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Blood glucose regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531784/gut-microbiota-mediated-benefits-of-barley-kernel-products-on-metabolism-gut-hormones-and-inflammatory-markers-as-affected-by-co-ingestion-of-commercially-available-probiotics-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#1
Anne Nilsson, Elin Johansson-Boll, Jonna Sandberg, Inger Björck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barley kernel based products have been shown to induce benefits on blood glucose regulation, cardio-metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones in a time perspective of 11-16 h after intake. The mechanisms have been assigned to gut fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the modulatory effects of barley on markers of metabolic- and appetite regulation are affected by a dietary background including a mixture of commercially available probiotics...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529973/high-affinity-mannotetraose-as-an-alternative-to-dextran-in-cona-based-fluorescent-affinity-glucose-assay-due-to-improved-fret-efficiency
#2
Andrea K Locke, Brian M Cummins, Gerard L Coté
Diabetes mellitus affects millions of people worldwide and requires that individuals tightly self-regulate their blood glucose levels to minimize the associated secondary complications. Continuous monitoring devices potentially offer patients a long-term means to tightly monitor their glucose levels. In recent years, fluorescent affinity sensors based on lectins (e.g., Concanavalin A (ConA)) have been implemented in such devices. Traditionally, these sensors pair the lectin with a multivalent ligand, like dextran, in order to develop a competitive binding assay that changes its fluorescent properties in response to the surrounding glucose concentrations...
May 27, 2016: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529949/microrna-expression-varies-according-to-glucose-tolerance-measurement-platform-and-biological-source
#3
S Dias, S Hemmings, C Muller, J Louw, C Pheiffer
Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression is observed during type 2 diabetes (T2D), although the consistency of miRNA expression across measurement platform and biological source is uncertain. Here we report miRNA profiling in the whole blood and serum of South African women with different levels of glucose tolerance, using next generation sequencing (NGS) and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Whole blood-derived miRNAs from women with newly diagnosed T2D (n = 4), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 4), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 4) were subjected to NGS, whereafter transcript levels of selected miRNAs were quantified in the whole blood and serum of these women using qRT-PCR...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529539/jiangtang-decoction-ameliorate-diabetic-nephropathy-through-the-regulation-of-pi3k-akt-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-kk-ay-mice
#4
Jin-Ni Hong, Wei-Wei Li, Lin-Lin Wang, Hao Guo, Yong Jiang, Yun-Jia Gao, Peng-Fei Tu, Xue-Mei Wang
BACKGROUND: Jiangtang decoction (JTD) is a China patented drug which contains Euphorbia humifusa Willd, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, and Coptis chinensis Franch. For decades, it has also been used clinically to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN) effectively; however, the associated mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the protective efficacy of JTD in DN and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529153/model-of-vascular-desmoplastic-multispecies-tumor-growth
#5
Chin F Ng, Hermann B Frieboes
We present a three-dimensional nonlinear tumor growth model composed of heterogeneous cell types in a multicomponent-multispecies system, including viable, dead, healthy host, and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) tissue species. The model includes the capability for abnormal ECM dynamics noted in tumor development, as exemplified by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, including dense desmoplasia typically characterized by a significant increase of interstitial connective tissue. An elastic energy is implemented to provide elasticity to the connective tissue...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527691/food-and-water-intake-body-temperature-and-metabolic-consequences-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-microinjection-into-the-cingulate-cortex-of-the-rat
#6
B Csetényi, E Hormay, I Szabó, G Takács, B Nagy, K László, Z Karádi
In order to elucidate whether cytokine mechanisms of the cingulate cortex (cctx) are important in the central regulation of homeostasis, in the present study, feeding-metabolic effects of direct bilateral microinjection of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into the cctx of the rat have been investigated. Short- (2h), medium (12h) and long-term (24h) food and water intakes and body temperature were measured after the intracerebral administration of this primary cytokine or vehicle solution, with or without paracetamol pretreatment...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526969/glycaemia-and-phosphatemia-after-oral-glucose-and-maltitol-ingestion-in-subjects-from-two-different-race-groups-preliminary-evidence-of-inter-race-differences-in-metabolism-and-possible-implications-for-urinary-stone-disease
#7
Takalani Theka, Allen Rodgers
PURPOSE: Glucose (Glu) and maltitol (Mal) ingestion affect calciuria and phosphaturia. Renal phosphate leak involving hypophosphatemia is thought to be a mechanism. Inter-race differences in carbohydrate metabolism are known. We investigated the effects of Glu and Mal ingestion on glycaemia and phosphatemia in subjects from two race groups to better understand potential implications for nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Healthy black (B) (n = 8) and white (W) (n = 8) males followed a self-selected standardized diet for 7 days and a strictly controlled standardized diet on Day 8...
May 19, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526884/combined-use-of-metformin-and-atorvastatin-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-rabbits-fed-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#8
Fei Luo, Yuan Guo, Gui-Yun Ruan, Jun-Ke Long, Xi-Long Zheng, Qin Xia, Shui-Ping Zhao, Dao-Quan Peng, Zhen-Fei Fang, Xiang-Ping Li
Statins are widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. Unfortunately, some patients still experience cardiovascular events though prescribed with high-intensity statins. Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, was reported to possess anti-atherosclerotic effects. Therefore, the experiments were designed to evaluate whether combined use of metformin and atorvastatin can achieve additional benefits. In rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet, we evaluated the effects of the combination therapy on atherosclerotic plaques, lipid profiles, blood glucose levels, liver and kidney functions...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526321/effects-of-dehp-and-its-metabolite-mehp-on-insulin-signalling-and-proteins-involved-in-glut4-translocation-in-cultured-l6-myotubes
#9
Mangala Priya Viswanathan, Vigneswari Mullainadhan, Mayilvanan Chinnaiyan, Balasubramanian Karundevi
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is the plasticizer used in variety of medical and consumer products to impart structural flexibility. DEHP and its primary metabolite mono-(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (MEHP) posed a considerable interest because of their contribution to insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and obesity. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that DEHP affects blood glucose homeostasis. However, direct effect of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on insulin signal transduction and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation remain obscure...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521980/sulphated-polysaccharide-isolated-from-sargassum-vulgare-characterization-and-hypolipidemic-effects
#10
Rihab Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Hichem Ben Salah, Neila Jardak, Rim Chaaben, Imed Jribi, Abdelfattah El Feki, Tarak Rebai, Kamel Jamoussi, Noureddine Allouche, Cristophe Blecker, Hafedh Belghith, Karima Belghith
A sulphated polysaccharide from brown algae Sargassum vulgare (SVSP) was extracted and examined with respect to chemical, structural characterization and hypolipidemic effects. SVSP consisted mainly of sulphate and total sugars with low levels of lipids and proteins. Its structure was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infra-red spectroscopic, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis. Allowing us therefore to revealed that SVSP was composed of glucose, rhamnose, xylose, galactose, mannose and arabinose with XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer and complexities of the spectra reflected its homogeneous structure...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515080/effect-of-resistance-exercise-under-conditions-of-reduced-blood-insulin-on-ampk%C3%AE-ser485-491-inhibitory-phosphorylation-and-ampk-pathway-activation
#11
Kohei Kido, Takumi Yokokawa, Satoru Ato, Koji Sato, Satoshi Fujita
Insulin stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake via activation of the protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) pathway. Recent studies suggest that insulin down-regulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity via Ser485/491 phosphorylation of the AMPK α-subunit. Thus, lower blood insulin concentrations may induce AMPK signal activation. Acute exercise is one method to stimulate AMPK activation; however, no study has examined the relationship between blood insulin levels and acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513622/human-milk-insulin-is-related-to-maternal-plasma-insulin-and-bmi-but-other-components-of-human-milk-do-not-differ-by-bmi
#12
B E Young, Z Patinkin, C Palmer, B de la Houssaye, L A Barbour, T Hernandez, J E Friedman, N F Krebs
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The impact of maternal BMI and insulin sensitivity on bioactive components of human milk (HM) is not well understood. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes rises, it is increasingly critical that we understand how maternal BMI and hormones associated with metabolic disease relate to concentrations of bioactive components in HM. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This longitudinal cohort design followed 48 breastfeeding mothers through the first four months of lactation, collecting fasting morning HM samples at 2-weeks and 1, 2, 3 and 4-months, and fasting maternal blood at 2-weeks and 4-months...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513282/zanthoxylum-alkylamides-activate-phosphorylated-ampk-and-ameliorate-glycolipid-metabolism-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Tingyuan Ren, Yuping Zhu, Jianquan Kan
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zanthoxylum alkylamides on the glycolipid metabolism of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Diabetic rats were given daily oral treatments of 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg bw alkylamides for 28 days. Alkylamides significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and fructosamine content, as well as relieved organ enlargement caused by diabetes. The serum and liver triglyceride, malondialdehyde, and free fatty-acid contents of rats with STZ-induced diabetes were significantly reduced...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513092/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-meldonium-in-exercised-thoroughbred-horses
#14
Heather K Knych, Scott D Stanley, Dan S McKemie, Rick M Arthur, Ulf Bondesson, Mikael Hedeland, Mario Thevis, Philip H Kass
Although developed as a therapeutic medication, meldonium has found widespread use in human sports and was recently added to the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances. It's reported abuse potential in human sports, has led to concern by regulatory authorities about the possible misuse of meldonium in equine athletics. The potential abuse in equine athletes along with the limited data available regarding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of meldonium in horses necessitates further study...
May 16, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510784/effects-of-acute-and-chronic-hypoxia-on-acid-base-regulation-hematology-ion-and-osmoregulation-of-juvenile-american-paddlefish
#15
Daniel L Aboagye, Peter J Allen
Despite the increasing prevalence of hypoxia in natural habitats occupied by the American paddlefish, basal bony fish, and ram ventilator, information about its response to hypoxia is scarce. To understand the physiological and biochemical responses of juvenile paddlefish (~150 g) to acute (<24 h) and chronic hypoxia (≥24 h), blood oxygen transport, blood acid-base balance, and metabolic stress were evaluated under four different partial pressures of oxygen [pO2; normoxia (148 mmHg), mild hypoxia (89 mmHg), moderate hypoxia (59 mmHg), and extreme hypoxia (36 mmHg)], all at 21 °C...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508651/sugar-breathing-glycopolymersomes-for-regulating-glucose-level
#16
Yufen Xiao, Hui Sun, Jianzhong Du
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, life-threatening illness that affects people of every age and ethnicity. It is a long-suffering pain for those who are affected and must regulate their blood glucose level by frequent subcutaneous injection of insulin every day. Herein, we propose a non-insulin and antidiabetic-drug-free strategy for regulating blood glucose level by a nano-sized "sugar sponge" which is a lectin-bound glycopolymersome capable of regulating glucose due to the dynamic recognition between the lectin and different carbohydrates...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508303/the-effect-of-anger-expression-style-on-cardiovascular-responses-to-lateralized-cognitive-stressors
#17
David E Cox, Benjamin B DeVore, Patti Kelly Harrison, David W Harrison
To determine the effects of self-reported anger expression style on cerebrally lateralized physiological responses to neuropsychological stressors, changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were examined in response to a verbal fluency task and a figural fluency task among individuals reporting either "anger in" or "anger out" expression styles. Significant group by trial interaction effects was found for systolic blood pressure following administration of verbal fluency [F(1,54) = 5.86, p < 0...
May 15, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508193/neutrophil-depletion-improves-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#18
Rongying Ou, Jia Liu, Mingfen Lv, Jingying Wang, Jinmeng Wang, Li Zhu, Liang Zhao, Yunsheng Xu
PURPOSE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is highly associated with morbidity and mortality in population. Although studies have already demonstrated that the immune response plays a pivotal role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the comprehensive regulation is unclear. Therefore, present study was carried out to investigate the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development under neutrophil depletion. METHODS: To achieve the aim of the study, C57BL/6 J mice were fed with high fat diet for 6 weeks before treated with neutrophil deplete antibody 1A8 or isotype control (200 μg/ mouse every week) for another 4 weeks...
April 6, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508109/solvent-accessibility-of-discrete-residue-positions-in-the-polypeptide-hormone-glucagon-by-19-f-nmr-observation-of-4-fluorophenylalanine
#19
Yaguang Hou, Wanhui Hu, Xiaona Li, John J Skinner, Dongsheng Liu, Kurt Wüthrich
The amino acid 4-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (4F-Phe) was introduced at the positions of Phe6 and Phe22 in the 29-residue polypeptide hormone glucagon by expressing glucagon in E. coli in the presence of an excess of 4F-Phe. Glucagon regulates blood glucose homeostasis by interaction with the glucagon receptor (GCGR), a class B GPCR. By referencing to the 4F-Phe chemical shifts at varying D2O concentrations, the solvent exposure of the two Phe sites along the glucagon sequence was determined, showing that 4F-Phe6 was fully solvent exposed and 4F-Phe22 was only partially exposed...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507914/intra-islet-endothelial-cell-and-%C3%AE-cell-crosstalk-implication-for-islet-cell-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Siddharth Narayanan, Gopalakrishnan Loganathan, Maheswaran Dhanasekaran, William Tucker, Ankit Patel, Venugopal Subhashree, SriPrakash Mokshagundam, Michael G Hughes, Stuart K Williams, Appakalai N Balamurugan
The intra-islet microvasculature is a critical interface between the blood and islet endocrine cells governing a number of cellular and pathophysiological processes associated with the pancreatic tissue. A growing body of evidence indicates a strong functional and physical interdependency of β-cells with endothelial cells (ECs), the building blocks of islet microvasculature. Intra-islet ECs, actively regulate vascular permeability and appear to play a role in fine-tuning blood glucose sensing and regulation...
April 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
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