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Blood glucose regulation

Robert T Dauchy, Melissa A Wren-Dail, Aaron E Hoffman, John P Hanifin, Benjamin Warfield, George C Brainard, Steven M Hill, Victoria P Belancio, Erin M Dauchy, David E Blask
Regular cycles of exposure to light and dark control pineal melatonin production and temporally coordinate circadian rhythms of metabolism and physiology in mammals. Previously we demonstrated that the peak circadian amplitude of nocturnal blood melatonin levels of rats were more than 6-fold higher after exposure to cool white fluorescent (CWF) light through blue-tinted (compared with clear) rodent cages. Here, we evaluated the effects of light-phase exposure of rats to white light-emitting diodes (LED), which emit light rich in the blue-appearing portion of the visible spectrum (465-485 nm), compared with standard broadspectrum CWF light, on melatonin levels during the subsequent dark phase and on plasma measures of metabolism and physiology...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Danilo T Perez-Rivera, Veronica L Torres-Torres, Abraham E Torres-Colon, Maytee Cruz-Aponte
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by a range of metabolic complications involving an individual's blood glucose levels, and its main regulator, insulin. These complications can vary largely from person to person depending on their current biophysical state. Biomedical research day-by-day makes strides to impact the lives of patients of a variety of diseases, including diabetes. One large stride that is being made is the generation of techniques to assist physicians to ``personalize medicine''. From available physiological data, biological understanding of the system, and dimensional analysis, a differential equation-based mathematical model was built in a sequential matter, to be able to elucidate clearly how each parameter correlates to the patient's current physiological state...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Hermann Koepsell
Orally applied SGLT2 (SLC5A2) inhibitors that enter the blood and decrease renal reabsorption of glucose have been approved as antidiabetic drugs. They decrease blood glucose levels, slightly reduce body weight and blood pressure, and decrease the risk for diabetic nephropathy. The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin has been shown to reduce the risk of severe cardiac failure. This review summarizes knowledge about the functions of SGLT2 and the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic follow-up diseases...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mathias Wenes, Min Shang, Mario Di Matteo, Jermaine Goveia, Rosa Martín-Pérez, Jens Serneels, Hans Prenen, Bart Ghesquière, Peter Carmeliet, Massimiliano Mazzone
Hypoxic tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) acquire angiogenic and immunosuppressive properties. Yet it remains unknown if metabolic changes influence these functions. Here, we argue that hypoxic TAMs strongly upregulate the expression of REDD1, a negative regulator of mTOR. REDD1-mediated mTOR inhibition hinders glycolysis in TAMs and curtails their excessive angiogenic response, with consequent formation of abnormal blood vessels. Accordingly, REDD1 deficiency in TAMs leads to the formation of smoothly aligned, pericyte-covered, functional vessels, which prevents vessel leakiness, hypoxia, and metastases...
October 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Luis Gamella-Pozuelo, María T Grande, Milagros Clemente-Lorenzo, Cayetana Murillo-Gómez, Flora De Pablo, José M López-Novoa, Catalina Hernández-Sánchez
Catecholamines are essential for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis under basal and stress conditions. We aim to determine the impact of deletion of a single allele of the tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) gene might have on aging arterial pressure and life-span. We found that Th haploinsufficiency prevents age associated increase of arterial pressure (AP) in mature adult mice, and it results in the extension of the half-life of TH-heterozygous (HET) mice respect to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Heart performance was similar in both genotypes...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Silvania da Silva Teixeira, Carly Filgueira, Douglas H Sieglaff, Cindy Benod, Rosa Villagomez, Laurie J Minze, Aijun Zhang, Paul Webb, Maria Tereza Nunes
AIM: Thyroid hormones regulate metabolic response. While triiodothyronine (T3) is usually considered to be the active form of thyroid hormone, one form of diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) exerts T3-like effects on energy consumption and lipid metabolism. 3,5-T2 also improves glucose tolerance in rats and 3,5-T2 levels correlate with fasting glucose in humans. Presently, however, little is known about mechanisms of 3,5-T2 effects on glucose metabolism. Here, we set out to compare effects of T3, 3,5-T2 and another form of T2 (3,3-T2) in a mouse model of diet induced obesity and determined effects of T3 and 3,5-T2 on markers of classical insulin sensitization to understand how diiodothyronines influence blood glucose...
October 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Yufeng Li, Zheng Li, Dan Wang, Xiang Zhang, Jia Li, Sher Ali, Jingze Lu, Hao Zong, Xiaolan Xu
Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation from GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) to the plasma membrane (PM) constitutes a key process for blood glucose control. Therefore, compounds that could promote GLUT4 translocation into the PM represent potential drugs for the treatment of diabetes. In this research, we screened for agonists that induce GLUT4 translocation by using a novel pH-sensitive fluorescent probe, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP)-mOrange2. We identified as well as validated one agonist, staurosporine, from a 64,000 compound library...
October 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ra-Yeong Choi, Ju Ri Ham, Mi-Kyung Lee
This study investigated the effects and mechanism of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) on non-alcoholic fatty liver in diabetic mice fed high-fat diet (HFD). The diabetic mice model was induced by injection of streptozotocin, after which they were fed HFD diet with or without esculetin for 11 weeks. Non-diabetic mice were provided a normal diet. Diabetes induced hepatic hypertrophy, lipid accumulation and droplets; however, esculetin reversed these changes. Esculetin treatment in diabetic mice fed HFD significantly down-regulated expression of lipid synthesis genes (Fasn, Dgat2 and Pap) and inflammation genes (Tlr4, Myd88, Nfkb, Tnfα and Il6)...
October 18, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Yen-Dun Tzeng
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Jinyang Shen, Xiaolin Yang, Zhaoqing Meng, Changrun Guo
BACKGROUND: High dietary fructose can cause metabolic syndrome and renal injury. PURPOSE: The effects of protodioscin on metabolic syndrome and renal injury were investigated in mice receiving high-dose fructose. METHODS: Mice received 30% (w/v) fructose in water and standard chow for 6 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome and were divided into four groups to receive carboxymethylcellulose sodium, allopurinol (5 mg/kg) and protodioscin (5 and 10 mg/kg) continuously for 6 weeks, respectively...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Davide Zanchi, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Claudia Suenderhauf, Katharina Janach, Carel W le Roux, Sven Haller, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina K Wölnerhanssen, Stefan Borgwardt
Depending on their protein content, single meals can rapidly influence the uptake of amino acids into the brain and thereby modify brain functions. The current study investigates the effects of two different amino acids on the human gut-brain system, using a multimodal approach, integrating physiological and neuroimaging data. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, L-tryptophan, L-leucine, glucose and water were administered directly into the gut of 20 healthy subjects. Functional MRI (fMRI) in a resting state paradigm (RS), combined with the assessment of insulin and glucose blood concentration, was performed before and after treatment...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vamsee D Myneni, Aisha Mousa, Mari T Kaartinen
F13A1 gene, which encodes for Factor XIII-A blood clotting factor and a transglutaminase enzyme, was recently identified as a potential causative gene for obesity in humans. In our previous in vitro work, we showed that FXIII-A regulates preadipocyte differentiation and modulates insulin signaling via promoting plasma fibronectin assembly into the extracellular matrix. To understand the role of FXIII-A in whole body energy metabolism, here we have characterized the metabolic phenotype of F13a1-/- mice. F13a1-/- and F13a1+/+ type mice were fed chow or obesogenic, high fat diet for 20 weeks...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ramesh Pothuraju, Raj Kumar Sharma, Sarver Ahmed Rather, Satvinder Singh
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Ying Guo, YouCai Zhang, WeiHua Huang, Felcy Pavithra Selwyn, Curtis D Klaassen
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) is a traditional antimicrobial herbal medicine. Recently, BBR has gained popularity as a supplement to lower blood lipids, cholesterol and glucose. Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose and energy homeostasis, and gut flora play an important role in BA metabolism. However, whether BBR alters BAs metabolism or dose-response effect of BBR on gut flora is unknown. METHODS: In this study, the effects of various doses of BBR on the concentrations of BAs in liver and serum of male C57BL/6 mice were determined by UPLC-MS/MS, and the expression of BA-related genes, as well as the amount of 32 of the most abundant gut bacterial species in the terminal ileum and large intestine of male C57BL/6 mice were quantified by RT-PCR and Quantigene 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
G S M Paula, L L Souza, N O S Bressane, R Maravalhas, M Wilieman, T Bento-Bernardes, K R Silva, L S Mendonca, K J Oliveira, C C Pazos-Moura
Neuromedin B (NB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are bombesin-like peptides, found in the gastrointestinal tube and pancreas, among other tissues. Consistent data proposed that GRP stimulates insulin secretion, acting directly in pancreatic cells or in the release of gastrointestinal hormones that are incretins. However, the role of NB remains unclear. We examined the glucose homeostasis in mice with deletion of NB receptor (NBR-KO). Female NBR-KO exhibited similar fasting basal glucose with lower insulinemia (48...
October 18, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Sergio E Masnaghetti, Simona Sarzi Braga, Raffaella Vaninetti, Paola Baiardi, Roberto F E Pedretti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hospitalized patients after acute cardiovascular events have poorer prognosis if glucose regulation is diagnosed as abnormal. We compared the short and long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed altered fasting glycemia (AFG) to that of known diabetic patients and patients with normal glucose regulation (NGR) after admission to cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 2490 consecutive patients. Three groups were identified: known diabetes mellitus (n = 540, 22%), fasting glycemia above 110 mg/dl (AFG, n = 269, 11%), and fasting glycemia 110 mg/dl or less (NGR, n = 1681, 67%)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Huan Wang, Hui Chen
OBJECTIVE: Circadian rhythm disruption is shown to be the cause of various health disorders. CLOCK and BMAL1, two core circadian transcription factors, were associated with the regulation of glucose homeostasis. This study evaluated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CLOCK and BMAL1 gene and insulin resistance (IR) in hypertensive patients. DESIGN AND METHOD: We collected 334 outpatients with essential hypertension (EH), who have not taken any antihypertensive agents or stopped the medications for at least a week for this case-control study...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Markus Schlaich, Rosemary Elliott, Caroline Rudnicka, Vance Matthews
OBJECTIVE: Sympathetic nervous system activation is a common feature in various metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type-2 diabetes. The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) mediates re-absorption of glucose from the renal proximal tubules. SGLT-2 inhibitors have attracted substantial attention due to their glucose and blood pressure lowering effects. Furthermore, the SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has recently been associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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