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Ketones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933751/synthesis-of-acetone-derived-c6-c9-and-c12-carbon-scaffolds-for-chemical-and-fuel-applications
#1
Cameron M Moore, Rhodri W Jenkins, Michael T Janicke, William L Kubic, Evgueni Polikarpov, Troy A Semelsberger, Andrew D Sutton
A simple, inexpensive catalyst system (Amberlyst 15 and Ni/SiO2 -Al2 O3 ) is described for the upgrading of acetone to a range of chemicals and potential fuels. Stepwise hydrodeoxygenation of the produced ketones can yield branched alcohols, alkenes, and alkanes. An analysis of these products is provided, which demonstrates that this approach can provide a product profile of valuable bioproducts and potential biofuels.
December 9, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931220/native-musk-and-synthetic-musk-ketone-strongly-induced-the-growth-repression-and-the-apoptosis-of-cancer-cells
#2
Ling Xu, Yi Cao
BACKGROUND: Musk is widely used in clinical practice for its anti-cancer properties. Here, we treated various types of cancer using musk to determine which cancers are sensitive to musk treatment. We also compared effects of native musk and synthetic musk ketone in cancer cells. Furthermore, we investigated mechanisms underlying effects of musk. METHODS: Twenty two cancer cell lines were treated with musk. Cell proliferation and apoptosis analyses were carried out...
December 8, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930814/septic-ketoacidosis-a-potentially-lethal-entity-with-renal-tubular-epithelial-vacuolization
#3
Chong Zhou, Roger W Byard
Fatal ketoacidosis due to diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, and starvation may produce characteristic basal vacuolization of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC). Septic ketoacidosis has recently been recognized clinically as a distinct condition in which septicemia can lead to elevation of ketones and various anions unrelated to diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or caloric deprivation. We report four lethal cases with significantly elevated vitreous ketones secondary to sepsis and/or severe localized infection in individuals with no history of diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or starvation...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928777/clinical-and-mutational-characterizations-of-ten-indian-patients-with-beta-ketothiolase-deficiency
#4
Elsayed Abdelkreem, Radha Rama Devi Akella, Usha Dave, Sudhir Sane, Hiroki Otsuka, Hideo Sasai, Yuka Aoyama, Mina Nakama, Hidenori Ohnishi, Shaimaa Mahmoud, Mohamed Abd El Aal, Toshiyuki Fukao
Beta-ketothiolase deficiency (mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency) is an inherited disease of isoleucine catabolism and ketone body utilization caused by ACAT1 mutations. We identified ten Indian patients who manifested with ketoacidotic episodes of variable severity. The patients showed increased urinary excretion of isoleucine-catabolic intermediates: 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyrate, 2-methylacetoacetate, and tiglylglycine. Six patients had a favorable outcome, one died, and three developed neurodevelopmental sequela...
December 8, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925692/a-method-to-generate-and-analyze-modified-myristoylated-proteins
#5
Huanyao Gao, Wei Sun, Zhiquan Song, Yanbao Yu, Li Wang, Xian Chen, Qisheng Zhang
Covalent lipid modification of proteins is essential to their cellular localizations and functions. Engineered lipid motif coupled with bio-orthogonal chemistry has been utilized to identify myristoylated or palmitoylated proteins in cells. However, whether modified proteins have similar properties as endogenous ones has not been well investigated mainly due to lack of methods to generate and analyze purified proteins. We have developed a method that utilizes metabolic interference and mass spectrometry to produce and analyze modified, myristoylated small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1)...
December 7, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925257/volatile-compounds-produced-by-lactobacillus-paracasei-during-oat-fermentation
#6
Sang Mi Lee, Jieun Oh, Byung-Serk Hurh, Gwi-Hwa Jeong, Young-Keum Shin, Young-Suk Kim
This study investigated the profiles of volatile compounds produced by Lactobacillus paracasei during oat fermentation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with headspace solid-phase microextraction method. A total of 60 compounds, including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, furan derivatives, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur-containing compounds, terpenes, and other compounds, were identified in fermented oat. Lipid oxidation products such as 2-pentylfuran, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, and nonanal were found to be the main contributors to oat samples fermented by L...
December 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923877/poison-and-alarm-the-asian-hornet-vespa-velutina-uses-sting-venom-volatiles-as-alarm-pheromone
#7
Ya-Nan Cheng, Ping Wen, Shi-Hao Dong, Ken Tan, James C Nieh
In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defense and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets as compared to the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks humans and honey bees...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922496/metabolic-myopathies
#8
Mark A Tarnopolsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921333/direct-access-to-chiral-%C3%AE-fluoroamines-with-quaternary-stereogenic-center-via-cooperative-cation-binding-catalysis
#9
Venkataramasubramanian Vaithiyanathan, Mun Jong Kim, Yidong Liu, Hailong Yan, Choong Eui Song
Reported herein is a direct route for chiral β-fluoroamines possessing tetrasubstituted C-F centers through the organocatalytic Mannich reaction of α-fluoro cyclic ketones and α-amidosulfones using a chiral oligoEG as a cation binding catalyst with KF as a base. In most substrates, nearly perfect enantioselectivites were achieved even at very high temperatures (>80 ºC). The salient features of this process include (a) a transition metal free and operationally simple procedure, (b) direct use of α-amidosulfones as bench-stable precursors of sensitive imines, (c) direct enolization of racemic α-fluoro cyclic ketones and (d) excellent stereoselectivity up to 99% ee and >20:1 diastereoselectivity (anti:syn)...
December 6, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919710/the-transcription-factor-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-chrebp-a-possible-link-between-metabolic-disease-and-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Katsumi Iizuka
Carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP) has been identified as a transcription factor that binds to carbohydrate response element in the promoter of pyruvate kinase, liver and red blood cells. ChREBP is activated by metabolites derived from glucose and suppressed by adenosine monophosphate (AMP), ketone bodies and cyclic cAMP. ChREBP regulates gene transcription related to glucose and lipid metabolism. Findings from knockout mice and human subjects suggest that ChREBP helps to induce hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance...
December 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918442/some-brief-notes-on-theoretical-and-experimental-investigations-of-intramolecular-hydrogen-bonding
#11
REVIEW
Lucjan Sobczyk, Dorota Chudoba, Peter M Tolstoy, Aleksander Filarowski
A review of selected literature data related to intramolecular hydrogen bonding in ortho-hydroxyaryl Schiff bases, ortho-hydroxyaryl ketones, ortho-hydroxyaryl amides, proton sponges and ortho-hydroxyaryl Mannich bases is presented. The paper reports on the application of experimental spectroscopic measurements (IR and NMR) and quantum-mechanical calculations for investigations of the proton transfer processes, the potential energy curves, tautomeric equilibrium, aromaticity etc. Finally, the equilibrium between the intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds in amides is discussed...
December 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918440/a-computational-study-of-structure-and-reactivity-of-n-substitued-4-piperidones-curcumin-analogues-and-their-radical-anions
#12
Maximiliano Martínez-Cifuentes, Boris Weiss-López, Ramiro Araya-Maturana
In this work, a computational study of a series of N-substitued-4-piperidones curcumin analogues is presented. The molecular structure of the neutral molecules and their radical anions, as well as their reactivity, are investigated. N-substituents include methyl and benzyl groups, while substituents on the aromatic rings cover electron-donor and electron-acceptor groups. Substitutions at the nitrogen atom do not significantly affect the geometry and frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) energies of these molecules...
December 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918234/formation-and-exudation-of-non-volatile-products-of-the-arabidiol-triterpenoid-degradation-pathway-in-arabidopsis-roots
#13
Reza Sohrabi, Tehane Ali, Liva Harinantenaina Rakotondraibe, Dorothea Tholl
Triterpenoids produced by plants play important roles in the protection against biotic stress. Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana produce different triterpenoids, which include the tricyclic triterpene diol, arabidiol. In a degradation reaction induced by infection with the oomycete pathogen, Pythium irregulare, arabidiol is cleaved to the 11-carbon volatile homoterpene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and the 19-carbon ketone, apo-arabidiol. The arabidiol pathway and its volatile breakdown product DMNT have been implicated in the defense against P...
December 5, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915269/effect-of-ph-on-the-interaction-of-volatile-compounds-with-the-myofibrillar-proteins-of-duck-meat
#14
Q L Yang, X W Lou, Y Wang, D D Pan, Y Y Sun, J X Cao
In order to clarify the influence of curing agents on the flavor of duck, the effect of pH on the surface hydrophobicity, secondary structures, and adsorption capacity of myofibrillar proteins to alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters was assessed using Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, and other methodologies. The hydrophobicity decreased as pH increased from 5.0 to 8.0; β-turn turned into α-helix and random coil as pH increased from 5.0 to 7.0, while α-helix and random coil turned into β-sheet and β-turn as pH increased from 7...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911981/asymmetric-ketone-reduction-by-imine-reductases
#15
Maike Lenz, Jan Meisner, Leann Quertinmont, Stefan Lutz, Johannes Kästner, Bettina Nestl
The rapidly growing area of asymmetric imine reduction by imine reductases (IREDs) has provided alternative routes to chiral amines. Here we report the expansion of the reaction scope of IREDs by showing the stereoselective reduction of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone (1). Assisted by an in silico analysis of energy barriers, we evaluated asymmetric hydrogenations of carbonyls and imines considering the influence of substrate reactivity on the chemoselectivity of this novel class of reductases. We report on the asymmetric reduction of C=N as well as C=O bonds catalyzed by members of the IRED enzyme family...
December 2, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911033/regioselective-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-fluorinated-cyclopentenones-via-organocatalytic-difluorocyclopropanation-and-fluorine-directed-and-activated-nazarov-cyclization
#16
Kohei Fuchibe, Ryo Takayama, Takaharu Yokoyama, Junji Ichikawa
Silyl dienol ethers, prepared from α,β-unsaturated ketones, underwent proton sponge-catalyzed difluorocyclopropanation with trimethylsilyl 2,2-difluoro-2-fluorosulfonylacetate (TFDA) in a regioselective manner, leading to 1,1-difluoro-2-siloxy-2-vinylcyclopropanes in good yields. The cyclopropanes thus obtained were in turn subjected to fluoride ion-catalyzed ring opening to afford 1-fluorovinyl vinyl ketones (i.e., Nazarov precursors). Treatment of the precursors with Me3Si+ B(OTf)4- regioselectively promoted the Nazarov cyclization, whose rate and regioselectivity were drastically enhanced by the fluorine substituent, thereby facilitating efficient synthesis of biologically promising α-fluorocyclopentenone derivatives...
December 2, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910194/stereospecific-construction-of-contiguous-quaternary-all-carbon-centers-by-oxidative-ring-contraction
#17
Xin Yu, Jiadong Hu, Zhigao Shen, Hui Zhang, Jin-Ming Gao, Weiqing Xie
Oxidative ring contraction of cyclic α-formyl ketones was facilitated by the action of H2 O2 under operationally simple and environmentally benign reaction conditions. The process was highly regioselective and enables stereospecific construction of contiguous quaternary all-carbon centers from stereodefined all-substituted all-cyclic ketones. The asymmetric syntheses of (+)-cuparene and (+)-tochuinyl acetate were also successively achieved by taking advantage of this novel protocol.
December 2, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910186/diverse-activation-modes-in-the-hydroboration-of-aldehydes-and-ketones-with-germanium-tin-and-lead-lewis-pairs
#18
Julia Schneider, Christian P Sindlinger, Sarah M Freitag, Hartmut Schubert, Lars Wesemann
Intramolecular germylene, stannylene, and plumbylene Lewis pairs were reacted with hexanal and yielded the cyclic addition products only with the germanium and tin reagents. In further reactivity studies, the hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones catalyzed by intramolecular germylene, stannylene, and plumbylene Lewis pairs was studied. In the case of the cyclic germylene Lewis pair, the product of the oxidative addition of pinacolborane at the germylene moiety was observed. According to stoichiometric as well as catalytic experiments, the intramolecular germylene Lewis pair acts as a catalyst in the hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones...
December 2, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909352/solid-phase-extraction-of-tritiated-contaminants-from-tritium-containing-waste-oils
#19
Andrzej Olejniczak, Jacek Fall, Katarzyna Olejniczak, Marina V Gustova, Alexandr G Shostenko
A solid phase extraction method for removing polar tritiated contaminants from tritium-containing waste oils has been developed. The composition of the degradation products present in the waste oil was determined. The results indicated that upon exposure to tritium gas, fragment methyl ketones, carboxylic acids, and lactones were the main polar products of the mineral-based oil oxidation. The nonpolar fragmentation products included n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, and acyclic isoprenoids and were analogous to those formed during [Formula: see text]-irradiation of the oil...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#20
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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