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Blood glucose regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329747/influence-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitor-sitagliptin-on-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinases-1-2-signaling-in-rats-with-diabetic-nephropathy
#1
Xiaojun Ren, Gaohong Liu, Yanhong Wang, Wan Zhang, Fuping Xue, Rongshan Li, Weimin Yu
The protective effects of sitagliptin on the kidneys of rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and its influence on extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling were investigated. Male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly assigned to normal control, DN, low-dose sitagliptin intervention (ST1), or high-dose sitagliptin intervention (ST2) groups. Animals were euthanized after a 16-week treatment, and blood glucose (BG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), urinary albumin excretion rate (AER), serum creatinine (Scr), creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels, kidney hypertrophy index, and renal pathohistology were determined...
March 23, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329397/resveratrol-improves-vascular-function-and-mitochondrial-number-but-not-glucose-metabolism-in-older-adults
#2
Rena M Pollack, Nir Barzilai, Valentin Anghel, Ameya S Kulkarni, Aaron Golden, Pilib O'Broin, David A Sinclair, Michael S Bonkowski, Alexander J Coleville, Danielle Powell, Sharon Kim, Ruin Moaddel, Daniel Stein, Kehao Zhang, Meredith Hawkins, Jill P Crandall
Background: Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, has been reported to improve glucose metabolism and vascular function and to extend life span in animal models, but studies in humans have been inconclusive. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, we treated older glucose-intolerant adults (n = 30) with resveratrol (2-3 g/daily) or placebo, each for 6 weeks. A standard mixed-meal test was used to assess insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and secretion (C-peptide deconvolution) and vascular function by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry...
March 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325823/video-conferences-preceded-by-uploading-of-measurements-as-add-on-to-standard-care-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-not-responding-to-standard-regimens-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Caroline Raun Hansen, Hans Perrild, Birgitte Gade Koefoed, Mette Zander
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether video consultations preceded by measurements of blood glucose, weight and blood pressure as add-on to standard care could contribute to achieving and maintaining good diabetes control among patients with poorly regulated type 2 diabetes (T2D). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: 165 patients with T2D were randomized 1:1 to telemedicine intervention as add-on to clinic based care or control (clinic based care)...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325479/the-role-of-pancreatic-preproglucagon-in-glucose-homeostasis-in-mice
#4
Adam P Chambers, Joyce E Sorrell, April Haller, Karen Roelofs, Chelsea R Hutch, Ki-Suk Kim, Ruth Gutierrez-Aguilar, Bailing Li, Daniel J Drucker, David A D'Alessio, Randy J Seeley, Darleen A Sandoval
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is necessary for normal gluco-regulation, and it has been widely presumed that this function reflects the actions of GLP-1 released from enteroendocrine L cells. To test the relative importance of intestinal versus pancreatic sources of GLP-1 for physiological regulation of glucose, we administered a GLP-1R antagonist, exendin-[9-39] (Ex9), to mice with tissue-specific reactivation of the preproglucagon gene (Gcg). Ex9 impaired glucose tolerance in wild-type mice but had no impact on Gcg-null or GLP-1R KO mice, suggesting that Ex9 is a true and specific GLP-1R antagonist...
March 9, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325338/physicochemical-properties-and-antidiabetic-effects-of-a-polysaccharide-from-corn-silk-in-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#5
Yuxiang Pan, Cong Wang, Zhongqin Chen, Weiwei Li, Guoqi Yuan, Haixia Chen
This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and antidiabetic effects of a polysaccharide obtained from corn silk (PCS2). PCS2 was isolated and the physicochemical properties were characterized. The hypoglycemic effects were determined using the high-fat diet and streptozocin induced type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) insulin resistance mice. The results showed that PCS2 was a heteropolysaccharide with the average molecular weight of 45.5kDa. PCS2 was composed of d-galactose, d-mannose, d-(+)-glucose, d-(+)-xylose, l-arabinose and l-rhamnose...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322845/metformin-like-antidiabetic-cardio-protective-and-non-glycemic-effects-of-naringenin-molecular-and-pharmacological-insights
#6
REVIEW
Annah Nsoaki Nyane, Thabiso Bethwel Tlaila, Tanki Gabriel Malefane, Dudu Edith Ndwandwe, Peter Mark Oroma Owira
Metformin is a widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Its blood glucose-lowering effects are initially due to inhibition of hepatic glucose production and increased peripheral glucose utilization. Metformin has also been shown to have several beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and it is the only oral antihyperglycaemic agent thus far associated with decreased macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes. Adenosine Monophosphate Activated-Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a major cellular regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321233/heterogeneity-of-the-pancreatic-beta-cell
#7
REVIEW
Giselle Dominguez Gutierrez, Jesper Gromada, Lori Sussel
The pancreatic beta cell functions as a key regulator of blood glucose levels by integrating a variety of signals in response to changing metabolic demands. Variations in beta cell identity that translate into functionally different subpopulations represent an interesting mechanism to allow beta cells to efficiently respond to diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Recently, there is emerging evidence that morphological and functional differences between beta cells exist. Furthermore, the ability of novel single cell technologies to characterize the molecular identity of individual beta cells has created a new era in the beta cell field...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318397/baiba-does-not-regulate-ucp-3-expression-in-human-skeletal-muscle-as-a-response-to-aerobic-exercise
#8
Flor E Morales, Jeffrey S Forsse, Thomas L Andre, Sarah K McKinley-Barnard, Paul S Hwang, Ian G Anthony, Grant M Tinsley, Mike Spillane, Peter W Grandjean, Alejandro Ramirez, Darryn S Willoughby
OBJECTIVE: β-Aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) has shown to modulate uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 expression, which is mainly expressed in white adipose tissue; however, no studies to date have analyzed its potential effect on the main uncoupling protein of skeletal muscle, UCP-3. The main goal of this study was to assess the potential effect of acute aerobic exercise on serum BAIBA and skeletal muscle UCP-3. The secondary goal was to assess the potential involvement of the transcription factors proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), as well as free fatty acids (FFAs) in UCP-3 expression...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318100/abrogation-of-red-blood-cell-g6pd-enzyme-activity-through-heat-treatment-development-of-survey-material-for-the-uk-neqas-g6pd-scheme
#9
D R Roper, B De la Salle, V Soni, K Fletcher, J A Green
INTRODUCTION: Participation in external quality assessment (EQA) is central to the maintenance of high-quality laboratory results in patient diagnosis and clinical trials. Laboratories in the TAF112582 DETECTIVE study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01376167) are enrolled in the United Kingdom National Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) quantitative assay, which utilizes ovine (sheep) blood as a readily available source of apparently G6PD-deficient survey material...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316059/prevention-of-tumour-cell-apoptosis-associated-with-sustained-protein-kinase-b-phosphorylation-is-more-sensitive-to-regulation-by-insulin-signalling-than-stimulation-of-proliferation-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase
#10
Christoph Schmid, Claudia Ghirlanda, Markus Niessen
Insulin controls blood glucose while insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 is an important growth factor. Interestingly, both hormones have overlapping bioactivities and can activate the same intracellular signal transduction cascades. Growth control (mainly by IGF1) and metabolic function (predominantly by insulin) are believed to depend on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), respectively. Therefore, insulin analogues that are used to normalize blood glucose are tested for their ability to preferentially activate Akt/PKB but not ERK1/2 and mitogenesis...
March 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314104/ginsenoside-re-ameliorates-brain-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-induced-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Jong Min Kim, Chang Hyeon Park, Seon Kyeong Park, Tae Wan Seung, Jin Yong Kang, Jeong Su Ha, Du Sang Lee, Uk Lee, Dae Ok Kim, Ho Jin Heo
The ameliorating effects of ginsenoside Re (G Re) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice were investigated to assess its physiological function. In the results of behavioral tests, G Re improved cognitive dysfunction on diabetic mice using Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. G Re also significantly recovered hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose level. In the results of serum analysis, G Re decreased triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCHO), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and increased the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314100/attenuated-mtor-signaling-and-enhanced-glucose-homeostasis-by-dietary-supplementation-with-lotus-seedpod-oligomeric-procyanidins-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-mice
#12
Xiaopeng Li, Yong Sui, Qian Wu, Bijun Xie, Zhida Sun
This study investigated the protective role of lotus seedpod oligomeric procyanidins (LSOPC) and synbiotics (Bifidobacterium Bb-12 and xylo-oligosaccharide) against high fat and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Administration of LSOPC or synbiotics have no effect on blood glucose in normal mice. Treatments with LSOPC for 12 weeks markedly reduced blood glucose, FFA, endotoxin, GHbA1c and improved glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and insulin level. In addition, administration of LSOPC significantly reversed the increase of mTOR and p66Shc in liver, skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303637/plasma-sfrp5-levels-correlate-with-determinants-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-chinese-adults
#13
Qiuyan Li, Hongyan Wang, Jinzhi Wang, Yeurui Lai, Lin Gao, Lu Lei, Gangyi Yang, Xin Liao, Xia Fang, Hua Liu, Ling Li
BACKGROUND: Secreted frizzled-related protein-5 (Sfrp5) is a novel adipokine and it has been found to link insulin resistance (IR) with diabetes. Animal studies have revealed the role of Sfrp5 in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Sfrp5 and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: We conducted a series of cross-sectional studies of Chinese population including 194 control subjects and 90 MetS patients...
March 16, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303501/isoflurane-postconditioning-inhibits-tpa-induced-matrix-metalloproteinases-activation-after-hypoxic-injury-via-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-pathway
#14
So Yeon Kim, So Yeong Cheon, Eun Jung Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Eun Hee Kam, Jeong Min Kim, Miran Park, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only recommended pharmacological treatment for acute ischemic stroke. However, tPA can induce intracerebral hemorrhage by blood-brain barrier breakdown through an increase in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Previously, we showed that isoflurane postconditioning reduced intracranial hemorrhage following tPA treatment after cerebral ischemia. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which isoflurane postconditioning reduces tPA-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in brain endothelial cells...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301500/circulating-progenitor-cells-in-hypertensive-subjects-effectiveness-of-a-treatment-with-olmesartan-in-improving-cell-number-and-mir-profile-in-addition-to-expected-pharmacological-effects
#15
Giuseppe Mandraffino, Caterina Oriana Aragona, Valentina Cairo, Michele Scuruchi, Alberto Lo Gullo, Angela D'Ascola, Angela Alibrandi, Saverio Loddo, Sebastiano Quartuccio, Carmela Morace, Enricomaria Mormina, Giorgio Basile, Antonino Saitta, Egidio Imbalzano
CD34+ circulating progenitor cells (CD34+CPCs) are a population of multipotent cells which can delay the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in conditions of increased CV risk. MicroRNAs (miRs) 221 and 222 modulate different genes regulating angiogenesis and inflammation; moreover, miR221/22 have beenshown to participate in differentiation and proliferation of CD34+CPCs, inhibiting cell migration and homing. miR221/222 in CD34+CPCs from hypertensive subjects are also increased and associated with CD34+cell number and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299379/effects-of-hepatic-glycogen-on-food-intake-and-glucose-homeostasis-are-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-mice
#16
Iliana López-Soldado, Rebeca Fuentes-Romero, Jordi Duran, Joan J Guinovart
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Liver glycogen plays a key role in regulating food intake and blood glucose. Mice that accumulate large amounts of this polysaccharide in the liver are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by reduced food intake. Furthermore, these animals show reversal of the glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia caused by the HFD. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve in regulating food intake and glucose homeostasis in this model...
March 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298900/the-impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-management-of-hypoglycemic-events
#17
REVIEW
Mahmoud Attia Mohamed Kassem, Michael Andrew Durda, Nicoleta Stoicea, Omer Cavus, Levent Sahin, Barbara Rogers
Recent studies discussed the benefit of bariatric surgery on obese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several factors play an essential role in predicting the impact of bariatric surgery on T2DM, such as ABCD score (age, BMI, C-peptide, and duration of the disease), HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose, incretins [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)]. DiaRem score known to include factors such as age, HbA1c, medication, and insulin usage used to predict the remission of T2DM, but it has some limitations...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297731/does-the-access-to-sun-exposure-ensure-adequate-levels-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d
#18
Ênio Luis Damaso, Francisco José Albuquerque de Paula, Silvio Antônio Franceschini, Carolina Sales Vieira, Rui Alberto Ferriani, Marcos Felipe Silva de Sá, Lucia Alves da Silva Lara
Objectives To assess the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, altered arterial blood pressure, and serum levels of glucose and lipids in community-dwelling women in the city of Ribeirão Preto, in the southeast of Brazil. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of women aged 40-70 years old. Calcium intake and level of sun exposure were assessed by means of a questionnaire. A blood sample was used to determine glucose, lipid profile and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration. Results Ninety-one women were enrolled (age = 54...
March 15, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297678/roles-for-cell-cell-adhesion-and-contact-in-obesity-induced-hepatic-myeloid-cell-accumulation-and-glucose-intolerance
#19
Yasutaka Miyachi, Kyoichiro Tsuchiya, Chikara Komiya, Kumiko Shiba, Noriko Shimazu, Shinobu Yamaguchi, Michiyo Deushi, Mizuko Osaka, Kouji Inoue, Yuta Sato, Sayaka Matsumoto, Junichi Kikuta, Kenjiro Wake, Masayuki Yoshida, Masaru Ishii, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Obesity promotes infiltration of inflammatory cells into various tissues, leading to parenchymal and stromal cell interaction and development of cellular and organ dysfunction. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are the first cells that contact portal blood cells and substances in the liver, but their functions in the development of obesity-associated glucose metabolism remain unclear. Here, we find that LSECs are involved in obesity-associated accumulation of myeloid cells via VLA-4-dependent cell-cell adhesion...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295356/red-blood-cell-metabolic-responses-to-refrigerated-storage-rejuvenation-and-frozen-storage
#20
Angelo D'Alessandro, Alan D Gray, Zbignew M Sczcepiorkowski, Kirk Hansen, Louise H Herschel, Larry J Dumont
BACKGROUND: Storage of red blood cells (RBCs) under blood bank conditions promotes metabolic modulation within the RBC. This "metabolic storage lesion" may affect the quality and safety of the transfused RBCs. The aim of this study is to determine the metabolic changes in stored RBCs over 42 days of routine storage followed by a US Food and Drug Administration-approved method of rejuvenation, freezing, and preparation for transfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We exploited a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach to monitor 42-day-stored citrate phosphate dextrose/AS-1 RBCs (n = 29) that were rejuvenated, glycerolized and frozen, then thawed and deglycerolized, and held for 24 hours at 1 to 6ºC in saline-glucose...
March 10, 2017: Transfusion
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