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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351635/reversibility-of-severe-mitral-valve-regurgitation-after-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation-single-centre-observations-from-a-real-life-population-of-patients
#1
Monica Dobrovie, Ricardo A Spampinato, Elena Efimova, Jaqueline G da Rocha E Silva, Julia Fischer, Michael Kuehl, Jens-Uwe Voigt, Ann Belmans, Agnieszka Ciarka, Fernanda Bonamigo Thome, Valerie Schloma, Yaroslava Dmitrieva, Sven Lehmann, Jochen Hahn, Elfriede Strotdrees, Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr, Jens Garbade, Anna L Meyer
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the impact of untreated preoperative severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR) on outcomes after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. METHODS: Of the 234 patients who received LVAD therapy in our centre during a 6-year period, we selected those who had echocardiographic images of good quality and excluded those who underwent mitral valve replacement prior to or mitral valve repair during LVAD placement. The 128 patients selected were divided into 2 groups: Group A with severe MR (n = 65) and Group B with none to moderate MR (n = 63, 28 with moderate MR)...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351596/freedom-solo%C3%A2-versus-trifecta%C3%A2-bioprostheses-clinical-and-haemodynamic-evaluation-after-propensity-score-matching
#2
Rui J Cerqueira, Renata Raimundo, Soraia Moreira, Francisca A Saraiva, Marta Andrade, Elson Salgueiro, Jorge Almeida, Mário Jorge Amorim, Paulo Pinho, André P Lourenço, Adelino Leite-Moreira
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to compare the stentless Freedom Solo® (FS) and the stented Trifecta® (TF) aortic bioprostheses with regard to haemodynamic profile, left ventricular mass regression and early and late postoperative outcomes and survival. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (2009-16) with either the FS or TF at 1 centre was performed. Local databases and national records were queried...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351482/suppression-of-gut-dysbiosis-reverses-western-diet-induced-vascular-dysfunction
#3
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Dillon K Jarrell, Shuofei Hou, Kayl E Ecton, Tiffany L Weir, Christopher L Gentile
OBJECTIVE: Vascular dysfunction represents a critical pre-clinical step in the development of cardiovascular disease. We examined the role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity-related vascular dysfunction. Approach and Results. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard diet (SD) (n=12) or western diet (WD) (n=24) for 5m, after which time, WD mice were randomized to receive either un-supplemented drinking water or water containing a broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail (WD+Abx) (n=12/group) for 2m...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351466/telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-protects-against-angiotensin-ii-induced-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction
#4
Karima Ait-Aissa, Andrew O Kadlec, Joseph Hockenberry, David D Gutterman, Andreas M Beyer
A rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to cardiovascular disease by reducing nitric oxide (NO) levels, leading to loss of NO's vasodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. Although primarily studied in the larger conduit arteries, excess ROS release and a corresponding loss of NO also occurs in the smaller resistance arteries of the microcirculation, but underlying mechanisms and therapeutic targets have not been fully characterized. We examined whether either of the two subunits of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) or telomerase RNA component (TERC), affect microvascular ROS production and peak vasodilation at baseline and in response to in vivo administration to angiotensin II (ANG II)...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351463/intermediary-metabolism-and-fatty-acid-oxidation-novel-targets-of-electron-transport-chain-driven-injury-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#5
Qun Chen, Masood S Younus, Jeremy Thompson, Ying Hu, John M Hollander, Edward J Lesnefsky
BACKGROUND: Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) damages the electron transport chain (ETC) causing mitochondrial and cardiomyocyte injury. Reversible blockade of the ETC at complex I during ischemia protects the ETC and decreases cardiac injury. In the present study, we used an unbiased proteomic approach to analyze the extent of ETC-driven mitochondrial injury during IR. METHODS: Isolated-perfused mouse (C57BL/6) hearts underwent 25 min global ischemia (37{degree sign}C) and 30 min reperfusion...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351461/exercise-training-induces-enos-coupling-and-restores-relaxation-in-coronary-arteries-of-heart-failure-rats
#6
Gisele Kruger Couto, Suliana Mesquita Paula, Igor L Gomes-Santos, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Luciana Venturini Rossoni
Exercise training (ET) has emerged as a non-pharmacological therapy for cardiovascular diseases because of its helpful milieu for improving vascular function. The aim of the present study was to assess whether ET reverses the alterations in vascular reactivity observed in heart failure (HF)-related coronary arteries and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these adjustments. Male Wistar rats were subjected to either coronary artery ligation or sham operation (SO). Four weeks after the surgery, the rats were divided into two groups: untrained HF (UHF) and exercise-trained HF (THF)...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351453/superoxide-inhibition-restores-endothelium-dependent-dilatation-in-aging-arteries-by-enhancing-impaired-adherens-junctions
#7
Fumin Chang, Sheila Flavahan, Nicholas A Flavahan
Endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilatation is impaired in aging arteries. The dysfunction reflects increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is reversed by inhibiting superoxide with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics, and is assumed to reflect superoxide-mediated inactivation of NO. However, the dysfunction also reflects Src-dependent degradation and loss of VE-cadherin from adherens junctions, resulting in a selective impairment in the ability of the junctions to amplify endothelial dilatation...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351446/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-oxidative-stress-in-lung-disease-therapeutic-implications-for-an-aging-populace
#8
Louise Hecker
The rapid expansion of the elderly population has led to the recent epidemic of age-related diseases, including increased incidence and mortality of chronic and acute lung diseases. Numerous studies have implicated aging and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases; however, despite recent advances in these fields, the specific contributions of aging and oxidative stress remain elusive. This review will discuss the consequences of aging on lung morphology and physiology, and how redox imbalance with aging contributes to lung disease susceptibility...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351444/activated-human-t-lymphocytes-inhibit-tgf%C3%AE-induced-fibroblast-to-myofibroblast-differentiation-via-prostaglandins-d2-and-e2
#9
Shannon H Lacy, Amali P Epa, Stephen J Pollock, Collynn F Woeller, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
In pulmonary fibrosis (PF), fibroblasts and myofibroblasts proliferate and deposit excessive extracellular matrix in the interstitium, impairing normal lung function. As most forms of PF have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options, PF represents an urgent unmet need for novel, effective therapeutics. While the role of immune cells in lung fibrosis is unclear, recent studies suggest that T lymphocyte (T cell) activation may be impaired in PF patients. Further, we have previously shown that activated T cells can produce prostaglandins with anti-scarring potential...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351428/control-of-appetite-blood-glucose-and-blood-pressure-during-melanocortin-4-receptor-activation-in-normoglycemic-and-diabetic-npy-deficient-mice
#10
Alexandre A da Silva, John Nathan Freeman, John E Hall, Jussara M do Carmo
Although central melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) blockade abolishes the CNS-mediated anorexogenic, antidiabetic and cardiovascular actions of leptin, chronic MC4R stimulation fails to completely mimic leptin's effects. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) and MC4R exert opposite effects on cardiovascular and metabolic functions, we tested its role in offsetting the long-term actions of MC4R activation. Wild-type (WT) and NPY-deficient (NPY-/-) mice were implanted with telemetry probes for measuring mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) 24-h/d...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351425/source-of-dietary-sucrose-influences-development-of-leptin-resistance-in-male-and-female-rats
#11
Ruth B S Harris
Male rats offered 30% sucrose solution in addition to chow develop leptin resistance without increasing energy intake or body fat. Here we tested whether the leptin resistance was dependent upon the physical form of the sucrose. Sprague Dawley rats were offered a sucrose-free diet (NS), a 66.6% energy as sucrose diet (HS), or NS diet and 30% sucrose solution (LS). Sucrose intake of LS rats equaled that of HS rats, but total carbohydrate intake exceeded that of HS rats. After 33 days male and female LS rats were resistant to the inhibitory effect of peripherally administered leptin on food intake...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351423/role-of-trpv1-in-acupuncture-modulation-of-reflex-excitatory-cardiovascular-responses
#12
Zhi-Ling Guo, Liang-Wu Fu, Hou-Fen Su, Stephanie C Tjen-A-Looi, John C Longhurst
Acupuncture, including manual and electroacupuncture (MA and EA), at the P5-6 acupoints stimulates afferents in the median nerve (MN) to modulate sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflexes. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) is present in afferents distributed in the region of acupoints. However, contribution of TRPV1 to activation of sensory nerves by acupuncture, leading to modulation of pressor responses has not been studied. We hypothesized that TRPV1 participates in acupuncture's activation of sensory fibers and neurons to modulate pressor reflexes...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351416/acute-and-chronic-resistance-training-downregulates-select-line-1-retrotransposon-activity-markers-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#13
Matthew A Romero, C Brooks Mobley, Petey W Mumford, Paul A Roberson, Cody T Haun, Wesley C Kephart, James C Healy, Darren T Beck, Kaelin C Young, Jeffrey S Martin, Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts
Herein, we examined if acute or chronic resistance exercise affected markers of skeletal muscle LINE-1 retrotransposon activity. In study 1, 10 resistance-trained college-aged males performed three consecutive daily back squat sessions, and vastus lateralis biopsies were taken prior to (Pre), 2 h following session 1 (Post1), and 3 days following session 3 (Post2). In study 2, 13 untrained college-aged males performed a full-body resistance training program (3 d/wk), and vastus lateralis biopsies were taken prior to (week 0) and ~72 h following training cessation (week 12)...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351409/pharmacological-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-inhibits-hypoxia-induced-proliferation-through-a-caveolin-1-targeted-and-dependent-mechanism-in-pasmcs
#14
Kai Yang, Mingming Zhao, Junyi Huang, Chenting Zhang, Qiu Yu Zheng, Yuqin Chen, Haiyang Jiang, Wenju Lu, Jian Wang
Previously, we and others have demonstrated that activation of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor γ (PPARγ) by specific pharmacological agonists inhibits the pathogenesis of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (CHPH) by suppressing the proliferation and migration in distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Moreover, these beneficial effects of PPARγ are mediated by targeting the intracellular calcium homeostasis and store-operated calcium channel (SOCC) proteins, including the main caveolae component caveolin-1...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351404/type-2-diabetes-impairs-the-ability-of-skeletal-muscle-pericytes-to-augment-postischemic-neovascularization-in-db-db-mice
#15
Katherine L Hayes, Louis M Messina, Lawrence M Schwartz, Jinglian Yan, Amy S Burnside, Sarah Witkowski
Peripheral artery disease is an atherosclerotic occlusive disease that causes limb ischemia and has few effective non-interventional treatments. Stem cell therapy is promising, but concomitant diabetes may limit its effectiveness. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of skeletal muscle pericytes to augment postischemic neovascularization in wild type and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. Wild type C57BL/6J and leptin receptor spontaneous mutation db/db T2DM mice underwent unilateral femoral artery excision to induce limb ischemia...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351397/acute-small-intestinal-inflammation-results-in-persistent-lymphatic-alterations
#16
Sonia Rehal, Matthew Stephens, Simon Roizes, Shan Liao, Pierre-Yves von der Weid
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a complex pathophysiology with limited treatments. Structural and functional changes in the intestinal lymphatic system have been associated with the disease, with increased risk of IBD occurrence linked to a history of acute intestinal injury. To examine the potential role of the lymphatic system in inflammation recurrence, we evaluated morphological and functional changes in mouse mucosal and mesenteric lymphatic vessels, and within the mesenteric lymph nodes during acute ileitis caused by a 7-day treatment with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351395/macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-increases-hepatic-macrophage-content-liver-growth-and-lipid-accumulation-in-neonatal-rats
#17
Clare Pridans, Kristin A Sauter, Katharine M Irvine, Gemma M Davis, Lucas Lefevre, Anna Raper, Rocio Rojo, Ajit J Nirmal, Philippa Beard, Michael Cheeseman, David A Hume
Signaling via the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) controls the survival, differentiation and proliferation of macrophages. Mutations in CSF1, or CSF1R in mice and rats have pleiotropic effects on postnatal somatic growth. We tested the possible application of CSF1-Fc as a therapy for low birth weight (LBW) at term, using a model based upon maternal dexamethasone treatment in rats. Neonatal CSF1-Fc treatment did not alter somatic growth, and did not increase the blood monocyte count. Instead, there was a substantial increase in the size of liver in both control and LBW rats, and the treatment greatly exacerbated the lipid droplet accumulation seen in the dexamethasone LBW model...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351356/epha2-ephrin-a1-mediate-corneal-epithelial-cell-compartmentalization-via-adam10-regulation-of-egfr-signaling
#18
Nihal Kaplan, Rosa Ventrella, Han Peng, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Constadina Arvanitis, Joshua Z Rappoport, Brian J Mitchell, Mary Ann Stepp, Robert M Lavker, Spiro Getsios
Purpose: Progenitor cells of the limbal epithelium reside in a discrete area peripheral to the more differentiated corneal epithelium and maintain tissue homeostasis. What regulates the limbal-corneal epithelial boundary is a major unanswered question. Ephrin-A1 ligand is enriched in the limbal epithelium, whereas EphA2 receptor is concentrated in the corneal epithelium. This reciprocal pattern led us to assess the role of ephrin-A1 and EphA2 in limbal-corneal epithelial boundary organization...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351344/the-morphing-of-geographical-features-by-fourier-transformation
#19
Jingzhong Li, Pengcheng Liu, Wenhao Yu, Xiaoqiang Cheng
This paper presents a morphing model of vector geographical data based on Fourier transformation. This model involves three main steps. They are conversion from vector data to Fourier series, generation of intermediate function by combination of the two Fourier series concerning a large scale and a small scale, and reverse conversion from combination function to vector data. By mirror processing, the model can also be used for morphing of linear features. Experimental results show that this method is sensitive to scale variations and it can be used for vector map features' continuous scale transformation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351323/fire-forbids-fifty-fifty-forest
#20
Egbert H van Nes, Arie Staal, Stijn Hantson, Milena Holmgren, Salvador Pueyo, Rafael E Bernardi, Bernardo M Flores, Chi Xu, Marten Scheffer
Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a broad range of assumptions on tree growth and fire-driven mortality...
2018: PloS One
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