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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728557/the-impact-of-illegal-waste-sites-on-a-transmission-of-zoonotic-viruses
#1
Darja Duh, Sandra Hasic, Elena Buzan
BACKGROUND: Illegal waste disposal impacts public health and causes aesthetic and environmental pollution. Waste disposed in places without permitted and controlled facilities can provide a ready source of nutrition and shelter for rodents and thus promote the spread of their ecto- and endoparasites. The presence of two distinct zoonotic viruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), was searched at illegal waste sites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection with both viruses in rodents and to discuss the virus-rodent relations in such environments...
July 20, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728358/tropical-plant-supplementation-effects-on-the-performance-and-parasite-burden-of-goats
#2
Juan Jose Romero, Miguel Augusto Zarate, Ibukun M Ogunade, Kathy G Arriola, Adegbola Tolulope Adesogan
Objective: Examine the effects of supplementing bahiagrass hay (BG) with potentially anthelmintic quantities of hays of perennial peanut (PEA) or sericea lespedeza (LES) or seeds of velvet bean (MUC) or papaya (PAP) on the intake and nutritive value (Experiment 1), and the performance and parasite burden (Experiment 2) of goats. Methods: In experiment 1, 38 male goats (27.4 ± 5.7 kg BW) were randomly assigned to each of 5 treatments: 1) BG alone and BG plus 2) PEA; 3) LES; 4) MUC; and 5) PAP...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#3
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722585/school-children-s-intestinal-parasite-and-nutritional-status-1-year-after-complementary-school-garden-nutrition-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-in-burkina-faso
#4
Séverine Erismann, Serge Diagbouga, Christian Schindler, Peter Odermatt, Astrid M Knoblauch, Jana Gerold, Andrea Leuenberger, Akina Shrestha, Grissoum Tarnagda, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722574/intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-noninfected-persons-in-a-high-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevalence-region-of-cameroon
#5
Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou, Sandrine Mboula Tchameni, Carine Nguefeu Nkenfou, Patrice Djataou, Ulrich Florian Simo, Alexandre Benjamin Nkoum, William Estrin
The problem of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several coinfecting diseases. Studies have addressed this issue in Cameroon, especially in the low HIV prevalence area. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Adamaoua and to identify associated risk factors. Stool and blood specimens from study participants were screened for intestinal parasites and anti-HIV antibodies, respectively...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721658/microbial-communities-in-different-tissues-of-atta-sexdens-rubropilosa-leaf-cutting-ants
#6
Alexsandro S Vieira, Manuela O Ramalho, Cintia Martins, Vanderlei G Martins, Odair C Bueno
Bacterial endosymbionts are common in all insects, and symbiosis has played an integral role in ant evolution. Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants cultivate their symbiotic fungus using fresh leaves. They need to defend themselves and their brood against diseases, but they also need to defend their obligate fungus gardens, their primary food source, from infection, parasitism, and usurpation by competitors. This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities in whole workers and different tissues of A...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720730/drought-stress-results-in-a-compartment-specific-restructuring-of-the-rice-root-associated-microbiomes
#7
Christian Santos-Medellín, Joseph Edwards, Zachary Liechty, Bao Nguyen, Venkatesan Sundaresan
Plant roots support complex microbial communities that can influence plant growth, nutrition, and health. While extensive characterizations of the composition and spatial compartmentalization of these communities have been performed in different plant species, there is relatively little known about the impact of abiotic stresses on the root microbiota. Here, we have used rice as a model to explore the responses of root microbiomes to drought stress. Using four distinct genotypes, grown in soils from three different fields, we tracked the drought-induced changes in microbial composition in the rhizosphere (the soil immediately surrounding the root), the endosphere (the root interior), and unplanted soils...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720151/supplementation-with-lactobacillus-paracasei-or-pediococcus-pentosaceus-does-not-prevent-diarrhoea-in-neonatal-pigs-infected-with-escherichia-coli-f18
#8
Anders D Andersen, Malene S Cilieborg, Charlotte Lauridsen, Anne Louise Mørkbak, Per Torp Sangild
Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newborn caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6×108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus pentosaceus (PEP, 1·3×1010 CFU/kg per d), were administered for 5 d with or without inoculation of the porcine pathogen, Escherichia coli F18 (F18, 1010 CFU/d)...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719336/infant-nutritional-status-feeding-practices-enteropathogen-exposure-socioeconomic-status-and-illness-are-associated-with-gut-barrier-function-as-assessed-by-the-lactulose-mannitol-test-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#9
Gwenyth O Lee, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Margaret N Kosek, Rashidul Haque, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Aldo A M Lima, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Gagandeep Kang, Amidou Samie, Caroline Amour, Carl J Mason, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Domingos B Oliveira, Didar Alam, Sudhir Babji, Pascal Bessong, Estomih Mduma, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Ramya Ambikapathi, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Laura E Caulfield, For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719331/factors-associated-with-the-duration-of-moderate-to-severe-diarrhea-among-children-in-rural-western-kenya-enrolled-in-the-global-enteric-multicenter-study-2008-2012
#10
Katharine A Schilling, Richard Omore, Gordana Derado, Tracy Ayers, John B Ochieng, Tamer H Farag, Dilruba Nasrin, Sandra Panchalingam, James P Nataro, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Joseph Oundo, Michelle B Parsons, Cheryl Bopp, Kayla Laserson, Christine E Stauber, Richard Rothenberg, Robert F Breiman, Ciara E O'Reilly, Eric D Mintz
Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death among young children worldwide. As rates of acute diarrhea (AD; 1-6 days duration) have decreased, persistent diarrhea (PD; > 14 days duration) accounts for a greater proportion of the diarrheal disease burden. We describe factors associated with the duration of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Kenyan children < 5 years old enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study. We found 587 (58%) children experienced AD, 360 (35%) had prolonged acute diarrhea (ProAD; 7-13 days duration), and 73 (7%) had PD...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714216/contributions-of-the-oligopeptide-permeases-in-multistep-of-vibrio-alginolyticus-pathogenesis
#11
Wenjia Liu, Lixing Huang, Yongquan Su, Yingxue Qin, Lingmin Zhao, Qingpi Yan
Vibrio alginolyticus has been associated with several diseases of cultivated marine animals, and has led to considerable economic losses. The oligopeptide permease (Opp) has been proven to play a variety of important roles in nutrition and virulence in several bacteria. In our previous research, the opp gene cluster was identified in Vibrio alginolyticus with transcriptome sequence, which also indicated that the Opp system might play roles in the regulation of adhesion. In this study, the relationship between V...
July 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712140/pregnancy-and-immune-stimulation-re-imagining-the-fetus-as-parasite-to-understand-age-related-immune-system-changes-in-us-women
#12
Anna C Rivara, Elizabeth M Miller
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy can increase production of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), an immune response more often directed towards parasite infections. An absence of parasitism makes the US population ideal to test the hypothesis that the maternal immune system recognizes a fetus as a parasite. We predict that total IgE levels are positively associated with a history of pregnancy across all ages of adult women, mirroring patterns of IgE in parasitized populations. METHODS: Reproductive-aged women (n = 2201) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were analyzed in a cross-sectional design using complex survey regression and multiple imputation to evaluate associations between total IgE levels, pregnancy history, and interactions between age and pregnancy...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712113/nutritional-status-is-the-major-factor-affecting-grip-strength-of-african-hiv-patients-before-and-during-antiretroviral-treatment
#13
Suzanne Filteau, G PrayGod, S L Woodd, Henrik Friis, D C Heimburger, J R Koethe, P Kelly, L Kasonka, Andrea M Rehman
OBJECTIVES: Low grip strength is a marker of frailty and a risk factor for mortality among HIV patients and other populations. We investigated factors associated with grip strength in malnourished HIV patients at referral to ART, and at 12 weeks and 2-3 years after starting ART. METHODS: The study involved HIV-infected Zambian and Tanzanian participants recruited to the NUSTART trial when malnourished (body mass index <18.5 kg/m(2) ) and requiring ART. The relationship of grip strength to nutritional, infectious and demographic factors was assessed by multivariable linear regression at referral for ART (n=1742) and after 12 weeks (n=778) and 2-3 years of ART (n=273)...
July 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711576/explaining-coexistence-of-nitrogen-fixing-and-non-fixing-rhizobia-in-legume-rhizobia-mutualism-using-mathematical-modeling
#14
G Moyano, D Marco, D Knopoff, G Torres, C Turner
In the mutualism established between legumes and soil bacteria known as rhizobia, bacteria from soil infect plants roots and reproduce inside root nodules where they fix atmospheric N2 for plant nutrition, receiving carbohydrates in exchange. Host-plant sanctions against non N2 fixing, cheating bacterial symbionts have been proposed to act in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, to preserve the mutualistic relationship. Sanctions include decreased rhizobial survival in nodules occupied by cheating rhizobia. Previously, a simple population model experimentally based showed that the coexistence of fixing and cheating rhizobia strains commonly found in field conditions is possible, and that the inclusion of sanctions leads to the extinction of cheating strains in soil...
July 12, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707831/-prevention-of-perioperative-infections-in-orthopaedic-surgery-role-of-general-practitioner
#15
Olivier Borens, Éric Thein, Christophe Tissot, Anne-Sophie Brunel
Total joint replacement comes with a high success rate and has been shown to have a very positive impact on our patients suffering from arthritis. Against all efforts about 2 % of our patients will suffer an implant related infection. As the treatment of infected arthroplasties is difficult and expensive the knowledge of risk factors is becoming more and more important for the treatment team in order to improve our preventive measures. Prevention must be performed pre-, intra- and postoperatively. Preoperative optimization of blood sugar levels, nutritional status and correction of general anaemia for example are paramount and the general practitioner as well as the surgeon should be aware of these and other modifiable risk factors in order to operate on the patient in the best possible conditions...
December 14, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707497/complications-of-central-lines-in-neonates-admitted-to-a-level-iii-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#16
Beatriz Soares, Susana Pissarra, Ana Lídia Rouxinol-Dias, Sandra Costa, Hercília Guimarães
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors for central line related complications in neonates. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of infants who underwent central line (CL) placement, from 1 July 2014 to 31 June 2016, was conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Centro Hospitalar de São João. Infants hospitalized more than 2 days and CLs placed for more than 24 hours were included. Patients' demographic characteristics, hospital data and information on CLs were collected...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705254/correlates-of-whole-blood-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-among-young-children-with-moderate-acute-malnutrition
#17
C W Yaméogo, B Cichon, C Fabiansen, M J H Rytter, D Faurholt-Jepsen, K D Stark, A Briend, S Shepherd, A S Traoré, V B Christensen, K F Michaelsen, H Friis, L Lauritzen
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been associated with low polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status. However, investigations regarding PUFA status and correlates in children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) from low-income countries are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe whole-blood PUFA levels in children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and to identify correlates of PUFAs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from a prospective nutritional intervention trial among 1609 children with MAM aged 6-23 months in Burkina Faso,West Africa...
July 13, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701368/kunkel-lecture-fundamental-immunodeficiency-and-its-correction
#18
REVIEW
Carl Nathan
"Fundamental immunodeficiency" is the inability of the encoded immune system to protect an otherwise healthy host from every infection that could threaten its life. In contrast to primary immunodeficiencies, fundamental immunodeficiency is not rare but nearly universal. It results not from variation in a given host gene but from the rate and extent of variation in the genes of other organisms. The remedy for fundamental immunodeficiency is "adopted immunity," not to be confused with adaptive or adoptive immunity...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699132/effects-of-preoperative-malnutrition-on-short-and-long-term-outcomes-of-patients-with-gastric-cancer-can-we-do-better
#19
REVIEW
Hua-Long Zheng, Jun Lu, Ping Li, Jian-Wei Xie, Jia-Bin Wang, Jian-Xian Lin, Qi-Yue Chen, Long-Long Cao, Mi Lin, Ruhong Tu, Chang-Ming Huang, Chao-Hui Zheng
BACKGROUND: The effects of preoperative malnutrition and preoperative correction of hypoalbuminemia (PCH) on the short- and long-term outcomes in patients with gastric cancer are unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effect of preoperative nutritional status on short- and long-term outcomes in patients who underwent radical gastrectomy, and also explored the role of PCH in malnourished patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: We prospectively reviewed data from patients with gastric cancer who were treated in our department between January 2009 and December 2014...
July 11, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697970/cystic-fibrosis-priorities-and-progress-for-future-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Eitan Kerem
Significant improvement in the survival of patients with CF has been achieved in the last decades. The improved clinical status of the patients is mainly the result of a better understanding of the natural course of infection and inflammation in CF that has led to the implementation of strategies that increase the life expectancy and quality of life of the patients. These strategies include prompt diagnosis, timely and aggressive nutritional support, augmentation of MCC and improved mucous drainage, initiation of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy as soon as possible, early treatment of acute exacerbations, implementation of effective hygienic measures in and outside CF centers and prompt identification and treatment of CF-related complications...
June 12, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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