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Blood glucose regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944871/shear-stress-induces-human-aortic-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-via-interleukin%C3%A2-1-receptor%C3%A2-associated-kinase-2%C3%A2-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#1
Longfei Pan, Zhou Hong, Lei Yu, Yanxia Gao, Rui Zhang, Hui Feng, Lijuan Su, Gang Wang
Atherosclerosis is characterized by localized lesions distributed in the arterial tree due to the shear stress produced by blood flow. Endothelial cells are directly affected by alterations in blood flow. Dysfunction and injury to endothelial cells has been hypothesized to initiate the pathological processes of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of shear stress‑induced endothelial cellular apoptosis. Shear stress was generated using an artificial device to mimic the impact of disturbed blood flow on cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs)...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943765/lactobacillus-acidophilus-ns1-reduces-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-expression-by-regulating-hnf4%C3%AE-transcriptional-activity
#2
Sung-Soo Park, Garam Yang, Eungseok Kim
Probiotics have been known to reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. We recently observed that Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 (LNS1), distinctly suppresses increase of blood glucose levels and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. In the present study, we demonstrated that oral administration of LNS1 with HFD feeding to mice significantly reduces hepatic expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis which is highly increased by HFD feeding...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942790/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-a-class-update-for-treating-type-2-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Julie A Lovshin
Current management options for treating type 2 diabetes are diverse. Many different classes of antidiabetes therapies are used in clinic, and several new candidates are in late-phase clinical trial. This therapeutic abundance is a windfall for patients because it facilitates individualized patient care. Evidence-based positioning of these agents is challenging, however, requiring comprehensive and balanced familiarity with each drug class. In this review, I provide a clinical update of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), a class of incretin-based, injectable antidiabetes therapies which improve fasting and postprandial blood glucose control through glucose-dependent pancreatic islet cell hormone secretion without significant risks for hypoglycemia...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942740/the-role-of-whey-protein-in-postprandial-glycaemic-control
#4
Emma J Stevenson, Dean M Allerton
Epidemiological studies demonstrate that poor glycaemic control is an independent risk factor for CVD. Postprandial glycaemia has been demonstrated as a better predictor of glycated Hb, the gold standard of glycaemic control, when compared with fasting blood glucose. There is a need for more refined strategies to tightly control postprandial glycaemia, particularly in those with type 2 diabetes, and nutritional strategies around meal consumption may be effective in enhancing subsequent glycaemic control. Whey protein administration around meal times has been demonstrated to reduce postprandial glycaemia, mediated through various mechanisms including an enhancement of insulin secretion...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942573/berberine-inhibits-oxygen-consumption-rate-independent-of-alteration-in-cardiolipin-levels-in-h9c2-cells
#5
Wenguang Chang, Ming Zhang, Li Chen, Grant M Hatch
Small clinical studies have shown that oral treatment with the plant alkaloid berberine (BBR) reduces blood glucose levels similar to that of metformin and have promoted its use as a novel anti-diabetic therapy. However, in vitro studies have shown that high concentrations of BBR potently inhibit cell proliferation through inhibition of mitochondrial function. Cardiolipin (Ptd2Gro) is a key phospholipid required for regulating mitochondrial bioenergetic function. We examined if BBR inhibited oxygen consumption rate in H9c2 cardiac myocytes through alteration in Ptd2Gro metabolism...
September 23, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940555/serum-il-15-and-il-15r%C3%AE-levels-are-decreased-in-lean-and-obese-physically-active-humans
#6
Alberto Pérez-López, David Valadés, Clotilde Vázquez Martínez, Ana Isabel de Cos Blanco, Julia Bujan, Natalio García-Honduvilla
Circulating IL-15 presence is required to stimulate anti-adipogenic effects of the IL-15/IL-15Rα axis in adipose tissue. Although exercise increases blood IL-15 expression post-exercise, it remains inconclusive whether physical activity can alter the baseline concentrations of this cytokine. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical activity regulates circulating IL-15 and IL-15Rα in lean and obese individuals. Two hundred and seventy-six participants were divided into 5 groups according to physical activity (PA), body mass and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis: a) lean PA (N=25); b) lean non-PA (N=28); c) obese PA (N=64), d) obese non-PA (N=79); e) obese non-PA with T2DM (N=80)...
September 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939430/do-non-nutritive-sweeteners-influence-acute-glucose-homeostasis-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Robin M Tucker, Sze-Yen Tan
The human body associates sensory cues with metabolic consequences. Exposure to sweet-tasting sugars - even in the absence of ingestion - triggers physiological responses that are associated with carbohydrate digestion, absorption and metabolism. These responses include the release of insulin and incretin hormones, which work to reduce blood glucose. For this reason, non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) have been posited to trigger similar physiological responses and reduce postprandial blood glucose concentrations...
September 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939022/effects-of-ethanol-extract-of-bombax-ceiba-leaves-and-its-main-constituent-mangiferin-on-diabetic-nephropathy-in-mice
#8
Guang-Kai Xu, Chen-Yu Sun, Xiao-Ying Qin, Yu Han, Yi Li, Guo-Yong Xie, Qin Min-Jian
The present study was designed to explore the mechanism by which ethanol extract of Bombax ceiba leaves (BCE) and its main constituent mangiferin (MGF) affect diabetic nephropathy by combating oxidative stress. Oral administration of BCE and MGF to normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were carried out. Fasting blood glucose, 24-h urinary albumin, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were tested, histopathology, and immunohistochemical analysis of kidney tissues were performed. Moreover, mesangial cells were treated with BCE and MGF for 48 h with or without 25 mmol·L(-1) of glucose...
August 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936833/-mechanism-of-salvianolate-injection-combined-with-aspirin-in-treatment-of-stable-angina-pectoris-based-on-biomolecules-network
#9
Yuan Li, Lian-Xin Wang, Yan-Ming Xie
Biomolecular network analysis was used to predict the mechanism of Salvianolate injection combined with aspirin for the treatment of stable angina pectoris(SAP). Related genes of Salvianolate injection, aspirin and SAP were obtained from Genecards, STITCH and DisGeNET databases. Agilent literature search software was used to construct biomolecular network; modules were identified by AP, MCODE and MCL methods. DAVID software was used for identification of related KEGG pathways. Results showed that Salvianolate injection and aspirin had a coverage rate of 45...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935927/effects-of-ticagrelor-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#10
Keita Yamauchi, Takahiko Imai, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Toru Iwama, Hideaki Hara
Ticagrelor is a direct acting and reversibly binding P2Y12 antagonist approved for the prevention of thromboembolic events. Its potential benefits in ischemic stroke have not been investigated sufficiently. Mice were subjected to 2 hours of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Mice were orally treated with ticagrelor (10 or 30 mg/kg), aspirin (60 mg/kg), or vehicle at 3 and 24 hours before MCAO and 0 and 6 hours after reperfusion. The infarct volume and neurological deficits 22 hours after reperfusion were evaluated...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934139/phyllodulcin-a-natural-sweetener-regulates-obesity-related-metabolic-changes-and-fat-browning-related-genes-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#11
Eunju Kim, Soo-Min Lim, Min-Soo Kim, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933767/hemin-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-cultured-hepatocytes-and-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Yi Luan, Fang Zhang, Yalan Cheng, Jun Liu, Rui Huang, Menghong Yan, Yuangao Wang, Zhishui He, Hejin Lai, Hui Wang, Hao Ying, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai
Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions...
July 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931557/protective-effect-of-cyanidin-3-o-glucoside-on-neonatal-porcine-islets
#13
Chao Li, Bin Yang, Zhihao Xu, Eric Boivin, Mazzen Black, Wenlong Huang, Baoyou Xu, Ping Wu, Bo Zhang, Xian Li, Kunsong Chen, Yulian Wu, Gina Rayat
Oxidative stress is a major cause of islet injury and dysfunction during isolation and transplantation procedures. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), which is present in various fruits and vegetables especially in Chinese bayberry, shows potent antioxidant property. In this study, we determined whether C3G could protect neonatal porcine islets (NPI) from reactive oxygen species (H2O2)-induced injury in vitro and promote the function of NPI in diabetic mice. We found that C3G had no deleterious effect on NPI and that C3G protected NPI from damage induced by H2O2...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928797/role-of-mir-128-in-hypertension-induced-myocardial-injury
#14
Jie Yin, Hongyan Liu, Lei Huan, Suping Song, Liying Han, Faxin Ren, Zengtang Zhang, Zhiqiang Zang, Junye Zhang, Shu Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of micro RNA (miR)-128 in hypertension-induced myocardial injury. The peripheral blood of patients with hypertension was collected and the expression of miR-128 was detected using fluorescence reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Primary myocardial cells isolated from rat in vitro were cultured under conditions of hypoxia and glucose deprivation, and miR-128 expression was measured by RT-qPCR. The expression of c-Met protein was measured using western blot analysis and the apoptosis of transfected cells was measured by flow cytometry in rat myocardial cells following transfection with miR-128 mimics or c-Met siRNA...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928236/histone-deacetylase-inhibition-ameliorates-hypertension-and-hyperglycemia-in-a-model-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#15
Hae-Ahm Lee, Seol-Hee Kang, Mina Kim, Eunjo Lee, Hyun-Min Cho, Eun-Kyung Moon, Inkyeom Kim
Cushing's syndrome (CS) caused by hypercortisolism is occasionally accompanied by metabolic disorders such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and central obesity. Thus, morbidity and mortality, observed in cardiovascular disease, are elevated in patients with CS. We hypothesized that HDAC inhibition (HDACi) decreased transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which ameliorates hypertension and hyperglycemia in patients with CS. To establish an animal model of hypercortisolism, Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, 40 ng/day) or dexamethasone (Dex, 10 μg/day) via osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927270/proteomic-analysis-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-pbmc-after-a-high-fat-high-carbohydrate-meal-with-orange-juice
#16
Daniela F Seixas Chaves, Paulo C Carvalho, Elisa Brasili, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto, Jolene K Diedrich, James J Moresco, John R Yates, Franco Maria Lajolo
Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in the physiopathology of insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A single high-fat, high-carbohydrate (HFHC) meal induces an increase in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Previous studies have shown that orange juice is able to prevent this response by inhibiting toll like receptors (TLR) expression and endotoxemia. Our goal was to study the proteome response in PBMC after the consumption of a HFHC meal consumed with water, orange juice or an isocaloric beverage (water with glucose)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922379/elevating-serotonin-pre-partum-alters-the-holstein-dairy-cow-hepatic-adaptation-to-lactation
#17
Samantha R Weaver, Allan S Prichard, Noah L Maerz, Austin P Prichard, Elizabeth L Endres, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Matthew S Akins, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Laura L Hernandez
Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921708/scopoletin-supplementation-ameliorates-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#18
Ra-Yeong Choi, Ju Ri Ham, Hae-In Lee, Hyun Wook Cho, Myung-Sook Choi, Seok-Kyu Park, Jin Lee, Myung-Joo Kim, Kwon-Il Seo, Mi-Kyung Lee
Scopoletin is a bioactive component in many edible plants and fruits. This study investigated the effects of scopoletin on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in a high-fat diet fed type 1 diabetic mice by comparison with metformin. Scopoletin (0.01%, w/w) or metformin (0.5%, w/w) was provided with a high-fat diet to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice for 11 weeks. Both scopoletin and metformin lowered blood glucose and HbA1c , serum ALT, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, glucose intolerance, and hepatic lipid accumulation compared with the diabetic control group...
September 18, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918509/effects-of-tetramethylpyrazine-phosphate-on-pancreatic-islet-microcirculation-in-sd-rats
#19
X Xu, L Wu, Z Q Lu, P Xia, X P Zhu, X Gao
PURPOSES: Abnormal islet microcirculation impetus the insulin production and accelerates progression of Type 1 and 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated whether tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP), a vasoactive substance, could regulate the islet microcirculation and insulin concentration and improve glycaemia in SD rats. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into two groups, the control and TMPP groups. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the intravenous injection of either saline, 15 or 30% glucose...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916763/maternal-diabetes-causes-developmental-delay-and-death-in-early-somite-mouse-embryos
#20
Jing Zhao, Theodorus B M Hakvoort, Jan M Ruijter, Aldo Jongejan, Jan Koster, Sigrid M A Swagemakers, Aleksandar Sokolovic, Wouter H Lamers
Maternal diabetes causes congenital malformations and delays embryonic growth in the offspring. We investigated effects of maternal diabetes on mouse embryos during gastrulation and early organogenesis (ED7.5-11.5). Female mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin, treated with controlled-release insulin implants, and mated. Maternal blood glucose concentrations increased up to embryonic day (ED) 8.5. Maternal hyperglycemia induced severe growth retardation (approx.1 day) in 53% of the embryos on ED8.5, death in most of these embryos on ED9...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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