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Respirator fit testing

Ziqing Zhuang, Michael Bergman, Zhipeng Lei, George Niezgoda, Ronald Shaffer
This study assessed key test parameters and pass/fail criteria options for developing a respirator fit capability (RFC) test for half-mask air-purifying particulate respirators. Using a 25-subject test panel, benchmark RFC data were collected for 101 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified respirator models. These models were further grouped into 61 one-, two- or three-size families. Fit testing was done using a PortaCount® Plus with N95-Companion accessory and an Occupational Safety and Health Administration-accepted quantitative fit test protocol...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Marc-André Labelle, Peter L Dold, Alain Gadbois, Stéphane Déléris, Yves Comeau
  An important part of biological treatment system design is quantifying the sludge production and the nutrient removal capacity. Influent wastewater COD fractionation, biomass growth and endogenous respiration directly impacts the composition of the mixed liquor solids in activated sludge systems. The objectives of this project were to determine the model kinetic and stoichiometric parameters associated with activated sludge production and the nutrient content (N and P) of unbiodegradable organic matter components...
January 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Jonathan Y S Leung, Bayden D Russell, Sean D Connell
Calcifying organisms are considered particularly susceptible to the future impacts of ocean acidification (OA), but recent evidence suggests that they may be able to maintain calcification and overall fitness. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but may be attributed to mineralogical plasticity, which modifies the energetic cost of calcification. To test the hypothesis that mineralogical plasticity enables the maintenance of shell growth and functionality under OA conditions, we assessed the biological performance of a gastropod (respiration rate, feeding rate, somatic growth, and shell growth of Austrocochlea constricta) and analyzed its shell mechanical and geochemical properties (shell hardness, elastic modulus, amorphous calcium carbonate, calcite to aragonite ratio, and magnesium to calcium ratio)...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Giancarlo Ottaviano, Andrea Ermolao, Ennio Nardello, Flavio Muci, Vittorio Favero, Marco Zaccaria, Lorenzo Favero
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the effects of two different external nasal dilator strips (ENDS) on nasal respiratory flow, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), nasal VO2max, time to exhaustion and subjective nasal obstruction in adult triathletes participating in exhaustive, controlled physical exercise tests. METHODS: Thirteen healthy triathletes without nasal symptoms were recruited and randomly tested in three different conditions: without ENDS, wearing the Breathe Right(®) dilator strip and wearing the Master-aid Roll-flex(®) strip...
January 30, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Bao Yen Luong Thanh, Malinee Laopaiboon, David Koh, Pornpun Sakunkoo, Hla Moe
BACKGROUND: Respiratory hazards are common in the workplace. Depending on the hazard and exposure, the health consequences may include: mild to life-threatening illnesses from infectious agents, acute effects ranging from respiratory irritation to chronic lung conditions, or even cancer from exposure to chemicals or toxins. Use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is an important preventive measure in many occupational settings. RPE only offers protection when worn properly, when removed safely and when it is either replaced or maintained regularly...
December 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Koshlan Mayer-Blackwell, Maeva Fincker, Olivia Molenda, Benjamin Callahan, Holly Sewell, Susan Holmes, Elizabeth A Edwards, Alfred M Spormann
Bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as perchloroethene and trichloroethene can result in the accumulation of the undesirable intermediate vinyl chloride. Such accumulation can either be due to the absence of specific vinyl chloride respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi or to the inhibition of such strains by the metabolism of other microorganisms. The fitness of vinyl chloride respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi subpopulations is particularly uncertain in the presence of chloroethene/chloroethane cocontaminant mixtures, which are commonly found in contaminated groundwater...
November 15, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Lei Yang, Ran Wei, Henggen Shen
New principal component analysis (PCA) respirator fit test panels had been developed for current American and Chinese civilian workers based on anthropometric surveys. The PCA panels used the first two principal components (PCs) obtained from a set of 10 facial dimensions. Although the PCA panels for American and Chinese subjects adopted the bivairate framework with two PCs, the number of the PCs retained in the PCA analysis was different between Chinese subjects and Americans. For the Chinese youth group, the third PC should be retained in the PCA analysis for developing new fit test panels...
January 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Suvajyoti Guha, Brady McCaffrey, Prasanna Hariharan, Matthew R Myers
Surgical respirators, surgical masks (SMs), and facemasks for pediatric use (FPUs) are routinely used in the U.S. healthcare industry as personal protective equipment (PPE) against infectious diseases. While N95s including surgical respirators have been routinely studied, SMs and FPUs have not received as much attention, particularly in the context of aerosolized threats. This is because SMs and PFUs are not designed to protect against sub-micron aerosols. However, with the possibility of new or re-emerging airborne diseases or bio-aerosol weapons lingering, combined with the limited availability of respirators and logistical issues associated with fit-testing millions, the general adult and pediatric populations may elect to wear SMs and FPUs, respectively, in the case of a pandemic or a bio-terrorist attack...
March 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Chun-Yip Hon, Quinn Danyluk, Elizabeth Bryce, Bob Janssen, Mike Neudorf, Annalee Yassi, Hui Shen, George Astrakianakis
N95 filtering facepiece respirators are used by healthcare workers when there is a risk of exposure to airborne hazards during aerosol-generating procedures. Respirator fit-testing is required prior to use to ensure that the selected respirator provides an adequate face seal. Two common fit-test methods can be employed: qualitative fit-test (QLFT) or quantitative fit-test (QNFT). Respiratory protection standards deem both fit-tests to be acceptable. However, previous studies have indicated that fit-test results may differ between QLFT and QNFT and that the outcomes may also be influenced by the type of respirator model...
March 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Peter Stacey, Andrew Thorpe, Rhiannon Mogridge, Taekhee Lee, Martin Harper
The Health and Safety Laboratory has developed a miniature respirable sampler to gain a better understanding of the exposure of workers to hazardous substances when they are wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE) or helmets with visors in the workplace. The study was in two parts and the first part, described herein, was to develop the sampler and test its collection characteristics. Assessment of the impact of the sampler on RPE safety and its comparability with traditional laboratory-based approaches to measure protection factors was discussed in a second article...
November 2016: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Rhiannon Mogridge, Peter Stacey, James Forder
This paper is the second in a series of two describing the performance of a miniature and low-weight respirable sampler designed to fit inside filtering facepiece (FFP) and half-mask type respirators. The first paper described the design of the miniature sampler and evaluated the particle and collection performance of the miniature sampler. This paper assesses its comparability with the traditional inward leakage measurement technique, and its safe use. Simultaneous mass measurements of a respirable sodium chloride aerosol were taken inside a total inward leakage chamber by a miniature sampler and by sodium flame photometry...
November 2016: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Steven A Kahn, Tina L Palmieri, Soman Sen, Jason Woods, Oliver L Gunter
Firefighting is wrought with risk, as 80-100 firefighters (FFs) die on the job each year in the United States. Many of the fatalities have been analyzed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to determine contributing factors. The purpose of this study is to determine variables that put FFs at risk for potentially preventable workplace mortality such as use of personal protective equipment (PPE), seat belts, and appropriate training/fitness/clearance for duty. The NIOSH FF Fatality Database reports from 2009 to 2014 were analyzed...
January 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Xiaotie Zhang, Hui Li, Shengnan Shen, Yu Rao, Feng Chen
This article presents an improved Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR) designed to increase the comfort of wearers during low-moderate work. The improved FFR aims to lower the deadspace temperature and CO2 level by an active ventilation fan. The reversing modeling is used to build the 3D geometric model of this FFR; the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation is then introduced to investigate the flow field. Based on the simulation result, the ventilation fan of the improved FFR can fit the flow field well when placed in the proper blowing orientation; streamlines from this fan show a cup-shape distribution and are perfectly matched to the shape of the FFR and human face when the fan blowing inward...
2016: PloS One
Nicole Desautels, Joginder Singh, Joy Burrell, Kenneth D Rosenman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the standard of care among occupational medicine practioners for determining medical fitness to wear a respirator. METHODS: A 15-item email/telephone survey was conducted of members of the Michigan Occupational and Environmental Medical Association. RESULTS: Sixty-seven percent of occupational medicine practioners who responded performed respirator evaluations; 75% did more than just the required Occupational Safety Health Administration questionnaire...
September 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Giovanna Distefano, Robert A Standley, John J Dubé, Elvis A Carnero, Vladimir B Ritov, Maja Stefanovic-Racic, Frederico G S Toledo, Sara R Piva, Bret H Goodpaster, Paul M Coen
Background: Considerable debate continues to surround the concept of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging muscle. We tested the overall hypothesis that age per se does not influence mitochondrial function and markers of mitochondria quality control, that is, expression of fusion, fission, and autophagy proteins. We also investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) and adiposity (body mass index) on these associations. Methods: Percutaneous biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained from sedentary young (n = 14, 24±3 years), middle-aged (n = 24, 41±9 years) and older adults (n = 20, 78±5 years)...
April 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Khalid Haddi, Marcos V Mendes, Marcelo S Barcellos, José Lino-Neto, Hemerson L Freitas, Raul Narciso C Guedes, Eugênio E Oliveira
Environmental stress in newly-emerged adult insects can have dramatic consequences on their life traits (e.g., dispersion, survival and reproduction) as adults. For instance, insects sublethally exposed to environmental stressors (e.g., insecticides) can gain fitness benefits as a result of hormesis (i.e., benefits of low doses of compounds that would be toxic at higher doses). Here, we experimentally tested whether sublethal exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid would hormetically affect the sexual fitness of newly-emerged adults of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), which is the most abundant and prevalent insect pest in Neotropical soybean fields...
2016: PloS One
Hae Jung Na, Jung Seop Eom, Geewon Lee, Jeong Ha Mok, Mi Hyun Kim, Kwangha Lee, Ki Uk Kim, Min Ki Lee
OBJECTIVE: Recent guidelines recommend the use by healthcare personnel of a fit-tested N95 particulate respirator or higher-grade respiratory precaution in a patient undergoing bronchoscopy when pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is suspected. However, PTB may be unexpectedly diagnosed in this setting and therefore not evaluated, resulting in the unexpected exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) of healthcare workers in the bronchoscopy suite. Here, we examined the incidence of unexpected exposure to MTB during flexible bronchoscopy and determined the exposure-related factors...
2016: PloS One
Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Weerawat Manosuthi, Sirirat Likanonsakul, Chariya Sangsajja, Paweena Kongsanan, Ravee Nitiyanontakij, Varaporn Thientong, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Pilaipan Puthavathana
INTRODUCTION: A hospital-associated outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was reported. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of infection control measures among healthcare workers (HCWs) who were exposed to a MERS patient and/or his body fluids in our institute. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among HCWs who worked with a MERS patient in Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand, between 18 June and 3 July 2015...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
M C Bartolomé, A A Cortés, A Sánchez-Fortún, M G Garnica-Romo, S Sánchez-Carrillo, Sebastián Sánchez-Fortún
Changes induced on freshwater microalga Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (Dc(wt)) acclimated in the laboratory until their survival in culture media enriched with cadmium 100 µM have been studied. Cadmium removal by living cells of this Cd-resistant (Dc(CdR100)) strain was tested in cultures exposed to 100 µM Cd during 30 days. Cell dimensions were measured under light microscopy, and cell growth was studied. Photosynthetic yield (ΦPSII) was analyzed and the photosynthetic oxygen development and respiration response was obtained...
December 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Shu-An Lee, Dong-Chir Hwang, He-Yi Li, Chieh-Fu Tsai, Chun-Wan Chen, Jen-Kun Chen
This study was conducted to investigate the protection of disposable filtering half-facepiece respirators of different grades against particles between 0.093 and 1.61  μm. A personal sampling system was used to particle size-selectively assess the protection of respirators. The results show that about 10.9% of FFP2 respirators and 28.2% of FFP3 respirators demonstrate assigned protection factors (APFs) below 10 and 20, which are the levels assigned for these respirators by the British Standard. On average, the protection factors of FFP respirators were 11...
2016: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
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