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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778048/pathogens-constancy-harbinger-of-nosocomial-infection-cum-identification-of-resistant-genes-and-drug-designing
#1
Sana Farooq Ahmad, Ibrar Khan, Abdul Wadood, Sadiq Azam, Noor Rehman, Muhammad Waqas, Kashif Bashir, Asaf Ali Khan
Hospitals are the most prominent places for the growth and spread of bacteria which are resistant to the available antibiotics. This antibiotic resistance is due to the over and misuse of antibiotic dosages of a high-density of patient population which are in frequent interaction with inanimate items of the hospitals and the consequent risk of cross infection. Out of 1010 samples of the current study, 510 (50.49%) were culture positive of which 329 (64.5%) were Gram-positive while 181 (35.49%) Gram negative...
April 22, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778030/retrospective-genotype-phenotype-analysis-in-a-305-patient-cohort-referred-for-testing-of-a-targeted-epilepsy-panel
#2
Andrew N Hesse, Jennifer Bevilacqua, Kritika Shankar, Honey V Reddi
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a diverse neurological condition with extreme genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The introduction of next-generation sequencing into the clinical laboratory has made it possible to investigate hundreds of associated genes simultaneously for a patient, even in the absence of a clearly defined syndrome. This has resulted in the detection of rare and novel mutations at a rate well beyond our ability to characterize their effects. This retrospective study reviews genotype data in the context of available phenotypic information on 305 patients spanning the epileptic spectrum to identify established and novel patterns of correlation...
May 16, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777991/co-evolutionary-associations-between-root-associated-microbiomes-and-root-transcriptomes-in-wild-and-cultivated-rice-varieties
#3
Lei Tian, Shaohua Shi, Lina Ma, Fahad Nasir, Xiujun Li, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Chunjie Tian
The plants and root-associated microbiomes are closely related. Plant metabolic substances can serve as a nutrient source for the microbiome, and in return, the microbiome can regulate the production of plant metabolic substances. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), as the ancestor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), has changed several metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiome during evolution. Thus, the study of the different associations between metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiomes in wild and cultivated rice varieties is important for rice breeding...
April 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777926/epidemiology-of-acute-febrile-illness-in-latin-america
#4
REVIEW
José Moreira, Clarisse S Bressan, Patricia Brasil, Andre M Siqueira
BACKGROUND: The causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Latin America (LA) are diverse and its complexity increase as the proportion of fever due to malaria decreases as control and new pathogens emerge in the region. In this context, it is important to shed light over the gaps on the epidemiological characteristics and the geographic range for many AFI aetiologies. AIMS: To review studies on community-acquired fever etiology other than malaria in LA, and to highlight knowledge gaps and challenges needing further investigation...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777925/epidemiology-of-respiratory-pathogen-carriage-in-the-homeless-population-within-2-shelters-in-marseille-france-2015-2017-cross-sectional-one-day-surveys
#5
Tran Duc Anh Ly, Sophie Edouard, Sekene Badiaga, Herve Tissot-Dupont, Van Thuan Hoang, Vincent Pommier de Santi, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Philippe Gautret
OBJECTIVES: To assess risk factors for respiratory tract infection symptoms and signs in sheltered homeless people in Marseille during the winter season, including pathogen carriage. METHODS: Data on 479 male participants within 2 shelters who completed questionnaires and a total of 950 nasal and pharyngeal samples were collected during the winters of 2015-2017. Respiratory pathogen carriage including 7 viruses and 4 bacteria was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777923/diagnosis-and-management-of-pulmonary-infection-due-to-rhodococcus-equi
#6
REVIEW
Weijie V Lin, Robert L Kruse, Katharine Yang, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is a recognized cause of disease in humans, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. Because diphtheroids are regarded as part of normal respiratory flora, the importance of R. equi as a pulmonary pathogen may not be fully appreciated and its prevalence underestimated. Most treatment recommendations for R. equi infection were established before antiretroviral drugs became available for HIV/AIDS therapy, and therapeutic strategies may need to be updated...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777914/the-full-length-microrna-cluster-in-the-intron-of-large-latency-transcript-is-associated-with-the-virulence-of-pseudorabies-virus
#7
Xin Wang, Mei-Mei Zhang, Kai Yan, Qi Tang, Yi-Quan Wu, Wen-Bo He, Huan-Chun Chen, Zheng-Fei Liu
Pseudorabies virus (PRV), the etiological pathogen of Aujeszky's disease, belongs to the Alphaherpesvirus subfamily. Large latency transcript (LLT), the most abundant PRV transcript, harbors a ~ 4.6 kb microRNA (miRNA) cluster-encoding intron. To investigate the function of the LLT miRNA cluster during the life cycle of PRV, we generated a miRNA cluster mutation virus (PRV-∆miR cluster) and revertant virus. Analysis of the growth kinetics of PRV-ΔmiR cluster-infected cells revealed significantly smaller plaques and lower titers than the wild-type and revertant viruses...
May 16, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777903/sox9-is-increased-in-arterial-plaque-and-stenosis-associated-with-synthetic-phenotype-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-causes-alterations-in-extracellular-matrix-and-calcification
#8
Antje Augstein, Johannes Mierke, David M Poitz, Ruth H Strasser
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) exhibit a dual role in progression and maintenance of arteriosclerosis. They are fundamental for plaque stability but also can drive plaque progression. During pathogenic vascular remodeling, VSMC transdifferentiate into a phenotype with enhanced proliferation and migration. Moreover, they exert an increased capacity to generate extracellular matrix proteins. A special lineage of transdifferentiated VSMC expresses Sox9, a multi-functional transcription factor. The aim of the study was to examine the role of Sox9 in phenotypic alterations leading to arteriosclerosis...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777829/biocontrol-of-botrytis-cinerea-and-calonectria-gracilis-by-eucalypts-growth-promoters-bacillus-spp
#9
Isabel Cristina Padula Paz, Rita de Cássia Madail Santin, Alexandre Martins Guimarães, Osmar Paulo Pereira da Rosa, Maria Carolina Quecine, Michele de Cássia Pereira E Silva, João Lúcio Azevedo, Aida Terezinha Santos Matsumura
The clonal Eucalyptus plants are commonly obtained by vegetative propagation under a protected environment. This system improves the Botrytis cinerea and Calonectria spp infection on the young eucalypts plantings, resulting gray mold and cutting rot respectively. Currently, the unique available control method is based on chemicals. As alternative, novel methods to manage plant diseases, endophytic microorganisms could be an interesting alternative. Thus, we aimed to evaluate endophytic Bacillus isolated from eucalypts as a biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea and Calonectria gracilis, important fungal pathogens in the greenhouse, using clonal plantlets of E...
May 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777815/enhanced-antibacterial-activity-mechanical-and-physical-properties-of-alginate-hydroxyapatite-bionanocomposite-film
#10
Bahador Safikhani Gholizadeh, Foad Buazar, Seyed Mehdi Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi
The effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA NPs) contents on the antibacterial activity, physical, and mechanical properties of sodium alginate (SA) film was scrutinized. The samples were prepared via incorporation of three different concentrations of HA NPs (1%, 3%, and 5%) into alginate solution at ambient temperature. In all SA/HA matrices, HA NPs demonstrated considerable bactericidal activity against foodborne pathogen during 12 days. The highest antibacterial effect of SA film was obtained in the presence of 5%HA NPs content and showed 3 CFU/mg reduction...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777766/immune-response-and-protective-effect-against-spring-viremia-of-carp-virus-induced-by-intramuscular-vaccination-with-a-swcnts-dna-vaccine-encoding-matrix-protein
#11
Chen Zhang, Zhao Zhao, Gao-Yang Liu, Jian Li, Gao-Xue Wang, Bin Zhu
To elicit the immune protective of vaccine against the highly contagious and pathogenic disease caused by spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), a novel functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were applied as a delivery vehicle for DNA vaccine. In this study, we report a SWCNTs-DNA vaccine encoding matrix protein of SVCV which, when injected in the muscle at a dose of 10 μg SWCNTs-pcDNA-M vaccine, confers up to 51.3% protection against intraperitoneal challenge with SVCV. In addition, SWCNTs as a promising vehicle can enhance about 17...
May 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777759/plant-nutraceuticals-as-antimicrobial-agents-in-food-preservation-terpenoids-polyphenols-and-thiols
#12
REVIEW
Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Javier Fernández, Felipe Lombó
Synthetic food additives generate a negative perception in consumers. Therefore, food manufacturers search for safer natural alternatives as those involving phytochemicals and plant essential oils. These bioactives have antimicrobial activities widely proved in in vitro tests. Foodborne diseases cause thousands of deaths and millions of infections every year, mainly due to pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777720/regulation-of-shigella-effector-kinase-ospg-through-modulation-of-its-dynamic-properties
#13
Andrey M Grishin, Kathryn R Barber, Ruo-Xu Gu, D Peter Tieleman, Gary S Shaw, Miroslaw Cygler
Gram-negative pathogens secrete effector proteins into human cells to modulate normal cellular processes and establish a bacterial replication niche. Shigella and pathogenic E. coli possess homologous effector kinases, OspG and NleH1/2, respectively. Upon translocation, OspG but not NleH binds to ubiquitin and a subset of E2~Ub conjugates, which was shown to activate its kinase activity. Here we show that OspG, having a minimal kinase fold, acquired a novel mechanism of regulation of its activity. Binding of the E2~Ub conjugate to OspG not only stimulates its kinase activity but also increases its optimal temperature for activity to match the human body temperature and stabilizes its labile C-terminal domain...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777708/identification-of-a-repressor-and-an-activator-of-azoreductase-gene-expression-in-pseudomonas-putida-and-xanthomonas-oryzae
#14
Wirongrong Whangsuk, Neal Toewiwat, James Dubbs, Ratiboot Sallabhan, Skorn Mongkolsuk, Suvit Loprasert
Genes responsible for the production of azoreductase enzymes in 2 g negative bacteria, the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida (AzoP) and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae (AzoX), were identified. The deduced amino acid sequences of AzoP and AzoX, share 46% amino acid identity to each other. Two different bacterial transcription factors, a repressor (AzoPR) and an activator (AzoXR), in P. putida and X. oryzae, respectively, were found to be divergently oriented to their respective azoreductase genes. Both regulators are LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTR) that respond to the azo dye inducer, methyl red (MR)...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777679/development-of-dnazyme-based-pcr-signal-cascade-amplification-for-visual-detection-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-food
#15
Zhanmin Liu, Chenhui Yao, Cuiyun Yang, Yanming Wang, Sibao Wan, Junyi Huang
Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen, and it can cause severe diseases. Rapid detection of L. monocytogenes is crucial to control this pathogen. A simple and robust strategy based on the cascade of PCR and G-quadruplex DNAzyme catalyzed reaction was used to detect L. monocytogenes. In the presence of hemin and the aptamer formed during PCR, the catalytic horseradish peroxidase-mimicking G-quadruplex DNAzymes allow the colorimetric responses of target DNA from L. monocytogenes. This assay can detect genomic DNA of L...
May 16, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777677/usherin-defects-lead-to-early-onset-retinal-dysfunction-in-zebrafish
#16
Margo Dona, Ralph Slijkerman, Kimberly Lerner, Sanne Broekman, Jeremy Wegner, Taylor Howat, Theo Peters, Lisette Hetterschijt, Nando Boon, Erik de Vrieze, Nasrin Sorusch, Uwe Wolfrum, Hannie Kremer, Stephan Neuhauss, Jingjing Zang, Maarten Kamermans, Monte Westerfield, Jennifer Phillips, Erwin van Wijk
Mutations in USH2A are the most frequent cause of Usher syndrome and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. To unravel the pathogenic mechanisms underlying USH2A-associated retinal degeneration and to evaluate future therapeutic strategies that could potentially halt the progression of this devastating disorder, an animal model is needed. The available Ush2a knock-out mouse model does not mimic the human phenotype, because it presents with only a mild and late-onset retinal degeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas9-technology, we introduced protein-truncating germline lesions into the zebrafish ush2a gene (ush2armc1 : c...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777660/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbations-a-need-for-action
#17
Antonio Anzueto, Marc Miravitlles
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with exacerbations contributing strongly to the overall severity and burden of disease at the individual level. Many patients with COPD are managed predominantly in the primary care setting; therefore, primary care physicians (PCPs) must have awareness and understanding of the causes, effects, and management of exacerbations in COPD. This review offers practical information regarding how exacerbations are defined in the treatment setting, pathogenic and environmental causes, options for exacerbation treatment and prevention, and suggestions for improving care in the clinic...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777629/mechanisms-of-metformin-action-in-and-out-of-the-gut
#18
EDITORIAL
Takahiro Minamii, Munenobu Nogami, Wataru Ogawa
One hundred years have passed since guanidine, a precursor compound of biguanides and thus of metformin, was found to have a glucose-lowering effect in live animals1 . In this historical study, C. K. Watanabe1 did not set out to identify glucose-lowering agents but rather to understand the mechanism underlying the development of tetany in animals that have undergone parathyroidectomy. Watanabe 1 concluded that guanidine is a pathogenic factor responsible for tetany because its administration in rabbits resulted in "tetany-like" muscle cramps associated with low blood glucose levels...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777597/microdevice-based-solid-phase-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-rapid-detection-of-pathogenic-microorganisms
#19
Quang Nghia Pham, Kieu The Loan Trinh, Seung Won Jung, Nae Yoon Lee
We demonstrate the integration of DNA amplification and detection functionalities developed on a lab-on-a-chip microdevice utilizing solid-phase polymerase chain reaction (SP-PCR) for point-of-need (PON) DNA analyses. First, the polycarbonate microdevice was fabricated by thermal bonding to contain microchambers as reservoirs for performing SP-PCR. Next, the microchambers were subsequently modified with polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde for immobilizing amine-modified forward primers. During SP-PCR, the immobilized forward primers and freely diffusing fluorescence-labeled reverse primers cooperated to generate target amplicons, which remained covalently attached to the microchambers for the fluorescence detection...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777518/total-pancreatic-necrosis-after-organophosphate-intoxication
#20
Rui Hou, Hongmin Zhang, Huan Chen, Yuankai Zhou, Yun Long, Dawei Liu
Cases of acute pancreatitis induced by organophosphate intoxication are encountered occasionally in clinics, but very few of them develop into severe pancreas necrosis and irreversible pancreatic function impairment. Here, we report a 47-year-old female organophosphate poisoning case after ingestion of massive insecticides; she was considered to have total necrosis and function failure of the pancreas via serum amylase test, glucose level test, and CT imaging. The patient exhibited no relief under the regular medicine treatment, which included sandostatin, antibiotics, intravenous atropine, and pralidoxime methiodide...
May 18, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
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