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medical anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816023/community-sensitization-and-decision-making-for-trial-participation-a-mixed-methods-study-from-the-gambia
#1
Susan Dierickx, Sarah O'Neill, Charlotte Gryseels, Edna Immaculate Anyango, Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Joseph Okebe, Julia Mwesigwa, Fatou Jaiteh, René Gerrets, Raffaella Ravinetto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Ensuring individual free and informed decision-making for research participation is challenging. It is thought that preliminarily informing communities through 'community sensitization' procedures may improve individual decision-making. This study set out to assess the relevance of community sensitization for individual decision-making in research participation in rural Gambia. METHODS: This anthropological mixed-methods study triangulated qualitative methods and quantitative survey methods in the context of an observational study and a clinical trial on malaria carried out by the Medical Research Council Unit Gambia...
August 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766953/working-with-a-fractional-object-enactments-of-appetite-in-interdisciplinary-work-in-anthropology-and-biomedicine
#2
Bodil Just Christensen, Line Hillersdal, Lotte Holm
This paper explores the productive tensions occurring in an interdisciplinary research project on weight loss after obesity surgery. The study was a bio-medical/anthropological collaboration investigating to what extent eating patterns, the subjective experience of hunger and physiological mechanisms are involved in appetite regulation that might determine good or poor response to the surgery. Linking biomedical and anthropological categories and definitions of central concepts about the body turned out to be a major challenge in the collaborative analysis...
August 2, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766079/lawful-sinners-reproductive-governance-and-moral-agency-around-abortion-in-mexico
#3
Elyse Ona Singer
The Catholic Hierarchy unequivocally bans abortion, defining it as a mortal sin. In Mexico City, where the Catholic Church wields considerable political and popular power, abortion was recently decriminalized in a historic vote. Of the roughly 170,000 abortions that have been carried out in Mexico City's new public sector abortion program to date, more than 60% were among self-reported Catholic women. Drawing on eighteen months of fieldwork, including interviews with 34 Catholic patients, this article examines how Catholic women in Mexico City grapple with abortion decisions that contravene Church teachings in the context of recent abortion reform...
August 1, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758798/reconfiguring-diagnostic-work-in-danish-general-practice-regulation-triage-and-the-receptionist-as-diagnostician
#4
Rikke Sand Andersen, Rikke Aarhus
Health care systems as well as bodies of medical knowledge are dynamic and change as the result of political and social transformations. In recent decades, health care systems have been subjected to a whole assemblage of regulatory practices. The local changes undertaken in Denmark that are being explored here are indicative of a long-term shift that has occurred in many welfare states intended to make public services in the Global North more efficient and transparent. Departing in prolonged field work in Danish general practice and the anthropological literature on audit culture, this paper suggests that the introduction of regulatory practices has enhanced the need for triage as a key organising principle...
July 31, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741368/the-ontological-turn-meets-the-certainty-of-death
#5
Maryon McDonald
The 'ontological turn' involves some anthropological points of long standing but the approaches recently coordinated into this turn have been presented as a 'call to arms', as shaking up 'mono-realist singularities' and as inherently political. This fighting talk has no doubt made important contributions to anthropology and insights from the ontological turn can help in anthropological understandings of medical practices. However, this paper contends that this helpfulness is also limited and that a call to arms may be inappropriate...
July 25, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724024/stigma-related-to-bipolar-disorder-in-the-perception-of-psychiatrists-from-belo-horizonte-minas-gerais-state-brazil
#6
Adauto Silva Clemente, Wagner Jorge Dos Santos, Rodrigo Nicolato, Josélia Oliveira Araújo Firmo
This research sought to understand meanings and implications of the stigma related to bipolar disorder in relation to social processes and local cultural value systems. Seven semidirected individual interviews were performed with psychiatrists (from Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and analyzed with referential from the Medical Anthropology. Some potential stigmatizing views about bipolar disorder patients were endorsed by respondents related to biomedical model of bipolar disorder. They claimed about the extreme trivialization of this diagnosis nowadays and observed that, in spite of the mitigation of stigma related to bipolar disorder over time, it remains an important issue, especially at labor fields and as a cause of refusal of treatment...
July 13, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721738/counting-bodies-on-future-engagements-with-science-studies-in-medical-anthropology
#7
Emily Yates-Doerr
Thirty years ago, Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Margaret Lock outlined a strategy for 'future work in medical anthropology' that focused on three bodies. Their article - a zeitgeist for the field - sought to intervene into the Cartesian dualisms characterizing ethnomedical anthropology at the time. Taking a descriptive and diagnostic approach, they defined 'the mindful body' as a domain of future anthropological inquiry and mapped three analytic concepts that could be used to study it: the individual/phenomenological body, the social body, and the body politic...
July 19, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698708/pope-john-paul-ii-and-the-neurological-standard-for-the-determination-of-death-a-critical-analysis-of-his-address-to-the-transplantation-society
#8
Doyen Nguyen
The introduction of the "brain death" criterion constitutes a significant paradigm shift in the determination of death. The perception of the public at large is that the Catholic Church has formally endorsed this neurological standard. However, a critical reading of the only magisterial document on this subject, Pope John Paul II's 2000 address, shows that the pope's acceptance of the neurological criterion is conditional in that it entails a twofold requirement. It requires that certain medical presuppositions of the neurological standard are fulfilled, and that its philosophical premise coheres with the Church's teaching on the body-soul union...
May 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666649/-we-are-a-band-an-anthropological-vision-of-the-medical-community
#9
P Serrano Morón, M Delgado Galán
In this paper we try to explain, using an anthropological point of view, how the medical community behaves like a tribe like those who inhabit the Amazon forests or the African Savanna. The Family as fundamental unit of a band of hunter-gatherers also defines the Primary Care Centre and the professionals who work there, as an egalitarian group in which every member works for the good of the tribe. The leaders of the tribe, also called "Health Centre Managers", are also comparable to the "big men" of Polynesia or the aborigines, who leads hunting parties...
June 27, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635867/-the-investigations-into-the-amino-acid-composition-of-the-tooth-for-the-purpose-of-forensic-medical-personality-identification
#10
Yu I Pigolkin, G V Zolotenkova, P S Velenko, B N Izotov
The increasingly greater requirements for the new approaches to the forensic medical personality identification necessitate the extensive search for and the development of the precise methods enabling the experts to determine the general personality signs in the cases of mass mortality and the large number of victims with the conspicuous post-mortem changes in their appearance including those associated with putrefaction and strong fragmentation of the bodies. This article presents the analytical review demonstrating that determination of the victims' age in the combination with the analysis of the amino acid composition of dental tissues provides a promising tool for the investigations not only in the fields of archeology and anthropology but also for the purpose of personality identification in forensic medicine...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586275/good-food-bad-food-and-white-rice-understanding-child-feeding-using-visual-narrative-elicitation
#11
Chelsea Wentworth
Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice...
June 6, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577266/reimagining-childhood-responding-to-the-challenge-presented-by-severe-developmental-disability
#12
Erica K Salter
Through an exploration of the experience of severe and profound intellectual disability, this essay will attempt to expose the predominant, yet usually obscured, medical anthropology of the child and examine its effects on pediatric bioethics. I will argue that both modern western society and modern western medicine do, actually, have a robust notion of the child, a notion which can find its roots in three influential thinkers: Aristotle, Immanuel Kant and Jean Piaget. Together, these philosophers offer us a compelling vision: the child is primarily a future rational, autonomous adult...
June 2, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560543/bone-and-soft-tissue-histology-a-new-approach-to-determine-characteristics-of-offending-instrument-in-sharp-force-injuries
#13
Tania Delabarde, Catherine Cannet, Jean Sébastien Raul, Annie Géraut, Marc Taccoen, Bertrand Ludes
This paper describes a new approach to determine characteristics of the implement used to inflict trauma which involves the histological analysis of exogenous particles. Based on Locard's principle "every contact leaves a trace," we decided to assess whether histological examination of bone and soft tissue around a penetrating injury (sharp force trauma) could provide evidence of the offending implement. Case reports and experimental studies have demonstrated the potential of cut mark features in bone to identify the causative implement and potentially assist in identifying the perpetrator...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541713/dissecting-images-multimodal-medical-anthropology
#14
Elizabeth Cartwright, Jerome W Crowder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534146/detection-of-glass-particles-on-bone-lesions-using-sem-eds
#15
Romain Montoriol, Céline Guilbeau-Frugier, Elodie Chantalat, Mathieu Roumiguié, Marie-Bernadette Delisle, Bruno Payré, Norbert Telmon, Frédéric Savall
The problem of identifying the wounding agent in forensic cases is recurrent. Moreover, when several tools are involved, distinguishing the origin of lesions can be difficult. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) equipment is increasingly available to the scientific and medical community, and some studies have reported its use in forensic anthropology. However, at our knowledge, no study has reported the use of SEM-EDS in forensic cases involving glass tools, whether in case reports or experiments...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500464/global-skin-colour-prediction-from-dna
#16
Susan Walsh, Lakshmi Chaitanya, Krystal Breslin, Charanya Muralidharan, Agnieszka Bronikowska, Ewelina Pospiech, Julia Koller, Leda Kovatsi, Andreas Wollstein, Wojciech Branicki, Fan Liu, Manfred Kayser
Human skin colour is highly heritable and externally visible with relevance in medical, forensic, and anthropological genetics. Although eye and hair colour can already be predicted with high accuracies from small sets of carefully selected DNA markers, knowledge about the genetic predictability of skin colour is limited. Here, we investigate the skin colour predictive value of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 37 genetic loci previously associated with human pigmentation using 2025 individuals from 31 global populations...
July 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492085/self-managing-hiv-aids-cultural-competence-and-health-among-women-in-nairobi-kenya
#17
Toni Copeland
Despite recent efforts to supply antiretroviral therapy, many in Africa are not receiving medication, instead relying on self-management in their attempts to remain healthy. In Kenya, the majority of those infected are women who are below the extreme poverty level. Building on research demonstrating a link between knowledge of HIV/AIDS management and the length of time HIV-positive women have lived in Nairobi, this article uses a cognitive anthropological approach that conceives of culture as shared models and explores the relationship between how well women know a cultural model of self-managing HIV/AIDS and health among women who are not receiving biomedical treatment...
May 11, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458331/preliminary-thoughts-on-research-in-medical-humanities
#18
Xiaojing Yun, Jiawei Guo, Haihong Qian
Medical humanities (MH) is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history, and religion), social sciences (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, and health geography), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. Studies of MH should not be limited to theoretical discussions. Research results must be translated into use of methodologies to formulate medical policies, guide clinical practices, and help resolve physical or mental problems...
April 29, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452607/how-do-patients-actually-experience-and-use-art-in-hospitals-the-significance-of-interaction-a-user-oriented-experimental-case-study
#19
Stine L Nielsen, Lars B Fich, Kirsten K Roessler, Michael F Mullins
This article aims to understand patient wellbeing and satisfaction and to qualify the current guidelines for the application of art in hospitals. Employing anthropological methods, we focus on the interactional aspects of art in health interventions. A user-oriented study ranked 20 paintings, followed by an experiment using paintings in the dayroom of five medical wards. Fieldwork was done over a two-week period. During the first week, dayrooms were configured without the presence of art and in the second week were configured with the artworks...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448161/peaches-for-lunch-creating-and-using-visual-variables
#20
Elizabeth Cartwright, Adam Clegg
In this article, I describe the process of systematically including nonverbal data in medical anthropology research. I demonstrate the process of visualizing and coding videotaped moments of life and show how we can analyze what is being done along with what is being said. I ground my discussion in toddler language socialization and then expand my observations to the realm of language pathologies. Aphasia from strokes, speech difficulties in neurologically based illnesses like Lou Gehrig's disease, and the variety of communication challenges that face those on the autism spectrum can all be studied in interesting ways by including precise descriptions of nonverbal actions...
April 27, 2017: Medical Anthropology
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