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Blood glucose regulation

Laurits J Holm, Martin Haupt-Jorgensen, Jesper Larsen, Jano D Giacobini, Mesut Bilgin, Karsten Buschard
Sphingolipids are a diverse group of lipids with important roles in beta-cell biology regulating insulin folding and controlling apoptosis. Sphingolipid biosynthesis begins with the condensation of L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA. Here we tested the effect of L-serine supplementation on autoimmune diabetes development and blood glucose homeostasis in female NOD mice. We found that continuous supplementation of L-serine reduces diabetes incidence and insulitis score. In addition, L-serine treated mice had an improved glucose tolerance test, reduced HOMA-IR, and reduced blood glucose levels...
2018: PloS One
Jing Wu, Wei-Wei Tao, Dan-Yang Chong, Shan-Shan Lai, Chuang Wang, Qi Liu, Tong-Yu Zhang, Bin Xue, Chao-Jun Li
Postprandial insulin desensitization plays a critical role in maintaining whole-body glucose homeostasis by avoiding the excessive absorption of blood glucose; however, the detailed mechanisms that underlie how the major player, skeletal muscle, desensitizes insulin action remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report that early growth response gene-1 ( Egr-1) is activated by insulin in skeletal muscle and provides feedback inhibition that regulates insulin sensitivity after a meal. The inhibition of the transcriptional activity of Egr-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (InsR) and Akt, thus increasing glucose uptake in L6 myotubes after insulin stimulation, whereas overexpression of Egr-1 decreased insulin sensitivity...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Adam J Chicco, Catherine H Le, Erich Gnaiger, Hans C Dreyer, Jonathan B Muyskens, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Austin D Hocker, Jessica E Prenni, Lisa M Wolfe, Nathan M Sindt, Andrew T Lovering, Andrew W Subudhi, Robert C Roach
Metabolic responses to hypoxia play important roles in cell survival strategies and disease pathogenesis in humans.  However, the homeostatic adjustments that balance changes in energy supply and demand to maintain organismal function under chronic low oxygen conditions remain incompletely understood, making it difficult to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive responses in hypoxia-related pathologies.  We integrated metabolomic and proteomic profiling with mitochondrial respirometry and blood gas analyses to comprehensively define the physiological responses of skeletal muscle energy metabolism to 16 days of high-altitude hypoxia (5260 m) in healthy volunteers from the AltitudeOmics project...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Mirian Samblas, Fermin I Milagro, M Angeles Zulet, Maria L Mansego, Jose I Riezu-Boj, J Alfredo Martinez
Folate deficiency has been putatively implicated in the onset of diverse metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, by altering epigenetic processes on key regulatory genes. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is involved in the regulation of critical metabolic processes such as adiposity and glucose homeostasis. This study hypothesized associations between low folate intakes and lower methylation levels of the CAMKK2 gene, with the presence of metabolic alterations in subjects with obesity...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Tieba Millogo, Brice W Bicaba, Joseph Kouesyandé Soubeiga, Estelle Dabiré, Isaie Médah, Séni Kouanda
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reportedly growing fast in sub-Saharan Africa. There is however a scarcity of epidemiologic data on DM in Burkina Faso. We carried out a secondary analysis of the first survey conducted in Burkina Faso on a nationally representative sample following the World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise approach to risk factors Surveillance (STEPS) for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with the aims of identifying the prevalence of NCDs and the prevalence of common risk factors for NCDs...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Avshalom Leibowitz, Ariel Bier, Mayan Gilboa, Edna Peleg, Iris Barshack, Ehud Grossman
Recent data indicate that artificial sweeteners (AS) may have deleterious effects on glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of AS and the effects of a high fructose diet (HFrD) on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (IR) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD rats were fed either regular chow, chow with saccharin (Sac) (0.1 mg/mL) placed in their water, or HFrD for seven weeks. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides (Tg) levels were measured upon completion. A homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-IR index was used to determine insulin resistance...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Yanjie Zhang, Qiuyue Guan, Yin Liu, Yuwei Zhang, Yulong Chen, Jinglu Chen, Yulan Liu, Zhiguang Su
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential to maintain the blood glucose levels, and its abnormal activation leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis remain to be fully defined. In this study, using murine hepatocytes and a liver-specific knockout mouse model, we explored the physiological role of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism and the underlying mechanism. We found that NF-Y targets the gluconeogenesis pathway in the liver...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mahmoudreza Taghizadeh, Sajad Ahmadizad, Mahmood Naderi
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with thrombotic events due to platelets' defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endurance training on expressions of platelet hsa-miR-223 and P2RY12 receptor, as well as platelet function in T2DM patients. METHODS: Twenty female T2DM patients (age, 62.25±3.81 yr; weight, 73.53±9.04 kg; height, 154.7±4.3 cm) were randomly divided into two groups (Control (CONT) and endurance training (ET))...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Atsushi Kurabayashi, Chiharu Tanaka, Waka Matsumoto, Seiji Naganuma, Mutsuo Furihata, Keiji Inoue, Yoshihiko Kakinuma
AIMS: Our previous study revealed that cyclic hindlimb ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) activates cardiac acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis through the cholinergic nervous system and cell-derived ACh accelerates glucose uptake. However, the mechanisms regulating glucose metabolism in vivo remain unknown. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of IR in mice under pathophysiological conditions. METHODS: Using IR-subjected male C57BL/6J mice, the effects of IR on blood sugar (BS), glucose uptake, central parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity, hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression and those of ACh on hepatocellular glucose uptake were assessed...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
E M Brady, D H Bodicoat, A P Hall, K Khunti, T Yates, C Edwardson, M J Davies
AIMS: Investigating the association between sleep duration, obesity, adipokines and insulin resistance (via Leptin:Adiponectin ratio (LAR)), in those at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Adults with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) were included. Fasting bloods for inflammatory biomarkers and glycaemic status, 2-hour glucose, anthropometrics, objective physical activity, and self-reported sleep were collected. The average number of hours slept in a 24 hour period was categorised as ≤5...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Jean Amiral, Maxime Laroche, Jerard Seghatchian
For many years, the importance of fibrinolysis has been recognized, first for its intravascular antithrombotic action, and more recently for its many extravascular activities, associated with matrix degradation and tissue remodeling. In the blood circulation system, fibrinolysis prevents thrombosis, and is associated with various biological and clinical situations: risk factors for cardio-vascular diseases in high risk clinical situations (type II diabetes, hypertension, triglycerides, high BMI, elevated glucose, etc...
February 20, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Shuai Zhang, Qier An, Tianfu Wang, Shuping Gao, Guangqian Zhou
Post-stroke hyperglycemia during early reperfusion increases blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and subsequently aggravates brain injury and clinical prognosis. The decreased level of tight junction proteins (TJPs) has been reported but the underlying mechanism remains largely elusive. Herein we designed to investigate the detailed molecular events in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) ex and in vivo. After oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 90 min and reperfusion with 8 or 16 mM glucose for 30 min, glucose at 16 mM caused significant decrease of the TJP expression and particularly ZO-1 redistribution from membrane to cytoplasm of BMECs...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Camilla L Asferg, Søren J Nielsen, Ulrik B Andersen, Allan Linneberg, Jens P Goetze, Jørgen L Jeppesen
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is primarily seen as a hormone involved in salt and water homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Evidence supports a link between metabolism and ANP. Circulating ANP concentrations are low in obese individuals with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The dynamic relationship between insulin and ANP has been sparsely studied. We therefore measured circulating concentrations of midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), a stable marker of ANP secretion, and insulin in lean and obese men during an oral glucose challenge...
March 7, 2018: Peptides
Ewelina K Wardzinski, Alina Kistenmacher, Uwe H Melchert, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Kerstin M Oltmanns
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that the brain's energy status is lowered in obesity despite of chronic hypercaloric nutrition. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that the brain of obese people does not appropriately generate energy in response to a hypercaloric supply. METHODS: Glucose was intravenously infused in 17 normal weights and 13 obese participants until blood glucose concentrations reached the postprandial levels of 7 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L...
March 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jung Gi Lee, Jae Ha Ryu, Seon-Myung Kim, Moon-Young Park, San-Ho Kim, Young G Shin, Jong-Woo Sohn, Ha Hyung Kim, Zee-Yong Park, Jae Young Seong, Jae Il Kim
Exendin-4, a 39 amino acid peptide isolated from the saliva of the Gila monster, plays an important role in regulating glucose homeostasis, and is used clinically for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Exendin-4 shares 53% sequence identity with the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) but, unlike GLP-1, is highly resistant to proteolytic enzymes such as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP 24.11). Herein, we focused on the structure and function of the C-terminal Trp-cage of exendin-4, and suggest that it may be structurally required for resistance to proteolysis by NEP 24...
March 6, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Dorota Różańska, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
Anthocyanins are food compounds which belong to polyphenols and can mainly be found in dark fruits (e.g., blueberries, black currants, cranberries) and vegetables (e.g., red cabbage, radish, eggplant). The results of large research have shown that these compounds play an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In rodent studies and in studies with isolated omental adipocytes, it was observed that anthocyanins regulated the carbohydrate metabolism in the body due to the upregulation of GLUT4 (insulinregulated glucose transporter) translocation, increased activation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in adipose tissue and skeletal muscles as well as increased secretion of adiponectin and leptin...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Jia Ni, Lei Chen, Sulan Zhong, Qiaoxue Chai, Lin Zhang, Dan Wang, Shaobing Li, Jincai Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the influence of periodontitis and scaling and root planning on insulin resistance and hepatic CD36 in obese rats with periodontitis. METHODS: Thirty-two specific pathogen free Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each as follows: healthy rats (healthy group), obese rats (obesity group), obese rats with periodontitis (non-therapy group), and obese rats with periodontitis who underwent periodontal scaling and root planning (SRP) (therapy group)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Francesco Saverio Sorrentino, Silvia Matteini, Claudio Bonifazzi, Adolfo Sebastiani, Francesco Parmeggiani
In the face of the global epidemic of diabetes, it is critical that we update our knowledge about the pathogenesis of diabetes and the related micro alterations on the vascular network in the body. This may ultimately lead to early diagnosis and novel treatment options for delaying the progression of diabetic complications. Research has recently revealed the pivotal role of endothelin in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, particularly in the regulation of the capillary flow, which is affected in the course of retinopathy...
March 9, 2018: Eye
Haibo Ni, Qin Rui, Yitian Xu, Jun Zhu, Fan Gao, Baoqi Dang, Di Li, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
Receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) is a multifaceted scaffolding protein known to be involved in the regulation of signaling events required for neuronal protection. In the present study, we investigated the role of RACK1 in secondary brain injury in a rat traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. A weight-drop TBI model was established in Sprague Dawley rats, and RACK1 in vivo knockdown and overexpression were performed 24 h before TBI insult. The IRE1 inhibitor 3,5-dibromosalicylaldehyde (DBSA) was administered by intracerebroventricular injection 1 h after TBI insult...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Neurology
P Zhang, W Zhang, D Zhang, M Wang, R Aprecio, N Ji, O Mohamed, Y Li, Y Ding, Q Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis is an increasingly prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus (known as diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25VD3 ) was recently found to be a critical regulator of innate immunity in this disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) is a potential downstream protein of the 25VD3 /vitamin D receptor pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of PTPN2 in periodontal inflammation in diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
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