keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neural networks

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550780/dioxin-in-the-river-elbe
#1
Rainer Götz, Michael Bergemann, Burkhard Stachel, Gunther Umlauf
This paper provides a macro-analysis of the dioxin contamination in the river Elbe from the 1940s to the present. Based on different data sets, the historic dioxin concentration in the Elbe has been reconstructed. For the section between the tributary Mulde and Hamburg, during the 1940s, we find a concentration of about 1500 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1). We argue that this dioxin contamination was caused mainly by emissions from a magnesium plant in Bitterfeld-Wolfen, whose effluents were discharged into a tributary of the river Mulde which flows into the Elbe...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550374/performance-of-an-artificial-multi-observer-deep-neural-network-for-fully-automated-segmentation-of-polycystic-kidneys
#2
Timothy L Kline, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Marie E Edwards, Jaime D Blais, Frank S Czerwiec, Peter C Harris, Bernard F King, Vicente E Torres, Bradley J Erickson
Deep learning techniques are being rapidly applied to medical imaging tasks-from organ and lesion segmentation to tissue and tumor classification. These techniques are becoming the leading algorithmic approaches to solve inherently difficult image processing tasks. Currently, the most critical requirement for successful implementation lies in the need for relatively large datasets that can be used for training the deep learning networks. Based on our initial studies of MR imaging examinations of the kidneys of patients affected by polycystic kidney disease (PKD), we have generated a unique database of imaging data and corresponding reference standard segmentations of polycystic kidneys...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550283/high-resolution-bioelectrical-imaging-of-a%C3%AE-induced-network-dysfunction-on-cmos-meas-for-neurotoxicity-and-rescue-studies
#3
Hayder Amin, Thierry Nieus, Davide Lonardoni, Alessandro Maccione, Luca Berdondini
Neurotoxicity and the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ) peptides are associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlate with neuronal activity and network dysfunctions, ultimately leading to cellular death. However, research on neurodegenerative diseases is hampered by the paucity of reliable readouts and experimental models to study such functional decline from an early onset and to test rescue strategies within networks at cellular resolution. To overcome this important obstacle, we demonstrate a simple yet powerful in vitro AD model based on a rat hippocampal cell culture system that exploits large-scale neuronal recordings from 4096-electrodes on CMOS-chips for electrophysiological quantifications...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549937/is-learning-episodic-memory-distinct-cognitive-and-neuroanatomic-correlates-of-immediate-recall-during-learning-trials-in-neurologically-normal-aging-and-neurodegenerative-cohorts
#4
K B Casaletto, G Marx, S Dutt, J Neuhaus, R Saloner, L Kritikos, B Miller, J H Kramer
Although commonly interpreted as a marker of episodic memory during neuropsychological exams, relatively little is known regarding the neurobehavior of "total learning" immediate recall scores. Medial temporal lobes are clearly associated with delayed recall performances, yet immediate recall may necessitate networks beyond traditional episodic memory. We aimed to operationalize cognitive and neuroanatomic correlates of total immediate recall in several aging syndromes. Demographically-matched neurologically normal adults (n=91), individuals with Alzheimer's disease (n=566), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (n=34), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (n=97), semantic variant PPA (n=71), or nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (n=39) completed a neurocognitive battery, including the CVLT-Short Form trials 1-4 Total Immediate Recall; a majority subset also completed a brain MRI...
May 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549898/brainstem-mechanisms-underlying-the-cough-reflex-and-its-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Donatella Mutolo
Cough is a very important airway protective reflex. Cough-related inputs are conveyed to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) that projects to the brainstem respiratory network. The latter is reconfigured to generate the cough motor pattern. A high degree of modulation is exerted on second-order neurons and the brainstem respiratory network by sensory inputs and higher brain areas. Two medullary structures proved to have key functions in cough production and to be strategic sites of action for centrally active drugs: the cNTS and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG)...
May 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549796/development-of-the-error-monitoring-system-from-ages-9-35-unique-insight-provided-by-mri-constrained-source-localization-of-eeg
#6
George A Buzzell, John E Richards, Lauren K White, Tyson V Barker, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
The ability to self-detect errors and dynamically adapt behavior is a cornerstone of higher-level cognition, requiring coordinated activity from a network of neural regions. However, disagreement exists over how the error-monitoring system develops throughout adolescence and early adulthood. The present report leveraged MRI-constrained EEG source localization to detail typical development of the error-monitoring system in a sample of 9-35 year-olds (n=43). Participants performed a flanker task while high-density EEG was recorded; structural MRIs were also acquired for all participants...
May 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549410/large-scale-tissue-histopathology-image-classification-segmentation-and-visualization-via-deep-convolutional-activation-features
#7
Yan Xu, Zhipeng Jia, Liang-Bo Wang, Yuqing Ai, Fang Zhang, Maode Lai, Eric I-Chao Chang
BACKGROUND: Histopathology image analysis is a gold standard for cancer recognition and diagnosis. Automatic analysis of histopathology images can help pathologists diagnose tumor and cancer subtypes, alleviating the workload of pathologists. There are two basic types of tasks in digital histopathology image analysis: image classification and image segmentation. Typical problems with histopathology images that hamper automatic analysis include complex clinical representations, limited quantities of training images in a dataset, and the extremely large size of singular images (usually up to gigapixels)...
May 26, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549131/a-novel-cortical-target-to-enhance-hand-motor-output-in-humans-with-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Jinyi Long, Paolo Federico, Monica A Perez
A main goal of rehabilitation strategies in humans with spinal cord injury is to strengthen transmission in spared neural networks. Although neuromodulatory strategies have targeted different sites within the central nervous system to restore motor function following spinal cord injury, the role of cortical targets remain poorly understood. Here, we use 180 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimulation for ∼30 min over the hand representation of the motor cortex at an interstimulus interval mimicking the rhythmicity of descending late indirect (I) waves in corticospinal neurons (4...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548458/effector-based-attention-systems
#9
REVIEW
Carolyn J Perry, Mazyar Fallah
Visual processing is known to be enhanced at the end point of eye movements. Feedback within the oculomotor system has been shown to drive these alterations in visual processing. However, we do not simply view the world; we also reach out and interact using our hands. Consequently, it is not surprising that visual processing has also been shown to be altered in near-hand space. A growing body of work documents a myriad of alterations in near-hand visual processing, with little consensus on the neural underpinnings of the effect of the hand...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547768/avian-brains-insights-from-development-behaviors-and-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Tadashi Nomura, Ei-Ichi Izawa
Birds are an extensively specialized animal group with unique anatomical, physiological and ecological characteristics. Sophisticated social behaviors and remarkable cognitive abilities are present in several avian lineages, driven by their enlarged brains and intricate neural networks. These unique traits could be a result of adaptive evolution under the wide range of environmental constraints; however, the intrinsic mechanisms of avian brain development and evolution remain unclear. Here, we introduce recent findings regarding developmental aspects of avian brain organization and neuronal networks for specific avian behaviors, which provide an insight into the link between the evolution of brain development and complex cognitive functions...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546808/improving-classification-performance-through-an-advanced-ensemble-based-heterogeneous-extreme-learning-machines
#11
Adnan O M Abuassba, Dezheng Zhang, Xiong Luo, Ahmad Shaheryar, Hazrat Ali
Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is a fast-learning algorithm for a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN). It often has good generalization performance. However, there are chances that it might overfit the training data due to having more hidden nodes than needed. To address the generalization performance, we use a heterogeneous ensemble approach. We propose an Advanced ELM Ensemble (AELME) for classification, which includes Regularized-ELM, L2-norm-optimized ELM (ELML2), and Kernel-ELM. The ensemble is constructed by training a randomly chosen ELM classifier on a subset of training data selected through random resampling...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546544/reproducing-infra-slow-oscillations-with-dopaminergic-modulation
#12
Toshihiro Kobayashi, Yutaka Shimada, Kantaro Fujiwara, Tohru Ikeguchi
In the human brain, billions of neurons construct a neural network via synaptic connections. Neuronal excitation and inhibition are transmitted to other neurons through synapses via neurotransmitters. Dopamine is one of these neurotransmitters that plays a number of important roles. There are a variety of rhythms in the brain, such as alpha rhythm, beta rhythm, and so on. Infra-slow oscillation, ISO, is one of the rhythms observed in the brain, and ranges below 0.1 Hz. One of the key roles of dopamine is the generation of ISO in neural networks...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545607/dynamically-weighted-evolutionary-ordinal-neural-network-for-solving-an-imbalanced-liver-transplantation-problem
#13
Manuel Dorado-Moreno, María Pérez-Ortiz, Pedro A Gutiérrez, Rubén Ciria, Javier Briceño, César Hervás-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: Create an efficient decision-support model to assist medical experts in the process of organ allocation in liver transplantation. The mathematical model proposed here uses different sources of information to predict the probability of organ survival at different thresholds for each donor-recipient pair considered. Currently, this decision is mainly based on the Model for End-stage Liver Disease, which depends only on the severity of the recipient and obviates donor-recipient compatibility...
March 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545245/multimodal-bio-inspired-tactile-sensing-module-for-surface-characterization
#14
Thiago Eustaquio Alves de Oliveira, Ana-Maria Cretu, Emil M Petriu
Robots are expected to recognize the properties of objects in order to handle them safely and efficiently in a variety of applications, such as health and elder care, manufacturing, or high-risk environments. This paper explores the issue of surface characterization by monitoring the signals acquired by a novel bio-inspired tactile probe in contact with ridged surfaces. The tactile module comprises a nine Degree of Freedom Microelectromechanical Magnetic, Angular Rate, and Gravity system (9-DOF MEMS MARG) and a deep MEMS pressure sensor embedded in a compliant structure that mimics the function and the organization of mechanoreceptors in human skin as well as the hardness of the human skin...
May 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545125/causal-interactions-in-resting-state-networks-predict-perceived-loneliness
#15
Yin Tian, Li Yang, Sifan Chen, Daqing Guo, Zechao Ding, Kin Yip Tam, Dezhong Yao
Loneliness is broadly described as a negative emotional response resulting from the differences between the actual and desired social relations of an individual, which is related to the neural responses in connection with social and emotional stimuli. Prior research has discovered that some neural regions play a role in loneliness. However, little is known about the differences among individuals in loneliness and the relationship of those differences to differences in neural networks. The current study aimed to investigate individual differences in perceived loneliness related to the causal interactions between resting-state networks (RSNs), including the dorsal attentional network (DAN), the ventral attentional network (VAN), the affective network (AfN) and the visual network (VN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544994/12h-abstinence-induced-right-anterior-insula-network-pattern-changes-in-young-smokers
#16
Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Yangding Li, Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: The strong craving to smoke is a core factor of smoking abstinence that precipitates relapse. Insula plays critical roles in maintaining nicotine dependence, especially in the interoceptive awareness of craving. Despite evidence indicating a link between insula and abstinence-induced craving, less is known about the neural basis of abstinence-induced craving from the circuit level of insula. METHODS: The present study examined the effects of 12h of abstinence from smoking on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of anterior (AI) and posterior insula in young smokers using a within-subject design...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544891/emergence-of-ultrafast-sparsely-synchronized-rhythms-and-their-responses-to-external-stimuli-in-an-inhomogeneous-small-world-complex-neuronal-network
#17
Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider an inhomogeneous small-world network (SWN) composed of inhibitory short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) interneurons, and investigate the effect of network architecture on emergence of synchronized brain rhythms by varying the fraction of LR interneurons plong. The betweenness centralities of the LR and SR interneurons (characterizing the potentiality in controlling communication between other interneurons) are distinctly different. Hence, in view of the betweenness, SWNs we consider are inhomogeneous, unlike the "canonical" Watts-Strogatz SWN with nearly the same betweenness centralities...
April 28, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544890/hybrid-neuro-heuristic-methodology-for-simulation-and-control-of-dynamic-systems-over-time-interval
#18
Marcin Woźniak, Dawid Połap
Simulation and positioning are very important aspects of computer aided engineering. To process these two, we can apply traditional methods or intelligent techniques. The difference between them is in the way they process information. In the first case, to simulate an object in a particular state of action, we need to perform an entire process to read values of parameters. It is not very convenient for objects for which simulation takes a long time, i.e. when mathematical calculations are complicated. In the second case, an intelligent solution can efficiently help on devoted way of simulation, which enables us to simulate the object only in a situation that is necessary for a development process...
May 5, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544680/multiscale-modulation-of-nanocrystalline-cellulose-hydrogel-via-nanocarbon-hybridization-for-3d-neuronal-bilayer-formation
#19
Dongyoon Kim, Subeom Park, Insu Jo, Seong-Min Kim, Dong Hee Kang, Sung-Pyo Cho, Jong Bo Park, Byung Hee Hong, Myung-Han Yoon
Bacterial biopolymers have drawn much attention owing to their unconventional three-dimensional structures and interesting functions, which are closely integrated with bacterial physiology. The nongenetic modulation of bacterial (Acetobacter xylinum) cellulose synthesis via nanocarbon hybridization, and its application to the emulation of layered neuronal tissue, is reported. The controlled dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes into bacterial cellulose (BC) culture media not only induces structural changes within a crystalline cellulose nanofibril, but also modulates their 3D collective association, leading to substantial reduction in Young's modulus (≈50%) and clear definition of water-hydrogel interfaces...
May 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542195/differential-excitatory-control-of-2-parallel-basket-cell-networks-in-amygdala-microcircuits
#20
Tibor Andrási, Judit M Veres, Laura Rovira-Esteban, Richárd Kozma, Attila Vikór, Erzsébet Gregori, Norbert Hájos
Information processing in neural networks depends on the connectivity among excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The presence of parallel, distinctly controlled local circuits within a cortical network may ensure an effective and dynamic regulation of microcircuit function. By applying a combination of optogenetics, electrophysiological recordings, and high resolution microscopic techniques, we uncovered the organizing principles of synaptic communication between principal neurons and basket cells in the basal nucleus of the amygdala...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
keyword
keyword
15175
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"