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Brain glucose metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346452/purine-synthesis-promotes-maintenance-of-brain-tumor-initiating-cells-in-glioma
#1
Xiuxing Wang, Kailin Yang, Qi Xie, Qiulian Wu, Stephen C Mack, Yu Shi, Leo J Y Kim, Briana C Prager, William A Flavahan, Xiaojing Liu, Meromit Singer, Christopher G Hubert, Tyler E Miller, Wenchao Zhou, Zhi Huang, Xiaoguang Fang, Aviv Regev, Mario L Suvà, Tae Hyun Hwang, Jason W Locasale, Shideng Bao, Jeremy N Rich
Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), also known as cancer stem cells, hijack high-affinity glucose uptake active normally in neurons to maintain energy demands. Here we link metabolic dysregulation in human BTICs to a nexus between MYC and de novo purine synthesis, mediating glucose-sustained anabolic metabolism. Inhibiting purine synthesis abrogated BTIC growth, self-renewal and in vivo tumor formation by depleting intracellular pools of purine nucleotides, supporting purine synthesis as a potential therapeutic point of fragility...
March 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345119/metabolism-of-mannose-in-cultured-primary-rat-neurons
#2
Wiebke Rastedt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Ralf Dringen
Glucose is the main peripheral substrate for energy production in the brain. However, as other hexoses are present in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, we have investigated whether neurons have the potential to metabolize, in addition to glucose, also the hexoses mannose, fructose or galactose. Incubation of primary cerebellar granule neurons in the absence of glucose caused severe cell toxicity within 24 h, which could not be prevented by application of galactose or fructose, while the cells remained viable during incubation in the presence of either mannose or glucose...
March 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344055/role-of-skeletal-muscle-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-systemic-energy-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Hirotoshi Tanaka, Noriaki Shimizu, Noritada Yoshikawa
Glucocorticoids (GCs) affect nearly every organ and tissue in the body, regulating diverse physiologic processes including energy homeostasis. The metabolic mission of GCs is to supply enough glucose into the circulation to fuel the brain and ensure survival of the organism under conditions of acute stress or starvation. Recent studies have revealed that GCs, via orchestration between multiple organs, physiologically elicit fine tuning of systemic energy metabolism.
March 24, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343573/metabolic-and-cellular-stress-responses-of-catfish-horabagrus-brachysoma-g%C3%A3-nther-acclimated-to-increasing-temperatures
#4
Rishikesh S Dalvi, Tilak Das, Dipesh Debnath, Sona Yengkokpam, Kartik Baruah, Lalchand R Tiwari, Asim K Pal
We investigated the metabolic and cellular stress responses in an endemic catfish Horabagrus brachysoma acclimated to ambient (26°C), 31, 33 and 36°C for 30 days. After acclimation, fish were sampled to investigate changes in the levels of blood glucose, tissue glycogen and ascorbic acid, activities of enzymes involved in glycolysis (LDH), citric acid cycle (MDH), gluconeogenesis (FBPase and G6Pase), pentose phosphate pathway (G6PDH), protein metabolism (AST and ALT), phosphate metabolism (ACP and ALP) and energy metabolism (ATPase), and HSP70 levels in various tissues...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342882/functional-neuroimaging-findings-in-healthy-middle-aged-adults-at-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Mirette Habib, Elijah Mak, Silvy Gabel, Li Su, Guy Williams, Adam Waldman, Katie Wells, Karen Ritchie, Craig Ritchie, John T O'Brien
It is well established that the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins many years before symptom onset. This preclinical phase provides a crucial time-window for therapeutic intervention, though this requires biomarkers that could evaluate the efficacy of future disease-modification treatments in asymptomatic individuals. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of studies characterizing the temporal sequence of the earliest functional and structural brain imaging changes in AD. These efforts have focused on studying individuals who are highly vulnerable to develop AD, such as those with familial genetic mutations, susceptibility genes (i...
March 22, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337257/subcutaneous-liraglutide-ameliorates-methylglyoxal-induced-alzheimer-like-tau-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-by-modulating-tau-hyperphosphorylation-and-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE
#6
Liqin Qi, Zhou Chen, Yanping Wang, Xiaoying Liu, Xiaohong Liu, Linfang Ke, Zhongjie Zheng, Xiaowei Lin, Yu Zhou, Lijuan Wu, Libin Liu
Memory deterioration and synapse damage with accumulation of β-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau are hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methylglyoxal (MG), a key intermediate of glucose metabolism, is elevated in AD brains and modifies Aβ42, increasing misfolding and leading to the accumulation of senile plaques. Liraglutide, an analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is neurotrophic and neuroprotective. However, whether liraglutide can protect against AD-like memory-related deficits and tau hyperphosphorylation caused by MG in vivo is not known...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336548/nutrient-sensing-by-absorptive-and-secretory-progenies-of-small-intestinal-stem-cells
#7
Kunihiro Kishida, Sarah C Pearce, Shiyan Yu, Nan Gao, Ronaldo P Ferraris
Nutrient sensing triggers responses by the gut-brain axis modulating hormone release, feeding behavior and metabolism that become dysregulated in metabolic syndrome and some cancers. Except for absorptive enterocytes and secretory enteroendocrine cells, the ability of many intestinal cell types to sense nutrients is still unknown, hence we hypothesized that progenitor stem cells (ISC) possess nutrient sensing ability inherited by progenies during differentiation. We directed via modulators of Wnt and Notch signaling, differentiation of precursor mouse intestinal crypts into specialized organoids each containing ISC, enterocyte, goblet or Paneth cells at relative proportions much higher than in situ as determined by mRNA expression and immunocytochemistry of cell type biomarkers...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336086/incretin-hormones-regulate-microglia-oxidative-stress-survival-and-expression-of-trophic-factors
#8
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are primarily known for their metabolic function in the periphery. GLP-1 and GIP are secreted by intestinal endocrine cells in response to ingested nutrients. Both GLP-1 and GIP stimulate the production and release of insulin from pancreatic β cells as well as exhibit several growth-regulating effects on peripheral tissues. GLP-1 and GIP are also present in the brain, where they provide modulatory and anti-apoptotic signals to neurons...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333388/central-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis
#9
Alexander Tups, Jonas Benzler, Domenico Sergi, Sharon R Ladyman, Lynda M Williams
The ability of the brain to directly control glucose levels in the blood independently of its effects on food intake and body weight has been known ever since 1854 when Claude Bernard, a French physiologist, discovered that lesioning the floor of the fourth ventricle in rabbits led to a rise of sugar in the blood. Despite this outstanding discovery at that time, it took more than 140 years before progress started to be made in identifying the underlying mechanisms of brain-mediated control of glucose homeostasis...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327992/cyst-fluid-from-cystic-malignant-brain-tumors-a-reservoir-of-nutrients-including-growth-factor-like-nutrients-for-tumor-cells
#10
Daniel Dahlberg, Eduard A Struys, Erwin E Jansen, Lars Mørkrid, Øivind Midttun, Bjørnar Hassel
BACKGROUND: Brain tumors may have cysts, whose content of nutrients could influence tumor cell microenvironment and growth. OBJECTIVE: To measure nutrients in cyst fluid from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastatic brain tumors. METHODS: Quantification of nutrients in cyst fluid from 12 to 18 GBMs and 4 to 10 metastatic brain tumors. RESULTS: GBM cysts contained glucose at 2.2 mmol/L (median value; range <0.8-3...
January 25, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324109/sex-specific-life-course-changes-in-the-neuro-metabolic-phenotype-of-glut3-null-heterozygous-mice-ketogenic-diet-ameliorates-electroencephalographic-seizures-and-improves-sociability
#11
Yun Dai, Yuanzi Zhao, Masatoshi Tomi, Bo-Chul Shin, Shanthie Thamotharan, Andrey Mazarati, Raman Sankar, Elizabeth A Wang, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Jingjing Zhang, Andrew Frew, Jeffry R Alger, Peter Clark, Monica Sondhi, Sudatip Kositamongkol, Leah Leibovitch, Sherin U Devaskar
We tested the hypothesis that exposure of glut3+/- mice to a ketogenic diet ameliorates autism-like features which includes aberrant behavior and electrographic seizures. We first investigated the life course sex-specific changes in basal plasma-CSF-brain metabolic profile, brain glucose transport/uptake, glucose and monocarboxylate transporter proteins, and ATP in the presence or absence of systemic insulin administration. Glut3+/- male but not female mice (5m of age) displayed reduced CSF glucose/lactate concentrations with no change in brain Glut1, Mct2, glucose uptake or ATP...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322077/enteral-nutrition-increases-interstitial-brain-glucose-levels-in-poor-grade-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-patients
#12
Mario Kofler, Alois J Schiefecker, Ronny Beer, Maxime Gaasch, Paul Rhomberg, John Stover, Bettina Pfausler, Claudius Thomé, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322026/objective-3d-surface-evaluation-of-intracranial-electrophysiologic-correlates-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-abnormalities-in-children-with-focal-epilepsy
#13
Jeong-Won Jeong, Eishi Asano, Vinod Kumar Pilli, Yasuo Nakai, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
To determine the spatial relationship between 2-deoxy-2[(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) metabolic and intracranial electrophysiological abnormalities in children undergoing two-stage epilepsy surgery, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to correlate hypo- and hypermetabolic cortical regions with ictal and interictal electrocorticography (ECoG) changes mapped onto the brain surface. Preoperative FDG-PET scans of 37 children with intractable epilepsy (31 with non-localizing MRI) were compared with age-matched pseudo-normal pediatric control PET data...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319103/microglia-activation-due-to-obesity-programs-metabolic-failure-leading-to-type-two-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
R Maldonado-Ruiz, L Montalvo-Martínez, L Fuentes-Mera, A Camacho
Obesity is an energy metabolism disorder that increases susceptibility to the development of metabolic diseases. Recently, it has been described that obese subjects have a phenotype of chronic inflammation in organs that are metabolically relevant for glucose homeostasis and energy. Altered expression of immune system molecules such as interleukins IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum amyloid A (SAA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), among others, has been associated with the development of chronic inflammation in obesity...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317648/clinical-validity-of-brain-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-as-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#15
REVIEW
Valentina Garibotto, Karl Herholz, Marina Boccardi, Agnese Picco, Andrea Varrone, Agneta Nordberg, Flavio Nobili, Osman Ratib
The use of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers is supported in diagnostic criteria, but their maturity for clinical routine is still debated. Here, we evaluate brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), a measure of cerebral glucose metabolism, as a biomarker to identify clinical and prodromal AD according to the framework suggested for biomarkers in oncology, using homogenous criteria with other biomarkers addressed in parallel reviews. FDG PET has fully achieved phase 1 (rational for use) and most of phase 2 (ability to discriminate AD subjects from healthy controls or other forms of dementia) aims...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316083/energy-metabolism-in-the-rat-cortex-under-thiopental-anaesthesia-measured-in-vivo-by-13-c-mrs
#16
Sarah Sonnay, João M N Duarte, Nathalie Just, Rolf Gruetter
Barbiturates, commonly used as general anaesthetics, depress neuronal activity and thus cerebral metabolism. Moreover, they are likely to disrupt the metabolic support of astrocytes to neurons, as well as the uptake of nutrients from circulation. By employing (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo at high magnetic field, we characterized neuronal and astrocytic pathways of energy metabolism in the rat cortex under thiopental anaesthesia. The neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate was 0.46 ± 0...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316081/the-antidiabetic-drug-metformin-decreases-mitochondrial-respiration-and-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-activity-in-cultured-primary-rat-astrocytes
#17
Michaela C Hohnholt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Helle S Waagepetersen, Ralf Dringen
Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that is used daily by millions of patients worldwide. Metformin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and has recently been shown to increase glucose consumption and lactate release in cultured astrocytes. However, potential effects of metformin on mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism in astrocytes are unknown. We investigated this by mapping (13) C labeling in TCA cycle intermediates and corresponding amino acids after incubation of primary rat astrocytes with [U-(13) C]glucose...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316020/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-boosts-mitochondrial-and-neuronal-metabolism-but-is-not-preferred-over-glucose-under-activated-conditions
#18
Lavanya B Achanta, Benjamin D Rowlands, Donald S Thomas, Gary D Housley, Caroline D Rae
The ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), is metabolised by the brain alongside the mandatory brain fuel glucose. To examine the extent and circumstances by which βOHB can supplement glucose metabolism, we studied guinea pig cortical brain slices using increasing concentrations of [U-(13)C]D-βOHB in conjunction with [1-(13)C]D-glucose under conditions of normo- and hypoglycaemia, as well as under high potassium (40 mmol/L K(+)) depolarization in normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. The contribution of βOHB to synthesis of GABA was also probed by inhibiting the synthesis of glutamine, a GABA precursor, with methionine sulfoximine (MSO)...
March 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315774/molecular-characterization-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-2-from-herbivorous-fish-megalobrama-amblycephala-and-responsiveness-to-glucose-loading-and-dietary-carbohydrate-levels
#19
Chao Xu, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang, Kai-Zhou Wang, Si-Lei Xia, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to characterize the full-length cDNA of AMPKα2 in Megalobrama amblycephala, and evaluate its potential role in glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism. The cDNA obtained covered 1942bp with an open reading frame of 1635bp encoding 545 amino acids. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high homology (91-100%) among most fish and higher vertebrates. This AMPKα2 mRNA predominantly expressed in muscle, liver and brain, while little in gill and intestine. Then, the AMPKα2 expressions were determined in the muscle, liver and brain of fish subjected to a glucose load (injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314935/a-disease-with-a-sweet-tooth-exploring-the-warburg-effect-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Anna Atlante, Lidia de Bari, Antonella Bobba, Giuseppina Amadoro
After more than 80 years from the revolutionary discoveries of Otto Warburg, who observed high glucose dependency, with increased glycolysis and lactate production regardless of oxygen availability in most cancer cells, the 'Warburg effect' returns to the fore in neuronal cells affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Indeed, it seems that, in the mild phase of AD, neuronal cells "prefer" to use the energetically inefficient method of burning glucose by glycolysis, as in cancer, proving to become resistant to β-amyloid (Aβ)-dependent apoptosis...
March 17, 2017: Biogerontology
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