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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351583/travelers-diarrhea-in-thailand-a-quantitative-analysis-using-taqman%C3%A2-array-card
#1
Paphavee Lertsethtakarn-Ketwalha, Sasikorn Silapong, Pimmada Sakpaisal, Oralak Serichantalergs, Nattaya Ruamsap, Woradee Lurchachaiwong, Sinn Anuras, James A Platts-Mills, Jie Liu, Eric R Houpt, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Brett E Swierczewski, Carl J Mason
Background: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is a common illness experienced by travelers from developed countries visiting developing countries. Recent questionnaire-based surveillance studies reported that approximately 6-16% of travelers experienced TD while visiting Thailand; however, a majority of TD information was limited mainly to US military populations. Methods: A TD surveillance study was conducted at Bumrungrad International Hospital in 2012-2014 in Bangkok, Thailand...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351582/sco2-mutations-cause-early-onset-axonal-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-associated-with-cellular-copper-deficiency
#2
Adriana P Rebelo, Dimah Saade, Claudia P Pereira, Amjad Farooq, Tyler C Huff, Lisa Abreu, Carlos T Moraes, Diana Mnatsakanova, Kathy Mathews, Hua Yang, Eric A Schon, Stephan Zuchner, Michael E Shy
Recessive mutations in the mitochondrial copper-binding protein SCO2, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) assembly protein, have been reported in several cases with fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy with COX deficiency. Significantly expanding the known phenotypic spectrum, we identified compound heterozygous variants in SCO2 in two unrelated patients with axonal polyneuropathy, also known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4. Different from previously described cases, our patients developed predominantly motor neuropathy, they survived infancy, and they have not yet developed the cardiomyopathy that causes death in early infancy in reported patients...
January 16, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351513/neuroimmune-interactions-from-the-brain-to-the-immune-system-and-vice-versa
#3
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351296/hybrid-genome-assembly-and-annotation-of-paenibacillus-pasadenensis-strain-r16-reveals-insights-on-endophytic-life-style-and-antifungal-activity
#4
Alessandro Passera, Luca Marcolungo, Paola Casati, Milena Brasca, Fabio Quaglino, Chiara Cantaloni, Massimo Delledonne
Bacteria of the Paenibacillus genus are becoming important in many fields of science, including agriculture, for their positive effects on the health of plants. However, there are little information available on this genus compared to other bacteria (such as Bacillus or Pseudomonas), especially when considering genomic information. Sequencing the genomes of plant-beneficial bacteria is a crucial step to identify the genetic elements underlying the adaptation to life inside a plant host and, in particular, which of these features determine the differences between a helpful microorganism and a pathogenic one...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351288/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-pathways-and-child-stunting-a-systematic-review
#5
Kaitlyn M Harper, Maxine Mutasa, Andrew J Prendergast, Jean Humphrey, Amee R Manges
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is commonly defined as an acquired subclinical disorder of the small intestine, characterized by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. EED has been proposed to underlie stunted growth among children in developing countries. A collection of biomarkers, organized into distinct domains, has been used to measure different aspects of EED. Here, we examine whether these hypothesized relationships, among EED domains and between each domain and stunting, are supported by data from recent studies...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351264/identification-of-cyclic-dipeptides-from-escherichia-coli-as-new-antimicrobial-agents-against-ralstonia-solanacearum
#6
Shihao Song, Shuna Fu, Xiuyun Sun, Peng Li, Ji'en Wu, Tingyan Dong, Fei He, Yinyue Deng
Ralstonia solanacearum is a causative agent of bacterial wilt in many important crops throughout the world. How to control bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum is a major problem in agriculture. In this study, we aim to isolate the biocontrol agents that have high efficacy in the control of bacterial wilt. Three new bacterial strains with high antimicrobial activity against R. solanacearum GMI1000 were isolated and identified. Our results demonstrated that these bacteria could remarkably inhibit the disease index of host plant infected by R...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351253/the-role-of-sugar-transporter-genes-during-early-infection-by-root-knot-nematodes
#7
Dan Zhao, Yang You, Haiyan Fan, Xiaofeng Zhu, Yuanyuan Wang, Yuxi Duan, Yuanhu Xuan, Lijie Chen
Although pathogens such as nematodes are known to hijack nutrients from host plants, the mechanisms whereby nematodes obtain sugars from plants remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of nematode infection on host plant sugar allocation, soluble sugar (fructose, glucose, sucrose) content was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection and was found to increase significantly in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Sl) leaves and roots during early infection by root-knot nematodes (RKNs)...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351189/the-role-of-cadaverine-synthesis-on-pneumococcal-capsule-and-protein-expression
#8
Mary F Nakamya, Moses B Ayoola, Seongbin Park, Leslie A Shack, Edwin Swiatlo, Bindu Nanduri
Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a commensal in the nasopharynx, pose significant risk to human health. Limited serotype coverage by the available polysaccharide-based conjugate vaccines coupled with increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance complicates therapeutic strategies. Bacterial physiology and metabolism that allows pathogens to adapt to the host are a promising avenue for the discovery of novel therapeutics. Intracellular polyamine concentrations are tightly regulated by biosynthesis, transport and degradation...
January 19, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351144/cardiac-dysfunction-in-critical-illness
#9
Allison Dalton, Sajid Shahul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sepsis and septic shock are prevalent conditions that are likely to increase in prevalence in the future. Given the high mortality and morbidity associated with sepsis and sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, we must continue to make advances in knowledge of the complex physiologic interactions and how we may target specific mediators for potential therapeutic options in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple biomarkers have been discovered, which when assayed in sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy predict morbidity and mortality...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351083/transcriptional-analysis-of-immune-relevant-genes-in-the-mucus-of-labeo-rohita-experimentally-infected-with-argulus-siamensis
#10
Sonali Parida, Amruta Mohapatra, Banya Kar, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Pramoda Kumar Sahoo
The knowledge of mucosa-associated molecular events that occur during infections is scarce despite the well-established importance of mucus in fish immunity. Using qRT-PCR, we analyzed the immune gene expression patterns in mucus of Labeo rohita experimentally infected with an ectoparasite Argulus siamensis. Mucus samples were collected at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, 15 d, and 30 d post challenge of L. rohita with metanauplii of A. siamensis. All interleukins studied herein (IL 6, IL 15, and IL 1β) showed significant upregulation of expression levels in mucus of A...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351078/asymmetric-peptidomimetics-containing-l-tartaric-acid-core-inhibit-the-aspartyl-peptidase-activity-and-growth-of-leishmania-amazonensis-promastigotes
#11
André L S Santos, Filipe P Matteoli, Leandro S Sangenito, Marta H Branquinha, Bruno A Cotrim, Gabriel O Resende
Aspartyl-type peptidases are promising chemotherapeutic targets in protozoan parasites. In the present work, we identified an aspartyl peptidase activity from the soluble extract of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes, which cleaved the fluorogenic peptide 7-methoxycoumarin-4-acetyl-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe-Phe-Arg-Leu-Lys(DNP)-D-Arg-amide (cathepsin D substrate) under acidic pH conditions at 37°C, showing a KM of 0.58 μM and Vmax of 129.87 fluorescence arbitrary units/s mg protein. The leishmanial aspartyl peptidase activity was blocked by pepstatin A (IC50 = 6...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351076/parasites-in-stray-dogs-from-italy-prevalence-risk-factors-and-management-concerns
#12
Claudio De Liberato, Federica Berrilli, Livio Odorizi, Roberto Scarcella, Marco Barni, Cristina Amoruso, Alessia Scarito, Margherita Montalbano Di Filippo, Andrea Carvelli, Francesca Iacoponi, Paola Scaramozzino
Parasites are among the most common pathogens recorded in dogs. High prevalence rates are usually reported in stray and shelter dogs, as these animals are less likely to be tested and treated. In this study a survey was carried out on intestinal and lung parasites of stray dogs at the moment of the admission in a shelter in Central Italy. In the period June 2014-June 2015, 262 individual faecal samples were examined. Twelve parasitic taxa were detected. Helminths were more prevalent than protozoa (61.8% and 25...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351073/molecular-and-serological-investigation-of-infectious-diseases-in-captive-and-free-range-crab-eating-fox-cerdocyon-thous-linnaeus-1776-from-northeastern-brazil
#13
Jonatas C Almeida, Renata P B Melo, Pomy C P Kim, Neurisvan R Guerra, Leucio C Alves, Diego F Costa, Clebert José Alves, Wagnner J N Porto, Rinaldo A Mota
The aim of this study was to detect DNA and antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in captive and free-range crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from northeastern Brazil. Twenty-five crab-eating foxes from different states of northeastern Brazil were sampled by this study. Blood samples were collected by cephalic or jugular vein punctures. The whole blood was submitted to PCR, and the sera samples to the serological analysis as follows: MAT for T. gondii, NAT for N. caninum, and ELISA for L...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351066/contamination-of-swimming-pools-and-hot-tubs-biofilms-with-acanthamoeba
#14
Behroz Mahdavi Poor, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Fatemeh Ghafarifar, Fariba Khoshzaban, Jalal Abdolalizadeh
The members of Acanthamoeba genus are ubiquitous amoeba which could be a pathogenic parasite. The amoeba is resistant to the common chlorine concentration that used for disinfecting the swimming pool water. Therefore, the pools can be suitable environments for the survival and multiplication of the amoeba. In this cross sectional study, 10 indoor recreational water centers from different regions of Tabriz city were selected and sampling was done from fixed and floating biofilms of the swimming pools and hot tubs...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350921/the-semireduced-mechanism-for-nitric-oxide-reduction-by-non-heme-diiron-complexes-modeling-flavodiiron-no-reductases
#15
Corey J White, Amy L Speelman, Claudia Kupper, Serhiy Demeshko, Franc Meyer, James P Shanahan, E Ercan Alp, Michael Hu, Jiyong Zhao, Nicolai Lehnert
Flavodiiron nitric oxide reductases (FNORs) are a subclass of flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) capable of preferential binding and subsequent reduction of NO to N2O. FNORs are found in certain pathogenic bacteria, equipping them with resistance to nitrosative stress, generated as a part of the immune defense in humans, and allowing them to proliferate. Here, we report the spectroscopic characterization and detailed reactivity studies of the diiron dinitrosyl model complex [Fe2(BPMP)(OPr)(NO)2](OTf)2 for the FNOR active site that is capable of reducing NO to N2O [Zheng et al...
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350898/identification-of-individual-bacterial-cells-through-the-intermolecular-interactions-with-peptide-functionalized-solid-state-pores
#16
Makusu Tsutsui, Masayoshi Tanaka, Takahiro Marui, Kazumichi Yokota, Takeshi Yoshida, Akihide Arima, Wataru Tonomura, Masateru Taniguchi, Takashi Washio, Mina Okochi, Tomoji Kawai
Bioinspired pore sensing for selective detection of flagellated bacteria was investigated. The Au micropore wall surface was modified with a synthetic peptide designed from toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) to mimic the pathogen-recognition capability. We found that intermolecular interactions between the TLR5-derived recognition peptides and flagella induce ligand-specific perturbations in the translocation dynamics of Escherichia coli, which facilitated the discrimination between the wild-type and flagellin-deletion mutant (ΔfliC) by the resistive pulse patterns thereby demonstrating the sensing of bacteria at a single-cell level...
January 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350874/diversification-of-human-nk-cells-lessons-from-deep-profiling
#17
REVIEW
Aaron J Wilk, Catherine A Blish
NK cells are innate lymphocytes with important roles in immunoregulation, immunosurveillance, and cytokine production. Originally defined on the functional basis of their "natural" ability to lyse tumor targets and thought to be a relatively homogeneous group of lymphocytes, NK cells possess a remarkable degree of phenotypic and functional diversity due to the combinatorial expression of an array of activating and inhibitory receptors. Diversification of NK cells is multifaceted: mechanisms of NK cell education that promote self-tolerance result in a heterogeneous repertoire that further diversifies upon encounters with viral pathogens...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350791/comparison-of-outpatient-medically-attended-and-community-level-influenza-like-illness-new-york-city-2013-2015
#18
Kate E Russell, Ashley Fowlkes, Melissa S Stockwell, Celibell Y Vargas, Lisa Saiman, Elaine L Larson, Philip LaRussa, Steve Di Lonardo, Michael Popowich, Kirsten St George, Andrea Steffens, Carrie Reed
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States is primarily conducted through medical settings despite a significant burden of non-medically attended ILI. OBJECTIVES: To assess consistency between surveillance for respiratory viruses in outpatient and community settings using ILI surveillance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) and the Mobile Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and Influenza-Like Illness in the Community (MoSAIC) Study...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350759/extreme-rainfall-affects-assembly-of-the-root-associated-fungal-community
#19
Christopher J Barnes, Christopher J van der Gast, Niall P McNamara, Rebecca Rowe, Gary D Bending
Global warming is resulting in increased frequency of weather extremes. Root-associated fungi play important roles in terrestrial biogeochemical cycling processes, but the way in which they are affected by extreme weather is unclear. Here, we performed long-term field monitoring of the root-associated fungus community of a short rotation coppice willow plantation, and compared community dynamics before and after a once in 100 yr rainfall event that occurred in the UK in 2012. Monitoring of the root-associated fungi was performed over a 3-yr period by metabarcoding the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region...
January 19, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350751/review-of-the-comparative-susceptibility-of-microbial-species-to-photoinactivation-using-380-480%C3%A2-nm-violet-blue-light
#20
Rachael M Tomb, Tracy A White, John E Coia, John G Anderson, Scott J MacGregor, Michelle Maclean
Antimicrobial violet-blue light is an emerging technology designed for enhanced clinical decontamination and treatment applications, due to its safety, efficacy and ease of use. This systematised review was designed to compile the current knowledge on the antimicrobial efficacy of 380-480 nm light on a range of healthcare and food related pathogens including vegetative bacteria, bacterial endospores, fungi and viruses. Data was compiled from 79 studies, with the majority focussing on wavelengths in the region of 405 nm...
January 19, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
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