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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441320/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-is-ineffective-as-an-adjuvant-to-daptomycin-with-rifampicin-treatment-in-a-murine-model-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-implant-associated-osteomyelitis
#1
Nis Pedersen Jørgensen, Kasper Hansen, Caroline Marie Andreasen, Michael Pedersen, Kurt Fuursted, Rikke L Meyer, Eskild Petersen
Implant-associated infections caused by bacterial biofilms are difficult to treat. Surgical intervention is often necessary to cure the patient, as the antibiotic recalcitrance of biofilms renders them untreatable with conventional antibiotics. Intermittent hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) has been proposed as an adjuvant to conventional antibiotic treatment and it has been speculated that combining HBOT with antibiotics could improve treatment outcomes for biofilm infections. In this study we addressed whether HBOT could improve treatment outcomes of daptomycin and rifampicin combination therapy...
April 25, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441310/a-dose-response-curve-for-a-gram-negative-spinal-implant-infection-model-in-rabbits
#2
Joseph L Laratta, Jamal N Shillingford, Nathan Hardy, Ronald A Lehman, Lawrence G Lenke, K Daniel Riew
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized complete block animal spinal implant infection model with internal control. OBJECTIVE: To develop a spinal implant animal infection model to simulate postoperative gram-negative wound infection. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Implant-associated surgical site infections (SSI) remain a dreaded complication of spinal surgery. Currently, over 30% of all spine SSIs are secondary to gram-negative bacteria. Traditional animal models have utilized gram-positive inoculums to simulate postoperative infection, but there exists no model in the literature for gram-negative infection in the setting of spinal instrumentation...
April 24, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441105/transcriptomic-dissection-of-the-horizontally-acquired-response-regulator-esrb-reveals-its-global-regulatory-roles-in-the-physiological-adaptation-and-activation-of-t3ss-and-the-cognate-effector-repertoire-in-edwardsiella-piscicida-during-infection-towards
#3
Yang Liu, Luyao Zhao, Minjun Yang, Kaiyu Yin, Xiaohui Zhou, Ka Yin Leung, Qin Liu, Yuanxing Zhang, Qiyao Wang
Edwardsiella piscicida is the leading pathogen threatening worldwide aquaculture industries. The two-component system (TCS) EsrA-EsrB is essential for the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, little is known about the regulon and regulatory mechanism of EsrA-EsrB or about the factors that mediate the interaction of TCS with bacterial hosts. Here, our RNA-seq analysis indicated that EsrB strongly induces type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS) expression and that it modulates the expression of both physiology- and virulence-associated genes in E...
April 25, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440960/is-humidified-better-than-non-humidified-low-flow-oxygen-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Zunjia Wen, Wenting Wang, Haiying Zhang, Chao Wu, Jianping Ding, Meifen Shen
AIMS: To determine the effects of low-flow oxygen therapy with humidified or non-humidified oxygen in adult patients. BACKGROUND: Although non-humidified oxygen in low-flow oxygen therapy is recommended by many guidelines, humidifying oxygen regardless of oxygen flow has been routinely performed in China and Japan and further studies are needed to evaluate the evidence. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis that comply with the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration were conducted...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440922/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-post-tracheotomy-bacterial-respiratory-tract-infection-readmissions
#5
Christopher J Russell, Tamara D Simon, Mary R Mamey, Christopher J L Newth, Michael N Neely
OBJECTIVE: Identify risk factors for readmission due to a bacterial tracheostomy-associated respiratory tract infection (bTARTI) within 12 months of discharge after tracheotomy. DESIGN/METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 240 children who underwent tracheotomy and were discharged with tracheotsomy in place between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2013. Children with prolonged total or post-tracheotomy length of stay (LOS), less than 12 months of follow-up, or who died during the index hospitalization were excluded...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440855/accuracy-of-current-diagnostic-criteria-for-acute-bacterial-infection-in-older-adults-in-the-emergency-department
#6
Jeffrey M Caterino, Robert Leininger, David M Kline, Lauren T Southerland, Salman Khaliqdina, Christopher W Baugh, Daniel J Pallin, Kurt B Stevenson
OBJECTIVES: To compare the accuracy of the Loeb criteria, emergency department (ED) physicians' diagnoses, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for acute bacterial infection in older adults with a criterion standard expert review. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Urban, tertiary-care ED. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older in the ED, excluding those who were incarcerated, underwent a trauma, did not speak English, or were unable to consent...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440293/exploiting-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-macrophages-to-unravel-host-factors-influencing-chlamydia-trachomatis-pathogenesis
#7
Amy T Y Yeung, Christine Hale, Amy H Lee, Erin E Gill, Wendy Bushell, David Parry-Smith, David Goulding, Derek Pickard, Theodoros Roumeliotis, Jyoti Choudhary, Nick Thomson, William C Skarnes, Gordon Dougan, Robert E W Hancock
Chlamydia trachomatis remains a leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections and preventable blindness worldwide. There are, however, limited in vitro models to study the role of host genetics in the response of macrophages to this obligate human pathogen. Here, we describe an approach using macrophages derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSdMs) to study macrophage-Chlamydia interactions in vitro. We show that iPSdMs support the full infectious life cycle of C. trachomatis in a manner that mimics the infection of human blood-derived macrophages...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439959/chemical-and-biological-aspects-of-nutritional-immunity-perspectives-for-new-anti-infectives-targeting-iron-uptake-systems
#8
Sabine Laschat, Ursula Bilitewski, Joshua Blodgett, Anne-Kathrin Duhme-Klair, Sabrina Dallavalle, Anne Routledge, Rainer Schobert
Upon bacterial infection one of the defense mechanisms of the host is the withdrawal of essential metal ions, in particular iron leading to "nutritional immunity". However, bacteria have evolved strategies to overcome iron starvation, e.g. by stealing iron from the host or other bacteria by specific iron chelators with high binding affinity. Fortunately, these complex interactions between host and pathogen regarding metal homeostasis provide several opportunities for interception and thus allow the development of novel antibacterials...
April 25, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439871/application-of-chemical-genomics-to-plant-bacteria-communication-a-high-throughput-system-to-identify-novel-molecules-modulating-the-induction-of-bacterial-virulence-genes-by-plant-signals
#9
Elodie Vandelle, Maria Rita Puttilli, Andrea Chini, Giulia Devescovi, Vittorio Venturi, Annalisa Polverari
The life cycle of bacterial phytopathogens consists of a benign epiphytic phase, during which the bacteria grow in the soil or on the plant surface, and a virulent endophytic phase involving the penetration of host defenses and the colonization of plant tissues. Innovative strategies are urgently required to integrate copper treatments that control the epiphytic phase with complementary tools that control the virulent endophytic phase, thus reducing the quantity of chemicals applied to economically and ecologically acceptable levels...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439500/chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-exacerbates-secondary-polymicrobial-sepsis
#10
Maria C Souza, Denise M Fonseca, Alexandre Kanashiro, Luciana Benevides, Tiago S Medina, Murilo S Dias, Warrison A Andrade, Giuliano Bonfá, Marcondes A B Silva, Aline Gozzi, Marcos C Borges, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, José C Alves-Filho, Fernando Q Cunha, João S Silva
Sepsis is a severe syndrome that arises when the host response to an insult is exacerbated, leading to organ failure and frequently to death. How a chronic infection that causes a prolonged Th1 expansion affects the course of sepsis is unknown. In this study, we showed that mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii were more susceptible to sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Although T. gondii-infected mice exhibited efficient control of the bacterial burden, they showed increased mortality compared to the control groups...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439299/substance-p-enhances-lactic-acid-and-tyramine-production-in-enterococcus-faecalis-v583-and-promotes-its-cytotoxic-effect-on-intestinal-caco-2-tc7-cells
#11
Kelly Biaggini, Valérie Borrel, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub, Awa N'Diaye, Arthur Zébré, Maryse Bonnin-Jusserand, Guillaume Duflos, Marc Feuilloley, Djamel Drider, Pierre Déchelotte, Nathalie Connil
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, generally considered as a saprophytic bowel commensal, has recently emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, bacteremia, and bacterial endocarditis. This bacterium is capable of forming biofilms on various surfaces and its high level of antibiotic resistance contributes to its pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on E. faecalis, of Substance P (SP), an antimicrobial peptide that is produced in the gut and skin...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439127/diversity-and-evolution-of-sex-determination-systems-in-terrestrial-isopods
#12
Thomas Becking, Isabelle Giraud, Maryline Raimond, Bouziane Moumen, Christopher Chandler, Richard Cordaux, Clément Gilbert
Sex determination systems are highly variable in many taxa, sometimes even between closely related species. Yet the number and direction of transitions between these systems have seldom been characterized, and the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we generated transcriptomes for 19 species of terrestrial isopod crustaceans, many of which are infected by Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. Using 88 single-copy orthologous genes, we reconstructed a fully resolved and dated phylogeny of terrestrial isopods...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439039/invs-coordinates-expression-of-prgh-and-fimz-and-is-required-for-invasion-of-epithelial-cells-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#13
Lu Wang, Xia Cai, Shuyan Wu, Rajdeep Bomjan, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Kristian Händler, Jay C D Hinton, Daoguo Zhou
Deep sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of the bacterial RNA world, and has facilitated the identification of 280 sRNAs in Salmonella Despite suspicions that sRNAs may play important roles in Salmonella pathogenesis, the functions of most sRNAs remain unknown. To advance our understanding of RNA biology in Salmonella virulence, we searched for sRNAs required for bacterial invasion into non-phagocytic cells. After screening 75 sRNAs, we discovered that ablation of InvS caused a significant decrease of Salmonella invasion into epithelial cells...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439038/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-derived-rhamnolipids-and-other-detergents-modulate-colony-morphotype-and-motility-in-the-burkholderia-cepacia-complex
#14
Steve P Bernier, Courtney Hum, Xiang Li, George A O'Toole, Nathan Magarvey, Michael G Surette
Competitive interactions mediated by released chemicals (e.g. toxins) are prominent in multispecies communities, but their effect at subinhibitory concentrations on susceptible bacteria is poorly understood. Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa and species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can exist together as a co-infection in cystic fibrosis airways, P. aeruginosa toxins can kill Bcc species in vitro Consequently, these bacteria become an ideal in vitro model system to study the impact of sublethal levels of toxins on the biology of typical susceptible bacteria such as the Bcc when exposed to P...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439032/inactivation-of-transcriptional-regulators-during-within-household-evolution-of-escherichia-coli
#15
Dagmara I Kisiela, Matthew Radey, Sandip Paul, Stephen Porter, Kseniya Polukhina, Veronika Tchesnokova, Sofiya Shevchenko, Diana Chan, Maliha Aziz, Timothy J Johnson, Lance B Price, James R Johnson, Evgeni V Sokurenko
We analyzed the within-household evolution of two household-associated Escherichia coli strains from pandemic clonal group ST131-H30, using isolates recovered from five individuals within two families, each of which had a distinct strain. Family 1's strain was represented by a urine isolate from the index patient (older sister) with recurrent cystitis, and a blood isolate from her younger sister with fatal urosepsis. Family 2's strain was represented by a urine isolate from the index patient (father) with pyelonephritis and renal abscesses, blood and kidney drainage isolates from the daughter with emphysematous pyelonephritis, and urine and fecal isolates from the mother with cystitis...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438980/host-and-bacterial-factors-control-susceptibility-of-drosophila-melanogaster-to-coxiella-burnetii-infection
#16
Reginaldo G Bastos, Zachary P Howard, Aoi Hiroyasu, Alan G Goodman
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonotic disease that threatens both human and animal health. Due to the paucity of experimental animal models, little is known about how host factors interface with bacterial components and affect pathogenesis. Here we used Drosophila melanogaster, in conjunction with the BSL2 Nine Mile phase II (NMII) clone 4 strain of C. burnetii, as a model to investigate host and bacterial components implicated in infection. We demonstrated that adult Drosophila are susceptible to C...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438975/galectin-3-is-a-target-for-proteases-involved-in-the-virulence-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Jonas Elmwall, Jakub Kwiecinski, Manli Na, Abukar Ahmed Ali, Veronica Osla, Lindsey Shaw, Wanzhong Wang, Karin Sävman, Elisabet Josefsson, Johan Bylund, Tao Jin, Amanda Welin, Anna Karlsson
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of skin and soft-tissue infection. The bacterium expresses four major proteases emerging as virulence factors; aureolysin (Aur), V8 protease (SspA), staphopain A (ScpA), and staphopain B (SspB). We hypothesized that human galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin involved in immune regulation and antimicrobial defense, is a target for these proteases, and that proteolysis of galectin-3 is a novel immune evasion mechanism. Indeed, supernatants from laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438938/a-tick-antivirulence-protein-potentiates-antibiotics-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Nabil M Abraham, Lei Liu, Brandon L Jutras, Kristen Murfin, Ali Acar, Timur O Yarovinsky, Erica Sutton, Martin Heisig, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, Erol Fikrig
New strategies are needed to combat antibiotic resistance, especially against pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus A tick antifreeze glycoprotein, IAFGP, possess potent anti-biofilm properties against a variety of clinical pathogens including S. aureus Synergy between IAFGP, or a peptide (P1) representative of a repeat region of the protein, with different antibiotics was assessed in vitro Antibiotics that synergized with either IAFPG or P1 were further evaluated in vivo using vertebrate and invertebrate infection models...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438705/tigr4-strain-causes-more-severe-disease-than-wu2-strain-in-a-mouse-model-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-a-common-pathogenic-role-for-interferon-%C3%AE
#19
Belinda Yau, Lay Khoon Too, Helen J Ball, Nicholas H Hunt
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis causes debilitating neurological symptoms and acute fatalities in patients, and long-term neurological sequelae in some survivors. Current vaccines do not protect against all 94 known S. pneumoniae capsular serotypes, many of which are capable of causing pneumococcal meningitis (PM). We here compare the pathogenic outcomes of two clinically virulent isolates of S. pneumoniae, serotype 3 strain WU2 and serotype 4 strain TIGR4, in a murine model of PM. At an identical infectious dosage of 10(3) CFU administered via the intracerebroventricular route, significantly greater mortality, interleukin (IL)1β and IL6 production, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction occurred in TIGR4-induced PM compared to PM caused by WU2...
April 21, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438498/performance-of-maldi-tof-ms-for-identification-of-oral-prevotella-species
#20
Mervi Gürsoy, Inka Harju, Jaakko Matomäki, Anne Bryk, Eija Könönen
During the past decade, the clinically relevant genus Prevotella has expanded considerably. Prevotella species can be isolated from nearly all types of oral infections but also from various non-oral infections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been introduced in clinical microbiology laboratories as a convenient method for identifying bacterial isolates from clinical specimens. Here we tested the diagnostic accuracy of a total of 123 oral Prevotella isolates, selected based on their biochemical profile, by Bruker MALDI-TOF MS...
April 21, 2017: Anaerobe
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