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Blood glucose regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139253/-complex-network-analysis-on-shenxiong-glucose-injection-in-combined-use-with-chinese-and-western-medicine-for-cerebral-infarction-in-real-world-study
#1
Huan Liu, Yan-Ming Xie, Yin Zhang, Ping-Ping Jia, Yan Zhuang
In order to analyze Shenxiong glucose injection in combined use with other medicines for cerebral infarction in real world, the basic information, Chinese and western medicine diagnosis information, doctors'advice information, and laboratory checking information for the patients with Shenxiong glucose injection in treatment of cerebral infarction were extracted from the hospital information system (HIS) of sixteen 3A hospitals. Apriori Algorithm was used to establish models, and Clementine 12.0 was used for correlation analysis...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137476/acute-glycemic-changes-in-brain-and-subcutaneous-tissue-measured-by-continuous-glucose-monitoring-system-in-hereditary-hypertriglyceridemic-rat
#2
M Žourek, P Kyselová, D Čechurová, Z Rušavý
Parallel glucose measurements in blood and other different tissues give us knowledge about dynamics of glycemia changes, which depend on vascularisation, distribution space and local utilization by tissues. Such information is important for the understanding of glucose homeostasis and regulation. The aim of our study was to determine the time-lag between blood, brain, and adipose tissue during rapid glucose changes in a male hHTG rat (n=15). The CGMS sensor Guardian RT (Minimed/Medtronic, USA) was inserted into the brain and into the abdominal subcutaneous tissue...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136335/sii-ang-ii-potentiates-insulin-receptor-signalling-and-glycogen-synthesis-in-hepatocytes
#3
Samra Joke Sanni, Christina Lyngsø, Steen Gammeltoft, Jakob Lerche Hansen
The angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Excessive activation of AT1R by angiotensin II (Ang II) leads to cardiovascular disease and may be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Functionally selective Ang II analogues, such as the [Sar1, Ile4, Ile8]-angiotensin II (SII Ang II) analogue that only activates a subset of signalling networks have been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular function in certain settings, including lowering blood pressure and increasing cardiac performance...
November 14, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134152/the-role-of-mef2-transcription-factors-in-dehydration-and-anoxia-survival-in-rana-sylvatica-skeletal-muscle
#4
Myriam P Hoyeck, Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) can endure freezing of up to 65% of total body water during winter. When frozen, wood frogs enter a dormant state characterized by a cessation of vital functions (i.e., no heartbeat, blood circulation, breathing, brain activity, or movement). Wood frogs utilize various behavioural and biochemical adaptations to survive extreme freezing and component anoxia and dehydration stresses, including a global suppression of metabolic functions and gene expression. The stress-responsive myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) transcription factor family regulates the selective expression of genes involved in glucose transport, protein quality control, and phosphagen homeostasis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129636/inflammation-mediated-muscle-metabolic-dysregulation-local-and-remote-to-the-site-of-major-abdominal-surgery
#5
Krishna K Varadhan, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Despina Constantin, Paul L Greenhaff, Dileep N Lobo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Postoperative hyperglycaemia is common in patients having major surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether bacteraemia contributed to postoperative systemic inflammation, and whether increases in the expression of muscle mRNAs and proteins reflecting increased muscle inflammation, atrophy and impaired carbohydrate oxidation were evident at the time of surgery, and both local and distant to the site of trauma, and could be associated with impaired glucoregulation...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128891/prmt1-promotes-hyperglycemia-in-a-foxo1-dependent-manner-affecting-glucose-metabolism-during-hypobaric-hypoxia-exposure-in-rat-model
#6
Susovon Bayen, Supriya Saini, Priya Gaur, Arul Joseph Duraisamy, Alpesh Kumar Sharma, Karan Pal, Praveen Vats, Shashi Bala Singh
PURPOSE: High-altitude (HA) environment causes changes in cellular metabolism among unacclimatized humans. Previous studies have revealed that insulin-dependent activation of protein kinase B (Akt) regulates metabolic processes via discrete transcriptional effectors. Moreover, protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT)1-dependent arginine modification of forkhead box other (FoxO)1 protein interferes with Akt-dependent phosphorylation. The present study was undertaken to test the involvement of PRMT1 on FoxO1 activation during hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure in rat model...
November 11, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127315/human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorate-streptozoticin-induced-t1dm-in-mice-via-suppression-of-t-effector-cells-and-up-regulating-treg-subsets
#7
Wei Zhang, Li Zhou, Junlong Dang, Ximei Zhang, Julie Wang, Yanming Chen, Jichao Liang, Dongqing Li, Jilin Ma, Jia Yuan, Weiwen Chen, Homayoun H Zadeh, Nancy Olsen, Song Guo Zheng
There is yet no cure for type 1 diabetes (T1DM) so far. A significant body of evidence has demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) showed great potential in controlling T1DM. But there exists much difficulty in using BMSCs as a clinical therapy. We here test whether a new population of mesenchymal stem cells from human gingiva (GMSCs), which has many advantages over BMSCs, can delay or prevent progress of T1DM. GMSCs were adoptively transferred to multiple low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1DM...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124047/adiponectin-concentration-in-gestational-diabetic-women-a-case-control-study
#8
Tanin Mohammadi, Zamzam Paknahad
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an impaired fasting glucose condition during pregnancy. Adiponectin is a polypeptide hormone that is extensively released by adipocytes which regulates energy homeostasis and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, adiponectin has antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of our research was to study about the relationship of adiponectin levels to GDM and glucose intolerance. We selected 25 GDM women and 35 healthy pregnant subjects (18-46 years) who were screened between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation based on the result of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
October 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123394/quercetin-nanoparticle-complex-attenuated-diabetic-nephropathy-via-regulating-the-expression-level-of-icam-1-on-endothelium
#9
Fei Tong, Suhuan Liu, Bing Yan, Xuejun Li, Shiwei Ruan, Shuyu Yang
The purpose of the study was to reveal the therapeutic effect of quercetin (QUE) nanoparticle complex on diabetic nephropathy (DN) by regulating the expression of intercellular adhesion molecular-1 (ICAM-1) on endothelium as compared to free QUE. QUE 10 mg/kg as a single abdominal subcutaneous injection daily for 8 weeks continuously in diabetic rats and 10 mg/kg QUE nanoparticle complex as a single abdominal subcutaneous injection every 5 days, continuously administered for 8 weeks to diabetic rats. Blood and left kidneys were collected; pathological change of kidney, renal function, oxidative stress level, blood glucose level, serum lipid, urine protein, and albumin/creatinine ratio were measured; and neutrophil adhesion, ICAM-1 expression, and CD11b(+) cells infiltration were observed...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122953/dietary-weight-loss-induced-changes-in-rbp4-ffa-and-ace-predict-weight-regain-in-people-with-overweight-and-obesity
#10
Roel G Vink, Nadia J Roumans, Edwin C Mariman, Marleen A van Baak
Adipokines and other biomarkers were previously identified with roles in energy expenditure, appetite, satiety, and adiposity. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary weight loss-induced changes in adipokines and other biomarkers known to play a role in weight regulation or energy expenditure could predict weight regain in people with overweight and obesity. In this randomized controlled trial 26 males and 30 females (BMI: 28-35 kg/m(2)) followed either a low-calorie diet (LCD; 1250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks or a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD; 500 kcal/day) for 5 weeks followed by a weight stable period of 4 weeks (dietary intervention (DI) period) and a 9-month follow-up period...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119175/protective-effect-of-selenium-supplementation-following-oxidative-stress-mediated-by-glucose-on-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#11
Raquel González de Vega, Montserrat García, María Luisa Fernández-Sánchez, Héctor González-Iglesias, Alfredo Sanz-Medel
There are many conditions that affect the retina. However, diabetic retinopathy (RD) as a complication of Diabetes Mellitus continues to be the leading cause of blindness in working people globally. Diabetic retinopathy is an ocular complication of diabetes that is caused by the deterioration of the blood vessels that supply the retina, which has the consequence that the vision deteriorates irreversibly. The retina, and specifically the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the only neural tissue that is exposed directly and frequently to light, which favors the oxidation of lipids that become extremely toxic to the cells of the retina...
November 9, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118201/inflow-of-oxygen-and-glucose-into-brain-tissue-induced-by-intravenous-norepinephrine-relationships-with-central-metabolic-and-peripheral-vascular-responses
#12
R Aaron Bola, Eugene A Kiyatkin
As an essential part of sympathetic activation that prepares the organism for "fight or flight," peripheral norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in regulating cardiac activity and the tone of blood vessels, increasing blood flow to the heart and the brain and decreasing blood flow to the organs not as necessary for immediate survival. To assess whether this effect is applicable to the brain, we used high-speed amperometry to measure the changes in nucleus accumbens (NAc) levels of oxygen and glucose induced by intravenous (iv) injections of NE in awake, freely-moving rats...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117552/circulating-glucagon-1-61-regulates-blood-glucose-by-increasing-insulin-secretion-and-hepatic-glucose-production
#13
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Rune E Kuhre, Daniel Hornburg, Christian Z Jensen, Mads Hornum, Carsten Dirksen, Maria Svane, Lærke S Gasbjerg, Nils B Jørgensen, Maria N Gabe, Emilie Balk-Møller, Reidar Albrechtsen, Marie Winther-Sørensen, Katrine D Galsgaard, Felix Meissner, Tina Jorsal, Asger Lund, Tina Vilsbøll, Rasmus Eliasen, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Thomas Idorn, Carolyn F Deacon, Filip K Knop, Mette M Rosenkilde, Bolette Hartmann, Bo Feldt-Rasmussen, Matthias Mann, Sten Madsbad, Jens J Holst
Glucagon is secreted from pancreatic α cells, and hypersecretion (hyperglucagonemia) contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia. Molecular heterogeneity in hyperglucagonemia is poorly investigated. By screening human plasma using high-resolution-proteomics, we identified several glucagon variants, among which proglucagon 1-61 (PG 1-61) appears to be the most abundant form. PG 1-61 is secreted in subjects with obesity, both before and after gastric bypass surgery, with protein and fat as the main drivers for secretion before surgery, but glucose after...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115422/melatonin-ameliorates-myocardial-apoptosis-by-suppressing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-rats-with-long%C3%A2-term-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#14
Fang-Yuan Xiong, Song-Tao Tang, Huan Su, Hai-Qin Tang, Pin Jiang, Qing Zhou, Yuan Wang, Hua-Qing Zhu
The effects of melatonin (MLT), which exerts cardioprotective effects against myocardial apoptosis, in long‑term diabetic cardiomyopathy are not currently well defined. The present study aimed to investigate how MLT protects the heart through modulating myocardial apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In total, 36 rats were randomly divided into three groups, including control (n=12), DM (n=12) and DM + MLT (n=12) groups. The results demonstrated that, in DM rats, a significant increase was observed in the serum fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, in addition to insulin resistance and cardiac dysfunction, which were attenuated in DM rats treated with MLT...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113996/characterization-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-from-isolated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-using-ptmomics
#15
Taewook Kang, Pia Jensen, Honggang Huang, Gitte Lund Christensen, Nils Billestrup, Martin R Larsen
Normal pancreatic islet β-cells (PBCs) abundantly secrete insulin in response to elevated blood glucose levels, in order to maintain an adequate control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the insulin secretion are unclear. Improving our understanding of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) mechanisms under normal conditions is a prerequisite for developing better interventions against diabetes. Here, we aimed at identifying novel signaling pathways involved in the initial release of insulin from PBCs after glucose stimulation using quantitative strategies for the assessment of phosphorylated proteins and sialylated N-linked (SA) glycoproteins...
November 7, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113464/a-new-treatment-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-gut-brain-axis-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-pathway
#16
Dong Seok Kim, Ho-Il Choi, Yun Wang, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig
Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, are critical for maintaining healthy brain function, particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD, and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing, and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases...
September 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112863/the-liver
#17
Elijah Trefts, Maureen Gannon, David H Wasserman
The liver is a critical hub for numerous physiological processes. These include macronutrient metabolism, blood volume regulation, immune system support, endocrine control of growth signaling pathways, lipid and cholesterol homeostasis, and the breakdown of xenobiotic compounds, including many current drugs. Processing, partitioning, and metabolism of macronutrients provide the energy needed to drive the aforementioned processes and are therefore among the liver's most critical functions. Moreover, the liver's capacities to store glucose in the form of glycogen, with feeding, and assemble glucose via the gluconeogenic pathway, in response to fasting, are critical...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111188/food-intake-regulation-by-leptin-mechanisms-mediating-gluconeogenesis-and-energy-expenditure
#18
REVIEW
Zulfia Hussain, Junaid Ali Khan
Regulation of blood glucose levels and body fat is critical for survival. Leptin circulates freely in blood and controls body weight and food intake mainly through hypothalamic receptors and regulates glucose metabolism in the liver both directly through leptin receptors and indirectly via the hypothalamic receptors of central nervous system. Leptin affects food intake regulation and eventually glucose metabolism, lipometabolism, endocrine and immune functions, reproductive function, adipose tissue metabolism and energy expenditure...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110772/the-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-barriers-anatomic-and-physiologic-considerations
#19
Hayrettin Tumani, André Huss, Franziska Bachhuber
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space consists of the intracerebral ventricles, subarachnoid spaces of the spine and brain (e.g., cisterns and sulci), and the central spinal cord canal. The CSF protects the central nervous system (CNS) in different ways involving metabolic homeostasis, supply of nutrients, functioning as lymphatic system, and regulation of intracranial pressure. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, brain interstitium, and meninges, and it circulates in a craniocaudal direction from ventricles to spinal subarachnoid space from where it is removed via craniocaudal lymphatic routes and the venous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107216/pharmacological-effects-and-potential-therapeutic-targets-of-dt-13
#20
REVIEW
Ghulam Jilany Khan, Mohsin Rizwan, Muhammad Abbas, Muhammad Naveed, Yu Boyang, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem, Sara Khan, Shengtao Yuan, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Li Sun
DT-13 is an isolated compound from Dwarf lillytruf tuber and currently among active research drugs by National Natural Science foundation of China for its several potential effects. The drug has been reported for its multiple pharmacological actions however no thorough review studies are available on it. Our present study is highlighting the pros and cons of DT-13 focusing on its potential pharmacological actions, therapeutic utilization and further exploration for novel targets. The drug possesses very low toxicity profile, quick onset and long duration of action with slow elimination that combinely makes it favorable for the clinical studies...
October 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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