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Cardiovascular MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315460/classification-and-characterization-of-periventricular-and-deep-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-mri-a-study-in-older-adults
#1
REVIEW
Ludovica Griffanti, Mark Jenkinson, Sana Suri, X X, Abda Mahmood, Nicola Filippini, Claire E Sexton, Anya Topiwala, Charlotte Allan, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux, Klaus P Ebmeier, Clare E Mackay, Giovanna Zamboni
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are frequently divided into periventricular (PWMH) and deep (DWMH), and the two classes have been associated with different cognitive, microstructural, and clinical correlates. However, although this distinction is widely used in visual ratings scales, how to best anatomically define the two classes is still disputed. In fact, the methods used to define PWMH and DWMH vary significantly between studies, making results difficult to compare. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to compare four current criteria used to define PWMH and DWMH in a cohort of healthy older adults (mean age: 69...
March 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302035/translational-multimodality-neuroimaging
#2
Sushil K Sharma
Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); in-vivo monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) investigations; and regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in cognitively-impaired subjects employing noninvasive microPET and nano-SPECT imaging...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295775/comparative-study-of-conventional-and-virtual-autopsy-using-postmortem-mri-in-the-phenotypic-characterization-of-stillbirths-and-malformed-fetuses
#3
Mohan Shruthi, Neerja Gupta, Manisha Jana, Asit R Mridha, Atin Kumar, Ramesh Agarwal, Raju Sharma, Dipika Deka, Arun Kumar Gupta, Madhulika Kabra
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively compare conventional and virtual autopsy using postmortem-MRI in the phenotypic characterization of stillbirths and malformed fetuses and their acceptability to parents. METHODS: We performed whole body postmortem-MRI (1.5T) prior to conventional autopsy in 43 fetuses/still births (≥20 weeks of gestation) after excluding maternal causes of fetal death. With conventional autopsy as gold standard, postmortem-MRI findings were assessed and compared...
March 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291826/endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-emphysema
#4
Margaret F Doyle, Russell P Tracy, Megha A Parikh, Eric A Hoffman, Daichi Shimbo, John H M Austin, Benjamin M Smith, Katja Hueper, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Joao Lima, Antoinette Gomes, Karol Watson, Steven Kawut, R Graham Barr
Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50-79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287063/fatal-severe-coronary-artery-stenosis-in-williams-syndrome-decision-making-using-late-gadolinium-enhancement-cardiovascular-mri
#5
Inga Voges, Rodney C Franklin, Ricardo Wage, Sonya V Babu-Narayan
Williams syndrome is a well-recognised congenital disorder characterised by cardiovascular, connective tissue, and central nervous system abnormalities. Coronary artery abnormalities are seen in patients with supravalvar aortic stenosis, but end-stage ischaemic heart disease is rare. We report a case of end-stage ischaemic heart disease due to severe coronary arterial stenosis, highlighting how cardiovascular MRI contributed to the management.
March 13, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283244/left-atrial-mechanics-in-patients-with-acute-stemi-and-secondary-mitral-regurgitation-a-prospective-pilot-cmr-feature-tracking-study
#6
Tomas Lapinskas, Paulius Bučius, Laura Urbonaitė, Agnieta Stabinskaitė, Živilė Valuckienė, Lina Jankauskaitė, Rimantas Benetis, Remigijus Žaliūnas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Left atrium (LA) is an important biomarker of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and cerebrovascular events. This study aimed to evaluate LA myocardial deformation using cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and secondary mitral regurgitation (MR). Additionally, to assess interobserver and intraobserver variability of the technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with STEMI underwent CMR with a 1...
March 1, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281681/chemogenetic-stimulation-of-the-hypoglossal-neurons-improves-upper-airway-patency
#7
Thomaz Fleury Curado, Kenneth Fishbein, Huy Pho, Michael Brennick, Olga Dergacheva, Luiz U Sennes, Luu V Pham, Ellen E Ladenheim, Richard Spencer, David Mendelowitz, Alan R Schwartz, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA leads to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of OSA has been linked to a defect in neuromuscular control of the pharynx. There is no effective pharmacotherapy for OSA. The objective of this study was to determine whether upper airway patency can be improved using chemogenetic approach by deploying designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) in the hypoglossal motorneurons...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279371/carotid-plaque-lipid-content-and-fibrous-cap-status-predict-systemic-cv-outcomes-the-mri-substudy-in-aim-high
#8
Jie Sun, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Niranjan Balu, Moni B Neradilek, Daniel A Isquith, Kiyofumi Yamada, Gádor Cantón, John R Crouse, Todd J Anderson, John Huston, Kevin O'Brien, Daniel S Hippe, Nayak L Polissar, Chun Yuan, Thomas S Hatsukami
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what carotid plaque characteristics predict systemic cardiovascular outcomes in patients with clinically established atherosclerotic disease. BACKGROUND: Advancements in atherosclerosis imaging have allowed assessment of various plaque characteristics, some of which are more directly linked to the pathogenesis of acute cardiovascular events compared to plaque burden. METHODS: As part of the event-driven clinical trial AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcomes), subjects with clinically established atherosclerotic disease underwent multicontrast carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect plaque tissue composition and high-risk features...
March 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269509/single-shot-turbo-spin-echo-acquisition-for-in-vivo-cardiac-diffusion-mri
#9
Masoud Edalati, Gregory R Lee, Hui Wang, Michael D Taylor, Yu Y Li
Diffusion MRI offers the ability to noninvasively characterize the microstructure of myocardium tissue and detect disease related pathology in cardiovascular examination. This study investigates the feasibility of in vivo cardiac diffusion MRI under free-breathing condition. A high-speed imaging technique, correlation imaging, is used to enable single-shot turbo spin echo for free-breathing cardiac data acquisition. The obtained in vivo cardiac diffusion-weighted images illustrate robust image quality and minor geometry distortions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263147/the-improvement-of-torsion-assessed-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-feature-tracking-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-sensitive-index-of-cardiac-function
#10
Nan Cheng, Liuquan Cheng, Rong Wang, Lin Zhang, Changqing Gao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify left ventricular torsion by newly applied cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT), and to evaluate the clinical value of the ventricular torsion as a sensitive indicator of cardiac function by comparison of preoperative and postoperative torsion. METHODS: A total of 54 volunteers and 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) and LV ejection fraction (EF) between 30%-50% were screened preoperatively or postoperatively by MRI...
February 28, 2017: Heart Surgery Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259655/accumbens-volumes-are-reduced-among-crack-cocaine-users
#11
Silvia Bassani Schuch-Goi, Pedro Domingues Goi, Mariane Bermudez, Leticia Schwanck Fara, Félix Paim Kessler, Flavio Pechansky, Clarissa Severino Gama, Raffael Massuda, Lisia von Diemen
The brain reward system is known to be the neuroanatomical basis of addictive behaviors. Systemic, cognitive and functional consequences of crack-cocaine addiction are clinically evident, but the neuroanatomical underpinnigs are not yet well understood. We aim to assess the neuroanatomical differences between crack-cocaine patients and paired healthy controls. Fifteen crack-cocaine patients recently discharged from the Addiction Unit of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre and fifteen controls matched for gender, age, education and handedness were scanned using a Philips Achieva 1...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258057/psoriasis-as-a-human-model-of-disease-to-study-inflammatory-atherogenesis
#12
Charlotte L Harrington, Amit K Dey, Raza Yunus, Aditya A Joshi, Nehal N Mehta
Inflammation is known to play a significant role in the process of atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indeed, patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. The mechanisms linking chronic inflammation and CVD however remain poorly understood. Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with a greater risk of early cardiovascular events, provides a suitable human model to study the pathophysiology of inflammatory atherogenesis in humans...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255864/hyperinsulinemia-and-elevated-systolic-blood-pressure-independently-predict-white-matter-hyperintensities-with-associated-cognitive-decrement-in-the-middle-aged-offspring-of-dementia-patients
#13
Keith A Hawkins, Nazli Emadi, Godfrey D Pearlson, Anderson M Winkler, Beth Taylor, Latha Dulipsingh, Diana King, Brian Pittman, Karen Blank
Cerebrovascular disease is an independent risk factor for dementia that may also be synergistic with Alzheimer's disease. In recent years attention has switched from cerebral infarcts to microvascular disease as the primary cause of cerebrovascular cognitive decline, with damage to the white matter the primary mechanism. Uncertainties remain regarding the risks posed by different types vascular threat, the extent to which cerebrovascular damage occurs in middle age, and whether relatively "normal" amounts of white matter damage are accompanied by meaningful degrees of cognitive decline...
March 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253218/association-between-mri-derived-hepatic-fat-fraction-and-blood-pressure-in-participants-without-history-of-cardiovascular-disease
#14
Roberto Lorbeer, Christian Bayerl, Sigrid Auweter, Susanne Rospleszcz, Wolfgang Lieb, Christa Meisinger, Margit Heier, Annette Peters, Fabian Bamberg, Holger Hetterich
OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether liver fat content, as determined by MRI, correlates with blood pressure (BP), a major vascular risk factor, in individuals from the general population without history of stroke and coronary or peripheral artery disease. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 384 participants (161 women; aged 39-73 years) of a MRI substudy of the KORA FF4 survey were used. Hepatic fat fraction (HFF) was measured in the left and right lobe of the liver using single voxel multiecho H-spectroscopy and at the level of the portal vein using a multiecho Dixon-sequence...
April 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239641/macrovascular-and-microvascular-cerebral-blood-flow-in-adults-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Lindsay R Clark, Sara E Berman, Leonardo A Rivera-Rivera, Siobhan M Hoscheidt, Burcu F Darst, Corinne D Engelman, Howard A Rowley, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Patrick Turski, Oliver Wieben, Sterling C Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Capillary hypoperfusion is reported in asymptomatic adults at-risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the extent that can be explained by reduced flow in intracranial arteries is unknown. METHODS: One hundred fifty-five asymptomatic adults enriched for AD risk (mean age 61 years) completed arterial spin labeling (pcASL) and 4D-flow MRI sequences. Voxel-wise regression models investigated the relationship between mean flow in bilateral cerebral arteries and capillary perfusion, and tested potential moderators of this relationship...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236629/increased-prevalence-of-bicuspid-aortic-valve-in-turner-syndrome-links-with-karyotype-the-crucial-importance-of-detailed-cardiovascular-screening
#16
Eva Klásková, Jiřina Zapletalová, Sabina Kaprálová, Marta Šnajderová, Jan Lebl, Zbyněk Tüdös, Jan Pavlíček, Jana Černá, Vladimír Mihál, Veronika Stará, Martin Procházka
BACKGROUND: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) represents one of the strongest risk factors for aortic dissection in Turner syndrome (TS). An exact relation between the occurrence of BAV and a particular karyotype has not been established yet. The aim of this study was to determine the association between karyotype and prevalence of BAV. METHODS: Sixty-seven TS patients aged between 6.6 and 32.5 years underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. They were divided into four cytogenetic subgroups-45,X karyotype (n=27); 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (n=17); structural abnormalities of the X chromosome (n=10); and 45,X/structural abnormality of the X chromosome mosaicism (n=13)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235810/long-term-cerebral-white-and-gray-matter-changes-after-preeclampsia
#17
Timo Siepmann, Henry Boardman, Amy Bilderbeck, Ludovica Griffanti, Yvonne Kenworthy, Charlotte Zwager, David McKean, Jane Francis, Stefan Neubauer, Grace Z Yu, Adam J Lewandowski, Yrsa Bergmann Sverrisdottir, Paul Leeson
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether changes in cerebral structure are present after preeclampsia that may explain increased cerebrovascular risk in these women. METHODS: We conducted a case control study in women between 5 and 15 years after either a preeclamptic or normotensive pregnancy. Brain MRI was performed. Analysis of white matter structure was undertaken using voxel-based segmentation of fluid-attenuation inversion recovery sequences to assess white matter lesion volume and diffusion tensor imaging to measure microstructural integrity...
February 24, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235781/pathogenesis-of-depression-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-an-animal-model-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#18
Amanda M Dossat, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez, Andrew P Koutnik, Stefano Leitner, Edda L Ruiz, Brittany Griffin, Jens T Rosenberg, Samuel C Grant, Francis D Fincham, Jose R Pinto, Mohamed Kabbaj
Cardiovascular dysfunction is highly comorbid with mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression. However, the mechanisms linking cardiovascular dysfunction with the core behavioral features of mood disorder remain poorly understood. In this study, we used mice bearing a knock-in sarcomeric mutation, which is exhibited in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), to investigate the influence of HCM over the development of anxiety and depression. We employed behavioral, MRI, and biochemical techniques in young (3-4 mo) and aged adult (7-8 mo) female mice to examine the effects of HCM on the development of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors...
February 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228308/systematic-review-of-non-invasive-cardiovascular-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-constrictive-pericarditis
#19
Sivakumar Ardhanari, Bharath Yarlagadda, Vishal Parikh, Kevin C Dellsperger, Anand Chockalingam, Sudarshan Balla, Senthil Kumar
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis (CP) can be challenging. It can be nearly impossible to distinguish CP from other causes of right heart failure. Although various imaging modalities help in the diagnosis, no test is definitive. Several reviews have addressed the role of various imaging techniques in the diagnosis of CP but a systematic review has not yet been published. OBJECTIVE: Our intention was to study the ability of various non-invasive imaging modalities to diagnose CP in patients with surgically confirmed disease and to apply our findings to develop a clinically useful diagnostic algorithm...
January 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227762/single-shot-turbo-spin-echo-acquisition-for-in-vivo-cardiac-diffusion-mri
#20
Masoud Edalati, Gregory R Lee, Hui Wang, Michael D Taylor, Yu Y Li, Masoud Edalati, Gregory R Lee, Hui Wang, Michael D Taylor, Yu Y Li, Masoud Edalati, Gregory R Lee, Michael D Taylor, Hui Wang, Yu Y Li
Diffusion MRI offers the ability to noninvasively characterize the microstructure of myocardium tissue and detect disease related pathology in cardiovascular examination. This study investigates the feasibility of in vivo cardiac diffusion MRI under free-breathing condition. A high-speed imaging technique, correlation imaging, is used to enable single-shot turbo spin echo for free-breathing cardiac data acquisition. The obtained in vivo cardiac diffusion-weighted images illustrate robust image quality and minor geometry distortions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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