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medical anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724024/stigma-related-to-bipolar-disorder-in-the-perception-of-psychiatrists-from-belo-horizonte-minas-gerais-state-brazil
#1
Adauto Silva Clemente, Wagner Jorge Dos Santos, Rodrigo Nicolato, Josélia Oliveira Araújo Firmo
This research sought to understand meanings and implications of the stigma related to bipolar disorder in relation to social processes and local cultural value systems. Seven semidirected individual interviews were performed with psychiatrists (from Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and analyzed with referential from the Medical Anthropology. Some potential stigmatizing views about bipolar disorder patients were endorsed by respondents related to biomedical model of bipolar disorder. They claimed about the extreme trivialization of this diagnosis nowadays and observed that, in spite of the mitigation of stigma related to bipolar disorder over time, it remains an important issue, especially at labor fields and as a cause of refusal of treatment...
July 13, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721738/counting-bodies-on-future-engagements-with-science-studies-in-medical-anthropology
#2
Emily Yates-Doerr
Thirty years ago, Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Margaret Lock outlined a strategy for 'future work in medical anthropology' that focused on three bodies. Their article - a zeitgeist for the field - sought to intervene into the Cartesian dualisms characterizing ethnomedical anthropology at the time. Taking a descriptive and diagnostic approach, they defined 'the mindful body' as a domain of future anthropological inquiry and mapped three analytic concepts that could be used to study it: the individual/phenomenological body, the social body, and the body politic...
July 19, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698708/pope-john-paul-ii-and-the-neurological-standard-for-the-determination-of-death-a-critical-analysis-of-his-address-to-the-transplantation-society
#3
Doyen Nguyen
The introduction of the "brain death" criterion constitutes a significant paradigm shift in the determination of death. The perception of the public at large is that the Catholic Church has formally endorsed this neurological standard. However, a critical reading of the only magisterial document on this subject, Pope John Paul II's 2000 address, shows that the pope's acceptance of the neurological criterion is conditional in that it entails a twofold requirement. It requires that certain medical presuppositions of the neurological standard are fulfilled, and that its philosophical premise coheres with the Church's teaching on the body-soul union...
May 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666649/-we-are-a-band-an-anthropological-vision-of-the-medical-community
#4
P Serrano Morón, M Delgado Galán
In this paper we try to explain, using an anthropological point of view, how the medical community behaves like a tribe like those who inhabit the Amazon forests or the African Savanna. The Family as fundamental unit of a band of hunter-gatherers also defines the Primary Care Centre and the professionals who work there, as an egalitarian group in which every member works for the good of the tribe. The leaders of the tribe, also called "Health Centre Managers", are also comparable to the "big men" of Polynesia or the aborigines, who leads hunting parties...
June 27, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635867/-the-investigations-into-the-amino-acid-composition-of-the-tooth-for-the-purpose-of-forensic-medical-personality-identification
#5
Yu I Pigolkin, G V Zolotenkova, P S Velenko, B N Izotov
The increasingly greater requirements for the new approaches to the forensic medical personality identification necessitate the extensive search for and the development of the precise methods enabling the experts to determine the general personality signs in the cases of mass mortality and the large number of victims with the conspicuous post-mortem changes in their appearance including those associated with putrefaction and strong fragmentation of the bodies. This article presents the analytical review demonstrating that determination of the victims' age in the combination with the analysis of the amino acid composition of dental tissues provides a promising tool for the investigations not only in the fields of archeology and anthropology but also for the purpose of personality identification in forensic medicine...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586275/good-food-bad-food-and-white-rice-understanding-child-feeding-using-visual-narrative-elicitation
#6
Chelsea Wentworth
Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice...
June 6, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577266/reimagining-childhood-responding-to-the-challenge-presented-by-severe-developmental-disability
#7
Erica K Salter
Through an exploration of the experience of severe and profound intellectual disability, this essay will attempt to expose the predominant, yet usually obscured, medical anthropology of the child and examine its effects on pediatric bioethics. I will argue that both modern western society and modern western medicine do, actually, have a robust notion of the child, a notion which can find its roots in three influential thinkers: Aristotle, Immanuel Kant and Jean Piaget. Together, these philosophers offer us a compelling vision: the child is primarily a future rational, autonomous adult...
June 2, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560543/bone-and-soft-tissue-histology-a-new-approach-to-determine-characteristics-of-offending-instrument-in-sharp-force-injuries
#8
Tania Delabarde, Catherine Cannet, Jean Sébastien Raul, Annie Géraut, Marc Taccoen, Bertrand Ludes
This paper describes a new approach to determine characteristics of the implement used to inflict trauma which involves the histological analysis of exogenous particles. Based on Locard's principle "every contact leaves a trace," we decided to assess whether histological examination of bone and soft tissue around a penetrating injury (sharp force trauma) could provide evidence of the offending implement. Case reports and experimental studies have demonstrated the potential of cut mark features in bone to identify the causative implement and potentially assist in identifying the perpetrator...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541713/dissecting-images-multimodal-medical-anthropology
#9
Elizabeth Cartwright, Jerome W Crowder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534146/detection-of-glass-particles-on-bone-lesions-using-sem-eds
#10
Romain Montoriol, Céline Guilbeau-Frugier, Elodie Chantalat, Mathieu Roumiguié, Marie-Bernadette Delisle, Bruno Payré, Norbert Telmon, Frédéric Savall
The problem of identifying the wounding agent in forensic cases is recurrent. Moreover, when several tools are involved, distinguishing the origin of lesions can be difficult. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) equipment is increasingly available to the scientific and medical community, and some studies have reported its use in forensic anthropology. However, at our knowledge, no study has reported the use of SEM-EDS in forensic cases involving glass tools, whether in case reports or experiments...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500464/global-skin-colour-prediction-from-dna
#11
Susan Walsh, Lakshmi Chaitanya, Krystal Breslin, Charanya Muralidharan, Agnieszka Bronikowska, Ewelina Pospiech, Julia Koller, Leda Kovatsi, Andreas Wollstein, Wojciech Branicki, Fan Liu, Manfred Kayser
Human skin colour is highly heritable and externally visible with relevance in medical, forensic, and anthropological genetics. Although eye and hair colour can already be predicted with high accuracies from small sets of carefully selected DNA markers, knowledge about the genetic predictability of skin colour is limited. Here, we investigate the skin colour predictive value of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 37 genetic loci previously associated with human pigmentation using 2025 individuals from 31 global populations...
July 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492085/self-managing-hiv-aids-cultural-competence-and-health-among-women-in-nairobi-kenya
#12
Toni Copeland
Despite recent efforts to supply antiretroviral therapy, many in Africa are not receiving medication, instead relying on self-management in their attempts to remain healthy. In Kenya, the majority of those infected are women who are below the extreme poverty level. Building on research demonstrating a link between knowledge of HIV/AIDS management and the length of time HIV-positive women have lived in Nairobi, this article uses a cognitive anthropological approach that conceives of culture as shared models and explores the relationship between how well women know a cultural model of self-managing HIV/AIDS and health among women who are not receiving biomedical treatment...
May 11, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458331/preliminary-thoughts-on-research-in-medical-humanities
#13
Xiaojing Yun, Jiawei Guo, Haihong Qian
Medical humanities (MH) is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history, and religion), social sciences (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, and health geography), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. Studies of MH should not be limited to theoretical discussions. Research results must be translated into use of methodologies to formulate medical policies, guide clinical practices, and help resolve physical or mental problems...
April 29, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452607/how-do-patients-actually-experience-and-use-art-in-hospitals-the-significance-of-interaction-a-user-oriented-experimental-case-study
#14
Stine L Nielsen, Lars B Fich, Kirsten K Roessler, Michael F Mullins
This article aims to understand patient wellbeing and satisfaction and to qualify the current guidelines for the application of art in hospitals. Employing anthropological methods, we focus on the interactional aspects of art in health interventions. A user-oriented study ranked 20 paintings, followed by an experiment using paintings in the dayroom of five medical wards. Fieldwork was done over a two-week period. During the first week, dayrooms were configured without the presence of art and in the second week were configured with the artworks...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448161/peaches-for-lunch-creating-and-using-visual-variables
#15
Elizabeth Cartwright, Adam Clegg
In this article, I describe the process of systematically including nonverbal data in medical anthropology research. I demonstrate the process of visualizing and coding videotaped moments of life and show how we can analyze what is being done along with what is being said. I ground my discussion in toddler language socialization and then expand my observations to the realm of language pathologies. Aphasia from strokes, speech difficulties in neurologically based illnesses like Lou Gehrig's disease, and the variety of communication challenges that face those on the autism spectrum can all be studied in interesting ways by including precise descriptions of nonverbal actions...
April 27, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375646/careography-staff-experiences-of-navigating-decisions-in-neonatology-in-denmark
#16
Laura E Navne, Mette N Svendsen
In this article, we explore medical doctors' moral experiences of being responsible for decisions on the lives and sometimes deaths of infants in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Drawing on fieldwork, we investigate how clinicians navigate the tension between exercising medical authority and enabling parental involvement in decisions. Introducing the term "careography", we call attention to how the doctors steer this tension through care for the infant, parents, colleagues, and society in ways that help them overcome moral ambivalences...
April 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370807/a-call-for-action-why-anthropologists-can-and-should-join-the-discussion-on-climate-change-through-education
#17
Lauren N Butaric, Lydia E O Light, Sara L Juengst
Anthropologists, human biologists, and researchers in related fields have been investigating the human-environment interaction and its effects on health for decades. While there have been numerous studies from the medical- and health-sectors pointing to the connection between climate change and health needs, as well as studies advocating for the incorporation of appropriate curricula addressing these needs in medical schools and health-professional programs, this connection is not being systematically taught to our future healthcare professionals...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366442/human-demographic-history-impacts-genetic-risk-prediction-across-diverse-populations
#18
Alicia R Martin, Christopher R Gignoux, Raymond K Walters, Genevieve L Wojcik, Benjamin M Neale, Simon Gravel, Mark J Daly, Carlos D Bustamante, Eimear E Kenny
The vast majority of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are performed in Europeans, and their transferability to other populations is dependent on many factors (e.g., linkage disequilibrium, allele frequencies, genetic architecture). As medical genomics studies become increasingly large and diverse, gaining insights into population history and consequently the transferability of disease risk measurement is critical. Here, we disentangle recent population history in the widely used 1000 Genomes Project reference panel, with an emphasis on populations underrepresented in medical studies...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350182/towards-communicative-justice-in-health
#19
Charles L Briggs
This article approaches care from a different angle by looking ethnographically at how it is shaped by structural differences in the power to control the circulation of knowledge. I focus on an investigation conducted by people classified as "indigenous", of an epidemic that killed 38 children and young adults in a Venezuelan rainforest. I trace how health/communicative inequities structured clinical interactions, documents, epidemiological investigations, news stories, and dialogues with healers, thwarting the identification of the epidemic, clinically identified as rabies...
May 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344031/culture-bound-syndromes-of-a-brazilian-amazon-riverine-population-tentative-correspondence-between-traditional-and-conventional-medicine-terms-and-possible-ethnopharmacological-implications
#20
E Pagani, J de F L Santos, E Rodrigues
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: It is not always possible to correlate the "emic" terms to the "etic" ones during ethnopharmacological surveys, especially regarding those related to Culture-Bound Syndromes (CBS). Nevertheless, it is the role of ethnopharmacology to address these correlations, since they are the basis for the understanding of potential bioactives. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: This study reports the clinical manifestations and therapeutic resources used for the treatment of CBS among some riverine inhabitants of Brazilian Amazonia...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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