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Respirator fit testing

Suvajyoti Guha, Brady McCaffrey, Prasanna Hariharan, Matthew R Myers
Surgical respirators, surgical masks (SMs) and facemasks for pediatric use (FPUs) are routinely used in the US healthcare industry as personal protective equipment (PPE) against infectious diseases. While N95s including surgical respirators have been routinely studied, SMs and FPUs have not received as much attention, particularly in the context of aerosolized threats. This is because SMs and PFUs are not designed to protect against sub-micron aerosols. However, with the possibility of new or re-emerging airborne diseases or bio-aerosol weapons lingering, combined with the limited availability of respirators and logistical issues associated with fit-testing millions, the general adult and pediatric populations may elect to wear SMs and FPUs, respectively, in the case of a pandemic or a bio-terrorist attack...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Chun-Yip Hon, Quinn Danyluk, Elizabeth Bryce, Bob Janssen, Mike Neudorf, Annalee Yassi, Hui Shen, George Astrakianakis
INTRODUCTION: N95 filtering facepiece respirators are used by healthcare workers when there is a risk of exposure to airborne hazards during aerosol-generating procedures. Respirator fit-testing is required prior to use to ensure that the selected respirator provides an adequate face seal. Two common fit-test methods can be employed - qualitative fit-test (QLFT) or quantitative fit-test (QNFT). Respiratory protection standards deem both fit-tests to be acceptable. However, previous studies have indicated that fit-test results may differ between QLFT and QNFT and that the outcomes may also be influenced by the type of respirator model...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Peter Stacey, Andrew Thorpe, Rhiannon Mogridge, Taekhee Lee, Martin Harper
The Health and Safety Laboratory has developed a miniature respirable sampler to gain a better understanding of the exposure of workers to hazardous substances when they are wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE) or helmets with visors in the workplace. The study was in two parts and the first part, described herein, was to develop the sampler and test its collection characteristics. Assessment of the impact of the sampler on RPE safety and its comparability with traditional laboratory-based approaches to measure protection factors was discussed in a second article...
September 14, 2016: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Rhiannon Mogridge, Peter Stacey, James Forder
This paper is the second in a series of two describing the performance of a miniature and low-weight respirable sampler designed to fit inside filtering facepiece (FFP) and half-mask type respirators. The first paper described the design of the miniature sampler and evaluated the particle and collection performance of the miniature sampler. This paper assesses its comparability with the traditional inward leakage measurement technique, and its safe use. Simultaneous mass measurements of a respirable sodium chloride aerosol were taken inside a total inward leakage chamber by a miniature sampler and by sodium flame photometry...
September 14, 2016: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Steven A Kahn, Tina L Palmieri, Soman Sen, Jason Woods, Oliver L Gunter
Firefighting is wrought with risk, as 80-100 firefighters (FFs) died on the job each year in the United States. Many of the fatalities have been analyzed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to determine contributing factors. The purpose of this study is to determine variables that put FFs at risk for potentially preventable workplace mortality such as use of personal protective equipment (PPE), seat belts, and appropriate training/fitness/clearance for duty. The NIOSH FF Fatality Database reports from 2009 to 2014 were analyzed...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Xiaotie Zhang, Hui Li, Shengnan Shen, Yu Rao, Feng Chen
This article presents an improved Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR) designed to increase the comfort of wearers during low-moderate work. The improved FFR aims to lower the deadspace temperature and CO2 level by an active ventilation fan. The reversing modeling is used to build the 3D geometric model of this FFR; the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation is then introduced to investigate the flow field. Based on the simulation result, the ventilation fan of the improved FFR can fit the flow field well when placed in the proper blowing orientation; streamlines from this fan show a cup-shape distribution and are perfectly matched to the shape of the FFR and human face when the fan blowing inward...
2016: PloS One
Nicole Desautels, Joginder Singh, Joy Burrell, Kenneth D Rosenman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the standard of care among occupational medicine practioners for determining medical fitness to wear a respirator. METHODS: A 15-item email/telephone survey was conducted of members of the Michigan Occupational and Environmental Medical Association. RESULTS: Sixty-seven percent of occupational medicine practioners who responded performed respirator evaluations; 75% did more than just the required Occupational Safety Health Administration questionnaire...
September 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Giovanna Distefano, Robert A Standley, John J Dubé, Elvis A Carnero, Vladimir B Ritov, Maja Stefanovic-Racic, Frederico G S Toledo, Sara R Piva, Bret H Goodpaster, Paul M Coen
BACKGROUND: Considerable debate continues to surround the concept of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging muscle. We tested the overall hypothesis that age per se does not influence mitochondrial function and markers of mitochondria quality control, that is, expression of fusion, fission, and autophagy proteins. We also investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) and adiposity (body mass index) on these associations. METHODS: Percutaneous biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained from sedentary young (n = 14, 24±3 years), middle-aged (n = 24, 41±9 years) and older adults (n = 20, 78±5 years)...
June 20, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Khalid Haddi, Marcos V Mendes, Marcelo S Barcellos, José Lino-Neto, Hemerson L Freitas, Raul Narciso C Guedes, Eugênio E Oliveira
Environmental stress in newly-emerged adult insects can have dramatic consequences on their life traits (e.g., dispersion, survival and reproduction) as adults. For instance, insects sublethally exposed to environmental stressors (e.g., insecticides) can gain fitness benefits as a result of hormesis (i.e., benefits of low doses of compounds that would be toxic at higher doses). Here, we experimentally tested whether sublethal exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid would hormetically affect the sexual fitness of newly-emerged adults of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), which is the most abundant and prevalent insect pest in Neotropical soybean fields...
2016: PloS One
Hae Jung Na, Jung Seop Eom, Geewon Lee, Jeong Ha Mok, Mi Hyun Kim, Kwangha Lee, Ki Uk Kim, Min Ki Lee
OBJECTIVE: Recent guidelines recommend the use by healthcare personnel of a fit-tested N95 particulate respirator or higher-grade respiratory precaution in a patient undergoing bronchoscopy when pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is suspected. However, PTB may be unexpectedly diagnosed in this setting and therefore not evaluated, resulting in the unexpected exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) of healthcare workers in the bronchoscopy suite. Here, we examined the incidence of unexpected exposure to MTB during flexible bronchoscopy and determined the exposure-related factors...
2016: PloS One
Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Weerawat Manosuthi, Sirirat Likanonsakul, Chariya Sangsajja, Paweena Kongsanan, Ravee Nitiyanontakij, Varaporn Thientong, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Pilaipan Puthavathana
INTRODUCTION: A hospital-associated outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was reported. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of infection control measures among healthcare workers (HCWs) who were exposed to a MERS patient and/or his body fluids in our institute. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among HCWs who worked with a MERS patient in Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand, between 18 June and 3 July 2015...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
M C Bartolomé, A A Cortés, A Sánchez-Fortún, M G Garnica-Romo, S Sánchez-Carrillo, Sebastián Sánchez-Fortún
Changes induced on freshwater microalga Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (Dc(wt)) acclimated in the laboratory until their survival in culture media enriched with cadmium 100 µM have been studied. Cadmium removal by living cells of this Cd-resistant (Dc(CdR100)) strain was tested in cultures exposed to 100 µM Cd during 30 days. Cell dimensions were measured under light microscopy, and cell growth was studied. Photosynthetic yield (ΦPSII) was analyzed and the photosynthetic oxygen development and respiration response was obtained...
December 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Shu-An Lee, Dong-Chir Hwang, He-Yi Li, Chieh-Fu Tsai, Chun-Wan Chen, Jen-Kun Chen
This study was conducted to investigate the protection of disposable filtering half-facepiece respirators of different grades against particles between 0.093 and 1.61  μm. A personal sampling system was used to particle size-selectively assess the protection of respirators. The results show that about 10.9% of FFP2 respirators and 28.2% of FFP3 respirators demonstrate assigned protection factors (APFs) below 10 and 20, which are the levels assigned for these respirators by the British Standard. On average, the protection factors of FFP respirators were 11...
2016: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Irene Freire Martín, Christopher M Thomas, Emma Laing, Manal AbuOun, Roberto M La Ragione, Martin J Woodward
Using a sequence-based approach we previously identified an IncI1 CTX-M-1 plasmid, pIFM3791, on a single pig farm in the UK that was harboured by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:-. To test the hypothesis that the plasmid had spread rapidly into these differing host bacteria we wished to assess whether the plasmid conferred a fitness advantage. To do this an IncI1 curing vector was constructed and used to displace the IncI1 CTX-M-1 plasmids from K. pneumoniae strain B3791 and several other unrelated IncI1-harbouring strains indicating the potential wider application of the curing vector...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Angela Dramowski, Andrew Whitelaw, Mark F Cotton
BACKGROUND: Healthcare (HC) providers' knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to infection control (IC) may positively or adversely affect rates of institutional healthcare-associated infection (HAI). OBJECTIVES: To determine paediatric HC providers' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HAI and guide IC interventions in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: Paediatric HC providers at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa completed an anonymous, self-administered, 37-item questionnaire...
January 29, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Margaret Sietsema, Lisa M Brosseau
Current regulations require annual fit testing before an employee can wear a respirator during work activities. The goal of this research is to determine whether respirator fit measured with two TSI Portacount instruments simultaneously sampling ambient particle concentrations inside and outside of the respirator facepiece is similar to fit measured during an ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter quantitative fit test. Sixteen subjects (ten female; six male) were recruited for a range of facial sizes...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Yuewei Liu, Ziqing Zhuang, Christopher C Coffey, Samy Rengasamy, George Niezgoda
This study aimed to quantify the variability between different anthropometric panels in determining the inward leakage (IL) of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs). We enrolled 144 experienced and non-experienced users as subjects in this study. Each subject was assigned five randomly selected FFRs and five EHRs, and performed quantitative fit tests to measure IL. Based on the NIOSH bivariate fit test panel, we randomly sampled 10,000 pairs of anthropometric 35 and 25 member panels without replacement from the 144 study subjects...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Bin Chen, Min Liu, Hua Gu, Xiaomeng Wang, Wei Qiu, Jian Shen, Jianmin Jiang
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures are very important to prevent nosocomial transmission and protect healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals. The TB infection control situation in TB treatment institutions in southeastern China has not been studied previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of TB infection control measures in TB-designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey using observation and interviews...
2016: BMJ Open
Shuang Gao, Richard H Koehler, Michael Yermakov, Sergey A Grinshpun
OBJECTIVE: Surgical smoke generated during electrocautery contains toxins which may cause adverse health effects to operating room (OR) personnel. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of surgical masks (SMs), which are routinely used in ORs, more efficient N95 surgical mask respirator (SMRs) and N100 filtering facepiece respirator (FFRs), against surgical smoke. METHODS: Ten subjects were recruited to perform surgical dissections on animal tissue in a simulated OR chamber, using a standard electrocautery device, generating surgical smoke...
June 2016: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Mareike Huhn, Giannina S I Hattich, Neviaty P Zamani, Karen von Juterzenka, Mark Lenz
It is an open question whether adverse habitat conditions, characteristic for many anthropogenically impacted coastal habitats, can determine resistance to abiotic stress in populations of residing invertebrates. We tested experimentally for differences in stress tolerance between individuals of the Asian green mussel Perna viridis stemming from the heavily impacted Jakarta Bay and from two natural sites, Lada Bay and Pelabuhan Ratu, West Java. Mussel performance under hyposalinity and hypoxia was assessed in laboratory assays by measuring fitness-related response variables, e...
September 30, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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