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Blood glucose regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110219/tgf-%C3%AE-engineered-mesenchymal-stem-cells-tgf-%C3%AE-mscs-for-treatment-of-type-1-diabetes-t1d-mice-model
#1
Saeed Daneshmandi, Mohammad Hossein Karimi, Ali Akbar Pourfathollah
OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are advantageous candidates for cell therapy of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Considering immunomodulatory effect of MSC, in this study, we engineered MSCs with TGF-β gene to increase MSC potency for T1D therapy in mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two plans were designed for prevention and treatment of diabetes, respectively. In both of them, MSCs were injected i.v. and then, the diabetes features including serum insulin, blood glucose, glucose tolerance, splenocytes proliferation, and IL-4/IFN-γ production were evaluated...
January 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109586/elevation-of-blood-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-affects-glucose-metabolism-in-dairy-cows-before-and-after-parturition
#2
M Zarrin, L Grossen-Rösti, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Recent studies in mid- and late-lactation dairy cows showed that β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) infusion had a considerable effect on glucose metabolism and immune response during intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge. The objective of the present study was to infuse BHB during the dry period and after parturition to investigate the effects of elevated plasma BHB concentrations on metabolism and endocrine changes in transition dairy cows. The hypothesis tested was that regulation of glucose metabolism would change at different physiological stages and an additional elevation of BHB concentration would alter glucose concentration...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108291/neuroendocrine-signaling-modulates-specific-neural-networks-relevant-to-migraine
#3
Margarida Martins-Oliveira, Simon Akerman, Philip R Holland, Jan R Hoffmann, Isaura Tavares, Peter J Goadsby
Migraine is a disabling brain disorder involving abnormal trigeminovascular activation and sensitization. Fasting or skipping meals is considered a migraine trigger and altered fasting glucose and insulin levels have been observed in migraineurs. Therefore peptides involved in appetite and glucose regulation including insulin, glucagon and leptin could potentially influence migraine neurobiology. We aimed to determine the effect of insulin (10U·kg(-1)), glucagon (100μg·200μl(-1)) and leptin (0.3, 1 and 3mg·kg(-1)) signaling on trigeminovascular nociceptive processing at the level of the trigeminocervical-complex and hypothalamus...
January 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106278/caffeine-prevents-blood-retinal-barrier-damage-in-a-model-in-vitro-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#4
Grazia Maugeri, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Daniela Maria Rasà, Valentina La Cognata, Salvatore Saccone, Rita Federico, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the major cause of vision loss in patients affected by diabetic retinopathy. Hyperglycemia and hypoxia, represent the key elements in the progression of this pathologies, leading to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Caffeine, a psychoactive substance largely consumed in the world, is a nonselective antagonist of adenosine receptors (AR) and it possesses a protective effect in various diseases, including eye pathologies. Here, we have investigated the effect of this substance on BRB integrity following exposure to hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104917/overexpression-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-3b-bmp-3b-in-adipose-tissues-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#5
J Hino, M Nakatani, Y Arai, K Tsuchida, M Shirai, M Miyazato, K Kangawa
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein-3b (BMP-3b) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and has several activities that differ from those of other BMPs. We previously found that BMP-3b is highly expressed in adipocytes, its level is increased during obesity, and it inhibits adipogenesis by suppressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in vitro. However, the function of BMP-3b in adipose tissues in vivo remains unknown. METHODS: To determine the role of BMP-3b overexpression in adipose tissues in vivo, we generated transgenic mice (BMP-3b Tg) by using a conditional overexpression approach in fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4)-expressing adipocytes...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100871/in-vivo-direct-reprogramming-of-liver-cells-to-insulin-producing-cells-by-virus-free-overexpression-of-defined-factors
#6
Xiao-Fei Yang, Li-Wei Ren, Lu Yang, Chun-Yan Deng, Fu-Rong Li
Direct reprogramming of autologous cells from diabetes patients to insulin producing cells is a new method for pancreatic cell replacement therapy. At present, transdifferentiation among mature cells is achieved mainly by introducing foreign genes into the starting tissue with viral vector, but there are potentical safety problems. In the present study, we delivered plasmids carrying Pdx1, Neurog3 and MafA genes (PNM) into mouse hepatocytes by hydrodynamics tail vein injection, investigated islet β cells markers in transfected cells from protein and mRNA level, and then observed the long-term control of blood glucose in diabetic mice...
January 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100772/de-novo-sphingolipid-biosynthesis-is-required-for-adipocyte-survival-and-metabolic-homeostasis
#7
Aikaterini Alexaki, Benjamin A Clarke, Oksana Gavrilova, Yinyan Ma, Hongling Zhu, Xinran Ma, Lingyan Xu, Galina Tuymetova, Bridget C Larman, Maria L Allende, Teresa M Dunn, Richard L Proia
Sphingolipids are a diverse class of essential cellular lipids that function as structural membrane components and as signaling molecules. Cells acquire sphingolipids by both de novo biosynthesis and recycling of exogenous sphingolipids. The individual importance of these pathways for the generation of essential sphingolipids in differentiated cells is not well understood. To investigate the requirement for de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis in adipocytes, a cell type with highly regulated lipid metabolism, we generated mice with an adipocyte-specific deletion of Sptlc1 Sptlc1 is an obligate subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for the first and rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099913/zibupiyin-recipe-improves-cognitive-decline-by-regulating-gut-microbiota-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#8
Chunyan Gu, Wen Zhou, Wang Wang, Hong Xiang, Huiying Xu, Lina Liang, Hua Sui, Libin Zhan, Xiaoguang Lu
Numerous researches supported that microbiota can influence behavior and modulate cognitive function through "microbiota-gut-brain" axis. Our previous study has demonstrated that ZiBuPiYin recipe (ZBPYR) possesses excellent pharmacological effects against diabetes-associated cognitive decline. To elucidate the role of ZBPYR in regulating the balance of gut microbiota to improve psychological-stress-induced diabetes-associated cognitive decline (PSDACD), we compared blood glucose, behavioral and cognitive functions and diversity of the bacterial community among experimental groups...
January 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099262/angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-activation-with-compound-21-augments-islet-function-and-regeneration-in-streptozotocin-induced-neonatal-rats-and-human-pancreatic-progenitor-cells
#9
Lin Wang, Yi Wang, Xing Yu Li, Po Sing Leung
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of compound 21 (C21), a nonpeptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist, on islet cell function and survival in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated neonatal rats and human pancreatic progenitor cells. METHODS: Neonatal rats were randomized into 5 groups, including a control, an STZ (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), and 3 STZ + C21 (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg per day for 7 days, intraperitoneally) groups. Body weight and blood glucose were monitored daily...
January 18, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096081/mice-with-hyperbilirubinemia-due-to-gilbert-s-syndrome-polymorphism-are-resistant-to-hepatic-steatosis-by-decreased-serine-73-phosphorylation-of-ppar%C3%AE
#10
Terry D Hinds, Peter A Hosick, Michael W Hankins, Andrea Nestor-Kalinoski, David E Stec
Gilbert's syndrome is derived from a polymorphism (TA repeat) in the hepatic UGT1A1 gene which results in decreased conjugation and increased levels of unconjugated bilirubin. Recently, we have shown that bilirubin binds directly to the fat burning nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Additionally, we have shown that serine 73 phosphorylation (Ser(P)(73)) of PPARα decreases activity by reducing its protein levels and transcriptional activity. The aim of this study was to determine if humanized mice with the Gilbert's polymorphism (HuUGT*28) have increased PPARα activation and reduced hepatic fat accumulation...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095377/associations-of-maternal-leptin-with-neonatal-adiposity-differ-according-to-pregravid-weight
#11
Julie Patenaude, Guillaume Lacerte, Marilyn Lacroix, Laetitia Guillemette, Catherine Allard, Myriam Doyon, Marie-Claude Battista, Julie Moreau, Julie Ménard, Jean-Luc Ardilouze, Patrice Perron, Marie-France Hivert
BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, maternal circulating leptin is released by maternal adipose tissue and the placenta, and may have a role in fetal development. OBJECTIVES: We investigated maternal leptinemia and glycemia associations with neonatal adiposity, taking into account pregravid weight status. METHODS: We included 235 pregnant women from the Genetics of Glucose Regulation in Gestation and Growth prospective cohort with data: blood samples collected during the 2nd trimester, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the measured leptin and glucose levels...
January 18, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093849/obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-are-associated-with-elevated-pcsk9-levels-in-young-women
#12
Amy E Levenson, Amy S Shah, Philip R Khoury, Thomas R Kimball, Elaine M Urbina, Sarah D de Ferranti, David M Maahs, Lawrence M Dolan, R Paul Wadwa, Sudha B Biddinger
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk, and is an emerging therapeutic target. OBJECTIVE: We compared serum PCSK9 levels in young adults, with and without type 2 diabetes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in a cohort, aged 15 to 26 years, in Cincinnati, OH, from 2005 to 2010. Serum PCSK9 levels were measured in 94 youth with type 2 diabetes, 93 obese control subjects, and 99 lean control subjects...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092345/acute-effects-of-a-beverage-containing-bitter-melon-extract-carela-on-postprandial-glycemia-among-prediabetic-adults
#13
C H Boone, J R Stout, J A Gordon, M J Redd, D D Church, L P Oliveira, D H Fukuda, J R Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Acute ingestion of bitter melon (BM) has been shown to suppress the postprandial glycemic response in diabetics, but its impact on glucose regulation among individuals with impaired glucose tolerance is unclear. Moreover, one's glucose tolerance level may influence the effectiveness of BM. This study aimed to examine the acute effects of a beverage containing BM extract on blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) among prediabetics. METHODS: Ten prediabetic adults completed two OGTTs-glucose only (D2) and glucose+BM (D3)...
January 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088959/-effect-of-exendin-4-on-lipid-deposition-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#14
H Y Cao, F Xu, Z L Chen, B S Lin, X B Zheng, S H Yuan, H Liang, J P Weng
Objective: To investigate the effect of exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on reducing lipid deposition and improving insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and the underlying mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: Twelve male C57BL/6J mice were challenged with HFD for 12 weeks to induce obesity and then randomly divided into two groups: exendin-4 group (intraperitoneal injection of 24 nmol·kg(-1)·d(-1) exendin-4 for 4 weeks) and HFD group (intraperitoneal injection of normal saline for 4 weeks), with 6 mice in each group...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087908/-berberine-regulates-glycemia-via-local-inhibition-of-intestinal-dipeptidyl-peptidase-%C3%A2
#15
Jiesheng Wang, Guanhai Dai, Weijia Li
Objective: To investigate the effect of berberine on glycemia regulation in rats with diabetes and the related mechanisms. Methods: Diabetic-like rat model was successfully induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 50 out of 60 male SD rats, which were then randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 rats in each:control group (received vehicle only), positive drug control group (sitagliptin 10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), low-dose berberine group (30 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), moderate-dose berberine group (60 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), and high-dose berberine group (120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1))...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087385/berberine-exerts-renoprotective-effects-by-regulating-the-ages-rage-signaling-pathway-in-mesangial-cells-during-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
Yuan-Ye Qiu, Li-Qin Tang, Wei Wei
In this study, we explored the effect of berberine treatment on the AGEs-RAGE pathway in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy, and we investigated the mechanism by which key factors caused kidney injury and the effects of berberine. In vivo, berberine improved fasting blood glucose, body weight, the majority of biochemical and renal function parameters and histopathological changes in the diabetic kidney. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed significant increases in the levels of AGEs, RAGE, P-PKC-β and TGF-β1 in injured kidneys, and these levels were markedly decreased by treatment with berberine...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086951/sodium-glucose-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibition-with-empagliflozin-improves-cardiac-diastolic-function-in-a-female-rodent-model-of-diabetes
#17
Javad Habibi, Annayya R Aroor, James R Sowers, Guanghong Jia, Melvin R Hayden, Mona Garro, Brady Barron, Eric Mayoux, R Scott Rector, Adam Whaley-Connell, Vincent G DeMarco
Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for impairments in diastolic relaxation and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The impairments in diastolic relaxation are especially pronounced in obese and diabetic women and predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in this population. Recent clinical data suggest sodium glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduces CVD events in diabetic individuals, but the mechanisms of this CVD protection are unknown. To determine whether targeting SGLT2 improves diastolic relaxation, we utilized empagliflozin (EMPA) in female db/db mice...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079384/hypoxia-and-h2o2-dual-sensitive-vesicles-for-enhanced-glucose-responsive-insulin-delivery
#18
Jicheng Yu, Chenggen Qian, Yuqi Zhang, Zheng Cui, Yong Zhu, Qundong Shen, Frances S Ligler, John B Buse, Zhen Gu
A glucose-responsive closed-loop insulin delivery system mimicking pancreas activity without long-term side effect has the potential to improve diabetic patients' health and quality of life. Here, we developed a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch containing insulin-loaded vesicles. Formed by self-assembly of hypoxia and H2O2 dual-sensitive diblock copolymer, the glucose-responsive polymersome-based vesicles (d-GRPs) can disassociate and subsequently release insulin triggered by H2O2 and hypoxia generated during glucose oxidation catalyzed by glucose specific enzyme...
January 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075412/the-antagonistic-effect-of-mycotoxins-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-on-metabolic-profiling-in-serum-and-liver-of-mice
#19
Jian Ji, Pei Zhu, Fangchao Cui, Fuwei Pi, Yinzhi Zhang, Yun Li, Jiasheng Wang, Xiulan Sun
Metabolic profiling in liver and serum of mice was studied for the combined toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), through gas chromatography mass spectrum. The spectrum of serum and liver sample of mice, treated with individual 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, and the combined DON + ZEN with final concentration 2 mg/kg DON and 20 mg/kg ZEN for 21 days, were deconvoluted, aligned and identified with MS DIAL. The data matrix was processed with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for selection of metabolites with variable importance for the projection (VIP) > 1, t-test p value < 0...
January 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074608/aged-garlic-extract-suppresses-the-increase-of-plasma-glycated-albumin-level-and-enhances-the-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-adipose-tissue-in-tsod-mice
#20
Satomi Miki, Ken-Ichi Inokuma, Miyuki Takashima, Mitsuho Nishida, Yoko Sasaki, Mitsuyasu Ushijima, Jun-Ichiro Suzuki, Naoaki Morihara
SCOPE: In this study, we investigated the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the high level of blood glucose in Tsumura Suzuki Obese-Diabetes (TSOD) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: TSOD mice were fed standard diet with or without 2% AGE for 19 weeks. AGE treatment lowered the blood glucose level and significantly reduced the plasma level of glycated albumin in TSOD mice as compared with those without AGE treatment. In addition, AGE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the adipose tissue, liver and muscle that played an important role in the maintenance of insulin sensitivity...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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