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Blood glucose regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777018/managing-the-sugar-factory-a-new-feather-in-the-cap-for-nuclear-factor-y
#2
Sabyasachi Sen, Chandrima Das
Gluconeogenesis in the liver converts lipids and several other noncarbohydrate precursors into glucose, ensuring that blood sugar levels are maintained at healthy levels, especially during fasting. Effective regulation of gluconeogenesis is therefore critical for maintaining systemic metabolic homeostasis. Zhang and colleagues have discovered that the ubiquitous transcriptional regulator nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) confers cAMP responsiveness to key gluconeogenic genes and up-regulates hepatic glucose production...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775900/hordenine-protects-against-hyperglycemia-associated-renal-complications-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#3
Shuhao Su, Meng Cao, Guangyuan Wu, Zi Long, Xiaodong Cheng, Junshu Fan, Zhongrui Xu, Hongfei Su, Yiming Hao, Ge Li, Jie Peng, Shuang Li, Xin Wang
The worldwide prevalence of diabetes and associated metabolic diseases has dramatically increased. Pharmacological treatment of diabetes is still limited. Hordenine (HOR), a phenethylamine alkaloid, is a natural constituent in many plants. The present study was designed to explore the possible anti-diabetic effect of HOR in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Combined treatment of HOR and insulin significantly reduced fasting and postprandial blood glucose level in diabetic mice. HOR and insulin did not show evident protective effect against structural and functional injuries of pancreas...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768353/correlation-of-increased-th17-treg-cell-ratio-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Xiaojing Zhu, Shuiqin Li, Qiaona Zhang, Dan Zhu, Yang Xu, Pengqian Zhang, Jin Han, Zhaoyang Duan, Jie Gao, Yan Ou
To investigate the relationship between the regulatory immune network and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD).A total of 91 patients diagnosed with CKD were divided into different groups according to the stage of disease and treatment with hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Routine blood and biochemical tests were performed in patients in the different CKD groups and in healthy controls (n = 20). The frequencies of T helper type 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in the overall T cell population were measured by flow cytometric analysis...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768065/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-adiposity-and-macronutrient-balance-in-a-healthy-pregnant-population-with-overweight-and-obesity
#5
Elizabeth F Sutton, Christopher D Morrison, Jacqueline M Stephens, Leanne M Redman
AIM OF THE STUDY: The regulation and actions of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are responsive to energy status and macronutrient balance, and investigations of FGF21 in normal pregnancy, which could be informative for FGF21 biology, are seldom. The goal of our study was to examine FGF21 levels in a contemporary healthy, pregnant population. METHODS: We phenotyped 43 women with overweight and obesity during pregnancy for weight, body composition, and fasting blood...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761230/ghrelin-receptor-signaling-targets-segregated-clusters-of-neurons-within-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#6
María Paula Cornejo, Pablo Nicolás De Francesco, Guadalupe García Romero, Enrique L Portiansky, Jeffrey M Zigman, Mirta Reynaldo, Mario Perello
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that regulates a variety of biological functions such as food intake, gastrointestinal function and blood glucose metabolism, among others. Ghrelin acts via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor located in key brain areas that mediate specific actions of the hormone. GHSR is highly expressed in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which is located in the medulla oblongata and controls essential functions, including orofacial, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses...
May 14, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756959/reduced-serotonin-levels-after-a-lifestyle-intervention-in-obese-children-association-with-glucose-and-anthropometric-measurements
#7
Ana Ojeda-Rodríguez, Lydia Morell-Azanza, María Cristina Azcona-Sanjulián, J Alfredo Martínez, María J Ramirez, Amelia Marti
BACKGROUND: serotonin signaling participates in body weight regulation and glucose metabolism. However, little information is available on circulating serotonin levels in obese subjects after a weight loss program. We aimed to assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention on serotonin levels in obese children and possible associations with anthropometric and blood glucose measurements. METHODS: forty-four obese children were enrolled in a ten-week lifestyle intervention consisting of a moderate caloric restriction diet, nutritional education and familial involvement...
March 1, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756500/sirna-an-alternative-treatment-for-diabetes-and-associated-conditions
#8
Pravin Shende, Chirag Patel
Diabetes is a condition that is not completely treatable but life of a diabetic patient can be smoothed by preventing or delaying the associate conditions like diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, impaired wound healing process etc. Apart from conventional methods to regulate diabetic condition, new techniques using siRNA have been emerged to prevent the associated conditions. This paper focuses on how siRNA used as a tool to silence the expression of genes which plays critical role in pathogenesis of these conditions...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755977/wearable-technology-for-chronic-wound-monitoring-current-dressings-advancements-and-future-prospects
#9
REVIEW
Matthew S Brown, Brandon Ashley, Ahyeon Koh
Chronic non-healing wounds challenge tissue regeneration and impair infection regulation for patients afflicted with this condition. Next generation wound care technology capable of in situ physiological surveillance which can diagnose wound parameters, treat various chronic wound symptoms, and reduce infection at the wound noninvasively with the use of a closed loop therapeutic system would provide patients with an improved standard of care and an accelerated wound repair mechanism. The indicating biomarkers specific to chronic wounds include blood pressure, temperature, oxygen, pH, lactate, glucose, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and infection status...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755552/efficacy-of-alpha-glucosidase-inhibitor-from-marine-actinobacterium-in-the-control-of-postprandial-hyperglycaemia-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-male-albino-wister-rats
#10
S R Sathish Kumar, K V Bhaskara Rao
The current study was carried out to evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo efficiency of alpha glucosidase inhibitor of marine actinobacteria in the control of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Soil samples were collected from salterns, coastal area in Kothapatnam, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India. Among the actinobacterial isolates tested for yeastα-glucosidase inhibitory activity, only three isolates showed prominent inhibition. The patient isolate was selected and identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus SRBVIT13 using 16S r-RNA gene sequencing...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754174/targeting-mirna-for-therapy-of-juvenile-and-adult-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#11
Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras Kumar Mishra
Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a multifactorial disease often diagnosed with high blood glucose levels, is rapidly increasing in the world. Association of DM with multi-organ dysfunction including cardiomyopathy makes it a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There are two major types of DM: type 1 DM (T1D) and type 2 DM (T2D). T1D is diagnosed by reduced levels of insulin and high levels of glucose in the blood. It is caused due to pancreatic beta cell destruction/loss, and mostly found in juveniles (juvenile DM)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753402/hif-activation-against-cvd-in-ckd-novel-treatment-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Kai-Uwe Eckardt
Cardiovascular disease is a common and serious complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). One of the fundamental functions of the cardiovascular system is oxygen delivery, therefore cardiovascular disease inherently is linked to insufficient tissue oxygenation. Advances in our knowledge of cellular oxygen sensing by a family of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) and their role in regulating hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) have led to the discovery of PHD inhibitors as HIF stabilizers. Several small-molecule PHD inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of anemia in CKD...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750294/lncrna-uc-48-is-involved-in-the-diabetic-immune-and-inflammatory-responses-mediated-by-p2x7-receptor-in-raw264-7-macrophages
#13
Hong Wu, Fang Wen, Mei Jiang, Qiang Liu, Yijun Nie
High glucose combined with high FFAs can contribute to the unfavorable development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and monocytes/macrophages are important in the occurrence and development of T2DM, which is regarded as a type of low‑grade inflammation. Although our previous study demonstrated that increased expression of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in peripheral blood monocytes may alter the innate immune system and that long non‑coding (lnc)RNA uc.48+ was involved in diabetic neuropathic pain, the involvement of uc...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744272/antidiabetic-activity-of-mefloquine-via-glp-1-receptor-modulation-against-stz-na-induced-diabetes-in-albino-wistar-rats
#14
Rajnish Kumar Yadav, Jitendra K Rawat, Swetlana Gautam, Manjari Singh, Manish Kumar, Mohd Nazam Ansari, Subhadeep Roy, Abdulaziz S Saeedan, Gaurav Kaithwas
Mefloquine was retrieved as a glucagon -like peptide-1 receptor agonist and, therefore, evaluated for its antidiabetic potential against non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in experimental animals. NIDDM was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide (60 + 110 mg/kg) in albino wistar rats. The experimental animals were scrutinised for electrocardiographic (ECG) and heart rate variability (HRV) factors to study the autonomic dysfunction along with blood glucose, serum insulin, and liver glycogen levels for glycemic control...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742122/time-controlled-fasting-prevents-aging-like-mitochondrial-changes-induced-by-persistent-dietary-fat-overload-in-skeletal-muscle
#15
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Stefano Maria Cannata, Viviana Casagrande, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Katia Aquilano
A large body of evidence suggests that persistent dietary fat overload causes mitochondrial dysfunction and systemic metabolic gridlock. Mitochondrial and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle (SkM) are severely affected upon persistent high fat diet (HFD) leading to premature tissue aging. Here, we designed weekly cycles of fasting (called as time-controlled fasting, TCF) and showed that they were effective in limiting mitochondrial damage and metabolic disturbances induced by HFD. Specifically, TCF was able to prevent the decline of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl), maintain efficient mitochondrial respiration in SkM as well as improve blood glucose and lipid profile...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740907/enteric-glial-cell-activation-protects-enteric-neurons-from-damage-due-to-diabetes-in-part-via-the-promotion-of-neurotrophic-factor-release
#16
P Luo, D Liu, C Li, W-X He, C-L Zhang, M-J Chang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes can result in pathological changes to enteric nervous system. Our aim was to test the dynamic changes of enteric neurons and identify the role of enteric glial cells (EGCs) in regulating enteric neuron expression in diabetic rats. METHODS: A single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) was used to establish diabetic rats. Animals were randomly distributed into diabetic 1-, 4-, 8-, and 16-week groups, as well as age-matched control groups. The PGP9...
May 8, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736189/investigation-of-the-influence-of-high-glucose-on-molecular-and-genetic-responses-an-in-vitro-study-using-a-human-intestine-model
#17
Tugce Boztepe, Sukru Gulec
Background: Dietary glucose consumption has increased worldwide. Long-term high glucose intake contributes to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obese people tend to eat glucose-containing foods, which can lead to an addiction to glucose, increased glucose levels in the blood and intestine lumen, and exposure of intestinal enterocytes to high dietary glucose. Recent studies have documented a role for enterocytes in glucose sensing. However, the molecular and genetic relationship between high glucose levels and intestinal enterocytes has not been determined...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735963/acupuncture-combined-with-hydrotherapy-in-diabetes-patients-with-mild-lower-extremity-arterial-disease-a-prospective-randomized-nonblinded-clinical-study
#18
Zhengqin Qi, Yan Pang, Lin Lin, Bing Zhang, Juntao Shao, Xiaodong Liu, Xin Zhang
BACKGROUND The aim of this pragmatic study was to explore the intervention of acupuncture combined with hydrotherapy and perceived effects in type 2 diabetic patients with recently diagnosed, mild, lower-extremity arterial disease (LEAD) in comparison with a control group. MATERIAL AND METHODS One hundred twenty-six diabetes patients who were diagnosed mild LEAD according to ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABPI) and peripheral neuropathy symptom were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=64) or control group (n=62)...
May 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735945/hypouricemic-effect-of-2-5-dihydroxyacetophenone-a-computational-screened-bioactive-compound-from-ganoderma-applanatum-on-hyperuricemic-mice
#19
Danling Liang, Tianqiao Yong, Shaodan Chen, Yizhen Xie, Diling Chen, Xinxin Zhou, Dan Li, Muxia Li, Lu Su, Dan Zuo
Searching novel hypouricemic agents of high efficacy and safety has attracted a great attention. Previously, we reported the hypouricemic effect of Ganoderma applanatum , but its bioactives, was not referred. Herein, we report the hypouricemic effect of 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP), a compound screened from Ganoderma applanatum computationally. Serum parameters, such as uric acid (SUA), xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine were recorded. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot were exploited to assay RNA and protein expressions of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1), and gastrointestinal concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (CNT2)...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732743/regulation-of-autophagy-by-tea-polyphenols-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#20
Hui Zhou, Yan Chen, Shu-Wei Huang, Peng-Fei Hu, Li-Jiang Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of tea polyphenols on cardiac function in rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy, and the mechanism by which tea polyphenols regulate autophagy in diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups: a normal control group (NC), an obesity group (OB), a diabetic cardiomyopathy group (DCM), a tea polyphenol group (TP), an obesity tea polyphenol treatment group (OB-TP), and a diabetic cardiomyopathy tea polyphenol treatment group (DCM-TP)...
May 2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
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