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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550752/intracellular-delivery-of-oligonucleotides-in-helicobacter-pylori-by-fusogenic-liposomes-in-the-presence-of-gastric-mucus
#1
Rita S Santos, George R Dakwar, Elisa Zagato, Toon Brans, Céu Figueiredo, Koen Raemdonck, Nuno F Azevedo, Stefaan C De Smedt, Kevin Braeckmans
The rising antimicrobial resistance contributes to 25000 annual deaths in Europe. This threat to the public health can only be tackled if novel antimicrobials are developed, combined with a more precise use of the currently available antibiotics through the implementation of fast, specific, diagnostic methods. Nucleic acid mimics (NAMs) that are able to hybridize intracellular bacterial RNA have the potential to become such a new class of antimicrobials and additionally could serve as specific detection probes...
May 20, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550119/francisella-novicida-inhibits-spontaneous-apoptosis-and-extends-human-neutrophil-lifespan
#2
Lauren C Kinkead, Drew C Fayram, Lee-Ann H Allen
Francisella novicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is closely related to the highly virulent facultative intracellular pathogen, Francisella tularensis Data published by us and others demonstrate that F. tularensis virulence correlates directly with its ability to impair constitutive apoptosis and extend human neutrophil lifespan. In contrast, F. novicida is attenuated in humans, and the mechanisms that account for this are incompletely defined. Our published data demonstrate that F. novicida binds natural IgG that is present in normal human serum, which in turn, elicits NADPH oxidase activation that does not occur in response to F...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550057/prevalence-and-genomic-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-cow-calf-herds-throughout-california
#3
Jay N Worley, Kristopher A Flores, Xun Yang, Jennifer A Chase, Guojie Cao, Shuai Tang, Jianghong Meng, Edward R Atwill
Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is a zoonotic food- and waterborne bacterial pathogen that has a high hospitalization rate and can cause life-threatening complications. Increasingly, E. coli O157:H7 infections appear to originate from fresh produce. Ruminants, like cattle, are a prominent reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 in the United States. California is one of the most agriculturally productive regions in the world for fresh produce, beef, and milk. The close proximity of fresh produce and cattle present food safety challenges on a uniquely large scale...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549830/high-virulence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-st30-sccmecivc-spat019-the-dominant-community-associated-clone-in-argentina
#4
Silvina Fernandez, Camila Ledo, Santiago Lattar, Mariángeles Noto Llana, Andrea Mendoza Bertelli, Sabrina Di Gregorio, Daniel O Sordelli, Marisa I Gómez, Marta E Mollerach
Community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged as a worldwide health problem in the last few years. In Argentina, it is found in 70% of skin and skin structure infections in previously healthy adult patients and causes severe invasive diseases. The ST30-SCCmecIVc-spat019 clone is predominant in adult infections and has displaced the previously prevalent ST5-SCCmecIVa-spat311 clone in community settings. In the present work we compared the virulence of both clones in order to explain the displacement, and found that ST30-IVc is associated with invasive infections in adult patients from Argentina and possesses a different virulence-associated genes profile compared to ST5-IVa...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549482/several-strains-one-disease-experimental-investigation-of-vibrio-aestuarianus-infection-parameters-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#5
Marie-Agnès Travers, Delphine Tourbiez, Leïla Parizadeh, Philippe Haffner, Angélique Kozic-Djellouli, Mohamed Aboubaker, Marcel Koken, Lionel Dégremont, Coralie Lupo
This study investigated oyster infection dynamics by different strains of Vibrio aestuarianus isolated before and after the apparent re-emergence of this pathogen observed in France in 2011. We conducted experiments to compare minimal infective dose, lethal dose 50 and bacterial shedding for six V. aestuarianus strains. Whatever the strain used, mortality was induced in juvenile oysters by intramuscular injection and reached 90-100% of mortality within 5 days. Moreover, bacterial shedding was comparable among strains and reached its maximum after 20 h (≈10 EXP5 bacteria/mL/animal)...
May 26, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549450/the-left-atrial-bacterial-vegetative-mass-due-to-corynebacterium-striatum-as-a-presentation-of-myxoma-a-case-report
#6
Jun Xu, Qing Yang, Jun Li, Xia Zheng
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium striatum is a member of the non-diphtherial corynebacteria, which are ubiquitous in nature and generally colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans. Rarely, it causes infective endocarditis (IE). We report a case of rare left atrial bacterial vegetative mass due to C. striatum masquerading as a myxoma identified through a tortuous diagnostic process, and present a brief review of the relevant literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of 63-year-old man who presented with progressively worsening dyspnea on exertion and lower leg edema, and was diagnosed with heart failure...
May 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549141/risk-factors-for-acquisition-of-ctx-m-genes-in-pilgrims-during-hajj-2013-and-2014
#7
Thongpan Leangapichart, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Didier Raoult, Ziad A Memish, Jean-Marc Rolain, Philippe Gautret
Background: Mass gatherings, especially the Hajj pilgrimage, provide favourable conditions for bacterial transmission among participants, which might contribute to the international spread of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). Objectives: We conducted an analysis aimed at investigating risk factors for CTX-M gene ( bla CTX-M ) rectal carriage in 2013 and 2014 Hajj pilgrims. Methods: A total of 218 pilgrims provided paired pre- and post-Hajj rectal samples (2013, 129 pilgrims; 2014, 89 pilgrims)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548647/acute-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery-164-consecutive-cases-treated-at-a-referral-center-in-south-korea
#8
S H Jeong, H J Cho, H S Kim, J I Han, D W Lee, C G Kim, J W Kim
PurposeTo identify prognostic factors in patients referred with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, and to evaluate the efficacy of primary vitrectomy as an initial management.MethodsOver an eight-year study period, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 164 patients who were referred with endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Treatment generally conformed to standard guidelines, although primary vitrectomy was performed in several eyes with a visual acuity of hand motion or better, depending on the patient's status...
May 26, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548484/controlled-release-of-naringin-in-metal-organic-frameworks-mofs-loaded-mineralized-collagen-coating-to-simultaneously-enhance-osseointegration-and-antibacterial-activity
#9
Mengfei Yu, Dongqi You, Junjun Zhuang, Suya Lin, Lingqing Dong, Shengtao Weng, Bin Zhang, Kui Cheng, Wen-Jian Weng, Huiming Wang
Two important goals in orthopedic implants research are to promote osseointegration and prevent infection. However, much of previous efforts have been paid on the design of coatings either to enhance osseointegration while ignoring antibacterial activity or vice versa, to prevent infection while ignoring bone integration. Here, we designed a multifunctional mineralized collagen coating on titanium with the aid of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) nanocrystals to control the release of naringin, a Chinese herbal medicine which could promote osseointegration and prevent bacterial infection...
May 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548370/current-state-of-a-dual-behavior-of-antimicrobial-peptides-therapeutic-agents-and-promising-delivery-vectors
#10
REVIEW
Urszula Piotrowska, Marcin Sobczak, Ewa Oledzka
Microorganism resistance is an important challenge in modern medicine due to the global uncontrolled use of antibiotics. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) symbolize a new family of antibiotics, which have stimulated research and clinical interest as new therapeutic options for infections. They represent one of the most promising antimicrobial substances, due to their broad spectrum of biological activity, against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, yeast and even tumour cells. Besides, being antimicrobial, AMPs have been shown to bind and neutralize bacterial endotoxins, as well as possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, angiogenic and antitumour properties...
May 26, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548079/design-of-live-attenuated-bacterial-vaccines-based-on-d-glutamate-auxotrophy
#11
Maria P Cabral, Patricia García, Alejandro Beceiro, Carlos Rumbo, Astrid Pérez, Miriam Moscoso, Germán Bou
Vaccine development is a priority for global health due to the growing multidrug resistance in bacteria. D-glutamate synthesis is essential for bacterial cell wall formation. Here we present a strategy for generating effective bacterial whole-cell vaccines auxotrophic for D-glutamate. We apply this strategy to generate D-glutamate auxotrophic vaccines for three major pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. These bacterial vaccines show virulence attenuation and self-limited growth in mice, and elicit functional and cross-reactive antibodies, and cellular immunity...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546984/the-comparison-of-printed-resources-bacterial-contamination-in-libraries-of-al-zahra-hospital-and-sciences-faculty-of-isfahan-university-and-the-determination-of-their-antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern
#12
Hosein Rafiei, Mostafa Chadeganipour, Rezvan Ojaghi, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Rasool Nouri
INTRODUCTION: During the library loan process, the printed resources can be a carrier of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, it was tried to compare the Bacterial Contamination Rates and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in printed resources of a hospital and a non-hospital library. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Returning books from the Al-Zahra hospital library and library of Sciences faculty of Isfahan University provides the research community...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546748/bronchiectasis-in-copd-patients-more-than-a-comorbidity
#13
Miguel Angel Martinez-Garcia, Marc Miravitlles
Computed tomography scan images have been used to identify different radiological COPD phenotypes based on the presence and severity of emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is defined as an abnormal dilation of the bronchi, usually as a result of chronic airway inflammation and/or infection. The prevalence of bronchiectasis in patients with COPD is high, especially in advanced stages. The identification of bronchiectasis in COPD has been defined as a different clinical COPD phenotype with greater symptomatic severity, more frequent chronic bronchial infection and exacerbations, and poor prognosis...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546688/collagen-cross-linking-for-microbial-keratitis
#14
Prashant Garg, Sujata Das, Aravind Roy
Collagen cross-linking is gaining popularity not only for arresting the progression of keratoconus but also other indications including management of corneal infections. In this review article, we analyzed the published literature to understand the level of evidence for its use in corneal ulcer. Photoactivated riboflavin and ultraviolet A light are known to possess antimicrobial properties. The treatment also induces formation of inter- and intra-fibrillar bonds, thereby making the corneal collagen resistant to the action of proteases arresting stromal melt...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546155/long-term-nicotine-exposure-dampens-lps-induced-nerve-mediated-airway-hyperreactivity-in-murine-airways
#15
Yuan Xu, Lars-Olaf Cardell
Nicotine is a major component of cigarette smoke. It causes addiction and is used clinically to aid smoke cessation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nicotine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and to explore the potential involvement of neuronal mechanisms behind nicotine's effects in murine models in vivo and in vitro. BALB/c mice were exposed to nicotine in vivo via subcutaneous Alzet osmotic minipumps containing nicotine tartate salt solution (24 mg/kg/day) for 28 days...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545831/pre-post-evaluation-of-effects-of-a-titanium-dioxide-coating-on-environmental-contamination-of-an-intensive-care-unit-the-titanic-study
#16
B de Jong, A M Meeder, K W A C Koekkoek, M A Schouten, P Westers, A R H van Zanten
BACKGROUND: Among patients admitted to European hospitals or intensive care units (ICUs), 5.7% and 19.5% will encounter healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), respectively, and antimicrobial resistance is emerging. As hospital surfaces are contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria, environmental cleanliness is an essential aspect to reduce HAIs. AIM: To address the efficacy of a titanium dioxide coating in reducing the microbial colonization of environmental surfaces in an ICU...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545808/the-absence-of-tnf-permits-myeloid-arginase-1-expression-in-experimental-l-monocytogenes-infection
#17
Xinying Li, A Bruce Lyons, Gregory M Woods, Heinrich Körner
During an immune response inflammatory macrophages with their wide variety of effector mechanisms including the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase play an important part in the defense against invading pathogens. The inflammatory phenotype requires the presence of TNF which suppresses alternative activation. In the bacterial Listeria monocytogenes infection model inflammatory macrophages are crucial for protection. After infection, TNF-deficient hosts have a similar number of splenic macrophages but die rapidly...
May 16, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545549/detection-and-genetic-characterization-of-a-wide-range-of-infectious-agents-in-ixodes-pavlovskyi-ticks-in-western-siberia-russia
#18
Vera Rar, Natalia Livanova, Sergey Tkachev, Galina Kaverina, Artem Tikunov, Yuliya Sabitova, Yana Igolkina, Victor Panov, Stanislav Livanov, Nataliya Fomenko, Igor Babkin, Nina Tikunova
BACKGROUND: The Ixodes pavlovskyi tick species, a member of the I. persulcatus/I. ricinus group, was discovered in the middle of the 20(th) century in the Russian Far East. Limited data have been reported on the detection of infectious agents in this tick species. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic variability of a wide range of infectious agents in I. pavlovskyi ticks collected in their traditional and recently invaded habitats, the Altai Mountains and Novosibirsk Province, respectively, which are both located within the Western Siberian part of the I...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545489/cytotoxic-necrotizing-factor-1-cnf1-does-not-promote-e-coli-infection-in-a-murine-model-of-ascending-pyelonephritis
#19
Jason E Michaud, Kwang Sik Kim, William Harty, Matthew Kasprenski, Ming-Hsien Wang
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common and costly infections in both hospitalized and ambulatory patients. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) represent the majority of UTI isolates and are a diverse group of bacteria that utilize a variety of virulence factors to establish infection of the genitourinary tract. The virulence factor cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF1) is frequently expressed in clinical UPEC isolates. To date, there have been conflicting reports on the role of CNF1 in the pathogenesis of E...
May 25, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545484/timing-of-appropriate-empirical-antimicrobial-administration-and-outcome-of-adults-with-community-onset-bacteremia
#20
Ching-Chi Lee, Chung-Hsun Lee, Ming-Yuan Hong, Hung-Jen Tang, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND: Early administration of appropriate antimicrobials has been correlated with a better prognosis in patients with bacteremia, but the optimum timing of early antibiotic administration as one of the resuscitation strategies for severe bacterial infections remains unclear. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, adults with community-onset bacteremia at the emergency department (ED) were analyzed. Effects of different cutoffs of time to appropriate antibiotic (TtAa) administration after arrival at the ED on 28-day mortality were examined, after adjustment for independent predictors of mortality identified by multivariate regression analysis...
May 26, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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