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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026129/hepatitis-virus-infection-and-age-related-cataract
#1
Sangshin Park, Nam-Kyong Choi
This study was performed to investigate the relationships of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to age-related cataract, and to assess whether liver damage mediates the hepatitis-cataract association. This study analyzed data in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012 on 10,037 participants aged ≥40 years. We performed mediation analysis to address the contribution of serum markers of liver damage, high aspartate (AST, >49.9 IU/L) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, >56...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024228/de-novo-hepatocellular-carcinoma-post-multivisceral-transplantation-in-a-child
#2
P Tran, S Zhou, L Wang, M Finegold, L Mascarenas, S Alexopolous, Y Genyk, N Kerkar
De novo hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) post-transplantation in patients without viral hepatitis is extremely rare, with only three reported adult cases in the English literature. Here, we present a case of de novo HCC that developed in a 7-year-old female, who at 8 months of age received a liver, small bowel, spleen, and pancreas transplantation 6.5 years ago for gastroschisis and total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-related cirrhosis. The post-transplant course was complicated by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, and subsequent development of multifocal EBV-associated post-transplant smooth muscle tumors (EBV-PTSMT) in the small bowel 1 year and 10 months after transplantation, respectively...
November 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023196/home-parenteral-nutrition-vascular-access-and-related-complications
#3
Martyn Dibb, Simon Lal
Patients with chronic intestinal failure are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) to maintain health and preserve life. Maintaining safe vascular access is vital to prevent life-threatening complications such as catheter-related bloodstream infection or central venous occlusion. Dedicated central venous catheters with rigorous catheter care aseptic protocols are vital in obtaining good long-term outcomes that allow continuation of PN over many years. Good catheter care requires an experienced multidisciplinary team using appropriate vascular devices, trained to identify and aggressively treat catheter-related bloodstream infections, catheter occlusions, and catheter-related thrombosis...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022493/immunonutrition-before-esophagectomy-impact-on-immune-surveillance-mechanisms
#4
Marco Scarpa, Andromachi Kotsafti, Matteo Fassan, Melania Scarpa, Francesco Cavallin, Teresa Nardi, Eleonora Pinto, Rita Alfieri, Matteo Cagol, Marco Agostini, Massimo Rugge, Ignazio Castagliuolo, Carlo Castoro
Preoperative oral immunonutrition was demonstrated to improve immune response and to decrease the infection rate in patients with cancer. This study aimed to assess how immunonutrition could influence the immune cell response in the mucosal microenvironment of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Therefore, A prospective cohort of consecutive patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma was enrolled. A subgroup of them was given preoperative oral immunonutrition with Oral Impact® and was compared to those who received no preoperative supplementation...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022388/our-gut-microbiota-a-long-walk-to-homeostasis
#5
L M T Dicks, J Geldenhuys, L S Mikkelsen, E Brandsborg, H Marcotte
The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of billions of bacteria, fungi and viruses, of which bacteria play the most important role in nutrition, immune development, production of vitamins and maintaining a well-balanced (homeostatic) microbial population. Many papers have been published on the microbiota in the human GIT, but little is known about the first group of bacteria that colonises an infant. The intestinal tract of an unborn is, despite general belief, not sterile, but contains bacteria that have been transferred from the mother...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020386/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-to-toxocara-species-in-the-united-states-and-associated-risk-factors-2011-2014
#6
Eugene W Liu, Holly M Chastain, Sun Hee Shin, Ryan Wiegand, Deanna Kruszon-Moran, Sukwan Handali, Jeffrey L Jones
Background: Toxocariasis results from infection with larval stages of a dog and cat intestinal nematode and causes human morbidity. The current US estimate of Toxocara exposure is 13.9% (NHANES III 1988-1994). Methods: We used a multiplex bead based assay (Tc-CTL-1MBA) with purified Toxocara canis antigen to estimate Toxocara antibody seroprevalence in serum of 13,509 persons six years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011-2014 and identified seropositivity risk factors...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017253/rapid-clearance-and-frequent-reinfection-with-enteric-pathogens-among-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-zanzibar
#7
Maria Eva Andersson, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi Msellem, Birger Trollfors, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Magnus Lindh
Background: Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016316/toxocara-seroprevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#8
Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Shawn D Gale, Allison Stone, Bruce L Brown, Dawson W Hedges
Caused by the parasitic nematodes Toxocara canis and cati, toxocariasis in humans can result in covert toxocariasis, ocular toxocariasis, visceral larval migrans, and neurotoxocariasis. A common infection, toxocariasis exposure varies widely within and between countries, with a previous estimate of Toxocara seroprevalence using data from 1988 to 1994 in the United States of approximately 13%. Age, poverty, sex, educational attainment, ethnicity, and region have been associated with Toxocara seroprevalence. In this study, we sought to determine the seroprevalence of and factors associated with Toxocara seropositivity in the United States using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2011 to 2014 to provide a more recent estimate of Toxocara seroprevalence in the United States...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016235/telemedicine-support-groups-for-home-parenteral-nutrition-users
#9
Eve-Lynn Nelson, Donna Macan Yadrich, Noreen Thompson, Shawna Wright, Kathaleen Stone, Natasia Adams, Marilyn Werkowitch, Carol E Smith
Patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN), a life-sustaining intravenous (IV) infusion that provides nourishment and hydration to patients with short gut or inflammatory bowel diseases, are often isolated and not in visual contact with peers or health providers. One completed clinical trial (Clinical Trials.gov NCT0190028) and 1 ongoing clinical trial (Clinical Trials.gov NCT02987569) are evaluating a mobile videoconferencing-delivered support group intervention for patients on HPN and their caregivers...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992839/-symptomatic-zinc-deficiency-in-a-breast-fed-infant
#10
EDITORIAL
Lone Hvid, Gitte Zachariassen, Karina Dyrvig Honoré, Anne Birgitte Simonsen
Nutrition containing zinc is of special practical importance in infants and children. Perinatal zinc deficiency manifestations include erosive dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhoea, central nervous system dysfunction and immune system deficiency. We present a case story of an ex-preterm, exclusively breast-fed infant who presented with irritability, clinical signs of infection, an atypical rash and signs of oral candidiasis. Blood tests showed low plasma levels of zinc and subsequent analysis showed reduced zinc levels in the breast milk...
October 9, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991899/albendazole-and-ivermectin-for-the-control-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-an-area-with-high-prevalence-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-and-hookworm-in-northwestern-argentina-a-community-based-pragmatic-study
#11
Adriana Echazú, Marisa Juarez, Paola A Vargas, Silvana P Cajal, Ruben O Cimino, Viviana Heredia, Silvia Caropresi, Gladys Paredes, Luis M Arias, Marcelo Abril, Silvia Gold, Patrick Lammie, Alejandro J Krolewiecki
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S...
October 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991894/sanitation-hookworm-anemia-stunting-and-wasting-in-primary-school-children-in-southern-ethiopia-baseline-results-from-a-study-in-30-schools
#12
Jack E T Grimes, Gemechu Tadesse, Iain A Gardiner, Elodie Yard, Yonas Wuletaw, Michael R Templeton, Wendy E Harrison, Lesley J Drake
BACKGROUND: Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting. METHODS: In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991146/effect-of-caregiver-training-on-the-neurodevelopment-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-and-caregiver-mental-health-a-ugandan-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Michael J Boivin, Noeline Nakasujja, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Sarah M Murray, Alla Sikorskii, Jorem Awadu, Cilly Shohet, Deborah Givon, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Elizabeth E Schut, Robert O Opoka, Judith K Bass
OBJECTIVE: Early childhood development programs typically combine healthy nutrition and cognitive stimulation in an integrated model. We separately delivered these 2 components in a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate their comparative effectiveness in promoting healthy child development and caregiver mental health. This is the first study to do so for HIV-affected children and their infected mothers. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-one HIV-exposed but uninfected child (2-3 years old) and caregiver dyads in 18 geographic clusters in Eastern Uganda were randomized by cluster to receive biweekly individualized sessions of either (1) Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) training emphasizing cognitive stimulation or (2) Uganda Community Based Association for Child Welfare (UCOBAC) program that delivered health and nutrition training...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991007/the-optimal-approach-to-nutrition-and-cystic-fibrosis-latest-evidence-and-recommendations
#14
Francis M Hollander, Nicole M de Roos, Harry G M Heijerman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive genetic disease that affects multiple organ systems. Therapy is directed to maintain and optimize nutritional status and pulmonary function, as these are key factors in survival. In this review, the most recent findings regarding nutritional management associated with pulmonary function and outcome will be explored. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence-based and expert-based guidelines emphasize the need for adequate nutritional intake to improve nutritional status...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988030/sub-lethal-viral-exposure-and-growth-on-drought-stressed-host-plants-changes-resource-allocation-patterns-and-life-history-costs-in-the-speckled-wood-butterfly-pararge-aegeria
#15
Melanie Gibbs, Laura Weir
This study investigated the interactive effects of growth on drought stressed host plants and pathogen challenge with the baculovirus Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) on survival and fitness-related traits using the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria (L.). Exposure to AcMNPV significantly reduced survival to pupation. For surviving larvae, sub-lethal infection significantly decreased daily mass acquisition rates and pupal mass. Growth on drought stressed plants increased daily mass acquisition rates resulting in heavier pupae, and increased resource allocation to adult reproduction...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986531/experimental-testing-of-reciprocal-effects-of-nutrition-and-parasitism-in-wild-black-capuchin-monkeys
#16
Ilaria Agostini, Ezequiel Vanderhoeven, Mario S Di Bitetti, Pablo M Beldomenico
Nutritional stress may predispose individuals to infection, which in turn can have further detrimental effects on physical condition, thus creating an opportunity for reciprocal effects between nutrition and parasitism. Little experimental investigation has been conducted on this "vicious circle" hypothesis in wild animals, especially under natural conditions. We evaluated the reciprocal effects of nutritional status and parasitism using an experimental approach in two groups of wild black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus)...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986313/impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-caused-by-the-nap1-rt027-strain-in-severity-and-recurrence-during-an-outbreak-and-transition-to-endemicity-in-a-mexican-tertiary-care-center
#17
Karla María Tamez-Torres, Pedro Torres-González, Francisco Leal-Vega, Ariana García-Alderete, Norma Irene López García, Raquel Mendoza-Aguilar, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Miriam Bobadilla-Del Valle, Alfredo Ponce de León, José Sifuentes-Osornio
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics, outcomes and factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to the ribotype 027 (RT027) and recurrence, including an outbreak period, with transition to endemicity. METHOD: We performed a case-control study. We collected clinical and demographic data for patients with CDI from January 2008 to December 2015, performed ribotyping of isolates, and PCR for Toxin A, B, and binary. RESULTS: Among 324 CDI episodes, 27...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985843/total-parenteral-nutrition-in-patients-following-pancreaticoduodenectomy-lessons-from-1184-patients
#18
Cullen E Worsh, Talar Tatarian, Awinder Singh, Michael J Pucci, Jordan M Winter, Charles J Yeo, Harish Lavu
BACKGROUND: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) has historically been used conservatively in the management of patients after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Herein, we evaluate the indications for and outcomes associated with TPN use in a high-volume pancreatic surgery center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively queried our institution's pancreatic surgery database for patients who received TPN after PD from 2006 through 2015. RESULTS: Of 1184 patients who underwent PD, 232 (19...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982133/simultaneous-assessment-of-iodine-iron-vitamin-a-malarial-antigenemia-and-inflammation-status-biomarkers-via-a-multiplex-immunoassay-method-on-a-population-of-pregnant-women-from-niger
#19
Eleanor Brindle, Lorraine Lillis, Rebecca Barney, Sonja Y Hess, K Ryan Wessells, Césaire T Ouédraogo, Sara Stinca, Michael Kalnoky, Roger Peck, Abby Tyler, Christopher Lyman, David S Boyle
Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and iodine are major public health concerns in many low- and middle-income countries, but information on their status in populations is often lacking due to high costs and logistical challenges associated with assessing micronutrient status. Accurate, user-friendly, and low-cost analytical tools are needed to allow large-scale population surveys on micronutrient status. We present the expansion of a 7-plex protein microarray tool for the simultaneous measurement of up to seven biomarkers with relevance to the assessment of the key micronutrients iron, iodine, and vitamin A, and inflammation and malaria biomarkers: α-1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, ferritin, retinol binding protein 4, soluble transferrin receptor, thyroglobulin, and histidine-rich protein II...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979790/differential-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-latin-america
#20
REVIEW
Y D Fragoso, F G Elso, A Carrá
Improvement of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnoses leads to earlier and correct disease management. The differential diagnostic workup for MS comprises a large variety of medical conditions. There are general guidelines and criteria for diagnosing MS worldwide, but awareness of regional differences needs to be kept in mind. Latin American patients who are screened for MS diagnoses may require an approach that is not exactly the same as that used for patients in North America, western Europe or Asia. In the present review, the conditions that are important for the differential diagnoses of MS in Latin America are reviewed...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
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