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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088484/optimal-trajectories-of-brain-state-transitions
#1
Shi Gu, Richard F Betzel, Marcelo G Mattar, Matthew Cieslak, Philip R Delio, Scott T Grafton, Fabio Pasqualetti, Danielle S Bassett
The complexity of neural dynamics stems in part from the complexity of the underlying anatomy. Yet how white matter structure constrains how the brain transitions from one cognitive state to another remains unknown. Here we address this question by drawing on recent advances in network control theory to model the underlying mechanisms of brain state transitions as elicited by the collective control of region sets. We find that previously identified attention and executive control systems are poised to affect a broad array of state transitions that cannot easily be classified by traditional engineering-based notions of control...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088365/stem-cells-for-als-an-overview-of-possible-therapeutic-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Joanna Czarzasta, Aleksandra Habich, Tomasz Siwek, Adam Czapliński, Wojciech Maksymowicz, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an unusual, fatal, neurodegenerative disorder leading to the loss of motor neurons. After diagnosis, the average lifespan ranges from 3 to 5 years, and death usually results from respiratory failure. Although the pathogenesis of ALS remains unclear, multiple factors are thought to contribute to the progression of ALS, such as network interactions between genes, environmental exposure, impaired molecular pathways and many others. The neuroprotective properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the paracrine signaling of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been examined in multiple pre-clinical trials of ALS with promising results...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088140/ring-polymer-molecular-dynamics-studies-on-the-rate-coefficient-of-the-abstraction-channel-of-hydrogen-plus-ethane-propane-and-dimethyl-ether
#3
Qingyong Meng, Jun Chen
To accurately compute the rates of the abstraction channels of hydrogen plus ethane (Et), propane (Pr), and dimethyl ether (DME), ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) method is used in conjunction with the recently constructed local permutation invariant polynomial neural-networks potential energy surface of the parent H + CH4 system [Q. Meng et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 154312 (2016)]. For H + Et, one of the H atoms in CH4 of the parent system is replaced by a methyl group, while for the H + DME reaction, it is replaced by the methoxyl group...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088067/tuning-neural-circuits-by-turning-the-interneuron-knob
#4
REVIEW
Nathalie Dehorter, Nicolás Marichal, Oscar Marín, Benedikt Berninger
Interneurons play a critical role in sculpting neuronal circuit activity and their dysfunction can result in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. To temporally structure and balance neuronal activity in the adult brain interneurons display a remarkable degree of subclass-specific plasticity, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms have recently begun to be elucidated. Grafting new interneurons to pre-existing neuronal networks allows for amelioration of circuit dysfunction in rodent models of neurological disease and can reopen critical windows for circuit plasticity...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#5
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086889/hybrid-brain-computer-interface-for-biomedical-cyber-physical-system-application-using-wireless-embedded-eeg-systems
#7
Rifai Chai, Ganesh R Naik, Sai Ho Ling, Hung T Nguyen
BACKGROUND: One of the key challenges of the biomedical cyber-physical system is to combine cognitive neuroscience with the integration of physical systems to assist people with disabilities. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been explored as a non-invasive method of providing assistive technology by using brain electrical signals. METHODS: This paper presents a unique prototype of a hybrid brain computer interface (BCI) which senses a combination classification of mental task, steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and eyes closed detection using only two EEG channels...
January 7, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081529/zika-virus-induced-microcephaly-and-its-possible-molecular-mechanism
#8
Md Imam Faizan, Mohd Abdullah, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Zika virus is an arthropod-borne re-emerging pathogen associated with the global pandemic of 2015-2016. The devastating effect of Zika viral infection is reflected by its neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in newborns. This scenario evoked our interest to uncover the neurotropic localization, multiplication of the virus, and the mechanism of microcephaly. The present report provides an overview of a possible molecular mechanism of Zika virus-induced microcephaly based on recent publications. Transplacental transmission of Zika viral infection from mother to foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy results in propagation of the virus in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), where entry is facilitated by the receptor (AXL protein) leading to the alteration of signalling and immune pathways in host cells...
January 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081125/the-neural-representation-of-prospective-choice-during-spatial-planning-and-decisions
#9
Raphael Kaplan, John King, Raphael Koster, William D Penny, Neil Burgess, Karl J Friston
We are remarkably adept at inferring the consequences of our actions, yet the neuronal mechanisms that allow us to plan a sequence of novel choices remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the human brain plans the shortest path to a goal in novel mazes with one (shallow maze) or two (deep maze) choice points. We observed two distinct anterior prefrontal responses to demanding choices at the second choice point: one in rostrodorsal medial prefrontal cortex (rd-mPFC)/superior frontal gyrus (SFG) that was also sensitive to (deactivated by) demanding initial choices and another in lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), which was only engaged by demanding choices at the second choice point...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081006/latent-feature-representation-with-depth-directional-long-term-recurrent-learning-for-breast-masses-in-digital-breast-tomosynthesis
#10
Dae Hoe Kim, Seong Tae Kim, Jung Min Chang, Yong Man Ro
Characterization of masses in computer-aided detection systems for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an important step to reduce false positive (FP) rates. To effectively differentiate masses from FPs in DBT, discriminative mass feature representation is required. In this paper, we propose a new latent feature representation boosted by depth directional long-term recurrent learning for characterizing malignant masses. The proposed network is designed to encode mass characteristics in two parts. First, 2D spatial image characteristics of DBT slices are encoded as a slice feature representation by convolutional neural network (CNN)...
January 12, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080975/neural-correlates-of-heart-focused-interoception-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Stefan M Schulz
Interoception is the ability to perceive one's internal body state including visceral sensations. Heart-focused interoception has received particular attention, in part due to a readily available task for behavioural assessment, but also due to accumulating evidence for a significant role in emotional experience, decision-making and clinical disorders such as anxiety and depression. Improved understanding of the underlying neural correlates is important to promote development of anatomical-functional models and suitable intervention strategies...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080973/changes-in-interoceptive-processes-following-brain-stimulation
#12
Olga Pollatos, Beate M Herbert, Sandra Mai, Thomas Kammer
The processing and perception of individual internal bodily signals (interoception) has been differentiated to comprise different levels and processes involved. The so-called heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP) offers an additional possibility to examine automatic processing of cardiac signals. Knowledge on neural structures potentially supporting different facets of interoception is still sparse. One way to get insights into neuroanatomical function is to manipulate the activity of different brain structures...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080965/feeling-learning-from-and-being-aware-of-inner-states-interoceptive-dimensions-in-neurodegeneration-and-stroke
#13
Indira García-Cordero, Lucas Sedeño, Laura de la Fuente, Andrea Slachevsky, Gonzalo Forno, Francisco Klein, Patricia Lillo, Jesica Ferrari, Clara Rodriguez, Julian Bustin, Teresa Torralva, Sandra Baez, Adrian Yoris, Sol Esteves, Margherita Melloni, Paula Salamone, David Huepe, Facundo Manes, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibañez
Interoception is a complex process encompassing multiple dimensions, such as accuracy, learning and awareness. Here, we examined whether each of those dimensions relies on specialized neural regions distributed throughout the vast interoceptive network. To this end, we obtained relevant measures of cardiac interoception in healthy subjects and patients offering contrastive lesion models of neurodegeneration and focal brain damage: behavioural variant fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto-insular stroke...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080963/is-the-cardiac-monitoring-function-related-to-the-self-in-both-the-default-network-and-right-anterior-insula
#14
Mariana Babo-Rebelo, Nicolai Wolpert, Claude Adam, Dominique Hasboun, Catherine Tallon-Baudry
The self has been proposed to be rooted in the neural monitoring of internal bodily signals and might thus involve interoceptive areas, notably the right anterior insula (rAI). However, studies on the self consistently showed the involvement of midline default network (DN) nodes, without referring to visceral monitoring. Here, we investigate this apparent discrepancy. We previously showed that neural responses to heartbeats in the DN encode two different self-dimensions, the agentive 'I' and the introspective 'Me', in a whole-brain analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080124/statistical-learning-of-parts-and-wholes-a-neural-network-approach
#15
David C Plaut, Anna K Vande Velde
Statistical learning is often considered to be a means of discovering the units of perception, such as words and objects, and representing them as explicit "chunks." However, entities are not undifferentiated wholes but often contain parts that contribute systematically to their meanings. Studies of incidental auditory or visual statistical learning suggest that, as participants learn about wholes they become insensitive to parts embedded within them, but this seems difficult to reconcile with a broad range of findings in which parts and wholes work together to contribute to behavior...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079712/a-comprehensive-review-of-genomics-and-noncoding-rna-in-gliomas
#16
Ahmed Hassan, Jennifer Mosley, Sanjay Singh, Pascal Olivier Zinn
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary adult brain tumor. In spite of our greater understanding of the biology of GBMs, clinical outcome of GBM patients remains poor, as their median survival with best available treatment is 12 to 18 months. Recent efforts of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have subgrouped patients into 4 molecular/transcriptional subgroups: proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal. Continuing efforts are underway to provide a comprehensive map of the heterogeneous makeup of GBM to include noncoding transcripts, genetic mutations, and their associations to clinical outcome...
January 11, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079471/pre-implant-modeling-of-depth-lead-placement-in-white-matter-for-maximizing-the-extent-of-cortical-activation-during-direct-neurostimulation-therapy
#17
Leopoldo Cendejas Zaragoza, Richard W Byrne, Marvin A Rossi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work was to predict preoperatively the maximum extent to which direct stimulation therapy can propagate through an epileptic circuit for stabilizing refractory focal-onset epilepsy. A pre-surgical workflow is presented which comprises a computationally intensive process for calculating the volume of cortical activation (VOCA) surrounding cylindrical depth contacts virtually placed in white matter. The process employs an activation function (AF) derived from cable modeling of an axon...
January 12, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079187/a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-3d-perception-for-event-based-neuromorphic-stereo-vision-systems
#18
Marc Osswald, Sio-Hoi Ieng, Ryad Benosman, Giacomo Indiveri
Stereo vision is an important feature that enables machine vision systems to perceive their environment in 3D. While machine vision has spawned a variety of software algorithms to solve the stereo-correspondence problem, their implementation and integration in small, fast, and efficient hardware vision systems remains a difficult challenge. Recent advances made in neuromorphic engineering offer a possible solution to this problem, with the use of a new class of event-based vision sensors and neural processing devices inspired by the organizing principles of the brain...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079059/co-variation-of-peripheral-levels-of-mir-1202-and-brain-activity-and-connectivity-during-antidepressant-treatment
#19
Juan Pablo Lopez, Fabricio Pereira, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Marcelo Berlim, Eduardo Chachamovich, Laura M Fiori, Paola Niola, Gustavo Turecki, Fabrice Jollant
MicroRNAs are short non-coding molecules that play a major role in regulating gene expression. Peripheral levels of miR-1202 have been shown to predict and mediate antidepressant response. However, it is not clear to what extent these peripheral measures reflect central neural changes in vivo. We approached this problem with the combined use of peripheral miR-1202 measures and neuroimaging. At baseline and after 8 weeks of Desvenlafaxine (50-100 mg die), twenty patients were scanned with 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging, first at rest then during the Go/NoGo task, a classical test of response inhibition...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077893/the-prediction-of-the-risk-level-of-pulmonary-embolism-and-deep-vein-thrombosis-through-artificial-neural-network
#20
Laleh Agharezaei, Zhila Agharezaei, Ali Nemati, Kambiz Bahaadinbeigy, Farshid Keynia, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Abedin Iranpour, Moslem Agharezaei
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is a common cause of mortality among hospitalized patients and yet it is preventable through detecting the precipitating factors and a prompt diagnosis by specialists. The present study has been carried out in order to assist specialists in the diagnosis and prediction of the risk level of pulmonary embolism in patients, by means of artificial neural network. METHOD: A number of 31 risk factors have been used in this study in order to evaluate the conditions of 294 patients hospitalized in 3 educational hospitals affiliated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences...
October 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
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