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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232397/distribution-and-prevalence-of-vector-borne-diseases-in-california-chipmunks-tamias-spp
#1
Mary H Straub, Austin N Roy, Amanda Martin, Kathleen E Sholty, Nicole Stephenson, Janet E Foley
California, with 13 chipmunk (Tamias) species, has more than any other state or country, occupying habitats ranging from chaparral to the high peaks of the Sierra Nevada. Chipmunks host zoonotic pathogens including Yersinia pestis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia species. Chipmunk species are often not differentiated by public health workers, yet different species utilize different ecological niches and may have intrinsically different capacities for maintaining vector-borne pathogens and infecting vectors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#2
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227448/cochlear-implantation-in-chronic-otitis-media-with-cholesteatoma-and-open-cavities-long-term-surgical-outcomes
#3
Ashish Vashishth, Andrea Fulcheri, Sampath Chandra Prasad, Manjunath Dandinarasaiah, Antonio Caruso, Mario Sanna
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term surgical outcomes of cochlear implantation (CI) in chronic otitis media (COM) with cholesteatoma and open cavities using subtotal petrosectomy (STP). To review device explantation (DE) patients and reimplantation considerations. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Otology and skull base center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Charts of 35 patients (36 ears) with COM with cholesteatoma, including open cavities, who underwent CI were reviewed for surgical outcomes and DE...
January 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224754/prevalence-of-chronic-ear-disease-among-hiv-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
David C Ianacone, Alden F Smith, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Robbert J H Ensink, Farrel Buchinsky, Abebe Melaku, Glenn Isaacson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV+, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-treated children and compare this to the prevalence in healthy children of similar age living in a similar setting. INTRODUCTION: From previous clinical work in Ethiopia, we suspected that chronic middle ear disease was common both in the general pediatric population and especially among children with HIV/AIDS. Few studies have examined the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV + children, particularly in those treated with HAART...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213239/dynamic-editome-of-zebrafish-under-aminoglycosides-treatment-and-its-potential-involvement-in-ototoxicity
#5
Sijia Yan, Yulan Lu, Lin He, Xinzhi Zhao, Lihua Wu, Huizhong Zhu, Menglin Jiang, Yu Su, Wei Cao, Weidong Tian, Qinghe Xing
RNA editing is an important co- and post-transcriptional event that generates RNA and protein diversity. Aminoglycosides are a group of bactericidal antibiotics and a mainstay of antimicrobial therapy for several life-threatening infections. However, aminoglycosides can induce ototoxicity, resulting in damage to the organs responsible for hearing and balance. At low concentrations, aminoglycosides can bind to many RNA sequences and critically influence RNA editing. We used a bioinformatics approach to investigate the effect of aminoglycosides on global mRNA editing events to gain insight into the interactions between mRNA editing and aminoglycoside ototoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211547/prenatal-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-asthma-eczema-hay-fever-and-frequent-ear-infections
#6
Margaret Parker-Lalomio, Kenneth McCann, Julie Piorkowski, Sally Freels, Victoria W Persky
OBJECTIVES: The effects of prenatal exposure to Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the development of asthma, frequent ear infections, and eczema/hay fever are not well understood. We aim to investigate associations between prenatal PCB exposure and these health outcomes in the offspring of women who worked at the LaSalle Electrical Utilities Company (EUC). METHODS: A retrospective cohort with at least one live birth and known employment time at EUC was eligible for this analysis...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200320/wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-two-case-reports-with-a-novel-mutation
#7
Karaman Kamuran, Mecnun Çetin, Hadi Geylan, Serap Karaman, Nihat Demir, Eyyup Yurekturk, İbrahim Yavuz, Göknur Yavuz, Oğuz Tuncer
BACKGROUND: The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is X-linked recessive disorder associated with microplatelet thrombocytopenia, eczema, infections, and an increased risk of autoimmunity and lymphoid neoplasia. The originally described features of WAS include susceptibility to infections, microthrombocytopenia, and eczema. AIM: In this case report, we present our experience about two cases diagnosed with a new mutation. METHODS: We report phenotypical and laboratory description of two cases with WAS...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197546/prevalence-of-arnold-s-nerve-reflex-in-adults-and-children-with-chronic-cough
#8
Peter V Dicpinigaitis, Ahmad Kantar, Oladunni Enilari, Francesco Paravati
BACKGROUND: Cough originates from stimulation of structures innervated by the vagus nerve, including the airways and distal esophagus. Arnold's nerve reflex describes the induction of cough by stimulation of the external auditory canal, which is innervated by the auricular branch of the vagus. Historically, the prevalence of this reflex has been reported in the range of 2-3%, based on studies of outpatients in otolaryngology practices, but has not been investigated in healthy volunteers or in patients with chronic cough...
November 29, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196220/new-chalcone-compound-as-a-promising-antileishmanial-drug-for-an-old-neglected-disease-biological-evaluation-using-radiolabeled-biodistribution
#9
Ariane de J Sousa-Batista, Cíntia I M Silva Philipon, Marta de Souza Albernaz, Suyene Rocha Pinto, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Ralph Santos-Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: The current treatment of leishmaniasis remains a challenge, especially due to the need for multiple painful injections, the toxicity of the current drugs against the disease, the lack of efficacy and, lately the drug-resistant. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the biological behavior of 3-nitro-2-hydroxi-4,6-dimetoxychalcone (CH8) in animal model of cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) leishmaniasis Methodology: In order to evaluate itsbiological behavior the CH8 compound has been radiolabeled with 99mTc using the direct reaction...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192089/draft-genome-sequence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-atcc-9027-originally-isolated-from-an-outer-ear-infection
#10
Ambikesh Jayal, Benjamin E Johns, Kevin J Purdy, Sarah E Maddocks
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 was isolated in 1943 from a case of otitis externa and is commonly employed as a quality control strain for sterility, assessment of antibiofilm agents, and in vitro study of wound infection. Here, we present the 6.34-Mb draft genome sequence and highlight some pertinent genes that are associated with virulence.
November 30, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189591/luc-s-abscess-and-temporomandibular-joint-septic-arthritis-two-rare-sequelae-of-acute-otitis-media
#11
Carmelle Tsai, Jennifer Deramo, Xiaofan Shen, Kathleen Vandiver, Vineeta Mittal
A 5-year-old previously healthy child presented with right-sided otalgia, right facial and temporal swelling, and right jaw pain in the setting of 6 days of low-grade fever. The child had no trauma, vomiting, or prior dental treatments. On physical examination, the patient had facial swelling, erythema, and tenderness over the right temporal region along with trismus, as well as pain on palpation of the right temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A computed tomography scan revealed otitis media, Luc's abscess, and TMJ septic arthritis requiring surgical drainage and intravenous antibiotics...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181576/expression-profile-of-microrna-146a-along-hpv-induced-multistep-carcinogenesis-a-study-in-hpv16-transgenic-mice
#12
Rita Araújo, Joana M O Santos, Mara Fernandes, Francisca Dias, Hugo Sousa, Joana Ribeiro, Margarida M S M Bastos, Paula A Oliveira, Diogo Carmo, Fátima Casaca, Sandra Silva, Rui Medeiros, Rui M Gil da Costa
PURPOSE: Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with the development of certain types of cancer and the dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in HPV-associated carcinogenesis. This is the case of microRNA-146a (miR-146a), which is thought to regulate tumor-associated inflammation. We sought to investigate the expression levels of miR-146a during HPV16-mediated carcinogenesis using skin samples from K14-HPV16 transgenic mice which develop the consecutive phases of the carcinogenesis process...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181524/challenging-case-of-parotitis-a-comprehensive-approach
#13
Puja Patel, Shannon Scott, Sean Cunningham
The diagnosis and management of parotitis can be challenging. Patients often present with pain and edema in the neck, jaw, head, and ear due to congestion of the gland. Parotitis is typically caused by an infection within the parotid gland and surrounding lymph nodes, and the infection can spread to nearby cervical fascial planes and cause major complications if not managed successfully. Specific guidelines for the outpatient management of parotitis are limited, and outpatient treatment failures are common, requiring inpatient therapy with multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176902/detection-of-leishmania-spp-in-silvatic-mammals-and-isolation-of-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-from-rattus-rattus-in-an-endemic-area-for-leishmaniasis-in-minas-gerais-state-brazil
#14
Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira, Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, Ana Cristina Viana Mariano da Rocha Lima, Gabriel Barbosa Tonelli, Felipe Dutra Rêgo, Adriano Pereira Paglia, José Dilermando Andrade-Filho, Gustavo Fontes Paz, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
Knowledge of potential reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in an anthropic environment is important so that surveillance and control measures can be implemented. The aim of this study was to investigate the infection by Leishmania in small mammals in an area located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, that undergoes changes in its natural environment and presents autochthonous human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). For the capture of the animals, Sherman and Tomahawk traps were used and distributed in the peridomicile of houses with reports of autochthonous cases of CL or VL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174365/rickettsia-diversity-in-southern-africa-a-small-mammal-perspective
#15
Sandra Essbauer, Mirja Hofmann, Christoph Kleinemeier, Silke Wölfel, Sonja Matthee
Worldwide, including Africa, rickettsioses are recognized as emerging or re-emerging infections. To date, little is known about the diversity of Rickettsia species that are naturally associated with small mammals in southern Africa. The aim of the study was to screen a diversity of small mammals for the presence of rickettsial DNA. Animals were trapped at 38 localities in South Africa and Namibia. In total, 1616 ear-tissue samples from 23 species representing 17 genera were tested using real-time (rt)PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)...
November 14, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166367/smoke-free-policies-in-the-world-s-50-busiest-airports-august-2017
#16
Michael A Tynan, Elizabeth Reimels, Jennifer Tucker, Brian A King
Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products causes premature death and disease, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer among nonsmoking adults and sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle ear disease, exacerbated asthma, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in children (1,2). The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that there is no risk-free level of exposure to secondhand smoke (1). Previous CDC reports on airport smoke-free policies found that most large-hub airports in the United States prohibit smoking (3); however, the extent of smoke-free policies at airports globally has not been assessed...
November 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162159/pulsed-electron-avalanche-knife-peak-plasmablade%C3%A2-in-pacemaker-and-defibrillator-procedures
#17
Elif Kaya, Matthias Totzeck, Tienush Rassaf
BACKGROUND: The pulsed electron avalanche knife (PEAK) PlasmaBlade™ is an innovative electrosurgical device that uses a novel technology to cut tissues. It has been proven to be safe and feasible in ear, nose, and throat surgery, but there are only limited data concerning the use of PlasmaBlade™ instead of conventional electrocautery in cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures except for generator replacements. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, single-center study with patients undergoing CIED surgery at our center between December 2015 and March 2017 and evaluate the feasibility and the clinical outcome of the PlasmaBlade™...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158430/characterization-of-stress-and-innate-immunity-resistance-of-wild-type-and-%C3%AE-p66-borrelia-burgdorferi
#18
Michael W Curtis, Beth L Hahn, Kai Zhang, Chunhao Li, Richard T Robinson, Jenifer Coburn
Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common arthropod-borne disease in the United States. B. burgdorferi evades host immune defenses to establish a persistent, disseminated infection. Previous work showed that P66-deficient B. burgdorferi (Δp66) is cleared quickly after inoculation in mice. We demonstrate that Δp66 is rapidly cleared from the skin inoculation site prior to dissemination. The rapid clearance of Δp66 is not due to inherent defects in multiple properties that might affect infectivity: bacterial outer membrane integrity, motility, chemotactic response, or nutrient acquisition...
November 20, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151379/a-study-of-bacterial-pathogens-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-in-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media
#19
M R Mofatteh, F Shahabian Moghaddam, M Yousefi, M H Namaei
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of bacterial agents in chronic suppurative otitis media and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates among patients. METHODS: A total of 185 patients clinically diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media were interviewed and middle-ear effusion samples were collected using sterile swabs. All bacterial isolates were identified by conventional microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148267/detection-of-teschovirus-type-13-from-two-swine-herds-exhibiting-nervous-clinical-signs-in-growing-pigs
#20
J Carnero, C Prieto, L Polledo, F J Martínez-Lobo
Recently, the number of clinical reports of growing pigs showing neurological signs possibly related to viral infections has increased. The objective of this report was to describe two outbreaks of an atypical condition observed in 6- to 7-week-old pigs with a morbidity of 20% and a fatality rate of 60% in two unrelated farms of the same company. During the acute phase of the disease, fever, sudden death, neurological signs, ear necrosis and occasional corneal opacity were observed. Histopathological examination revealed interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and lymphocytic vasculitis in different organs and mild polioencephalomyelitis suggesting a potential viral infection...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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