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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049371/combining-epidemiology-with-basic-biology-of-sand-flies-parasites-and-hosts-to-inform-leishmaniasis-transmission-dynamics-and-control
#1
REVIEW
Orin Courtenay, Nathan C Peters, Matthew E Rogers, Caryn Bern
Quantitation of the nonlinear heterogeneities in Leishmania parasites, sand fly vectors, and mammalian host relationships provides insights to better understand leishmanial transmission epidemiology towards improving its control. The parasite manipulates the sand fly via production of promastigote secretory gel (PSG), leading to the "blocked sand fly" phenotype, persistent feeding attempts, and feeding on multiple hosts. PSG is injected into the mammalian host with the parasite and promotes the establishment of infection...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049362/parallel-and-costly-changes-to-cellular-immunity-underlie-the-evolution-of-parasitoid-resistance-in-three-drosophila-species
#2
John E McGonigle, Alexandre B Leitão, Sarah Ommeslag, Sophie Smith, Jonathan P Day, Francis M Jiggins
A priority for biomedical research is to understand the causes of variation in susceptibility to infection. To investigate genetic variation in a model system, we used flies collected from single populations of three different species of Drosophila and artificially selected them for resistance to the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and found that survival rates increased 3 to 30 fold within 6 generations. Resistance in all three species involves a large increase in the number of the circulating hemocytes that kill parasitoids...
October 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048998/transmission-of-pseudoloma-neurophilia-in-laboratory-zebrafish-danio-rerio-when-using-mass-spawning-chambers-and-recommendations-for-chamber-disinfection
#3
Samantha M Peneyra, Jose Cardona-Costa, Julie White, Christopher M Whipps, Elyn R Riedel, Neil S Lipman, Christine Lieggi
Pseudoloma neurophilia, a microsporidium that primarily infects neural tissues, is a common pathogen in laboratory zebrafish. The risk of parasite transmission with different spawning apparatuses and the effectiveness of disinfection are unknown. In this study, we spawned uninfected zebrafish with P. neurophilia-infected zebrafish in either 50 L mass spawning chambers (MSCs) or 1 L standard breeding tanks (BTs). Fish were spawned once or thrice, with and without chamber disinfection between uses, to evaluate risk of vertical and horizontal transmission...
October 19, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048588/bertiella-studeri-infection-a-rare-cause-of-chronic-abdominal-pain-in-a-child-from-north-india
#4
Shruti Sharma, Jagadeesh Menon, Sadhna Lal, Babu Ram Thapa
Bertiella is a common parasite seen in non-human primates. It is rarely seen in humans. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with bertiellosis. He had recurrent abdominal pain, and worm fragments were found in stool, which were refractory to albendazole therapy.
October 18, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047397/tyrosine-kinase-4-is-involved-in-the-reproduction-of-the-platyhelminth-parasite-schistosoma-japonicum
#5
Han Ding, Fengchun Liu, Lulu Zhu, Fei Wu, Quan Liu, Siyu He, Wei Shao, Yinan Du, Cuiping Ren, Jijia Shen, Miao Liu
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases affecting millions of humans and animals worldwide. Understanding the signal transduction pathways and the molecular basis of reproductive regulation in schistosomes is critically important for developing new strategies for preventing and treating these infections. Syk kinases regulate the proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and survival of various types of cells and have been identified in invertebrates...
October 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046636/targeting-the-immune-system-with-plant-lectins-to-combat-microbial-infections
#6
REVIEW
Jannyson J B Jandú, Roberval N Moraes Neto, Adrielle Zagmignan, Eduardo M de Sousa, Maria C A Brelaz-de-Castro, Maria T Dos Santos Correia, Luís C N da Silva
The arsenal of drugs available to treat infections caused by eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes has been declining exponentially due to antimicrobial resistance phenomenon, leading to an urgent need to develop new therapeutic strategies. Host-directed immunotherapy has been reported as an attractive option to treat microbial infections. It consists in the improvement of host defenses by increasing the expression of inflammatory mediators and/or controlling of inflammation-induced tissue injury. Although the in vitro antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of lectins have been extensively demonstrated, few studies have evaluated their in vivo effects on experimental models of infections...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046610/molecular-epidemiology-of-mosquitoes-for-the-transmission-of-forest-malaria-in-south-central-vietnam
#7
REVIEW
Yoshimasa Maeno
Human infection caused by non-human primate malarial parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi, occurs naturally in Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam. Members of the Anopheles dirus species complex are known to be important vectors of human malarial parasites in the forested areas of southern and central Vietnam, including those in Khanh Phu commune and Khanh Hoa Province. Recent molecular epidemiological studies in Vietnam have reported cases of co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and P...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046417/life-history-adjustments-to-intestinal-inflammation-in-a-gut-nematode
#8
Cédric Lippens, Emmanuel Guivier, Anthony Ollivier, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Many parasitic nematodes establish chronic infections. This implies a finely tuned interaction with the host immune response in order to avoid infection clearance. Although a number of immune interference mechanisms have been described in nematodes, how parasites adapt to the immune environment provided by their hosts remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus to investigate the plasticity of life history traits and immunomodulatory mechanisms in response to intestinal inflammation...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046031/-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-their-role-in-immune-response-regulation
#9
Bibiana Patricia Ruiz-Sánchez, David Cruz-Zárate, Iris Estrada-García, Isabel Wong-Baeza
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphocytes lacking antigen recognition receptors and become activated in response to cytokines and through microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptors. ILCs are found mainly in mucosal tissues and participate in the immune response against infections and in chronic inflammatory conditions. ILCs are divided in ILC-1, ILC-2 and ILC-3, and these cells have analogue functions to those of immune adaptive response lymphocytes Th1, Th2 and Th17. ILC-1 express T-bet, produce IFNγ, protect against infections with intracellular microorganisms and are related to inflammatory bowel disease immunopathology...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045903/hpari-protein-secreted-by-a-helminth-parasite-suppresses-interleukin-33
#10
Megan Osbourn, Dinesh C Soares, Francesco Vacca, E Suzanne Cohen, Ian C Scott, William F Gregory, Danielle J Smyth, Matilda Toivakka, Andrea M Kemter, Thierry le Bihan, Martin Wear, Dennis Hoving, Kara J Filbey, James P Hewitson, Holly Henderson, Andrea Gonzàlez-Cìscar, Claire Errington, Sonja Vermeren, Anne L Astier, William A Wallace, Jürgen Schwarze, Alasdair C Ivens, Rick M Maizels, Henry J McSorley
Infection by helminth parasites is associated with amelioration of allergic reactivity, but mechanistic insights into this association are lacking. Products secreted by the mouse parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppress type 2 (allergic) immune responses through interference in the interleukin-33 (IL-33) pathway. Here, we identified H. polygyrus Alarmin Release Inhibitor (HpARI), an IL-33-suppressive 26-kDa protein, containing three predicted complement control protein (CCP) modules. In vivo, recombinant HpARI abrogated IL-33, group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and eosinophilic responses to Alternaria allergen administration, and diminished eosinophilic responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, increasing parasite burden...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045695/a-new-collection-of-amblyomma-parvitarsum-acari-ixodidae-in-peru-with-description-of-a-gynandromorph-and-report-of-rickettsia-detection
#11
S Muñoz-Leal, T F Martins, L R Luna, A Rodriguez, M B Labruna, Kevin Macaluso
Adult stages of Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann parasitize wild and domestic camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna in highlands of Andean Plateau and Patagonia. Within the Peruvian Andes, few reports have documented this tick-host association, and although reported in Chile and Argentina, Rickettsia-infected A. parvitarsum remains undocumented for this country. Here we report a new collection of A. parvitarsum from Peru, the finding of the first gynandromorph for the species and high prevalence of Rickettsia in adult stages...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045624/long-term-cell-culture-isolated-from-lesions-of-mice-infected-with-leishmania-amazonensis-a-new-approach-to-study-mononuclear-phagocyte-subpopulations-during-the-infection
#12
Myriam Janeth Salazar Terreros, Luis Augusto Visani de Luna, Selma Giorgio
Leishmanioses are neglected diseases and the parasite Leishmania survives and proliferates within mononuclear phagocytes, particularly macrophages. In vitro studies of the immunology and cell biology of leishmaniosis are performed in murine peritoneum and bone marrow macrophages and immortalized cell lines despite the normal and injured tissue-specific heterogeneity of macrophages. In this work we established an ex vivo methodology to culture lesional cells from BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis. The cells were successfully isolated from footpad skin lesions and those exhibiting macrophage morphology were maintained in long-term culture (12 days), while the small number of lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear and unidentified cells died after one day of culture...
October 14, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045444/the-importance-of-public-health-poverty-reduction-programs-and-women-s-empowerment-in-the-reduction-of-child-stunting-in-rural-areas-of-moramanga-and-morondava-madagascar
#13
Chitale Remonja Rabaoarisoa, Rado Rakotoarison, Nivo Heritiana Rakotonirainy, Reziky Tiandraza Mangahasimbola, Alain Berthin Randrianarisoa, Ronan Jambou, Inès Vigan-Womas, Patrice Piola, Rindra Vatosoa Randremanana
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition accounts for 45% of mortality in children under five years old, despite a global mobilization against chronic malnutrition. In Madagascar, the most recent data show that the prevalence of stunting in children under five years old is still around 47.4%. This study aimed to identify the determinants of stunting in children in rural areas of Moramanga and Morondava districts to target the main areas for intervention. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in children aged from 6 to 59...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045404/transcriptomic-responses-of-biomphalaria-pfeifferi-to-schistosoma-mansoni-investigation-of-a-neglected-african-snail-that-supports-more-s-mansoni-transmission-than-any-other-snail-species
#14
Sarah K Buddenborg, Lijing Bu, Si-Ming Zhang, Faye D Schilkey, Gerald M Mkoji, Eric S Loker
BACKGROUND: Biomphalaria pfeifferi is highly compatible with the widespread human-infecting blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and transmits more cases of this parasite to people than any other snail species. For these reasons, B. pfeifferi is the world's most important vector snail for S. mansoni, yet we know relatively little at the molecular level regarding the interactions between B. pfeifferi and S. mansoni from early-stage sporocyst transformation to the development of cercariae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sought to capture a portrait of the response of B...
October 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044924/molecular-phylogeny-and-surface-morphology-of-thiriotia-hyperdolphinae-n-sp-and-cephaloidophora-oradareae-n-sp-gregarinasina-apicomplexa-isolated-from-a-deep-sea-oradarea-sp-amphipoda-in-the-west-pacific
#15
Kevin C Wakeman, Akinori Yabuki, Katsunori Fujikura, Ko Tomikawa, Takeo Horiguchi
In an effort to broaden our understanding of the biodiversity and distribution of gregarines infecting crustaceans, this study describes two new species of gregarines, Thiriotia hyperdolphinae n. sp. and Cephaloidophora oradareae n. sp., parasitizing a deep sea amphipod (Oradarea sp.). Amphipods were collected using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin at a depth of 855 m while on a cruise in Sagami Bay, Japan. Gregarine trophozoites and gamonts were isolated from the gut of the amphipod and studied with light and scanning electron microscopy, and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044314/diversity-of-parasites-in-wild-astronotus-ocellatus-perciformes-cichlidae-an-ornamental-and-food-fish-in-brazil
#16
Marcos Tavares-Dias, Ligia R Neves
The community composition of parasites was characterized in Astronotus ocellatus from a tributary of the Amazon River, northern Brazil. The prevalence was 87.9%, and a total of 526,052 parasites were collected, with a mean of 15,941 parasites per host. Nine taxa of ecto- and endo-parasites were identified, but Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, while Piscinoodinium pillulare, Clinostomum marginatum and Argulus multicolor were the least prevalent parasites. The parasite community was characterized by a low species richness, low diversity and low evenness...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044044/seawater-detection-and-biological-assessments-regarding-transmission-of-the-oyster-parasite-mikrocytos-mackini-using-qpcr
#17
Mark P Polinski, Gary R Meyer, Geoffrey J Lowe, Cathryn L Abbott
Mikrocytos mackini is an intracellular parasite of oysters and causative agent of Denman Island disease in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Although M. mackini has been investigated for decades, its natural mode of transmission, mechanism for host entry, and environmental stability are largely unknown. We explored these biological characteristics of M. mackini using a recently described quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. We detected M. mackini in the flow-through tank water of experimentally infected oysters and during disease remission in host tissues following 6 wk of elevated water temperature...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044043/nutrient-availability-modulates-both-host-and-parasite-life-histories-in-a-snail-trematode-interaction
#18
Gregory J Sandland, Katherine A Josephson
Host nutrient availability can have important life history consequences for hosts and their parasites. The responses of each participant within the association can vary extensively across host-parasite systems. In this paper, we outline the life history responses of the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata and its trematode parasite Echinostoma caproni during host nutrient restriction. The onset of host starvation had rapid and strong effects on snail reproduction, significantly reducing egg output in control snails and eliminating egg production in infected individuals...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044040/epizootiology-of-the-ectoparasitic-protozoans-ichthyobodo-salmonis-and-trichodina-truttae-on-wild-chum-salmon-oncorhynchus-keta
#19
Shinya Mizuno, Shigehiko Urawa, Mahito Miyamoto, Hayato Saneyoshi, Makoto Hatakeyama, Nobuhisa Koide, Hiroshi Ueda
Infestations of the ectoparasitic flagellate Ichthyobodo salmonis and the ciliate Trichodina truttae have caused acute mortalities of hatchery-reared juvenile chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta in Hokkaido, northern Japan. This study examined the epizootiology of I. salmonis and T. truttae on wild chum salmon as a possible infection source of the 2 parasitic protozoans in hatcheries. Infestations by both ectoparasites were detected on freshwater-adapted adult and juvenile chum salmon in all 4 rivers examined. This is the first study of an anadromous Pacific salmonid to report infestation of I...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044039/myxobolus-arcticus-and-parvicapsula-minibicornis-infections-in-sockeye-salmon-oncorhynchus-nerka-following-downstream-migration-in-british-columbia
#20
A M Mahony, S C Johnson, C M Neville, M E Thiess, S R M Jones
Factors influencing the health of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in British Columbia, Canada, are important for fisheries management and conservation. Juvenile salmon originating from the Fraser River were screened for 3 enzootic parasites (Myxobolus arcticus, Parvicapsula minibicornis, Ceratonova shasta) and the bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum. Fish were collected from the Strait of Georgia in 2010, 2011 and 2012 and genotyped to stock of origin. Trends in infection status were estimated by year, spawning zone and catch area...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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