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Blood glucose regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433617/induced-and-controlled-dietary-ketosis-as-a-regulator-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-pathologies
#1
Madeline K Gibas, Kelly J Gibas
A worsening epidemic of diabetes and its precursor, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is engulfing America. A healthy individual, with proper glucose regulation has an ability to switch between burning fat and carbohydrates. It has been suggested that signaling errors within this homeostatic system, characterized by impaired switching of substrate oxidation from glucose to fat in response to insulin, can contribute to the etiology of metabolic syndrome and occurs before the development of type II diabetes. Glucose regulation with restored insulin sensitivity facilitated through clinically regulated, benign dietary ketosis (BDK), may significantly reduce, regulate and reverse the adverse pathologies common to MetS and obesity...
March 28, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433470/daily-supplementation-of-dietary-protein-improves-the-metabolic-effects-of-glp-1-based-pharmacotherapy-in-lean-and-obese-rats
#2
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, Lauren E McGrath, Joanna Krawczyk, Tram Pham, Rinzin Lhamo, David J Reiner, Matthew R Hayes
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and reduce feeding. Specific macronutrients, when ingested, may trigger GLP-1 secretion and enhance the effects of systemic sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (an enzyme that rapidly degrades GLP-1). In particular, macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1, and acute preclinical trials show that ingestion of dairy protein may represent a promising adjunct behavioral therapy in combination with sitagliptin...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431964/microvillus-specific-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-sap-1-plays-a-role-in-regulating-the-intestinal-paracellular-transport-of-macromolecules
#3
Shingo Mori, Noriyasu Kamei, Yoji Murata, Kozo Takayama, Takashi Matozaki, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
The stomach cancer associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 is known to maintain the balance of phosphorylation of proteins together with protein kinases, however, its biological function and impact on pharmacokinetics in the intestine remain unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed to clarify the relationship between SAP-1 and the intestinal absorption behaviors of typical transporter substrates and macromolecules...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431559/effects-of-whole-grain-rye-with-and-without-resistant-starch-type-2-supplementation-on-glucose-tolerance-gut-hormones-inflammation-and-appetite-regulation-in-an-11-14-5%C3%A2-hour-perspective-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Jonna C Sandberg, Inger M E Björck, Anne C Nilsson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation...
April 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431322/xanthohumol-and-8-prenylnaringenin-ameliorate-diabetic-related-metabolic-dysfunctions-in-mice
#5
Raquel Costa, Ilda Rodrigues, Luísa Guardão, Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Carolina Silva, José Magalhães, Manuel Ferreira-de-Almeida, Rita Negrão, Raquel Soares
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disturbances in specific tissues. The present work aimed to analyze the effects of xanthohumol (XN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN), two beer-derived polyphenols, in liver and skeletal muscle lipid and glycolytic metabolism in T2DM mice model. Thirty C57Bl/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: standard diet (control), high-fat diet (DM), high-fat diet plus ethanol (DM-Ethanol), high-fat diet plus 10 mg/L XN (DM-XN) and high-fat diet plus 10 mg/L 8PN (DM-8PN) during 20 weeks...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431319/response-of-plasma-glucagon-like-peptide-2-to-feeding-pattern-and-intraruminal-administration-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-sheep
#6
M Elsabagh, Y Inabu, T Obitsu, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a gut peptide secreted by enteroendocrine L cells, has recently been identified as a key regulator of intestinal growth and absorptive function in ruminants. However, reports on GLP-2 secretion are few, and more information regarding its secretion dynamics is needed. In this study, two experiments were conducted to elucidate the daily rhythm of GLP-2 secretion in response to feeding regimen and to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on GLP-2 release in sheep...
March 11, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430981/central-nervous-system-glp-1-receptors-regulate-islet-hormone-secretion-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#7
Lene Jessen, Eric P Smith, Yvonne Ulrich-Lai, James P Herman, Randy J Seeley, Darleen Sandoval, David D'Alessio
The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) system plays an important role in blood glucose regulation, in great part through coordinate control of insulin and glucagon secretion. These effects are generally attributed to GLP-1 produced in peripheral sites, principally the intestine. GLP-1 is also produced in hindbrain neurons that signal through GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1r) expressed in brain regions involved in metabolic regulation. GLP-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) induces satiety, visceral illness, and stress responses...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430937/high-sugar-but-not-high-fat-food-activates-supraoptic-oxytocin-neurones-in-the-male-rat
#8
Catherine Hume, Nancy Sabatier, John Menzies
Oxytocin is a potent anorexigen and is believed to have a role in satiety signalling. We developed rat models to study the activity of oxytocin neurones in response to voluntary consumption or oral gavage of foods using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and in vivo electrophysiology.Using c-Fos expression as an indirect marker of neural activation, we showed that the percentage of magnocellular oxytocin neurones expressing c-Fos increased with voluntary consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM). To model the effect of food in the stomach, we gavaged anaesthetised rats with SCM...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429854/application-of-3c-insulin-pump-system-in-combination-with-non-invasive-ventilation-in-the-treatment-of-a-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#9
Peng Dong, Jing Xu, Junhong Wang, Chunhong Zhang
We observed the curative effect of 3C insulin system in combination with non-invasive ventilation in a patient with type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). 3C insulin pump is a system of devices that closely monitors and effectively regulates blood glucose levels. Non-invasive ventilation has been shown to be an effective treatment for OSAS. A type 2 diabetic patient with concomitant OSAS was treated with a 3C insulin pump system for real-time continuous glucose monitoring and nocturnal non-invasive ventilation for OSAS...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428745/decreased-levels-of-foldase-and-chaperone-proteins-are-associated-with-an-early-onset-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Melania Filareti, Silvia Luotti, Laura Pasetto, Mauro Pignataro, Katia Paolella, Paolo Messina, Elisabetta Pupillo, Massimiliano Filosto, Christian Lunetta, Jessica Mandrioli, Giuseppe Fuda, Andrea Calvo, Adriano Chiò, Massimo Corbo, Caterina Bendotti, Ettore Beghi, Valentina Bonetto
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive upper and lower motor neuron degeneration. One of the peculiar clinical characteristics of ALS is the wide distribution in age of onset, which is probably caused by different combinations of intrinsic and exogenous factors. We investigated whether these modifying factors are converging into common pathogenic pathways leading either to an early or a late disease onset. This would imply the identification of phenotypic biomarkers, that can distinguish the two populations of ALS patients, and of relevant pathways to consider in a therapeutic intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428736/simple-sugar-supplementation-abrogates-exercise-induced-increase-in-hepcidin-in-young-men
#11
Maja Tomczyk, Jakub Kortas, Damian Flis, Wojciech Skrobot, Rafal Camilleri, Jedrzej Antosiewicz
BACKGROUND: At present many young people experience too much body iron accumulation. The reason of this phenomenon is not clear. There is accumulating evidences that not proper diet and lack of exercise could be a main contributing factors. This investigation assessed the effects of a diet rich in simple sugars (glucose or fructose) on exercise-induced hepcidin which is hormone regulating iron metabolism. METHODS: A group of physically active young men completed an incremental exercise test before and after a 3-day diet supplemented with fructose (4 g/kg BM) or glucose (4 g/kg BM)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427040/cortex-mori-radicis-extract-attenuates-myocardial-damages-in-diabetic-rats-by-regulating-ers
#12
Jiangfang Lian, Jiayuan Chen, Yanyan Yuan, Jiayi Chen, M Daud M Sayed, Lin Luo, Yabing Zhu, Song Li, Shizhong Bu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is diagnosed when patients with diabetes develop ventricular dysfunction but do not exhibit coronary atherosclerosis or hypertension. Cortex Mori (CM) Radicis,he epidermis of the root of Morus alba L, has been traditionally used for cough treatment in oriental medicine. In this study, we investigated the protection of myocardium by CM in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the underlying mechanisms. Diabetes was induced in rats by an injection of STZ at 25mg/kg. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes, diabetes with CM treatment, diabetes with CM preventative treatment...
April 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423886/adiponectin-induced-ampk-impairment-mediates-insulin-resistance-in-bama-mini-pig-fed-high-fat-and-high-sucrose-diet
#13
Miaomiao Niu, Lei Xiang, Yaqian Liu, Yuqiong Zhao, Jifang Yuan, Xin Dai, Hua Chen
Objective: Adipose tissue is no longer considered as an inert storage organ for lipid, but instead is thought to play an active role in regulating insulin effects via secretion adipokines. However, conflicting reports have emerged regarding the effects of adipokines. In this study, we investigated the role of adipokines in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese Bama mini-pigs. Methods: An obesity model was established in Bama mini-pigs, by feeding with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 30 weeks...
March 25, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423529/pif-promotes-brain-re-myelination-locally-while-regulating-systemic-inflammation-clinically-relevant-multiple-sclerosis-m-smegmatis-model
#14
Giuseppe Migliara, Martin Mueller, Alessia Piermattei, Chaya Brodie, Michael J Paidas, Eytan R Barnea, Francesco Ria
Neurologic disease diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease with few clinical forms and uncertain etiology. Current studies suggest that it is likely caused by infection(s) triggering a systemic immune response resulting in antigen/non-antigen-related autoimmune response in central nervous system (CNS). New therapeutic approaches are needed. Secreted by viable embryos, PreImplantation Factor (PIF) possesses a local and systemic immunity regulatory role...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422749/obesity-induced-hepatic-steatosis-is-mediated-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-the-subfornical-organ-of-the-brain
#15
Julie A Horwath, Chansol Hurr, Scott D Butler, Mallikarjun Guruju, Martin D Cassell, Allyn L Mark, Robin L Davisson, Colin N Young
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by an excess accumulation of hepatic triglycerides, is a growing health epidemic. While ER stress in the liver has been implicated in the development of NAFLD, the role of brain ER stress - which is emerging as a key contributor to a number of chronic diseases including obesity - in NAFLD remains unclear. These studies reveal that chemical induction of ER stress in the brain caused hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis in mice. Conversely, pharmacological reductions in brain ER stress in diet-induced obese mice rescued NAFLD independent of body weight, food intake, and adiposity...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422052/folic-acid-reduces-tau-phosphorylation-by-regulating-pp2a-methylation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#16
Miaoyan Zheng, Chen Zou, Mengyue Li, Guowei Huang, Yuxia Gao, Huan Liu
High incidence rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau are the hallmarks of AD. Hyperphosphorylated tau has been detected in diabetic animals as well as in diabetic patients. Folates mediate the transfer of one carbon unit, required in various biochemical reactions. The effect of folate on tau phosphorylation in diabetic models still remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of folic acid on hyperphosphorylation of tau in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420858/transcriptional-regulation-of-pancreas-development-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-review
#17
Yoshio Fujitani
A small number of cells in the adult pancreas are endocrine cells. They are arranged in clusters called islets of Langerhans. The islets make insulin, glucagon, and other endocrine hormones, and release them into the blood circulation. These hormones help control the level of blood glucose. Therefore, a dysfunction of endocrine cells in the pancreas results in impaired glucose homeostasis, or diabetes mellitus. The pancreas is an organ that originates from the evaginations of pancreatic progenitor cells in the epithelium of the forgut endoderm...
April 14, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420715/role-of-soluble-and-membrane-bound-dipeptidylpeptidase-4-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#18
Ahmed A Hasan, Berthold Hocher
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent, devastating, and costly complications of diabetes. The available therapeutic approaches are limited. Dipeptidyl peptidase type 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors represent a new class of glucose-lowering drugs that might have in addition reno-protective properties. DPP-4 exists in two forms: a plasma membrane-bound form and a soluble form, and can exert many biological actions mainly through its peptidase activity and interaction with extracellular matrix components. The kidneys have the highest DPP-4 expression level in mammalians...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417297/regulation-of-the-glucose-supply-from-capillary-to-tissue-examined-by-developing-a-capillary-model
#19
Akitoshi Maeda, Yukiko Himeno, Masayuki Ikebuchi, Akinori Noma, Akira Amano
A new glucose transport model relying upon diffusion and convection across the capillary membrane was developed, and supplemented with tissue space and lymph flow. The rate of glucose utilization (J util) in the tissue space was described as a saturation function of glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (C glu,isf), and was varied by applying a scaling factor f to J max. With f = 0, the glucose diffusion ceased within ~20 min. While, with increasing f, the diffusion was accelerated through a decrease in C glu,isf, but the convective flux remained close to resting level...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414056/protective-effects-of-glycyrrhizic-acid-against-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#20
Xue Sun, Xingping Duan, Changyuan Wang, Zhihao Liu, Pengyuan Sun, Xiaokui Huo, Xiaodong Ma, Huijun Sun, Kexin Liu, Qiang Meng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a predictive factor of death from many diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene glycoside, on NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, and further to elucidate the mechanisms underlying GA protection. GA treatment significantly reduced the relative liver weight, serum ALT, AST activities, levels of serum lipid, blood glucose and insulin. GA suppressed lipid accumulation in liver...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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