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Respirator fit testing

Debora Weiss, Luke A Baertlein, Stephanie J Yendell, Krista Y Christensen, Carrie D Tomasallo, Paul D Creswell, Jenny L Camponeschi, Jonathan G Meiman, Henry A Anderson
OBJECTIVE: In March 2016, the state health departments of Wisconsin and Minnesota learned of three shipyard workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) >40 μg/dL. An investigation was conducted to determine the extent of and risk factors for the exposure. METHODS: We defined a case as an elevated BLL ≥5 μg/dL in a shipyard worker. Workers were interviewed regarding their symptoms and personal protective equipment (PPE) use. RESULTS: Of 357 workers, 65...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Maija Leppänen, Bingbing Wu, Jonathan Corey, Michael Yermakov, Sergey A Grinshpun
Millions of workers, including firefighters, use respiratory protective device. The key aspect in assuring the intended protection level of a respirator is its fit. However, even if the respirator originally fits well, the faceseal may be breached during its use. Until now, there have been no practically viable, inexpensive means to monitor the performance of a respirator during actual use. A novel Respirator Seal Integrity Monitor (ReSIM) was developed and recently evaluated on manikins by our team. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ReSIM effectiveness on respirator-wearing firefighters exposed to aerosols while performing simulated routine operational activities...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Samy Rengasamy, Ziqing Zhuang, George Niezgoda, Gary Walbert, Robert Lawrence, Brenda Boutin, Judith Hudnall, William P Monaghan, Michael Bergman, Colleen Miller, James Harris, Christopher Coffey
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 16900-1:2014 specifies the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) and corn oil aerosols, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for measuring total inward leakage (TIL). However, a comparison of TIL between different agents is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure and compare TIL for respirators using corn oil and NaCl aerosols. TIL was measured with 10 subjects donning two models of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) including FFP1, N95, P100, and elastomeric half-mask respirators (ERs) in NaCl and corn oil aerosol test chambers, using continuous sampling methods...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Hyunggoo Kang, Yoonje Lee, Sanghyun Lee, Yeongtak Song, Tae Ho Lim, Jaehoon Oh, Juncheol Lee, Hyungoo Shin
Emergency physicians are at risk of infection during invasive procedures, and wearing a respirator can reduce this risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether the protection afforded by a respirator during intubation is affected by the type of airway device used. In this randomized crossover study, 26 emergency physicians underwent quantitative fit tests for a N95 respirator (cup-type or fold-type) before and during intubation with a direct laryngoscope, GlideScope®, or i-gel® airway device. The primary outcome was the fit factor value of the respirator and the secondary outcome was the level of acceptable protection provided (percentage of fit factor scores above 100)...
2018: PloS One
David M Baker, Christopher J Freeman, Jane C Y Wong, Marilyn L Fogel, Nancy Knowlton
Coastal oceans are increasingly eutrophic, warm and acidic through the addition of anthropogenic nitrogen and carbon, respectively. Among the most sensitive taxa to these changes are scleractinian corals, which engineer the most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth. Corals' sensitivity is a consequence of their evolutionary investment in symbiosis with the dinoflagellate alga, Symbiodinium. Together, the coral holobiont has dominated oligotrophic tropical marine habitats. However, warming destabilizes this association and reduces coral fitness...
March 2018: ISME Journal
Giovanna Distefano, Robert A Standley, Xiaolei Zhang, Elvis A Carnero, Fanchao Yi, Heather H Cornnell, Paul M Coen
BACKGROUND: The concept of mitochondrial dysfunction in ageing muscle is highly controversial. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that reduced muscle oxidative capacity and efficiency underlie the aetiology of mobility loss in older adults. Here, we hypothesized that studying well-phenotyped older cohorts across a wide range of physical activity would unveil a range of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and in turn allow us to more clearly examine the impact of age per se on mitochondrial energetics...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Paul Scalzo, Jarod D'Agostino, Zenobia A Moore, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Elisa Fabbri, Ariel Zane, Brian Chen, Kevin G Becker, Elin Lehrmann, Linda Zukley, Chee W Chia, Toshiko Tanaka, Paul M Coen, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Luigi Ferrucci
Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle declines with age. Most evidence for this decline comes from studies that assessed mitochondrial function indirectly, and the impact of such deterioration with respect to physical function has not been clearly delineated. We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized human muscle fibers declines with age and correlates with phosphocreatine postexercise recovery rate (kPCr), muscle performance, and aerobic fitness. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fibers from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 38 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA; 21 men, age 24-91 years) who also had available measures of peak oxygen consumption (VO2max ) from treadmill tests, gait speed in different tasks, 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, isokinetic knee extension, and grip strength...
April 2018: Aging Cell
Yu Jung Huh, Hye Min Jeong, Juhye Lim, Ha Yan Park, Min Young Kim, Hong Sang Oh, Kyungmin Huh
Adequate facepiece fit of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) is crucial for optimal protection against airborne pathogens. The quantitative fit test (QNFT) pass rates of the 4 N95 FFR models commonly used in Korea were below 50%. Male sex was identified as a single independent predictive factor for QNFT pass. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:104-107.
January 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Peggy Pl Or, Joanne Wy Chung, Thomas Ks Wong
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate room temperature and relative humidity affecting nurses' comfort and protection in wearing N95 respirators during clinical bedside procedures. BACKGROUND: N95 respirators are most commonly used to protect healthcare workers against airborne diseases. The elastic head straps required for tight-fit may cause headache, facial pain and/or ear lobe discomfort. Although some past fit test results showed that these respirators are likely to fit comfortably, in reality, any discomfort from use may influence negatively their appeal and acceptability and thus lower their effectiveness to protect the wearers...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Evan L Floyd, J Blake Henry, David L Johnson
BACKGROUND: OSHA regulations state that an employer shall not permit tight-fitting respirators to be worn by employees who have facial hair that comes between the skin and facepiece seal. Studies have shown that facial hair in the face seal zone can increase penetration and decrease the fit factor (FF), although the relationship between the amount and characteristics of facial hair and the increase in penetration is not well quantified. This article examines the influence of facial hair length, areal density, and coarseness on FF for one model of half-face elastomeric negative-pressure air purifying respirator...
April 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Victoria G Rontoyanni, Ioannis Malagaris, David N Herndon, Eric Rivas, Karel D Capek, Anahi D Delgadillo, Nisha Bhattarai, Armando Elizondo, Charles D Voigt, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman, Craig Porter
BACKGROUND: Restoring normal mitochondrial function represents a new target for strategies aimed at mitigating the stress response to severe burn trauma and hastening recovery. Our objective was to investigate the determinants of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function and its association with glucose metabolism and functional capacity in burned children. METHODS: Data from burned children enrolled in the placebo arm of an ongoing prospective clinical trial were analyzed...
December 4, 2017: Shock
Kyle Kiesel, Tonya Rhodes, Jacob Mueller, Alyssa Waninger, Robert Butler
Introduction: Dysfunctional breathing (DB) has been linked to health conditions including low back pain and neck pain and adversely effects the musculoskeletal system. Individuals with DB often have decreased pain thresholds and impaired motor control, balance, and movement. No single test or screen identifies DB, which is multi-dimensional, and includes biochemical, biomechanical, and psychophysiological components. Several tools assess and test for DB, but no screen exists to determine whether additional testing and assessment are indicated...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Yi-Chun Lin, Chen-Peng Chen
A respirator fit test panel (RFTP) with facial size distribution representative of intended users is essential to the evaluation of respirator fit for new models of respirators. In this study an anthropometric survey was conducted among youths representing respirator users in mid-Taiwan to characterize head-and-face dimensions key to RFTPs for application to small-to-medium facial features. The participants were fit-tested for three N95 masks of different facepiece design and the results compared to facial size distribution specified in the RFTPs of bivariate and principal component analysis design developed in this study to realize the influence of facial characteristics to respirator fit in relation to facepiece design...
2017: PloS One
Michael L Pate, F Richard Beard, Kelsey Hall
The purpose of this study was to determine regional differences within Utah in response to piloting a mobile respirator training and fit assessment program for pesticide applicators. The objectives were to describe worker perceptions of respirator use and training experiences. Pilot trainings were offered in two southern counties and two northern counties of Utah. A total of 141 individuals completed the post-training questionnaire regarding use and fit testing experience with respirators as well as perceptions of the benefits to protecting respiratory health...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
Jeanneth Manganyi, Kerry S Wilson, David Rees
Objectives: Respirators are widely used in health care settings but there is scant information on adequacy of fit and its determinants, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The aim of the study is to describe the proportion of South African diagnostic laboratory respirator users with adequate quantitative respirator fit while wearing their currently selected respirators which were generally supplied without regard to face size, and to identify determinants of fit test pass and fail...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Yongsuk Seo, Jeremiah Vaughan, Tyler D Quinn, Brittany Followay, Raymond Roberge, Ellen L Glickman, Jung-Hyun Kim
Seo, Yongsuk, Jeremiah Vaughan, Tyler D. Quinn, Brittany Followay, Raymond Roberge, Ellen L. Glickman, and Jung-Hyun Kim. The effect of inspiratory resistance on exercise performance and perception in moderate normobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 18:417-424, 2017. PURPOSE: Respirators are simple and efficient in protecting workers against toxic airborne substances; however, their use may limit the physical performance of workers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inspiratory resistance on physical performance and breathing perception in normobaric hypoxia...
December 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Alexander Lee, Xiaomeng Gao, Jia Xu, Olga Boric-Lubecke
In this study, it was tested whether deep and shallow breathing has an effect on the cardiopulmonary radar cross-section (RCS). Continuous wave radar with quadrature architecture at 2.4GHz was used to test 2 human subjects breathing deep and shallow for 30 seconds each while seated 2 meters away from the radar. A retro-reflective marker was placed on the sternum of each subject and measured by infrared motion capture cameras to accurately track displacement of the chest. The quadrature radar outputs were processed to find the radius of the arc on the IQ plot using a circle-fitting algorithm...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Hyungoo Shin, Jaehoon Oh, Tae Ho Lim, Hyunggoo Kang, Yeongtak Song, Sanghyun Lee
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare providers in emergency departments should wear respirators for infection protection. However, the wearer's vigorous movements during cardiopulmonary resuscitation may affect the protective performance of the respirator. Herein, we aimed to assess the effects of chest compressions (CCs) on the protective performance of respirators. METHODS: This crossover study evaluated 30 healthcare providers from 1 emergency department who performed CC with real-time feedback...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Amedeo Palma, Alberto Continella, Stefano La Malfa, Salvatore D'Aquino
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the overall quality changes of minimally processed cactus pears cvs 'Bianca', Gialla' and 'Rossa' stored at 4 °C for 10 days. Periodically in-package CO2 , O2 and C2 H4 were determined and fruit were assessed for overall quality changes (pH, acidity, sugars, phenolics, betacyanins and betaxanthines, antioxidant capacity, colour, firmness, microbiological population and sensory attributes). In a preliminary study three different polymeric films were tested to select the most suitable to design a package with a short lag time to achieve steady-state conditions...
March 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Cristina Lavini, Gem Kramer, Indra Pieters-den Bos, Otto Hoekstra, J T Marcus
PURPOSE: In this study we systematically investigated different Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE)-MRI protocols in the spine, with the goal of finding an optimal protocol that provides data suitable for quantitative pharmacokinetic modelling (PKM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 13 patients referred for MRI of the spine, DCE-MRI of the spine was performed with 2D and 3D MRI protocols on a 3T Philips Ingenuity MR system. A standard bolus of contrast agent (Dotarem - 0...
December 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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