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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437843/a-bayesian-belief-network-model-assessing-the-risk-to-wastewater-workers-of-contracting-ebola-virus-disease-during-an-outbreak
#1
Joseph W Zabinski, Kelsey J Pieper, Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
During an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), hospitals' connections to municipal wastewater systems may provide a path for patient waste bearing infectious viral particles to pass from the hospital into the wastewater treatment system, potentially posing risks to sewer and wastewater workers. To quantify these risks, we developed a Bayesian belief network model incorporating data on virus behavior and survival along with structural characteristics of hospitals and wastewater treatment systems. We applied the model to assess risks under several different scenarios of workers' exposure to wastewater for a wastewater system typical of a mid-sized U...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437665/jasmonic-acid-signalling-and-the-plant-holobiont
#2
REVIEW
Lilia C Carvalhais, Peer M Schenk, Paul G Dennis
The plant holobiont - which is the plant and its associated microbiome - is increasingly viewed as an evolving entity. Some interacting microbes that compose the microbiome assist plants in combating pathogens and herbivorous insects. However, knowledge of the factors that influence the microbiome in the context of defence signalling pathways is still in its infancy. Recent research reported that changes in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid signalling affects the root microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437664/upscaling-of-fungal-bacterial-interactions-from-the-lab-to-the-field
#3
REVIEW
Wietse de Boer
Fungal-bacterial interactions (FBI) are an integral component of microbial community networks in terrestrial ecosystems. During the last decade, the attention for FBI has increased tremendously. For a wide variety of FBI, information has become available on the mechanisms and functional responses. Yet, most studies have focused on pairwise interactions under controlled conditions. The question to what extent such studies are relevant to assess the importance of FBI for functioning of natural microbial communities in real ecosystems remains largely unanswered...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437662/life-in-earth-the-root-microbiome-to-the-rescue
#4
REVIEW
Tim H Mauchline, Jacob G Malone
Manipulation of the soil microbiome holds great promise for contributing to more environmentally benign agriculture, with soil microbes such as Pseudomonas promoting plant growth and effectively suppressing pathogenic microorganisms. Next-generation sequencing has enabled a new generation of research into soil microbiomes, presenting the opportunity to better understand and exploit these valuable resources. Soil bacterial communities are both highly complex and variable, and contain vast interspecies and intraspecies diversity, both of which respond to environmental variation...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437562/no-post-copulatory-selection-against-mhc-homozygous-offspring-evidence-from-a-pedigreed-captive-rhesus-macaque-colony
#5
E H M Sterck, R E Bontrop, N de Groot, A J M de Vos-Rouweler, G G M Doxiadis
The heterozygosity status of polymorphic elements of the immune system, such as the Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC), are known to increase the potential to cope with a wider variety of pathogens. Pre- and post-copulatory processes may regulate MHC heterozygosity. In a population where mating occurs among individuals that share identical MHC-haplotypes, post-copulatory selection may disfavour homozygous offspring or ones with two MHC-haplotypes identical to its mother. We tested these ideas by determining the incidence of MHC-heterozygous and MHC-homozygous individuals in a pedigreed, partially consanguineous captive rhesus monkey colony...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437560/phylogeography-and-population-structure-analysis-reveals-diversity-by-mutations-in-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-with-distinct-sources-of-selection
#6
P H D Santos, B M Carvalho, K P Aguiar, F A S Aredes, T P S Poltronieri, J M S Vivas, V Mussi Dias, G A Bezerra, D B Pinho, M G Pereira, S F Silveira
Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution, with low host specificity, causing stem cankers, dieback diseases, and fruit rot in several species of plants. In coconut, this pathogen is reported as the etiological agent of "coconut leaf blight" (CLB) disease, causing several losses in fruit production. The CLB is an important disease for this crop in Brazil. In our study, we used a phylogeographic approach through the molecular characterization of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1-α) to elucidate the pathogen distribution in Brazil and other countries, besides, search information about diversity sources of this pathogen in coconut palm tree at Brazilian northern, northeast, and southeast...
April 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437452/enhanced-antibacterial-metabolite-production-through-the-application-of-statistical-methodologies-by-a-streptomyces-nogalater-niist-a30-isolated-from-western-ghats-forest-soil
#7
Jubi Jacob, Reshma Uma Rajendran, Syama Hari Priya, Jayamurthy Purushothaman, Dileep Kumar Bhaskaran Nair Saraswathy Amma
Streptomyces strains isolated from Nelliyampathy forest soil of Western Ghats, Kerala, India were evaluated for their antibacterial efficacy against two indicator pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Among 140 strains tested, sixteen recorded potent antibacterial properties and were further screened against eleven bacterial pathogens. A strain identified as Streptomyces nogalater and designated as NIIST A30 exhibited maximum inhibition against all the test pathogens. Among the eight fermentation media tested, inorganic salts starch broth recorded the best for antibacterial production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437431/factors-associated-with-acquired-anti-ifn-%C3%AE-autoantibody-in-patients-with-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection
#8
Pakpoom Phoompoung, Nasikarn Ankasekwinai, Manop Pithukpakorn, Suporn Foongladda, Pinklow Umrod, Bhoom Suktitipat, Surakameth Mahasirimongkol, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Yupin Suputtamongkol
BACKGROUND: The clinical syndrome of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection in patients who were previously healthy is now well recognized to be associated with an acquired autoantibody to Interferon gamma (Anti IFN- γ autoantibody). However, the risk factors of this syndrome remain unknown. METHOD: We performed an unmatched case control study among patients with NTM diseases who were diagnosed and treated at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437231/capsular-polysaccharide-types-and-virulence-related-traits-of-epidemic-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-in-a-chinese-university-hospital
#9
Yang Liu, Pan-Pan Liu, Lian-Hui Wang, Dan-Dan Wei, La-Gen Wan, Wei Zhang
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important human pathogen associated with a variety of diseases and the prevalence of blaKPC carrying K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is rapidly increasing. Capsule is an important virulence factor in K. pneumoniae. In this study, we determined to first systematically characterize capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and virulence traits in KPC-Kp strains. A total of 56 KPC-Kp isolates were recovered from clinical samples in a Chinese hospital, which were assigned to clonal lineages by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
February 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437226/first-report-of-prevalence-of-ctx-m-15-producing-escherichia-coli-o25b-st131-from-iran
#10
Mohammad Hasan Namaei, Masoud Yousefi, Masoud Ziaee, Alireza Salehabadi, Malaknaz Ghannadkafi, Elham Amini, Parvin Askari
The emergence of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) as a multidrug-resistant and virulent pathogen represents a major challenge to public health globally. Recently, the O25b/ST131 E. coli producing CTX-M-15 with high virulence potential has been reported worldwide, but has received little attention in Iran. This study is the first in Iran to specifically determine the spread of the O25b/ST131 clone producing CTX-M-15 among E. coli isolates belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group. ST131 clone in phylogenetic group B2 was detected based on PCR detection of ST131-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms in mdh and gyrB...
February 16, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437186/leptospira-species-in-feral-cats-and-black-rats-from-western-australia-and-christmas-island
#11
Narelle A Dybing, Caroline Jacobson, Peter Irwin, David Algar, Peter J Adams
Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp...
March 6, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437167/the-fgvps39-fgvam7-fgsso1-complex-mediates-vesicle-trafficking-and-is-important-for-the-development-and-virulence-of-fusarium-graminearum
#12
Bing Li, Luping Liu, Ying Li, Xin Dong, Haifeng Zhang, Huaigu Chen, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
Vesicle trafficking is an important event in eukaryotic organisms. Many proteins and lipids transported between different organelles or compartments are essential for survival. These processes are mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, Rab-GTPases, and multisubunit tethering complexes such as class C core vacuole or endosome tethering and homotypic fusion or vacuole protein sorting (HOPS). Our previous study has demonstrated that FgVam7, which encodes a SNARE protein involving in vesicle trafficking, plays crucial roles in growth, asexual or sexual development, deoxynivalenol production, and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437165/survey-for-listeria-monocytogenes-in-and-on-ready-to-eat-foods-from-retail-establishments-in-the-united-states-2010-through-2013-assessing-potential-changes-of-pathogen-prevalence-and-levels-in-a-decade
#13
John B Luchansky, Yuhuan Chen, Anna C S Porto-Fett, Régis Pouillot, Bradley A Shoyer, Rachel Johnson-DeRycke, Denise R Eblen, Karin Hoelzer, William K Shaw, Jane M van Doren, Michelle Catlin, Jeehyun Lee, Rohan Tikekar, Daniel Gallagher, James A Lindsay, Sherri Dennis
A multiyear interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey was undertaken for selected refrigerated ready-to-eat foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the United States. Food samples from 16 food categories in six broad groups (seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs, and combination foods) were collected weekly at large national chain supermarkets and independent grocery stores in California, Maryland, Connecticut, and Georgia for 100 weeks between December 2010 and March 2013. Of the 27,389 total samples, 116 samples tested positive by the BAX PCR system for L...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437139/protection-against-common-bean-rust-conferred-by-a-gene-silencing-method
#14
Bret Cooper, Kimberly B Campbell
Rust disease of the dry bean plant, Phaseolus vulgaris, is caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus. The fungus acquires its nutrients and energy from bean leaves using a specialized cell structure, the haustorium, through which it secretes effector proteins that contribute to pathogenicity by defeating the plant immune system. Candidate effectors have been identified by DNA sequencing and motif analysis, and some candidates have been observed in infected leaves by mass spectrometry. To assess their roles in pathogenicity, we have inserted small fragments of genes for five candidates into bean pod mottle virus...
April 24, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437138/epidemiology-of-basil-downy-mildew
#15
Yigal Cohen, Yariv Ben-Naim, Lidan Falach, Evgenia Rubin
Basil downy mildew (BDM) caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii is a destructive disease of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) worldwide. It has originated in Uganda in the 1930's and recently spread to Europe, Middle East, Americas and the Far East. Seed transmission may be responsible to its quick global spread. The pathogen attacks leaf blades, producing chlorotic lesions with ample dark asexual spores on the lower leaf surface. Oospores may occur in the mesophyll of infected leaves. The asexual spores germinate on a wet leaf surface within 2h and penetrate into the epidermis within 4h...
April 24, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437097/total-syntheses-of-vancomycin-related-glycopeptide-antibiotics-and-key-analogues
#16
Akinori Okano, Nicholas A Isley, Dale L Boger
A review of efforts that have provided total syntheses of vancomycin and related glycopeptide antibiotics, their agylcons, and key analogues is provided. It is a tribute to developments in organic chemistry and the field of organic synthesis that not only can molecules of this complexity be prepared today by total synthesis but such efforts can be extended to the preparation of previously inaccessible key analogues that contain deep-seated structural changes. With the increasing prevalence of acquired bacterial resistance to existing classes of antibiotics and with the emergence of vancomycin-resistant pathogens (VRSA and VRE), the studies pave the way for the examination of synthetic analogues rationally designed to not only overcome vancomycin resistance but provide the foundation for the development of even more powerful and durable antibiotics...
April 24, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437093/a-pathogen-specific-cargo-delivery-platform-based-on-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#17
Bastian Ruehle, Daniel L Clemens, Bai-Yu Lee, Marcus A Horwitz, Jeffrey I Zink
We present a synthetic approach to a highly pathogen-selective detection and delivery platform based on the in-teraction of an antibody nanovalve with a tetrasaccharide from the O-Antigen of the lipopolysaccharide of Francisella tularensis bacteria, a Tier 1 Select Agent of bioterrorism. Different design considerations are explored, and proof-of-concept for highly pathogen-specific cargo release from mesoporous silica nanoparticles is demonstrated by comparisons of the release of a signal transducer and model drug by LPS from Francisella tularensis vs...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437083/dual-plug-and-display-synthetic-assembly-using-orthogonal-reactive-proteins-for-twin-antigen-immunization
#18
Karl Brune, Can Buldun, Yuanyuan Li, Iona Taylor, Florian Brod, Sumi Biswas, Mark Howarth
Engineering modular platforms to control biomolecular architecture can advance both the understanding and manipulation of biological systems. Icosahedral particles uniformly displaying single antigens stimulate potent immune activation and have been successful in various licensed vaccines. However, it remains challenging to display multiple antigens on a single particle, to induce broader immunity protective across strains or even against distinct diseases. Here we design a dually-addressable synthetic nanoparticle, by engineering the multimerizing coiled-coil IMX313 and two orthogonally-reactive split proteins...
April 24, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436821/hydrological-modeling-of-fecal-indicator-bacteria-in-a-tropical-mountain-catchment
#19
Minjeong Kim, Laurie Boithias, Kyung Hwa Cho, Norbert Silvera, Chanthamousone Thammahacksa, Keooudone Latsachack, Emma Rochelle-Newall, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Alain Pierret, Yakov A Pachepsky, Olivier Ribolzi
The occurrence of pathogen bacteria in surface waters is a threat to public health worldwide. In particular, inadequate sanitation resulting in high contamination of surface water with pathogens of fecal origin is a serious issue in developing countries such as Lao P.D.R. Despite the health implications of the consumption of contaminated surface water, the environmental fate and transport of pathogens of fecal origin and their indicators (Fecal Indicator Bacteria or FIB) are still poorly known in tropical areas...
April 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436755/modes-of-action-for-mucosal-vaccine-adjuvants
#20
Taiki Aoshi
Vaccine adjuvants induce innate immune responses and the addition of adjuvants to the vaccine helps to induce protective immunity in the host. Vaccines utilizing live attenuated or killed whole pathogens usually contain endogenous adjuvants, such as bacterial cell wall products and their genomic nucleic acids, which act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are sufficient to induce adaptive immune responses. However, purified protein- or antigen-based vaccines, including component or recombinant vaccines, usually lose these endogenous innate immune stimulators, so the addition of an exogenous adjuvant is essential for the success of these vaccine types...
April 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
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