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medical anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317470/anthropology-brokerage-and-collaboration-in-the-development-of-a-tongan-public-psychiatry-local-lessons-for-global-mental-health
#1
Mike Poltorak
The Global Mental Health (GMH) movement has raised questions of the translatability of psychiatric concepts and the challenges of community engagement. In Tonga, the local psychiatrist Dr Puloka successfully established a publicly accessible psychiatry that has improved admission rates for serious mental illnesses and addressed some of the stigma attached to diagnosis. On the basis of historical analysis and ethnographic fieldwork with healers, doctors, and patients since 1998, this article offers an ethnographic contextualization of the development and reception of Puloka's three key interventions during the 1990s: (a) collaboration with traditional healers; (b) translation of psychiatric diagnoses into local cultural concepts; and (c) encouraging freedom of movement and legal appeal to involuntary admission...
December 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299367/ivf-in-sri-lanka-a-concise-history-of-regulatory-impasse
#2
Bob Simpson
This article outlines the development of IVF in Sri Lanka from the first successful births in the late 1990s and over the subsequent 15 years. It is based on anthropological fieldwork carried out at various points during this period. The piece focuses on the challenges entailed in achieving regulation of the new reproductive technologies against a backdrop of: (i) a bitter civil war; (ii) a complex mosaic of different religious traditions (specifically, Buddhism, Catholicism, Hinduism and Islam); and (iii) a shift towards neo-liberal marketization, particularly in relation to specialist and hi-tech medical interventions...
June 2016: Reprod Biomed Soc Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299152/ebola-viral-disease-in-west-africa-a-threat-to-global-health-economy-and-political-stability
#3
Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Ibrahim Mohammed, Yauba Saidu
The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290306/a-historical-case-of-an-ameloblastoma-from-southern-italy
#4
J Cilli, R D'Anastasio
Jawbones are susceptible to various tumours, some of which originate from dental structures. Here we describe a case of a tumour in a mandible of an old man that was discovered during an archaeological excavation in southern Italy (Torrecuso; 17th-19th centuries). The right mandibular branch presents an extended, multilocular lesion. X-ray analysis shows erosion of the cortical bone layers and the thin trabeculae that circumscribe the lobular areas. Macroscopic and radiological aspects of the mandibular lesion are consistent with an ameloblastoma...
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281829/sensing-the-airs-the-cultural-context-for-breathing-and-breathlessness-in-uruguay
#5
Megan Wainwright
The sensory experience of breathing, particularly the sensation of breathlessness in the case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a rich though understudied topic in medical anthropology. Fieldwork in Uruguay made it clear to me that to study the sensorial experience of breathlessness, I would also have to study the widely shared cultural conceptualizations and practices surrounding air, breath, and health. In this article, I illustrate ethnographically how the experience of breathing and breathlessness is closely tied to perceptions of air outside the body - in particular humidity, temperature change, wind, and contamination...
February 7, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272112/starting-with-lucy-focusing-on-human-similarities-rather-than-differences-to-address-health-care-disparities
#6
Laura Clementz, Megan McNamara, Nicole M Burt, Matthew Sparks, Mamta K Singh
PROBLEM: Multicultural or cultural competence education to address health care disparities using the traditional categorical approach can lead to inadvertent adverse consequences. Nontraditional approaches that address these drawbacks while promoting humanistic care are needed. APPROACH: In September 2014, the Cleveland VA Medical Center's Center of Excellence in Primary Care Education Transforming Outpatient Care (CoEPCE-TOPC) collaborated with the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (CMNH) to develop the Original Identity program, which uses a biocultural anthropologic framework to help learners recognize and address unconscious bias and starts with a discussion of humans' shared origins...
March 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271847/syndemic-vulnerability-and-the-right-to-health
#7
REVIEW
Sarah S Willen, Michael Knipper, César E Abadía-Barrero, Nadav Davidovitch
Investigators working both in syndemics, a field of applied health research with roots in medical anthropology, and in the field of health and human rights recognise that upstream social, political, and structural determinants contribute more to health inequities than do biological factors or personal choices. Syndemics investigates synergistic, often deleterious interactions among comorbid health conditions, especially under circumstances of structural and political adversity. Health and human rights research draws on international law to argue that all people deserve access not only to health care, but also to the underlying determinants of good health...
March 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178909/doctoring-undercover-updating-the-educational-tradition-of-shadowing
#8
Claire D Clark
BACKGROUND: Premedical students are educated in basic biological and health sciences. As a complement to traditional premedical coursework, medical school applicants are encouraged to shadow practitioners, with the hope that observation will introduce students to the culture and practice of healthcare. Yet the shadowing experience varies widely across practitioners and institutions; resources that guide students' critical reflection and structure the experience are scarce. DEVELOPMENT: A pilot experiential learning course, Doctoring Undercover: Shadowing and the Culture of Medicine, was developed to fill this gap...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129754/health-endangering-everyday-settings-and-practices-in-a-rural-segregated-roma-settlement-in-slovakia-a-descriptive-summary-from-an-exploratory-longitudinal-case-study
#9
Andrej Belak, Andrea Madarasova Geckova, Jitse P van Dijk, Sijmen A Reijneveld
BACKGROUND: Research into social root-causes of poor health within segregated Roma communities in Central and Eastern Europe, i.e. research into how, why and by whom high health-endangering settings and exposures are maintained here, is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the local setup of health-endangering everyday settings and practices over the long-term in one such community. It is the initial part of a larger longitudinal study qualitatively exploring the social root-causes of poor Roma health status through the case of a particular settlement in Slovakia...
January 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117751/toward-a-socio-territorial-approach-to-health-health-equity-in-west-africa
#10
Lucie Vialard, Clara Squiban, Florence Fournet, Gérard Salem, Ellen E Foley
This study contributes to the literature about the effects of space and place on health by introducing a socio-territorial approach to urban health disparities in West Africa. It explores how urban spaces, specifically neighbourhoods, are shaped by social and economic relations and strategies of territorial control. We examine the potential influence of socio-territorial processes on vulnerability to disease, access to medical care, healthscapes, and illness experiences. Our research was conducted in Senegal and relied on a mixed methods design...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114347/genetic-hla-study-of-kurds-in-iraq-iran-and-tbilisi-caucasus-georgia-relatedness-and-medical-implications
#11
Antonio Arnaiz-Villena, Jose Palacio-Grüber, Ester Muñiz, Cristina Campos, Javier Alonso-Rubio, Eduardo Gomez-Casado, Shadallah Fareq Salih, Manuel Martin-Villa, Rawand Al-Qadi
Kurds from Iraq (Dohuk and Erbil Area, North Iraq) have been analyzed for HLA genes. Their HLA genetic profile has been compared with that of other Kurd groups from Iran and Tbilisi (Georgia, Caucasus) and also Worldwide populations. A total of 7,746 HLA chromosomes have been used. Genetic distances, NJ dendrograms and correspondence analyses have been carried out. Haplotype HLA-B*52-DRB1*15 is present in all three analyzed Kurd populations. HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 is present in Iraq and Georgia Kurds. Haplotypes common to Iran and Iraq Kurds are HLA DRB1*11-DQB1*03, HLA DRB1*03-DQB1*02 and others in a lower frequency...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093045/exploring-urban-health-in-cape-town-south-africa-an-interdisciplinary-analysis-of-secondary-data
#12
Rebekka Mumm, Sonia Diaz-Monsalve, Eva Hänselmann, Johanna Freund, Michael Wirsching, Jan Gärtner, Richard Gminski, Katrin Vögtlin, Mirjam Körner, Lena Zirn, Ursula Wittwer-Backofen, Tolu Oni, Axel Kroeger
BACKGROUND: With modern information technology, an overwhelming amount of data is available on different aspects of societies. Our research investigated the feasibility of using secondary data sources to get an overview of determinants of health and health outcomes in different population strata of Cape Town, a large city of South Africa. METHODS: The methodological approach of secondary-data analysis was similar in the different disciplines: Biological Anthropology, Public Health, Environmental Health, Mental Health, Palliative Care, Medical Psychology and Sociology at the University of Freiburg and Public Health at the University of Cape Town...
February 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066890/undocumented-border-crosser-deaths-in-arizona-expanding-intrastate-collaborative-efforts-in-identification
#13
Julie M Fleischman, Ashley E Kendell, Christen C Eggers, Laura C Fulginiti
Undocumented Border Crosser (UBC) deaths in Arizona are a major issue faced by medicolegal authorities. Currently, the Maricopa County Office of the Medical Examiner (MCOME) is in possession of over two hundred unidentified individuals, more than half of whom are presumed to be UBCs. The primary goal of this study was to address the growing number of UBC deaths in Maricopa County in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of this important anthropological issue within the state of Arizona. Of the 107 total UBC cases evaluated for the study, the majority were male and age estimates for all individuals were between 15 to 60 years old...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062825/global-family-medicine-a-universal-mnemonic
#14
William B Ventres
In this essay, I borrow the idea of universal precautions from infection control and suggest that family physicians use a set of considerations, based on the mnemonic UNIVERSAL, to nurture cultural humility, enter a metaphoric "space-in-between" in cross-cultural encounters, and foster global fluency. These UNIVERSAL considerations I base on my experiences in global family medicine, attending to economically poor and socially marginalized patients in both international and domestic settings. They are informed by readings in transcultural psychiatry, medical anthropology, development studies, and primary care...
January 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059616/challenges-health-implications-and-advocacy-opportunities-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-global-health-providers
#15
Jason M Nagata
In this commentary, I reflect on challenges with conducting global health research internationally as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) person, grapple with decisions related to coming out in regions with anti-LGBT laws, and outline the risks and benefits of different advocacy options related to the promotion of LGBT health globally. Despite significant advances in LGBT rights in many countries, homosexuality remains illegal in many others. Using a critical medical anthropology framework, I argue that anti-LGBT laws constitute structural violence and have many detrimental consequences including discrimination and violence; poorer mental and physical health outcomes; and risky sexual behaviors...
January 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059554/searching-for-love-and-test-tube-babies-iraqi-refugee-men-in-reproductive-exile-on-the-margins-of-detroit
#16
Marcia C Inhorn
In this article, I explore the reproductive health problems faced by Iraqi refugees, one of America's most rapidly growing immigrant populations. Based on anthropological research in 'Arab Detroit', the 'capital' of Arab America, I explore the experiences of Iraqi refugee men seeking medical help for their infertility. Most required intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a variant of in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, in America's privatized medical system-where a single cycle can cost more than $12,000-few could possibly afford this assisted reproductive technology (ART)...
January 6, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049522/paradox-of-the-institution-findings-from-a-hospital-labour-ward-ethnography
#17
Elizabeth C Newnham, Lois V McKellar, Jan I Pincombe
BACKGROUND: Interest in the influence of culture on birth practices is on the rise, and with it comes a sense of urgency to implement practices that aid the normalisation and humanisation of birth. This groundswell is occurring despite a broader cultural milieu of escalating technology-use and medicalisation of birth across the globe. Against this background, rates of epidural analgesia use by women in labour are increasing, despite the risk of side effects. Socio-cultural norms and beliefs are likely to influence pain relief choices but there is currently scant research on this topic...
January 3, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032301/from-disabled-students-to-disabled-brains-the-medicalizing-power-of-rhetorical-images-in-the-israeli-learning-disabilities-field
#18
Ofer Katchergin
The neurocentric worldview that identifies the essence of the human being with the material brain has become a central paradigm in current academic discourse. Israeli researchers also seek to understand educational principles and processes via neuroscientific models. On this background, the article uncovers the central role that visual brain images play in the learning-disabilities field in Israel. It examines the place brain images have in the professional imagination of didactic-diagnosticians as well as their influence on the diagnosticians' clinical attitudes...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004788/multi-indel-analysis-for-ancestry-inference-of-sub-populations-in-china
#19
Kuan Sun, Yi Ye, Tao Luo, Yiping Hou
Ancestry inference is of great interest in diverse areas of scientific researches, including the forensic biology, medical genetics and anthropology. Various methods have been published for distinguishing populations. However, few reports refer to sub-populations (like ethnic groups) within Asian populations for the limitation of markers. Several InDel loci located very tightly in physical positions were treated as one marker by us, which is multi-InDel. The multi-InDel shows potential as Ancestry Inference Marker (AIM)...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998806/expert-patient-illness-narratives-as-a-teaching-methodology-a-mixed-method-study-of-student-nurses-satisfaction
#20
Maria Feijoo-Cid, David Moriña, Rebeca Gómez-Ibáñez, Juan M Leyva-Moral
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nursing students' satisfaction with Expert Patient Illness Narratives as a teaching and learning methodology based on patient involvement. METHODS AND DESIGN: Mixed methods were used in this study: online survey with quantitative and qualitative items designed by researchers. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-four nursing students of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, attending a Medical Anthropology elective course...
December 7, 2016: Nurse Education Today
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