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Brain glucose metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543565/lactate-supplementation-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injured-adults-by-primed-constant-infusion-of-sodium-l-lactate
#1
Stephanie M Wolahan, Howard C Mao, Courtney Real, Paul M Vespa, Thomas C Glenn
Carbohydrate fuel augmentation following traumatic brain injury may be a viable treatment to improve recovery when cerebral oxidative metabolism of glucose is depressed. We performed a primed constant sodium L-lactate infusion in 11 moderate to severely brain injured adults. Blood was collected before and periodically during the infusion study. We quantified global cerebral uptake of glucose and lactate and other systemic metabolites associated with energy metabolism. Our hypothesis was that cerebral lactate uptake, as measured by the arteriovenous difference of lactate (AVDlac), would increase in severely injured TBI patients in the neurocritical care unit...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539708/assessment-of-mexican-arnica-heterotheca-inuloides-cass-and-rosemary-rosmarinus-officinalis-extracts-on-dopamine-and-selected-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-stomach-and-brain-of-salmonella-typhimurium-infected-rats
#2
David Calderón Guzmàn, Maribel Ortiz Herrera, Norma Osnaya Brizuela, Gerardo Barragàn Mejía, Ernestina Hernàndez García, Hugo Juàrez Olguín, Armando Valenzuela Peraza, Norma Labra Ruíz, Daniel Santamaría Del Angel
BACKGROUND: The effects of some natural products on dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) in brain of infected models are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Mexican arnica/rosemary (MAR) water extract and oseltamivir on both biogenic amines and some oxidative biomarkers in the brain and stomach of young rats under infection condition. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (weight 80 g) in the presence of MAR or absence (no-MAR) were treated as follows: group 1, buffer solution (controls); oseltamivir (100 mg/kg), group 2; culture of Salmonella typhimurium (S...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534658/dynamic-brain-glucose-metabolism-identifies-anti-correlated-cortical-cerebellar-networks-at-rest
#3
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Corinde E Wiers, Sunny W Kim, Şukru B Demiral, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
It remains unclear whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) networks are associated with underlying synchrony in energy demand, as measured by dynamic 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoroglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We measured absolute glucose metabolism, temporal metabolic connectivity (t-MC) and rfMRI patterns in 53 healthy participants at rest. Twenty-two rfMRI networks emerged from group independent component analysis (gICA). In contrast, only two anti-correlated t-MC emerged from FDG-PET time series using gICA or seed-voxel correlations; one included frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, the other included the cerebellum and medial temporal regions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528968/amylin-and-its-g-protein-coupled-receptor-a-probable-pathological-process-and-drug-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Wei Qiao Qiu
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are shown to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, because GPCRs include a large family of membrane receptors, it is unclear which specific GPCR or pathway with rational ligands can become effective therapeutic targets for AD. Amylin receptor (AmR) is a GPCR that mediates several activities, such as improving glucose metabolism, relaxing cerebrovascular structure, modulating inflammatory reactions and potentially enhancing neural regeneration. Recent studies show that peripheral treatments with amylin or its clinical analog, pramlintide, reduced several components of AD pathology, including amyloid plaques, tauopathy, neuroinflammation and other components in the brain, corresponding with improved learning and memory in AD mouse models...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528772/early-interleukin-6-enhances-hepatic-ketogenesis-in-appswe-psen1de9-mice-via-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coa-synthase-2-signaling-activation-by-p38-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65
#5
Le Shi, Daina Zhao, Chen Hou, Yunhua Peng, Jing Liu, Shuangxi Zhang, Jiankang Liu, Jiangang Long
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered a multifactorial disease that affects the central nervous system and periphery. A decline in brain glucose metabolism is an early feature of AD and is accompanied by a phenotypic shift from aerobic glycolysis to ketogenesis. The liver is responsible for the generation of the ketone body. However, the mechanism that underlies hepatic ketogenesis in AD remains unclear. Here, we investigated hepatic ketogenesis during the early stage of AD pathogenesis in amyloid precursor protein (APPSWE) and presenilin (PSEN1dE9) (APP/PS1) mice...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526436/intracranial-il-17a-overexpression-decreases-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-by-upregulation-of-abca1-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Junling Yang, Jinghong Kou, Robert Lalonde, Ken-Ichiro Fukuchi
Neuroinflammation is a pervasive feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized by activated microglia, increased proinflammatory cytokines and/or infiltrating immune cells. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are found in AD brain parenchyma and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is identified around deposits of aggregated amyloid β protein (Aβ). However, the role of IL-17A in AD pathogenesis remains elusive. We overexpressed IL-17A in an AD mouse model via recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5)-mediated intracranial gene delivery...
May 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521669/ppars-in-neurodegenerative-and-neuroinflammatory-pathways
#7
E Benedetti, L Cristiano, A Antonosante, M d'Angelo, B D'Angelo, S Selli, V Castelli, R Ippoliti, A Giordano, A Cimini
PPARs are lipid sensors activate by dietary lipids or their metabolites, mainly fatty acids and eicosanoids , that play critical roles in CNS biology, since brain has a very high lipid content and has the higher energetic metabolism in the body. In neurodegenerative diseases in addition to metabolic impariment also neuroinflammation is observed and PPARs are also closely linked to inflammatory process. Several studies have revealed a complicated relationship between the innate immune response and tissue metabolism...
May 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515688/insulin-resistance-as-a-link-between-amyloid-beta-and-tau-pathologies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Roger J Mullins, Thomas C Diehl, Chee W Chia, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Current hypotheses and theories regarding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) heavily implicate brain insulin resistance (IR) as a key factor. Despite the many well-validated metrics for systemic IR, the absence of biomarkers for brain-specific IR represents a translational gap that has hindered its study in living humans. In our lab, we have been working to develop biomarkers that reflect the common mechanisms of brain IR and AD that may be used to follow their engagement by experimental treatments...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515149/pyruvate-kinase-inhibits-proliferation-during-postnatal-cerebellar-neurogenesis-and-suppresses-medulloblastoma-formation
#9
Katherine Tech, Andrey P Tikunov, Hamza Farooq, A Sorana Morrissy, Jessica Meidinger, Taylor Fish, Sarah C Green, Hedi Liu, Yisu Li, Andrew J Mungall, Richard A Moore, Yussanne Ma, Steven Jm Jones, Marco A Marra, Matthew G Vander Heiden, Michael D Taylor, Jeffrey MacDonald, Timothy R Gershon
Aerobic glycolysis supports proliferation through unresolved mechanisms. We have previously shown that aerobic glycolysis is required for the regulated proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (CGNPs), and for the growth of CGNP-derived medulloblastoma. Blocking the initiation of glycolysis via deletion of Hexokinase-2 (Hk2) disrupts CGNP proliferation and restricts medulloblastoma growth. Here, we assessed whether disrupting Pyruvate kinase-M (Pkm), an enzyme that acts in the terminal steps of glycolysis, would alter CGNP metabolism, proliferation and tumorigenesis...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512781/developmental-regulation-and-localization-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferases-cpts-in-rat-brain
#10
Jennifer N Jernberg, Caitlyn E Bowman, Michael J Wolfgang, Susanna Scafidi
While the brain's high energy demands are largely met by glucose, brain is also equipped with the ability to oxidize fatty acids for energy and metabolism. The brain expresses the carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPTs) that mediate carnitine-dependent entry of long-chain acyl-CoAs into the mitochondrial matrix for β-oxidation - CPT1a and CPT2 located on the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Their developmental profile, regional distribution and activity as well as cell type expression remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512448/the-potential-role-of-contraction-induced-myokines-in-the-regulation-of-metabolic-function-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Brian P Carson
Skeletal muscle represents the largest organ in the body, comprises 36-42% of body weight, and has recently been recognized as having an endocrine function. Proteins expressed and released by muscle that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine bioactivities have been termed myokines. It is likely that muscle contraction represents the primary stimulus for the synthesis and secretion of myokines to enable communication with other organs such as the liver, adipose tissue, brain, and auto-regulation of muscle metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506519/sodium-glucose-co-transporters-and-their-inhibition-clinical-physiology
#12
REVIEW
Ele Ferrannini
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) is selectively expressed in the human kidney, where it executes reabsorption of filtered glucose with a high capacity; it may be overactive in patients with diabetes, especially in the early, hyperfiltering stage of the disease. As a therapeutic target, SGLT2 has been successfully engaged by orally active, selective agents. Initially developed as antihyperglycemic drugs, SGLT2 inhibitors have deployed a range of in vivo actions. Consequences of their primary effect, i...
May 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503999/quantitative-assessment-of-brain-glucose-metabolic-rates-using-in%C3%A2-vivo-deuterium-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#13
Ming Lu, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang, Gheorghe Mateescu, Wei Chen
Quantitative assessment of cerebral glucose consumption rate (CMRglc) and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux (VTCA) is crucial for understanding neuroenergetics under physiopathological conditions. In this study, we report a novel in vivo Deuterium ((2)H) MRS (DMRS) approach for simultaneously measuring and quantifying CMRglc and VTCA in rat brains at 16.4 Tesla. Following a brief infusion of deuterated glucose, dynamic changes of isotope-labeled glucose, glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and water contents in the brain can be robustly monitored from their well-resolved (2)H resonances...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499851/effects-of-nutritional-history-on-stress-response-in-gibel-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-and-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides
#14
Danli Jiang, Yubo Wu, Di Huang, Xing Ren, Yan Wang
The stress response of omnivorous gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) with different nutritional history were evaluated. A 2×2 layout, including two fish species (gibel carp or largemouth bass) and two nutritional history (fasted or fed to satiation for four weeks), was used. After feeding or fasting, the fishes were subjected to an acute handling. Fasting resulted in decrease of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content of gibel carp and largemouth bass...
May 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499310/ellagic-acid-administration-negated-the-development-of-streptozotocin-induced-memory-deficit-in-rats
#15
Nitin Bansal, Pushplata Yadav, Manish Kumar
Rampant production of pro-oxidants and inadequate antioxidant availability in brain exert oxidative stress, which in synergism with impaired glucose metabolism and inflammation leads to neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Ellagic acid (EGA) is a phenolic compound present in various fruits and is reported to possess robust antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effect of EGA administration on streptozotocin (STZ) induced dementia in rats. Bilateral intracerebroventricle (ICV) injection of STZ (3 mg/kg) was given to Wistar rats (200 g) on day 1 and 3...
May 12, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498826/divergent-influences-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-domains-on-cognition-grey-and-white-matter-morphology
#16
Mitzi M Gonzales, Olusola Ajilore, Rebecca C Charlton, Jamie Cohen, Shaolin Yang, Erica Sieg, Dulal K Bhaumik, Anand Kumar, Melissa Lamar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity are associated with preclinical alterations in cognition and brain structure; however, this often comes from studies of comprehensive risk scores or single isolated factors. We examined associations of empirically-derived cardiovascular disease risk factor domains with cognition and brain structure. METHODS: 124 adults (age~59.8±13.1;41% African American;50% women) underwent neuropsychological and cardiovascular assessments and structural MRI...
January 16, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497464/in-vivo-proton-observed-carbon-edited-poce-13-c-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-the-rat-brain-using-a-volumetric-transmitter-and-receive-only-surface-coil-on-the-proton-channel
#17
Chathura Kumaragamage, Dan Madularu, Axel P Mathieu, Henk De Feyter, M Natasha Rajah, Jamie Near
PURPOSE: In vivo carbon-13 ((13) C) MR spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of measuring energy metabolism and neuroenergetics, noninvasively in the brain. Indirect ((1) H-[(13) C]) MRS provides sensitivity benefits compared with direct (13) C methods, and normally includes a (1) H surface coil for both localization and signal reception. The aim was to develop a coil platform with homogenous B1+ and use short conventional pulses for short echo time proton observed carbon edited (POCE) MRS. METHODS: A (1) H-[(13) C] MRS coil platform was designed with a volumetric resonator for (1) H transmit, and surface coils for (1) H reception and (13) C transmission...
May 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497340/glycogen-shunt-activity-and-glycolytic-supercompensation-in-astrocytes-may-be-distinctly-mediated-via-the-muscle-form-of-glycogen-phosphorylase
#18
Emil Jakobsen, Lasse K Bak, Anne B Walls, Ann-Kathrin Reuschlein, Arne Schousboe, Helle S Waagepetersen
Glycogen is the main storage form of glucose in the brain. In contrast with previous beliefs, brain glycogen has recently been shown to play important roles in several brain functions. A fraction of metabolized glucose molecules are being shunted through glycogen before reentering the glycolytic pathway, a phenomenon known as the glycogen shunt. The significance of glycogen in astrocyte energetics is underlined by high activity of the glycogen shunt and the finding that inhibition of glycogen degradation, under some conditions leads to a disproportional increase in glycolytic activity, so-called glycolytic supercompensation...
May 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495827/hyperbaric-oxygen-reduces-infarction-volume-and-hemorrhagic-transformation-through-atp-nad-sirt1-pathway-in-hyperglycemic-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-rats
#19
Qin Hu, Anatol Manaenko, Hetao Bian, Zongduo Guo, Jun-Long Huang, Zhen-Ni Guo, Peng Yang, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Energy depletion is a critical factor leading to cell death and brain dysfunction after ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated whether energy depletion is involved in hyperglycemia-induced hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke and determined the pathway underlying the beneficial effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). METHODS: After 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion, hyperglycemia was induced by injecting 50% dextrose (6 mL/kg) intraperitoneally at the onset of reperfusion...
May 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495374/metyrapone-prevents-brain-damage-induced-by-status-epilepticus-in-the-rat-lithium-pilocarpine-model
#20
Luis García-García, Ahmed A Shiha, Rubén Fernández de la Rosa, Mercedes Delgado, Ágata Silván, Pablo Bascuñana, Jens P Bankstahl, Francisca Gomez, Miguel A Pozo
The status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine is a well characterized rodent model of the human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) which is accompanied by severe brain damage. Stress and glucocorticoids markedly contribute to exacerbate neuronal damage induced by seizures but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein we sought to investigate whether a single administration of metyrapone (150 mg/kg, i.p.), an 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, enzyme involved in the peripheral and central synthesis of corticosteroids, had neuroprotective properties in this model...
May 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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