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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817704/analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-group-b-streptococci-with-reduced-penicillin-susceptibility-forming-small-less-hemolytic-colonies
#1
Hirotsugu Banno, Kouji Kimura, Yosuke Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Makoto Kuroda, Wanchun Jin, Jun-Ichi Wachino, Keiko Yamada, Keigo Shibayama, Yoshichika Arakawa
Group B streptococci (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are the leading cause of neonatal invasive diseases and are also important pathogens for elderly adults. Until now, nearly all GBS with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) have shown β-hemolytic activity and grow on sheep blood agar. However, we have previously reported three PRGBS clinical isolates harboring a CylK deletion that form small less hemolytic colonies. In this study, we examined the causes of small, less hemolytic colony formation in these clinical isolates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817689/characterization-and-formulation-into-solid-dosage-forms-of-a-novel-bacteriophage-lytic-against-klebsiella-oxytoca
#2
Teagan L Brown, Steve Petrovski, Dannielle Hoyle, Hiu Tat Chan, Peter Lock, Joseph Tucci
AIM: To isolate and characterize bacteriophage lytic for the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella oxytoca and their formulation into a range of solid dosage forms for in-vitro testing. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report the isolation, genomic and functional characterization of a novel bacteriophage lytic for Klebsiella oxytoca, which does not infect the closely related Klebsiella pneumoniae. This bacteriophage was formulated into suppositories and troches and shown to be released and lyse underlying Klebsiella oxytoca bacteria in an in-vitro model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817682/experimental-study-of-tuberculosis-from-animal-models-to-complex-cell-systems-and-organoids
#3
REVIEW
Kaori L Fonseca, Pedro N S Rodrigues, I Anna S Olsson, Margarida Saraiva
Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating disease to mankind that has killed more people than any other infectious disease. Despite many efforts and successes from the scientific and health communities, the prospect of TB elimination remains distant. On the one hand, sustainable public health programs with affordable and broad implementation of anti-TB measures are needed. On the other hand, achieving TB elimination requires critical advances in three areas: vaccination, diagnosis, and treatment. It is also well accepted that succeeding in advancing these areas requires a deeper knowledge of host-pathogen interactions during infection, and for that, better experimental models are needed...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817673/the-plasmid-encoded-ipf-and-klf-fimbriae-display-different-expression-and-varying-roles-in-the-virulence-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-infantis-in-mouse-vs-avian-hosts
#4
Gili Aviv, Laura Elpers, Svetlana Mikhlin, Helit Cohen, Shaul Vitman Zilber, Guntram A Grassl, Galia Rahav, Michael Hensel, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two previously uncharacterized pESI-encoded chaperone-usher fimbriae, named Ipf and Klf. While Ipf homologs are rare and were found only in S. enterica subspecies diarizonae and subspecies VII, Klf is related to the known K88-Fae fimbria and klf clusters were identified in seven S...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817641/honey-bee-apis-mellifera-colony-health-and-pathogen-composition-in-migratory-beekeeping-operations-involved-in-california-almond-pollination
#5
William Glenny, Ian Cavigli, Katie F Daughenbaugh, Rosemarie Radford, Susan E Kegley, Michelle L Flenniken
Honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops. Pathogens and other factors have been implicated in high annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and some European countries. To further investigate the relationship between multiple factors, including pathogen prevalence and abundance and colony health, we monitored commercially managed migratory honey bee colonies involved in California almond pollination in 2014. At each sampling event, honey bee colony health was assessed, using colony population size as a proxy for health, and the prevalence and abundance of seven honey bee pathogens was evaluated using PCR and quantitative PCR, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817637/genetic-diversity-of-the-o-antigens-of-proteus-species-and-the-development-of-a-suspension-array-for-molecular-serotyping
#6
Xiang Yu, Agnieszka Torzewska, Xinjie Zhang, Zhiqiu Yin, Dominika Drzewiecka, Hengchun Cao, Bin Liu, Yuriy A Knirel, Antoni Rozalski, Lei Wang
Proteus species are well-known opportunistic pathogens frequently associated with skin wound and urinary tract infections in humans and animals. O antigen diversity is important for bacteria to adapt to different hosts and environments, and has been used to identify serotypes of Proteus isolates. At present, 80 Proteus O-serotypes have been reported. Although the O antigen structures of most Proteus serotypes have been identified, the genetic features of these O antigens have not been well characterized. The O antigen gene clusters of Proteus species are located between the cpxA and secB genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817594/soil-pathogen-aphid-interactions-under-differences-in-soil-organic-matter-and-mineral-fertilizer
#7
Stijn van Gils, Giovanni Tamburini, Lorenzo Marini, Arjen Biere, Maaike van Agtmaal, Olaf Tyc, Martine Kos, David Kleijn, Wim H van der Putten
There is increasing evidence showing that microbes can influence plant-insect interactions. In addition, various studies have shown that aboveground pathogens can alter the interactions between plants and insects. However, little is known about the role of soil-borne pathogens in plant-insect interactions. It is also not known how environmental conditions, that steer the performance of soil-borne pathogens, might influence these microbe-plant-insect interactions. Here, we studied effects of the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani on aphids (Sitobion avenae) using wheat (Triticum aestivum) as a host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817567/accounting-for-biotic-spatial-variability-in-fields-case-of-resistance-screening-against-sunflower-verticillium-wilt
#8
Hélène Missonnier, Alban Jacques, JiSu Bang, Jean Daydé, Virginie Mirleau-Thebaud
In breeding for disease resistance, the magnitude of the genetic response is difficult to appreciate because of environmental stresses that interact with the plant genotype. We discuss herein the fundamental problems in breeding for disease resistance with the aim being to better understand the interactions between plant, pathogen, and spatial patterns. The goal of this study is to fine tune breeding decisions by incorporating spatial patterns of such biotic factors into the definition of disease-occurrence probability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817307/geographic-distribution-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-species-identified-among-clinical-isolates-in-the-united-states-2009-2013
#9
Alicen B Spaulding, Yi Ling Lai, Adrian M Zelazny, Kenneth N Olivier, Sameer S Kadri, D Rebecca Prevots, Jennifer Adjemian
RATIONALE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria are an important cause of morbidity in the United States, although patient outcomes vary greatly by species. Currently, nationally representative data on the distribution of mycobacterial species from clinical isolates are limited. OBJECTIVES: Using a national hospitalization database capturing microbiologic data for nearly six million patient encounters, we describe the geographic distribution of, and patient demographic features associated with, clinical mycobacterial isolates in the United States...
August 17, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817232/crystal-structure-of-the-melampsora-lini-effector-avrp-reveals-insights-into-a-possible-nuclear-function-and-recognition-by-the-flax-disease-resistance-protein-p
#10
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Nadya Farah, Laura Rolston, Daniel J Ericsson, Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Maud Bernoux, Thomas Ve, Katerina Bendak, Chunhong Chen, Joel P Mackay, Gregory J Lawrence, Adrienne Hardham, Jeffrey G Ellis, Simon J Williams, Peter N Dodds, David A Jones, Bostjan Kobe
The effector protein AvrP is secreted by the flax rust fungal pathogen (Melampsora lini) and recognized specifically by the flax (Linum usitatissimum) P disease resistance protein, leading to effector-triggered immunity. To investigate the biological function of this effector and mechanisms of specific recognition by the P resistance protein, we determined the crystal structure of AvrP. The structure reveals an elongated zinc-finger-like structure with a novel interleaved zinc-binding topology. The residues responsible for zinc binding are conserved in AvrP effector variants and mutations of these motifs result in loss of P-mediated recognition...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817118/altered-marginal-zone-and-innate-like-b-cells-in-aged-senescence-accelerated-samp8-mice-with-defective-igg1-responses
#11
Isabel Cortegano, Mercedes Rodríguez, Isabel Martín, Maria Carmen Prado, Carolina Ruíz, Rafael Hortigüela, Mario Alía, Marçal Vilar, Helena Mira, Eva Cano, Mercedes Domínguez, Belén de Andrés, María Luisa Gaspar
Aging has a strong impact on the activity of the immune system, enhancing susceptibility to pathogens and provoking a predominant pre-inflammatory status, whereas dampening responses to vaccines in humans and mice. Here, we demonstrate a loss of marginal zone B lymphocytes (MZ, CD19(+)CD45R(+)CD21(++)CD23(lo)) and a decrease of naive B cells (CD19(+)IgD(+)), whereas there is an enhancement of a CD19(+)CD45R(lo) innate-like B cell population (B1REL) and the so-called aged B cell compartment (ABC, CD45R(+)CD21(lo)CD23(lo)CD5(-)CD11b(-)) in aged senescence-accelerated (SAMP8) mice but not in aged senescence-resistant (SAMR1) mice...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817112/monoallelic-and-biallelic-creb3l1-variant-causes-mild-and-severe-osteogenesis-imperfecta-respectively
#12
Rachel B Keller, Thao T Tran, Shawna M Pyott, Melanie G Pepin, Ravi Savarirayan, George McGillivray, Deborah A Nickerson, Michael J Bamshad, Peter H Byers
PurposeOsteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable skeletal dysplasia. Dominant pathogenic variants in COL1A1 and COL1A2 explain the majority of OI cases. At least 15 additional genes have been identified, but those still do not account for all OI phenotypes that present. We sought the genetic cause of mild and lethal OI phenotypes in an unsolved family.MethodsWe performed exome sequencing on seven members of the family, both affected and unaffected.ResultsWe identified a variant in cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 (CREB3L1) in a consanguineous family...
August 17, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816943/spinal-cord-compression-syndrome-caused-by-intraspinal-epidural-fibrous-cord-three-case-reports
#13
Yingjie Zhou, Xubin Chai, Huailiang Zheng, Renqian Song, Xiaofei Qin
RATIONALE: The spinal cord compression caused by intraspinal epidural fibrous cord. PATIENT CONCERNS: All patients in this study had spinal cord compression syndrome caused by an intraspinal epidural fibrous cord, manifested as abnormally increased epidural adipose tissue by imaging. DIAGNOSE: These abnormal fibrous connective tissue strips were not identical to the known pathological tissue such as "meningovertebral ligament." Instead, it might be a novel pathogenic cause for the spinal cord compression...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816937/effect-of-perioperative-oral-care-on-prevention-of-postoperative-pneumonia-associated-with-esophageal-cancer-surgery-a-multicenter-case-control-study-with-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#14
Sakiko Soutome, Souichi Yanamoto, Madoka Funahara, Takumi Hasegawa, Takahide Komori, Shin-Ichi Yamada, Hiroshi Kurita, Chika Yamauchi, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Yuka Kojima, Hirokazu Nakahara, Takahiko Oho, Masahiro Umeda
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral care in prevention of postoperative pneumonia associated with esophageal cancer surgery.Postoperative pneumonia is a severe adverse event associated with esophageal cancer surgery. It is thought to be caused by aspiration of oropharyngeal fluid containing pathogens. However, the relationship between oral health status and postoperative pneumonia has not been well investigated.This study included 539 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing surgery at 1 of 7 university hospitals...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816744/eruptive-keratoacanthoma-like-discoid-lupus-erythematosus
#15
Corey Georgesen, Cynthia Magro
Hypertrophic discoid lupus erythematosus can resemble keratoacanthoma histomorphologically. We describe a unique case of eruptive keratoacanthomatous scaly papules in a 56-year-old woman with discoid lupus erythematosus. We review the literature and conclude by discussing important histologic features and useful immunostains to consider when attempting to discern the underlying identity and pathogenicity of such lesions.
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816638/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-at-the-largest-veterinary-teaching-hospital-in-costa-rica
#16
Irene Rojas, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Joany C van Balen, Norman Rojas, Lohendy Muñoz-Vargas, Armando E Hoet
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen associated with severe infections in companion animals present in the community, and it is diagnosed in animals admitted to veterinary hospitals. However, reports that describe the circulation of MRSA in animal populations and veterinary settings in Latin America are scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and investigate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in the environment of the largest veterinary teaching hospital in Costa Rica...
August 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816601/stomate-based-defense-and-environmental-cues
#17
Shweta Panchal, Maeli Melotto
Environmental conditions play crucial roles in modulating immunity and disease in plants. For instance, many bacterial disease outbreaks occur after periods of high humidity and rain. A critical step in bacterial infection is entry into the plant interior through wounds or natural openings, such as stomata. Bacterium-triggered stomatal closure is an integral part of the plant immune response to reduce pathogen invasion. Recently, we found that high humidity compromises stomatal defense, which is accompanied by regulation of the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways in guard cells...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816600/deciphering-the-trna-dependent-lipid-aminoacylation-systems-in-bacteria-novel-components-and-structural-advances
#18
Rachel N Fields, Hervé Roy
tRNA-dependent addition of amino acids to lipids on the outer surface of the bacterial membrane results in decreased effectiveness of antimicrobials such as cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) that target the membrane, and increased virulence of several pathogenic species. After a brief introduction to CAMPs and the various bacterial resistance mechanisms used to counteract these compounds, this review focuses on recent advances in tRNA-dependent pathways for lipid modification in bacteria. Phenotypes associated with amino acid lipid modifications and regulation of their expression will also be discussed...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816583/mammalian-cell-surface-display-for-monoclonal-antibody-based-facs-selection-of-viral-envelope-proteins
#19
Tim-Henrik Bruun, Veronika Grassmann, Benjamin Zimmer, Benedikt Asbach, David Peterhoff, Alexander Kliche, Ralf Wagner
The elicitation of broadly and efficiently neutralizing antibodies in humans by active immunization is still a major obstacle in the development of vaccines against pathogens such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza virus, hepatitis C virus or cytomegalovirus. Here, we describe a mammalian cell surface display and monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated panning technology that allows affinity-based selection of envelope (Env) variants from libraries. To this end, we established an experimental setup featuring: 1) single and site specific integration of Env to link genotype and phenotype, 2) inducible Env expression to avoid cytotoxicity effects, 3) translational coupling of Env and enhanced green fluorescent protein expression to normalize for Env protein levels, and 4) display on HEK cells to ensure native folding and mammalian glycosylation...
August 17, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816084/adenoviral-type-35-and-26-vectors-with-a-bidirectional-expression-cassette-in-the-e1-region-show-an-improved-genetic-stability-profile-and-potent-transgene-specific-immune-response
#20
Marija Vujadinovic, Kerstin Wunderlich, Benoit Callendret, Marina Koning, Mark Vermeulen, Barbara Sanders, Esmeralda van der Helm, Adile Gecgel, Dirk Spek, Karin de Boer, Masha Stalknecht, Jan Serroyen, Maria Grazia Pau, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Roland Zahn, Jerome Custers, Jort Vellinga
Genetic vaccines based on replication-incompetent adenoviral (AdV) vectors are currently in clinical development. Monovalent AdV vectors express one antigen from an expression cassette placed in most cases in the E1 region. For many vaccines, inclusion of several antigens is necessary in order to raise protective immunity and/or target more than one pathogen or pathogen strain. Based on the current technology, a mix of several monovalent vectors can be employed. However, a mix of the standard monovalent AdV may not be optimal with respect to manufacturing costs and the final dose per vector in humans...
August 17, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
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