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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813042/the-carotenoid-pathway-what-is-important-for-excitation-quenching-in-plant-antenna-complexes
#1
Kieran F Fox, Vytautas Balevičius, Jevgenij Chmeliov, Leonas Valkunas, Alexander V Ruban, Christopher D P Duffy
Plant light-harvesting is regulated by the Non-Photochemical Quenching (NPQ) mechanism involving the reversible formation of excitation quenching sites in the Photosystem II (PSII) antenna in response to high light. While the major antenna complex, LHCII, is known to be a site of NPQ, the precise mechanism of excitation quenching is not clearly understood. A preliminary model of the quenched crystal structure of LHCII implied that quenching arises from slow energy capture by Car pigments. It predicted a thoroughly quenched system but offered little insight into the defining aspects of this quenching...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813016/a-novel-high-mannose-specific-lectin-from-the-green-alga-halimeda-renschii-exhibits-a-potent-anti-influenza-virus-activity-through-high-affinity-binding-to-the-viral-hemagglutinin
#2
Jinmin Mu, Makoto Hirayama, Yuichiro Sato, Kinjiro Morimoto, Kanji Hori
We have isolated a novel lectin, named HRL40 from the green alga Halimeda renschii. In hemagglutination-inhibition test and oligosaccharide-binding experiment with 29 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides, HRL40 exhibited a strict binding specificity for high-mannose N-glycans having an exposed (α1-3) mannose residue in the D2 arm of branched mannosides, and did not have an affinity for monosaccharides and other oligosaccharides examined, including complex N-glycans, an N-glycan core pentasaccharide, and oligosaccharides from glycolipids...
August 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812994/organ-organ-crosstalk-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Lauren G Poole, Christine E Dolin, Gavin E Arteel
Alcohol consumption is a common custom worldwide, and the toxic effects of alcohol on several target organs are well-understood. Given the poor prognosis of treating clinically-relevant alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (i.e., alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and cirrhosis), additional research is required to develop more effective therapies. While the stages of ALD have been well-characterized, targeted therapies to prevent or reverse this process in humans are still needed. Better understanding of risk factors and mechanisms underlying disease progression can lead to the development of rational therapies to prevent or reverse ALD in the clinic...
August 16, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812969/functional-expression-of-bmp7-receptors-in-oral-epithelial-cells-interleukin-17f-production-in-response-to-bmp7
#4
Kensuke Nishio, Yasumasa Ozawa, Hisanori Ito, Takashi Kifune, Tatsuya Narita, Toshimitsu Iinuma, Nobuhito Gionhaku, Masatake Asano
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Recently, BMP7 has been demonstrated to be produced by salivary glands and contribute to embryonic branching in mice. The BMP7 in saliva is thought to be delivered to the oral cavity and is expected to contact with stratified squamous epithelial cells which line the surface of oral mucosa. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of BMP7 on oral epithelial cells...
October 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812956/toxicity-identification-and-evaluation-for-the-effluent-from-a-nonmetallic-mineral-mining-facility-in-korea-using-d-magna
#5
Sungjong Lee, Hongjoo Ha, JinKyung Hong, Guyoung Kang, Chunsang Hong
Industrial wastewater has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its impact on ecosystems and human health. Whole-effluent tests are generally used to monitor toxicities of unknown chemicals and conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study described identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to determine the acute toxicity of a nonmetallic mineral mining facility effluent that was toxic to Daphnia magna. In the characterization step (TIE phase I), toxic effects of heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids, and ammonia were screened...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812922/a-circulating-micro-rna-signature-serves-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-indicator-in-sarcoidosis
#6
Christian Ascoli, Yue Huang, Cody Schott, Benjamin A Turturice, Ahmed Metwally, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In sarcoidosis, aberrant miRNA expression may enhance immune responses mounted against an unknown antigenic agent. We tested whether a distinct miRNA signature functions as a diagnostic biomarker and explored its role as an immune modulator in sarcoidosis. Expression of miRNAs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects that met clinical and histopathologic criteria for sarcoidosis were compared to those from matched controls in the ACCESS study...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812903/synergic-on-off-photoswitching-spin-state-and-magnetic-coupling-between-spin-crossover-centers
#7
Jun-Li Wang, Qiang Liu, Yin-Shan Meng, Hui Zheng, Hai-Lang Zhu, Quan Shi, Tao Liu
The existence of a correlation between spin crossover and dielectric properties is a hot topic in the field of multiresponse materials, which has potential applications in the memory devices, switches, and sensors. One formidable challenge is the simultaneous and rapid on/off switching of spin states of the spin carriers and magnetic coupling between them, which is crucial for both reversible photomagnetic behavior and variations in dielectric properties. Here, we report a dinuclear Fe(II) spin crossover complex, wherein each Fe(II) center exhibits an interconversion between Fe(II)HS (HS = high-spin) and Fe(II)LS (LS = low-spin) achieved upon heating and cooling...
August 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812886/room-temperature-ring-opening-of-quinoline-isoquinoline-and-pyridine-with-low-valent-titanium
#8
Seung-Yeol Baek, Takashi Kurogi, Dahye Kang, Masahiro Kamitani, Seongyeon Kwon, Douglas Solowey, Chun-Hsing Chen, Maren Pink, Patrick J Carroll, Daniel J Mindiola, Mu-Hyun Baik
The complex (PNP)Ti=CHtBu(CH2tBu) (PNP = N[2-PiPr2-4-methylphenyl]2-) dehydrogenates cyclohexane to cyclohexene by forming a transient low-valent titanium-alkyl species, [(PNP)Ti(CH2tBu)], which reacts with two equivalents of quinoline (Q) at room temperature to form H3CtBu and a Ti(IV) species where the less hindered C2=N1 bond of Q is ruptured and coupled to another equivalent of Q. The product isolated from this reaction is an imide with a tethered cycloamide group, (PNP)Ti=N[C18H13N] (1). Under photolytic conditions, intramolecular C-H bond activation across the imide-moiety in 1 occurs to form 2, and thermolysis reverses this process...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812875/one-pot-synthesis-of-size-and-composition-controlled-ni-rich-nipt-alloy-nanoparticles-in-a-reverse-micro-emulsion-system-and-their-application
#9
Gregory M Biausque, Paco Laveille, Dalaver H Anjum, Bei Zhang, Xixiang Zhang, Valérie Caps, Jean-Marie Basset
Bimetallic nanoparticles have been the subject of numerous research studies in the nanotechnology field, in particular for catalytic applications. Control of the size, morphology and composition has become a key challenge due to the relationship between these parameters and the catalytic behavior of the particles in terms of activity, selectivity and stability. Here, we present a one-pot air synthesis of 2 nm Ni9Pt1 nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Control of the size and composition of the alloy particles is achieved at ambient temperature, in the aqueous phase, by the simultaneous reduction of nickel and platinum precursor with hydrazine, using a reverse micro-emulsion system...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812873/ultrathin-manganese-based-metal-organic-framework-nanosheets-low-cost-and-energy-dense-lithium-storage-anodes-with-the-coexistence-of-metal-and-ligand-redox-activities
#10
Chao Li, Xiaoshi Hu, Wei Tong, Wensheng Yan, Xiaobing Lou, Ming Shen, Bingwen Hu
We herein demonstrate the fabrication of Mn- and Ni-based ultrathin metal-organic framework nanosheets with the same coordination mode (defined as 'Mn-UMOFNs' and 'Ni-UMOFNs', respectively) through an expedient and versatile ultrasonic approach, and scrutinize their electrochemical properties as anode materials for rechargeable lithium battery for the first time. The obtained Mn-UMOFNs with structure advantages over Ni-UMOFNs (thinner nanosheets, smaller metal-ion radius, higher specific surface area) exhibit high reversible capacity (1187 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 for 100 cycles), excellent rate capability (701 mAh g-1 even at 2 A g-1), rapid Li+ diffusion coefficient (2...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812866/directly-coating-multifunctional-interlayer-on-the-cathode-via-electrospinning-for-advanced-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#11
Yueying Peng, Yiyong Zhang, Yunhui Wang, Xiu Shen, Feng Wang, He Li, Bing-Joe Hwang, Jinbao Zhao
Lithium sulfur battery is considered as a prospective candidate for high-energy-storage system as its high theoretical specific capacity and energy. However, the dissolution and shutter of polysulfides lead to low active material utilization and fast capacity fading. Electrospinning technology is employed to directly coat an interlayer composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and nitrogen-doped carbon black (NC) fibers on the cathode. Benefited from electrospinning technology, the PAN-NC fibers possess good electrolyte infiltration for fast lithium-ion transport and great flexibility for adhering on the cathode...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812765/rational-design-of-polymeric-core-shell-ratiometric-oxygen-sensing-nanostructures
#12
Aisling Byrne, Jaco Jacobs, Christopher S Burke, Aaron Martin, Andreas Heise, Tia E Keyes
A new approach for the fabrication of luminescent ratiometric sensing nanosensors is described using core-shell nanoparticles in which the probe and reference are spatially separated into the shell and core of the nanostructure respectively. The isolation of the reference in the core of the particle ensures a stable emission reference signal unaffected by the external environment. The core shell structure was prepared by engineering structurally well-defined Ru-conjugated block copolymers which acted as emulsifiers in the miniemulsion polymerisation of BODIPY loaded styrene nanoparticles...
August 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812739/frequency-dependent-female-genital-cutting-behaviour-confers-evolutionary-fitness-benefits
#13
Janet A Howard, Mhairi A Gibson
Female genital cutting (FGC) has immediate and long-term negative health consequences that are well-documented, and its elimination is a priority for policymakers. The persistence of this widespread practice also presents a puzzle for evolutionary anthropologists due to its potentially detrimental impact on survival and reproductive fitness. Using multilevel modelling on demographic health survey datasets from five West African countries, here we show that FGC behaviour is frequency-dependent; the probability that girls are cut varies in proportion to the FGC frequency found in their ethnic group...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812624/perceptive-costs-of-reproduction-drive-ageing-and-physiology-in-male-drosophila
#14
Zachary M Harvanek, Yang Lyu, Christi M Gendron, Jacob C Johnson, Shu Kondo, Daniel E L Promislow, Scott D Pletcher
Costs of reproduction are thought to result from natural selection optimizing organismal fitness within putative physiological constraints. Phenotypic and population genetic studies of reproductive costs are plentiful across taxa, but an understanding of their mechanistic basis would provide important insight into the diversity in life-history traits, including reproductive effort and ageing. Here, we dissect the causes and consequences of specific costs of reproduction in male Drosophila melanogaster. We find that key survival and physiological costs of reproduction arise from perception of the opposite sex, and they are reversed by the act of mating...
May 15, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812618/plant-spatial-patterns-identify-alternative-ecosystem-multifunctionality-states-in-global-drylands
#15
Miguel Berdugo, Sonia Kéfi, Santiago Soliveres, Fernando T Maestre
The response of drylands to environmental gradients can be abrupt rather than gradual. These shifts largely occur unannounced and are difficult to reverse once they happen; their prompt detection is of crucial importance. The distribution of vegetation patch sizes may indicate the proximity to these shifts, but the use of this metric is hampered by a lack of large-scale studies relating these distributions to the provision of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality) and comparing them to other ecosystem attributes, such as total plant cover...
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812603/climate-change-upends-selection-on-ornamentation-in-a-wild-bird
#16
Simon R Evans, Lars Gustafsson
Secondary sexual traits have high heritabilities and are exposed to strong, environmentally sensitive selection, and so are expected to evolve rapidly in response to sustained environmental change. We examine the eco-evolutionary dynamics of ornament expression in a long-term study population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, in which forehead patch size, which positively influences male reproductive success, declined markedly over 34 years. Annual fitness selection on forehead patch size switched from positive to negative during the study, a reversal that is accounted for by rising spring temperatures at the breeding site: highly ornamented males were selectively favoured following cold breeding seasons but selected against following warm breeding seasons...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#17
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812526/parvovirus-infection-is-associated-with-myocarditis-and-myocardial-fibrosis-in-young-dogs
#18
Jordan Ford, Laura McEndaffer, Randall Renshaw, Alex Molesan, Kathleen Kelly
Perinatal parvoviral infection causes necrotizing myocarditis in puppies, which results in acute high mortality or progressive cardiac injury. While widespread vaccination has dramatically curtailed the epidemic of canine parvoviral myocarditis, we hypothesized that canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) myocardial infection is an underrecognized cause of myocarditis, cardiac damage, and/or repair by fibrosis in young dogs. In this retrospective study, DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 40 cases and 41 control dogs under 2 years of age from 2007 to 2015...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812431/oral-administration-of-curcumin-attenuates-visceral-hyperalgesia-through-inhibiting-phosphorylation-of-trpv1-in-rat-model-of-ulcerative-colitis
#19
Mei Yang, Juan Wang, Chunxue Yang, Hongxiu Han, Weifang Rong, Guohua Zhang
Background Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. The present study was designed to explore the potential therapeutic effects of curcumin on visceral hyperalgesia and inflammation in a rat model of ulcerative colitis. We observed the effects of orally administered curcumin on the disease activity index, histological change in colon, colorectal distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex, the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and phosphorylated TRPV1 in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis rats...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812363/influence-of-oxygen-vacancies-on-the-frictional-properties-of-nanocrystalline-zinc-oxide-thin-films-in-ambient-conditions
#20
Huan-Pu Chang, En-De Chu, Yu-Ting Yeh, Yueh-Chun Wu, Fang-Yuh Lo, Wei-Hua Wang, Ming-Yau Chern, Hsiang-Chih Chiu
Oxygen vacancy is the most studied point defect and has been found to significantly influence the physical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO). By using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we show that the frictional properties on the ZnO surface at the nanoscale greatly depend on the amount of oxygen vacancies present in the surface layer and the ambient humidity. The photocatalytic effect (PCE) is used to qualitatively control the amount of oxygen vacancies in the surface layer of ZnO and reversibly switch the surface wettability between hydrophobic and superhydrophilic states...
August 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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