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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793031/cloning-overexpression-and-purification-of-a-gene-of-unknown-function-of-prophage-loci-from-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-the-destructive-bacterial-pathogen-of-huanglongbing-disease-in-citrus-plants
#1
Duangtip Sudhan, Thamrongjet Puttamuk, Supachai Vuttipongchaikij, Pitak Chuawong
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus industry worldwide. The causal agent in Asia is a phloem-limited, Gram-negative bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). Within the genome of CLas lies prophage regions, classified as Type-A, B, C, and D. In particular, Type-D has been indicated to correlate with the blotchy-mottle symptoms of citrus trees. Here we reported the cloning, overexpression, and purification of the ORF1, an open reading frame from the partial Type-D region of CLas obtained from an infected lime tree (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)...
May 21, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792971/impact-of-active-surveillance-and-infection-control-measures-on-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-colonization-and-infections-in-intensive-care
#2
T Karampatakis, K Tsergouli, E Iosifidis, C Antachopoulos, A Karapanagiotou, A Karyoti, N Gritsi-Gerogianni, A Tsakris, E Roilides
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) infections constitute a global threat for critically ill patients and the outcome of their hospitalization. Early identification of CRGNB through rectal surveillance cultures and routine infection control measures including contact precautions, use of appropriate disinfectants, staff education on cleaning, and hand hygiene may reduce the dissemination of CRGNB. AIM: To assess the impact of enhanced infection control measures on CRGNB infections in a nine-bed polyvalent intensive care unit in a tertiary level hospital in an endemic area...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792689/selectivity-within-a-family-of-bacterial-phosphothreonine-lyases
#3
Kaitlin A Chambers, Nile S Abularrage, Rebecca A Scheck
Phosphothreonine lyases are bacterial effector proteins secreted into host cells to facilitate the infection process. This enzyme family catalyzes an irreversible elimination reaction that converts phosphothreonine or phosphoserine to dehydrobutyrine or dehydroalanine, respectively. Herein we report a study of substrate selectivity for each of the four known phosphothreonine lyases. This was accomplished using a combination of mass spectrometry and enzyme kinetics assays for a series of phosphorylated peptides derived from the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation loop...
May 24, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792233/antibiotic-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-non-typhoidal-salmonella-strains-isolated-from-infections-in-southwest-china
#4
Shun-Xian Zhang, Yong-Ming Zhou, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Rita Tinoco-Torres, Emmanuel Serrano, Shi-Zhu Li, Shao-Hong Chen, Lin Ai, Jun-Hu Chen, Shang Xia, Yan Lu, Shan Lv, Xue-Jiao Teng, Wen Xu, Wen-Peng Gu, Si-Tang Gong, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Lan-Lan Geng, Wei Hu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial diarrhea is one of the most common causes for medical consultations, mortality and morbidity in the world. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are major intestinal pathogens in developing countries, and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has greatly contributed to resistant strains. Hence, the aim of the present study is to identify the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the molecular characteristics of DEC and NTS in southwest, China...
May 7, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792190/novel-insights-into-neuroinflammation-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-ureaplasma-species-differentially-modulate-atypical-chemokine-receptor-3-responses-in-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#5
Christine Silwedel, Christian P Speer, Axel Haarmann, Markus Fehrholz, Heike Claus, Mathias Buttmann, Kirsten Glaser
BACKGROUND: Atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3, synonym CXCR7) is increasingly considered relevant in neuroinflammatory conditions, in which its upregulation contributes to compromised endothelial barrier function and may ultimately allow inflammatory brain injury. While an impact of ACKR3 has been recognized in several neurological autoimmune diseases, neuroinflammation may also result from infectious agents, including Ureaplasma species (spp.). Although commonly regarded as commensals of the adult urogenital tract, Ureaplasma spp...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791951/nervous-system-infections-and-the-global-traveler
#6
Savina Reid, Haley Thompson, Kiran T Thakur
Neurological complications of infectious diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that neurologists be up-to-date on current developments including typical and atypical presentations of neurological infections in travelers, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and emerging pathogen resistance patterns to avoid fatal outcomes and long-term sequelae. This article will address concepts of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and will provide updates on the neurological manifestations of select emerging and reemerging infections, including Ebola virus, bacterial meningitis, enterovirus 71, Zika virus, cerebral malaria, and Japanese encephalitis...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791904/the-cgas-sting-pathway-is-important-for-dendritic-cell-activation-but-is-not-essential-to-induce-protective-immunity-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#7
Fabio V Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Stephanie Rose, Priscila C Campos, João T Marques, André Báfica, Glen Barber, Bernhard Ryffel, Sergio C Oliveira, Valerie F J Quesniaux
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains a major public health concern. The STING (stimulator of interferon genes) pathway contributes to the cytosolic surveillance of host cells. Most studies on the role of STING activation in Mtb infection have focused on macrophages. Moreover, a detailed investigation of the role of STING during Mtb infection in vivo is required. Here, we deciphered the involvement of STING in the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and the host response to Mtb infection in vivo...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791701/microbial-load-of-trocars-potential-source-of-contamination-and-surgical-site-infection
#8
Vanessa Aparecida Vilas-Boas, Carlos Emílio Levy, Maria Isabel Pedreira de Freitas, Kevin Woo
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication that is associated with delayed recovery, prolonged length of hospital stay, exorbitant cost, and mortality. The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the relationships between the microbial load of trocars used in laparoscopic gynecological surgery, microbiota in surgical sites, and SSI. The final sample consisted of 24 patients, including 68 swab samples and 48 trocars. Microorganisms were recovered in 100.0% of the swabs collected from the umbilicus and vaginal fornix and in 58...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791511/caspase-11-dependent-pyroptosis-of-lung-epithelial-cells-protects-from-melioidosis-while-caspase-1-mediates-macrophage-pyroptosis-and-production-of-il-18
#9
Jinyong Wang, Manoranjan Sahoo, Louis Lantier, Jonathan Warawa, Hector Cordero, Kelly Deobald, Fabio Re
Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei or B. thailandensis triggers activation of the NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasomes leading to release of IL-1β and IL-18 and death of infected macrophages by pyroptosis, respectively. The non-canonical inflammasome composed of caspase-11 is also activated by these bacteria and provides protection through induction of pyroptosis. The recent generation of bona fide caspase-1-deficient mice allowed us to reexamine in a mouse model of pneumonic melioidosis the role of caspase-1 independently of caspase-11 (that was also absent in previously generated Casp1-/- mice)...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791507/a-novel-mouse-model-of-campylobacter-jejuni-enteropathy-and-diarrhea
#10
Natasa Giallourou, Gregory L Medlock, David T Bolick, Pedro Hqs Medeiros, Solanka E Ledwaba, Glynis L Kolling, Kenneth Tung, Patricia Guerry, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
Campylobacter infections are among the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea and of 'environmental enteropathy' (EE) and growth failure worldwide. However, the lack of an inexpensive small animal model of enteric disease with Campylobacter has been a major limitation for understanding its pathogenesis, interventions or vaccine development. We describe a robust standard mouse model that can exhibit reproducible bloody diarrhea or growth failure, depending on the zinc or protein deficient diet and on antibiotic alteration of normal microbiota prior to infection...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791442/bacillus-cereus-a-serious-cause-of-nosocomial-infections-epidemiologic-and-genetic-survey
#11
Benjamin Glasset, Sabine Herbin, Sophie A Granier, Laurent Cavalié, Emilie Lafeuille, Cyprien Guérin, Raymond Ruimy, Florence Casagrande-Magne, Marion Levast, Nathalie Chautemps, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Laure Belotti, Isabelle Pelloux, Jerôme Robert, Anne Brisabois, Nalini Ramarao
Bacillus cereus is the 2nd most frequent bacterial agent responsible for food-borne outbreaks in France and the 3rd in Europe. In addition, local and systemic infections have been reported, mainly describing individual cases or single hospital setting. The real incidence of such infection is unknown and information on genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the incriminated strains is generally scarce. We performed an extensive study of B. cereus strains isolated from patients and hospital environments from nine hospitals during a 5-year study, giving an overview of the consequences, sources and pathogenic patterns of B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790701/the-clinical-importance-of-changes-in-treg-and-th17-lymphocyte-subsets-in-splenectomized-patients-after-spleen-injury
#12
Witold Zgodziński, Ewelina Grywalska, Dorota Siwicka-Gieroba, Agata Surdacka, Krzysztof Zinkiewicz, Dariusz Szczepanek, Grzegorz Wallner, Jacek Roliński
BACKGROUND: Splenectomized patients are more prone to bacterial infections due to their immunocompromised status. Little is known about the role of T helper 17 (Th17) and T regulatory cells (Treg) in the immune system of patients after the removal of the spleen. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze possible changes in CD4+ lymphocyte T subsets, especially Treg and Th17, in patients who had undergone splenectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included a group of 67 male patients (41...
May 22, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790651/epitheliocystis-in-fish-an-emerging-aquaculture-disease-with-a-global-impact
#13
REVIEW
Makeely Isabel Blandford, Alyce Taylor-Brown, Thomas A Schlacher, Barbara Nowak, Adam Polkinghorne
Epitheliocystis is a skin and gill disease in fish caused by pathogenic intracellular bacteria. The disease has been reported in at least 90 species of marine and freshwater fish in both the southern and northern hemispheres. It affects a number of commercially important aquaculture species, including salmon, kingfish and bream. In infected fish, cysts typically develop in the gill epithelia, promoting the fusion of gill lamellae. Infections can lead to respiratory distress and death, particularly in cultured and juvenile fish with cases rarely reported in wild fish...
May 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790584/effects-of-psidium-guajava-leaf-extract-on-secretion-systems-of-gram-negative-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#14
Noboru Nakasone, Yasunori Ogura, Naomi Higa, Claudia Toma, Yukiko Koizumi, Giichi Takaesu, Toshihiko Suzuki, Tetsu Yamashiro
We screened a total of 672 plant-tissue extracts to search for phytochemicals that inhibit the function of the type III secretion system (T3SS) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among candidates examined, we found that an extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava) inhibited the secretion of the EspB protein from EPEC and EHEC without affecting bacterial growth. The guava extract (GE) also inhibited EPEC and EHEC from adhering to and injecting EspB protein into HEp-2 cells...
May 23, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790304/reducing-bacterial-infections-and-biofilm-formation-using-nanoparticles-and-nanostructured-antibacterial-surfaces
#15
REVIEW
Gujie Mi, Di Shi, Mian Wang, Thomas J Webster
With the rapid spreading of resistance among common bacterial pathogens, bacterial infections, especially antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, have drawn much attention worldwide. In light of this, nanoparticles, including metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, liposomes, polymersomes, and solid lipid nanoparticles, have been increasingly exploited as both efficient antimicrobials themselves or as delivery platforms to enhance the effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In addition to the emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance, of equal concern are implantable device-associated infections, which result from bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation at the site of implantation...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790254/chemsex-and-new-hiv-diagnosis-in-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-attending-sexual-health-clinics
#16
M Pakianathan, W Whittaker, M J Lee, J Avery, S Green, B Nathan, A Hegazi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyse associations between chemsex and new HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) accessing sexual health clinics. METHODS: A retrospective case note review was carried out for all GBMSM attending two London sexual health clinics between 1 June 2014 and 31 July 2015. RESULTS: Chemsex status was documented for 1734 of 1840 patients...
May 22, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790240/understanding-mucosal-and-microbial-functionality-of-the-female-reproductive-tract-by-metaproteomics-implications-for-hiv-transmission
#17
Alicia R Berard, Michelle Perner, Sarah Mutch, Christina Farr Zuend, Peter McQueen, Adam D Burgener
The mucosal surface of the female genital tract contains physiological, immunological, and microbial components that collectively comprise a functioning "mucosal system" that is critical for reproductive health. Alterations or imbalances to any of these components can have significant consequences for susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV. In recent years the advent of advanced systems biology technologies, such as metaproteomics, has provided new toolsets to studying mucosal systems...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789961/illnesses-associated-with-freshwater-recreation-during-international-travel
#18
REVIEW
Daniel L Bourque, Joseph M Vinetz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: International travel, adventure travel, and eco-tourism are increasing over the past few decades. This review aims to summarize the spectrum of infections associated with recreational freshwater activities and international travel. RECENT FINDINGS: Recreational water activities can be associated with a wide range of infections. Acute febrile illnesses due to leptospirosis and schistosomiasis are not uncommon in travelers following extensive freshwater exposure...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789953/update-on-tick-borne-bacterial-diseases-in-travelers
#19
REVIEW
Carole Eldin, Philippe Parola
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ticks are the second most important vectors of infectious diseases after mosquitoes worldwide. The growth of international tourism including in rural and remote places increasingly exposes travelers to tick bite. Our aim was to review the main tick-borne infectious diseases reported in travelers in the past 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, tick-borne bacterial diseases have emerged in travelers including spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses, borrelioses, and diseases caused by bacteria of the Anaplasmataceae family...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789681/genomic-and-ecological-study-of-two-distinctive-freshwater-bacteriophages-infecting-a-comamonadaceae-bacterium
#20
Kira Moon, Ilnam Kang, Suhyun Kim, Sang-Jong Kim, Jang-Cheon Cho
Bacteriophages of freshwater environments have not been well studied despite their numerical dominance and ecological importance. Currently, very few phages have been isolated for many abundant freshwater bacterial groups, especially for the family Comamonadaceae that is found ubiquitously in freshwater habitats. In this study, we report two novel phages, P26059A and P26059B, that were isolated from Lake Soyang in South Korea, and lytically infected bacterial strain IMCC26059, a member of the family Comamonadaceae...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
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