis...
March 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337426/pathogen-identification-in-suspected-cases-of-pyogenic-spondylodiscitis
#10
Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Azar D Khosravi, Hamed Goodarzi, Roohangiz Nashibi, Alireaza Teimouri, Azim Motamedfar, Reza Ranjbar, Sara Afzalzadeh, Mehrandokht Cyrus, Mohammad Hashemzadeh
Pyogenic spinal infection continues to represent a worldwide problem. In approximately one-third of patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, the infectious agent is never identified. Of the cases that lead to organismal identification, bacteria are more commonly isolated from the spine rather than fungi and parasites. This study applied universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA PCR as a rapid diagnostic tool for the detection of bacterial agents in specimens from patients suspected of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used as a preliminary screening measure for microbiologic evaluation of patient samples...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337387/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-children-with-malaria-in-franceville-gabon
#11
Sandrine Lydie Oyegue-Liabagui, Aline Gaëlle Bouopda-Tuedom, Lady Charlène Kouna, Sydney Maghendji-Nzondo, Herman Nzoughe, Nina Tchitoula-Makaya, Irene Pegha-Moukandja, Jean-Bernard Lekana-Douki
Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria anemia (SMA) is a major cause of mortality in pediatric wards. Variations in inflammatory mediator production play an essential role in disease outcomes. Indeed, several studies have shown the involvement of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 in malaria immunopathology. In other hand the exact role of Th17 cytokines such as IL-17, IL-22 and IL-21 in malaria remains poorly documented. Here, we investigated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22 and IL-21 circulating levels and their association with malaria anemia and parasitemia in Gabonese children...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337195/nk-cells-uncertain-allies-against-malaria
#12
REVIEW
Asia-Sophia Wolf, Samuel Sherratt, Eleanor M Riley
Until recently, studies of natural killer (NK) cells in infection have focused almost entirely on their role in viral infections. However, there is an increasing awareness of the potential for NK cells to contribute to the control of a wider range of pathogens, including intracellular parasites such as Plasmodium spp. Given the high prevalence of parasitic diseases in the developing world and the devastating effects these pathogens have on large numbers of vulnerable people, investigating interactions between NK cells and parasitized host cells presents the opportunity to reveal novel immunological mechanisms with the potential to aid efforts to eradicate these diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337184/the-maternally-inheritable-wolbachia-walbb-induces-refractoriness-to-plasmodium-berghei-in-anopheles-stephensi
#13
Deepak Joshi, Xiaoling Pan, Michael J McFadden, David Bevins, Xiao Liang, Peng Lu, Suzanne Thiem, Zhiyong Xi
The endosymbiont Wolbachia wAlbB induces refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum in Anopheles stephensi, the primary mosquito vector of human malaria in the Middle East and South Asia. However, it remains unknown whether such refractoriness can be extended to other malaria species. In particular, it was reported that under very specific conditions, wAlbB can enhance Plasmodium infection in some hosts. Here, we measured the impact of wAlbB on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in A. stephensi by comparing the load of oocysts and sporozoites in midguts and salivary glands, respectively, between wAlbB-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336470/bioassay-guided-isolation-of-active-principles-from-nigerian-medicinal-plants-identifies-new-trypanocides-with-low-toxicity-and-no-cross-resistance-to-diamidines-and-arsenicals
#14
Godwin Unekwuojo Ebiloma, John Ogbaji Igoli, Evangelos Katsoulis, Anne-Marie Donachie, Anthonius Eze, Alexander Ian Gray, Harry P de Koning
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves from the plant species studied herein are traditionally used in northern Nigeria against various protozoan infections. However, none of these herbal preparations have been standardized, nor have their toxicity to mammalian cells been investigated. In search of improved and non-toxic active antiprotozoal principles that are not cross-resistant with current anti-parasitics, we here report the results of the in vitro screening of extracts from seven selected medicinal plant species (Centrosema pubescens, Moringa oleifera, Tridax procumbens, Polyalthia longifolia, Newbouldia laevis, Eucalyptus maculate, Jathropha tanjorensis), used traditionally to treat kinetoplastid infections in Nigeria, and the isolation of their bioactive principles...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336417/demonstrating-the-value-and-importance-of-combining-dna-barcodes-and-discriminant-morphological-characters-for-polystome-taxonomy-platyhelminthes-monogenea
#15
Laurent Héritier, Olivier Verneau, Kevin G Smith, Carina Coetzer, Louis H Du Preez
Polystomes are monogenean parasites that infest mainly semi aquatic vertebrates, such as amphibians and chelonians. Owing to the lack of discriminative morphological characters and because polystomes are considered to be strictly host- and site-specific, host identity is often used as an additional character for parasite identification. Recent genetic studies, however, show that polystomes infecting freshwater turtles in outdoor turtle enclosures and natural environments, are not strictly host-specific. Therefore, we proposed a new procedure for turtle polystome taxonomy based on the combination of Cytochrome c Oxydase I sequences and two discriminant morphological characters, namely the number of genital spines and the testis shape...
March 20, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336326/oxidative-stress-and-genes-regulation-of-cerebral-malaria-upon-zizyphus-spina-christi-treatment-in-a-murine-model
#16
Murad A Mubaraki, Taghreed A Hafiz, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Mohamed A Dkhil
The development and spread of multidrug-resistant strains of malarial parasites have led to an overwhelming increase in the resistance to current antimalarial drugs. The urgent need for alternative antimalarial drugs has directed some of the current studies toward folkloric medicine approaches. Interestingly, the Zizyphus spina Cristi leaf extract (ZLE) has been found to exhibit antiplasmodial activity. This study evaluated the protective effect of ZLE against Plasmodium berghei-induced cerebral tissue injuries in mice...
March 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336271/helminth-secretomes-reflect-different-lifestyles-and-parasitized-hosts
#17
Yesid Cuesta-Astroz, Francislon Silva de Oliveira, Laila Alves Nahum, Guilherme Oliveira
Helminths cause a number of medical and agricultural problems and are a major cause of parasitic infections in humans, animals and plants. Comparative analysis of helminth genes and genomes are important to understand the genomic biodiversity and evolution of parasites and their hosts in terms of different selective pressures in their habitats. The interactions between the infective organisms and their hosts are mediated in large part by secreted proteins, known collectively as the "secretome". Proteins secreted by parasites are able to modify a host's environment and modulate their immune system...
March 20, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336218/malaria-altering-host-attractiveness-and-mosquito-feeding
#18
Lauren Cator
Several studies have suggested that malaria parasites stack the odds of transmission in their favour by manipulating the attraction profiles of their hosts. A recent study provides evidence that a specific parasite factor, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate, may increase both the attractiveness of infected vertebrates and the susceptibility of mosquitoes to infection.
March 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336217/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia
#19
REVIEW
Gabriela Certad, Eric Viscogliosi, Magali Chabé, Simone M Cacciò
Intestinal protozoa are important etiological agents of diarrhea, particularly in children, yet the public health risk they pose is often neglected. Results from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) showed that Cryptosporidium is among the leading causes of moderate to severe diarrhea in children under 2 years. Likewise, Giardia infects approximately 200 million individuals worldwide, and causes acute diarrhea in children under 5 years. Despite this recognized role as pathogens, the question is why and how these parasites cause disease in some individuals but not in others...
March 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336173/effects-of-artesunate-on-some-biochemical-parameters-in-pregnant-albino-wistar-rats-challenged-with-lethal-strain-plasmodium-berghei-nk65-appreciating-the-activities-of-artemisinin-drugs-on-key-pregnancy-hormone-balance
#20
Chinaka O Nwaehujor, Onyeka V Asuzu, Daniel D Nwibo, Obichukwu C Nwobi, Ihechiluru I Ezeigbo
In humans, malaria in pregnancy can cause serious maternal and foetal morbidity and in extreme untreated cases, foetal mortality occurs. The therapeutic approach to curbing this malaise is the administration of an effective and/or combinations of anti-malaria medicaments. Acute or chronic administration of some of these drugs, however, gives rise to some adverse medical conditions including reproductive dysfunction, especially in pregnancy. Studies aimed at the hormonal interplays following administration of these drugs in pregnancy have been limited due to too few appropriate animal models...
March 20, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
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