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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149386/glucose-metabolism-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Mayumi L Prins
Traumatic brain injury is the number one cause of death and disability among the pediatric population in the USA. The heterogeneity of the pediatric population is reflected by both the normal cerebral maturation and the age differences in the causes of TBI, which generate unique age-related pathophysiology responses and recovery profiles. This review will address the normal changes in cerebral glucose metabolism throughout developmental phases and how TBI alters glucose metabolism. Evidence has shown that TBI disrupts the biochemical processing of glucose to energy...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148821/the-effect-of-prior-continuous-glucose-monitoring-use-on-glycemic-outcomes-in-the-pivotal-trial-of-the-minimed-%C3%A2-670g-hybrid-closed-loop-system
#2
Toni L Cordero, Satish K Garg, Ronald Brazg, Timothy S Bailey, John Shin, Scott W Lee, Francine R Kaufman
A 3-month pivotal trial using the MiniMed™ 670G hybrid closed-loop (HCL) system in adolescent and adult patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), relative to a 2-week baseline run-in period, resulted in increased sensor glucose (SG) values in target range (71-180 mg/dL), reduced HbA1c levels, and no events of diabetic ketoacidosis or severe hypoglycemia ( Clinicaltrials.gov : NCT02463097). This brief report evaluated how prior continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) experience influenced glycemic outcomes, in the same pivotal trial...
November 17, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146600/n-glycan-profile-and-kidney-disease-in-type-1-diabetes
#3
Mairead L Bermingham, Marco Colombo, Stuart J McGurnaghan, Luke A K Blackbourn, Frano Vučković, Maja Pučić Baković, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, Gordan Lauc, Felix Agakov, Anna S Agakova, Caroline Hayward, Lucija Klarić, Colin N A Palmer, John R Petrie, John Chalmers, Andrew Collier, Fiona Green, Robert S Lindsay, Sandra Macrury, John A McKnight, Alan W Patrick, Sandeep Thekkepat, Olga Gornik, Paul M McKeigue, Helen M Colhoun
OBJECTIVE: Poorer glycemic control in type 1 diabetes may alter N-glycosylation patterns on circulating glycoproteins, and these alterations may be linked with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). We investigated associations between N-glycans and glycemic control and renal function in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using serum samples from 818 adults who were considered to have extreme annual loss in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; i.e., slope) based on retrospective clinical records, from among 6,127 adults in the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Type 1 Bioresource Study, we measured total and IgG-specific N-glycan profiles...
November 16, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146120/depressive-symptoms-and-glycemic-control-in-youth-with-type-2-diabetes-participating-in-the-today-clinical-trial
#4
Dorothy J Van Buren, Denise E Wilfley, Marsha D Marcus, Barbara Anderson, Natalie Walders Abramson, Robert Berkowitz, Carolyn Ievers-Landis, Paula Trief, Patrice Yasuda, Kathryn Hirst
The relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes was assessed at baseline (n=682), 6, and/or 24 months (n=576). Neither baseline nor persistence of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with maintenance of glycemic control. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were common, suggesting the importance of repeated screening.
November 13, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145767/addressing-geographic-confounding-through-spatial-propensity-scores-a-study-of-racial-disparities-in-diabetes
#5
Melanie L Davis, Brian Neelon, Paul J Nietert, Kelly J Hunt, Lane F Burgette, Andrew B Lawson, Leonard E Egede
Motivated by a study exploring differences in glycemic control between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white veterans with type 2 diabetes, we aim to address a type of confounding that arises in spatially referenced observational studies. Specifically, we develop a spatial doubly robust propensity score estimator to reduce bias associated with geographic confounding, which occurs when measured or unmeasured confounding factors vary by geographic location, leading to imbalanced group comparisons. We augment the doubly robust estimator with spatial random effects, which are assigned conditionally autoregressive priors to improve inferences by borrowing information across neighboring geographic regions...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145540/inverse-association-of-peripheral-orexin-a-with-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Mitra Zarifkar, Sina Noshad, Mona Shahriari, Mohsen Afarideh, Elias Khajeh, Zahra Karimi, Alireza Ghajar, Alireza Esteghamati
AIMS: To investigate the association between serum orexin concentrations and insulin resistance/sensitivity in a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to study the effects of anti-hyperglycemic treatment on orexin concentrations over three months. METHODS: This study was designed as a randomized, open-label, clinical trial. Before allocation, sixty medication-naïve, newly-diagnosed, type 2 diabetes patients underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
July 2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145539/socioeconomic-deprivation-household-education-and-employment-are-associated-with-increased-hospital-admissions-and-poor-glycemic-control-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Louise J Apperley, Sze M Ng
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic deprivation, obesity, and emotional discomfort are important determinants of health inequalities and poor glycemic control in children and young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence of hospital admissions of T1D children in relation to socioeconomic deprivation, and to determine the effects of social deprivation, body mass index (BMI), and patient-reported emotional well-being on glycemic control...
July 2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145536/the-effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-newly-diagnosed-type-1-diabetes-patients-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Elina Gregoriou, Ioannis Mamais, Irene Tzanetakou, Giagkos Lavranos, Stavri Chrysostomou
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) assessed by insulin needs and changes in glycemic indices, as evidenced by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A total of 7 RCTs were retrieved from PubMed/Medline and EBSCO databases by MeSH term search, and were reviewed systematically. The RCTs included examined the effects of alphacalcidole (n = 2), cholecalciferol (n = 2), and calcitriol (n = 3) supplementation on changes in daily insulin dose (DID), fasting Cpeptide (FCP), stimulated C-peptide (SCP), and HbA1c...
July 2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145468/the-effects-of-non-surgical-periodontal-treatment-on-glycemic-control-oxidative-stress-balance-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Hirofumi Mizuno, Daisuke Ekuni, Takayuki Maruyama, Kota Kataoka, Toshiki Yoneda, Daiki Fukuhara, Yoshio Sugiura, Takaaki Tomofuji, Jun Wada, Manabu Morita
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c) levels, oxidative stress balance and quality of life (QOL) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared to no periodontal treatment (simple oral hygiene instructions only). METHODS: The design was a 6-month, single-masked, single center, randomized clinical trial. Patients had both T2DM and chronic periodontitis. Forty participants were enrolled between April 2014 and March 2016 at the Nephrology, Diabetology and Endocrinology Department of Okayama University Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145151/vildagliptin-loaded-triangular-dna-nanospheres-coated-with-eudragit-for-oral-delivery-and-better-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Sara Khan, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Muhammad Tayyab Ansari
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a multidimensional disease associated with poor glycemic control through compromised sensitivity of pancreatic islet α and β cells against glucose and dwindled secretion of insulin which is linked with the quantity of incretin hormones that are abridged by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) in diseased condition. Vildagliptin (VG) inhibits DPP-4 therefore regulates the incretins that conversely maintains glycemic control. The safe reach and absorption of VG from intestine was dubious...
November 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144059/association-between-smoking-and-glycemic-control-in-diabetic-patients-results-from-the-reaction-study
#11
Kui Peng, Gang Chen, Chao Liu, Yiming Mu, Zhen Ye, Lixin Shi, Jiajun Zhao, Lulu Chen, Qiang Li, Tao Yang, Li Yan, Qin Wan, Shengli Wu, Guixia Wang, Zuojie Luo, Xulei Tang, Yanan Huo, Zhengnan Gao, Qing Su, Youmin Wang, Guijun Qin, Huacong Deng, Xuefeng Yu, Feixia Shen, Li Chen, Liebin Zhao, Yu Xu, Min Xu, Yuhong Chen, Jieli Lu, Lin Lin, Rui Du, Meng Dai, Mian Li, Tiange Wang, Zhiyun Zhao, Di Zhang, Yufang Bi, Donghui Li, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning
BACKGROUND: A number of primary studies suggested that active smoking could be independently associated with incident diabetes. However less is known about the impact of active smoking and smoking cessation on glycemic control in patients with diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the associations of active smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control in diabetic patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 10,551 man and 15,297 women with diabetes from the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143919/iglarlixi-reduces-glycated-hemoglobin-to-a-greater-extent-than-basal-insulin-regardless-of-levels-at-screening-post-hoc-analysis-of-lixilan-l
#12
Elisabeth Niemoeller, Elisabeth Souhami, Yujun Wu, Klaus H Jensen
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on basal insulin and oral glucose-lowering drugs was investigated previously in the LixiLan-L trial. In the LixiLan-L trial, patients experienced a 6-week run-in with insulin glargine U100 (iGlar) as part of the screening phase, followed by treatment with a fixed-ratio combination of iGlar + lixisenatide (iGlarLixi) or iGlar alone over 30 weeks. In the study reported here, we investigated the achievement of glycemic control in those who completed the 30-week LixiLan-L trial, as assessed by change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels from screening, both for the overall category and for screening HbA1c subcategories...
November 16, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142885/successful-glycemic-control-using-a-flash-glucose-monitoring-system-for-a-pregnant-woman-with-diabetes-a-case-report
#13
Miyako Kishimoto, Saori Tamada, Yoko Oshiba
Background: Glucose control for pregnant women with glucose intolerance is important, as hyperglycemia may adversely affect the mother and the fetus. Case presentation: We report the case of a pregnant Japanese woman who experienced gestational diabetes mellitus during her first pregnancy and developed impaired glucose tolerance after the delivery. During her second pregnancy with twins, she required up to 75 units of injected insulin to control her postprandial hyperglycemia and occasionally experienced hypoglycemia...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142561/feto-maternal-outcomes-and-glycemic-control-in-metformin-versus-insulin-treated-gestational-diabetics
#14
Rabia Arshad, Samia Khanam, Fuad Shaikh, Nasim Karim
Objective: To evaluate and compare feto-maternal outcomes and glycemic control in metformin versus insulin treated gestational diabetics. Methods: The study was conducted in 2010- 2012 as a part of M. Phil at Civil hospital, Lyari General Hospital and Mamji Hospital in Karachi. After written informed consent, 71 GDM diagnosed females with WHO criteria were enrolled. They were divided into two groups. Group-A, 32 females were given oral metformin 500 mg TDS while Group-B, 39 females were given insulin 0...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141871/potential-approaches-to-prevent-hypoglycemia-associated-autonomic-failure
#15
REVIEW
Eric Lontchi-Yimagou, Jee Young You, Michelle Carey, Ilan Gabriely, Harry Shamoon, Meredith Hawkins
Clear health benefits are associated with intensive glucose control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, maintaining near-normal glycemia remains an elusive goal for many patients, in large part owing to the risk of severe hypoglycemia. In fact, recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia lead to 'hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure' (HAAF), characterized by defective counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Extensive studies to understand the mechanisms underlying HAAF have revealed multiple potential etiologies, suggesting various approaches to prevent the development of HAAF...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141856/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-outcomes-in-patients-supported-with-left-ventricular-assist-devices-a-single-institutional-9-year-experience
#16
Rabea Asleh, Alexandros Briasoulis, Sarah D Schettle, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Naveen L Pereira, Brooks S Edwards, Alfredo L Clavell, Simon Maltais, David L Joyce, Lyle D Joyce, Richard C Daly, Sudhir S Kushwaha, John M Stulak
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. The effect of DM on post-left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation outcomes is unclear. This study sought to investigate whether patients with DM had worse outcomes than patients without DM after LVAD implantation and whether LVAD support resulted in a better control of DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed 341 consecutive adults who underwent implantation of LVAD from 2007 to 2016...
November 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141693/glycemic-control-and-associated-factors-among-type-2-diabetic-patients-at-shanan-gibe-hospital-southwest-ethiopia
#17
Daniel Miteku Yigazu, Tigestu Alemu Desse
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the rate of glycemic control and factors affecting glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. RESULTS: A total of 174 type 2 diabetic patients were interviewed and were studied. Mean age of the patients was 48.98 ± 14.96 years (range 18-80 years). More than half (51.7%) of the patients were males. About a third of patients, 53 (30.5%), were on antidiabetic medications for less than 5 years. The most common prescribed antidiabetic medications were insulin, 48 (27...
November 15, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141460/safety-and-efficacy-of-metformin-up-titration-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treated-with-vildagliptin-and-low-dose-metformin
#18
Luka Suzuki, Akio Kanazawa, Hirotsugu Uzawa, Yusuke Osonoi, Atushi Masuyama, Kosuke Azuma, Kageumi Takeno, Naoko Takayanagi, Junko Sato, Yuki Someya, Koji Komiya, Hiromasa Goto, Tomoya Mita, Fuki Ikeda, Takeshi Ogihara, Tomoaki Shimizu, Chie Ohmura, Miyoko Saito, Takeshi Osonoi, Hirotaka Watada
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the safety and efficacy of metformin up-titration in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with vildagliptin (100 mg/day) and low-dose metformin (500 or 750 mg/day). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Fifty patients were randomly allocated to the control group (maintaining the initial low-dose of metformin) and the dose increase group (up-titrating of metformin to 1,500-2,250 mg/day) for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 24 weeks...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141328/-association-between-smoking-smoking-cessation-and-glycemic-control-in-male-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
J Su, Y Qin, C Shen, Y Gao, E C Pan, X Q Pan, R Tao, Y Q Zhang, M Wu
Objective: To explore the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: From December 2013 to January 2014, a total of 7 763 male patients with type 2 diabetes, who received national basic public health service in Changshu county of Suzhou city, Huai'an and Qinghe districts of Huai'an city, Jiangsu province, were recruited by cluster sampling. Questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140547/islet-transplantation-as-safe-and-efficacious-method-to-restore-glycemic-control-and-to-avoid-severe-hypoglycemia-after-donor-organ-failure-in-pancreas-transplantation
#20
Philipp A Gerber, Michel Hochuli, Bara D Benediktsdottir, Richard A Zuellig, Oliver Tschopp, Michael Glenck, Olivier de Rougemont, Christian Oberkofler, Giatgen A Spinas, Roger Lehmann
The aim of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of islet transplantation after initial pancreas transplantation with subsequent organ failure. Patients undergoing islet transplantation at our institution after pancreas organ failure were compared to a control group of patients with pancreas graft failure, but without islet transplantation and to a group receiving pancreas re-transplantation. 10 patients underwent islet transplantation after initial pancreas transplantation failed and were followed for a median of 51 months...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
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