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Self repair

Simon P Overeem, Esmé J Donselaar, Jorrit T Boersen, Erik Groot Jebbink, Cornelis H Slump, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Michel M P J Reijnen
PURPOSE: To assess the dynamic behavior of chimney grafts during the cardiac cycle. METHODS: Three chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) stent-graft configurations (Endurant and Advanta V12, Endurant and Viabahn, and Endurant and BeGraft) were placed in silicone aneurysm models and subjected to physiologic flow. Electrocardiography (ECG)-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography was used to visualize geometric changes during the cardiac cycle. Endograft and chimney graft surface, gutter volume, chimney graft angulation over the center lumen line, and the D-ratio (the ratio between the lengths of the major and minor axes) were independently assessed by 2 observers at 10 time points in the cardiac cycle...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Bingbo Zhang, Wei Yan, Yanjing Zhu, Weitao Yang, Wenjun Le, Bingdi Chen, Rongrong Zhu, Liming Cheng
Patients are increasingly being diagnosed with neuropathic diseases, but are rarely cured because of the loss of neurons in damaged tissues. This situation creates an urgent clinical need to develop alternative treatment strategies for effective repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs), highly pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and potential for multidirectional differentiation, provide a promising solution to meet this demand. However, some serious challenges remaining to be addressed are the regulation of implanted NSCs, tracking their fate, monitoring their interaction with and responsiveness to the tissue environment, and evaluating their treatment efficacy...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Moon Jong Kim, Bo Xia, Han Na Suh, Sung Ho Lee, Sohee Jun, Esther M Lien, Jie Zhang, Kaifu Chen, Jae-Il Park
The underlying mechanisms of how self-renewing cells are controlled in regenerating tissues and cancer remain ambiguous. PCNA-associated factor (PAF) modulates DNA repair via PCNA. Also, PAF hyperactivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling independently of PCNA interaction. We found that PAF is expressed in intestinal stem and progenitor cells (ISCs and IPCs) and markedly upregulated during intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis. Whereas PAF is dispensable for intestinal homeostasis, upon radiation injury, genetic ablation of PAF impairs intestinal regeneration along with the severe loss of ISCs and Myc expression...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Cell
Takahiro Ogura, Tim Bryant, Brian A Mosier, Tom Minas
BACKGROUND: Treating bipolar chondral lesions in the tibiofemoral (TF) compartment with cartilage repair procedures is challenging, and a suitable treatment remains unclear. PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical outcomes after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for the treatment of bipolar chondral lesions in the TF compartment. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: We evaluated 57 patients who underwent ACI for the treatment of symptomatic bipolar chondral lesions in the TF compartment by a single surgeon between October 1995 and June 2014...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Miusi Shi, Ruiwen Yang, Qin Li, Kangle Lv, Richard J Miron, Jie Sun, Mei Li, Yufeng Zhang
Since the discovery of osteoinduction in the early 20th century, innovative biomaterials with osteoinductive potential have emerged as candidates for bone repair. Recently, artificial protocell models have demonstrated great potential for tissue regeneration. Herein, we developed artificial bioactive proto-osteocells by self-assembly of biodegradable biphasic-phosphate particles in the form of aqueous-bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-containing pickering emulsions in corn oil to fulfill the release of BMP2 with controlled and local efficacy...
March 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hao Zhang, Zhong-Li Li, Fei Yang, Qiang Zhang, Xiang-Zheng Su, Ji Li, Ning Zhang, Chun-Hui Liu, Ning Mao, Heng Zhu
BACKGROUND: Shockwaves and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely accepted as useful tools for many orthopedic applications. However, the modulatory effects of shockwaves on MSCs remain controversial. In this study, we explored the influence of radial shockwaves on human bone marrow MSCs using a floating model in vitro and evaluated the healing effects of these cells on cartilage defects in vivo using a rabbit model. METHODS: MSCs were cultured in vitro, harvested, resuspended, and treated with various doses of radial shockwaves in a floating system...
March 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
V Bonito, A I P M Smits, O J G M Goor, B D Ippel, A Driessen-Mol, T J A G Münker, A W Bosman, T Mes, P Y W Dankers, C V C Bouten
Hallmark of the in situ tissue engineering approach is the use of bioresorbable, synthetic, acellular scaffolds, which are designed to modulate the inflammatory response and actively trigger tissue regeneration by the body itself at the site of implantation. Much research is devoted to the design of synthetic materials modulating the polarization of macrophages, which are essential mediators of the early stages of the inflammatory response. Here, we present a novel method for the functionalization of elastomers based on synthetic peptide chemistry, supramolecular self-assembly, and immobilization of heparin and interleukin 4 (IL-4), which is known to skew the polarization of macrophages into the wound healing "M2" phenotype...
March 5, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Matthew Purver, Julian Hough, Christine Howes
Miscommunication phenomena such as repair in dialogue are important indicators of the quality of communication. Automatic detection is therefore a key step toward tools that can characterize communication quality and thus help in applications from call center management to mental health monitoring. However, most existing computational linguistic approaches to these phenomena are unsuitable for general use in this way, and particularly for analyzing human-human dialogue: Although models of other-repair are common in human-computer dialogue systems, they tend to focus on specific phenomena (e...
March 8, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
S Suda, T Takamizawa, F Takahashi, A Tsujimoto, S Akiba, Y Nagura, H Kurokawa, M Miyazaki
The aim of this study was to use ultrasonography to evaluate the effect of the self-assembling peptide P11-4 on acid erosion prevention. Curodont Repair (CR), which includes peptide P11-4, was used. Rectangular prisms of bovine enamel (4×1×1 mm) were immersed in pure orange juice for a period of 5 minutes six times per day for 28 days. These samples were divided into four groups of six specimens each and treated differently for an additional period of 28 days: 1) baseline group specimens were stored in artificial saliva; 2) CR group specimens were exposed to curodont without acid challenge; 3) NCRA (no curodont+acid challenge) specimens were treated with orange juice without curodont exposure; and 4) CRA (CR+acid challenge) specimens were treated with curodont before treatment with orange juice...
March 7, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Mariana Butinof, Ricardo A Fernández, Daniel Lerda, María Josefina Lantieri, Iohanna Filippi, María Del Pilar Díaz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of exposure to pesticides and its correlation with perceived health indicators and injury biomarkers (genotoxic alterations and those caused by butyrylcholinesterase enzyme activity) in the population of pesticide applicators in extensive crops (PAEC) in Córdoba, Argentina. METHODS: Transversal study, in PAEC (n = 47) randomly selected from a sample of 2000, and non-exposed subject controls (n = 52). The sociodemographic variables, exposure conditioning, and perceived health were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire; biological indicators of genotoxicity: micronuclei, chromosomal aberrations and kite assay, and butyrylcholinesterase activity...
March 3, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
Siiri E Iismaa, Xenia Kaidonis, Amy M Nicks, Nikolay Bogush, Kazu Kikuchi, Nawazish Naqvi, Richard P Harvey, Ahsan Husain, Robert M Graham
Stimulating regeneration of complex tissues and organs after injury to effect complete structural and functional repair, is an attractive therapeutic option that would revolutionize clinical medicine. Compared to many metazoan phyla that show extraordinary regenerative capacity, which in some instances persists throughout life, regeneration in mammalians, particularly humans, is limited or absent. Here we consider recent insights in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of regeneration that have come from studies of tissue homeostasis and injury repair in mammalian tissues that span the spectrum from little or no self-renewal, to those showing active cell turnover throughout life...
2018: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
Agnieszka A Ksiazek, Laura Frese, Petra E Dijkman, Bart Sanders, Sarah E Motta, Benedikt Weber, Simon P Hoerstrup
Data on in vitro engineered "off the shelf" matrices support the concept of endogenous cellular repopulation driving the graft's remodeling via immune-mediated response. This seems important to further accelerate the cell reconstitution and may play a crucial role when mononuclear cells are used. Nevertheless, studies on decellularized xenogeneic grafts showed only limited host cell repopulation post-implantation. This study aims at a systematic comparison of reseeding methods (dripping, injection, bathing in a cell suspension and combined puncturing-dripping method) to define the most efficient technique enhancing recellularization of tissue engineered vascular matrices (patches, vessels, small diameter and standard size valves) prior implantation...
March 2, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
C-H Wang, S Wang, B Zhang, X-Y Zhang, X-J Tong, H-M Peng, X-Z Han, C Liu
The temporomandibular joint disk (TMJD) lacks blood vessels and is characterized by slow self-repair. Qualitative lesions in TMJD are difficult to repair. In this study, electrospun poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds were used to reconstruct temporomandibular joint discs by tissue engineering. Rabbit temporomandibular joint disc cells (TMJDCs) and rabbit synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) were co-cultured in 1:1 ratios. Cell sheets were induced by ascorbic acid incubated with electrospun PLGA scaffolds for 14 days in the presence (10 ng/ml in culture medium) or absence of TGF-β3...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Eui-Hwan Choi, Seobin Yoon, Keun P Kim
Homologous recombination (HR), which ensures accurate DNA replication and strand-break repair, is necessary to preserve embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. However, little is known about how HR factors modulate ESC differentiation and replication stress-associated DNA breaks caused by unique cell-cycle progression. Here, we report that ESCs utilize Rad51-dependent HR to enhance viability and induce rapid proliferation through a replication-coupled pathway. In addition, ESC differentiation was shown to be enhanced by ectopic expression of a subset of recombinases...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Tamer M A Mohamed, Yen-Sin Ang, Ethan Radzinsky, Ping Zhou, Yu Huang, Arye Elfenbein, Amy Foley, Sergey Magnitsky, Deepak Srivastava
Human diseases are often caused by loss of somatic cells that are incapable of re-entering the cell cycle for regenerative repair. Here, we report a combination of cell-cycle regulators that induce stable cytokinesis in adult post-mitotic cells. We screened cell-cycle regulators expressed in proliferating fetal cardiomyocytes and found that overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), CDK4, cyclin B1, and cyclin D1 efficiently induced cell division in post-mitotic mouse, rat, and human cardiomyocytes...
February 22, 2018: Cell
Albert Lee, Dimitrios Karamichos, Obianamma E Onochie, Audrey E K Hutcheon, Celeste B Rich, James D Zieske, Vickery Trinkaus-Randall
Deposition of matrix proteins during development and repair is critical to the transparency of the cornea. While many cells respond to a hypoxic state that can occur in a tumor, the cornea is exposed to hypoxia during development prior to eyelid opening and during the diurnal sleep cycle where oxygen levels can drop from 21% to 8%. In this study, we used 2 three-dimensional (3-D) models to examine how stromal cells respond to periods of acute hypoxic states. The first model, a stromal construct model, is a 3-D stroma-like construct that consists of human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) stimulated by a stable form of ascorbate for 1, 2, and 4 weeks to self-assemble their own extracellular matrix...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Theetha L Pavankumar
Inteins are self-splicing polypeptides with an ability to excise themselves from flanking host protein regions with remarkable precision; in the process, they ligate flanked host protein fragments. Inteins are distributed sporadically across all three domains of life (bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes). However, their apparent localized distribution in DNA replication, repair, and recombination proteins (the 3Rs), particularly in bacteria and archaea, is enigmatic. Our understanding of the localized distribution of inteins in the 3Rs, and their possible regulatory role in such distribution, is still only partial...
February 28, 2018: Microorganisms
Guopu Chen, Jianan Ren, Youming Deng, Xiuwen Wu, Jinjian Huang, Gefei Wang, Yuanjin Zhao, Jieshou Li
Rapid wound healing is a fundamental health concern and poses a critical challenge for healthcare systems worldwide. Here, we developed an injectable, dynamic, self-healing hydrogel serving as a fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) delivery system for tissue repair applications. Benzaldehyde-terminated polyethylene glycol (BAPEG) was synthesized and cross-linked with N-Succinyl-chitosan (SCS) through reversible Schiff-base reaction to form a dynamic self-healing hydrogel. Because it can be injected after gelation and self-heal into an integral part, the hydrogel could not only auto-adapt to the irregular wound surface to provide better protection but also encapsulate drugs homogeneously and implant into tissue with a less invasive strategy...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Yaning Sun, Huijuan Wang, Yuchao Tang, Shiji Qin, Mingming Zhao, Fengqi Zhang
This study aimed to report our institution's experience in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI) with ligamentum bifurcatum (LB) injury.This retrospective study included 218 consecutive patients with CLAI who underwent surgery from January 2012 to December 2015. The 218 patients received tendon allograft reconstruction of the lateral ligament. CLAI was combined with LB injury in 51.4% (112/218) of patients. The 112 patients with concurrent LB injury had this treated simultaneously; 36 patients underwent excision of the anterior process of the calcaneus, 68 underwent LB repair, and 8 underwent LB reconstruction...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yang Yang, Akihiro Kushima, Weizhong Han, Huolin L Xin, Ju Li
Effective protection from environmental degradation relies on the integrity of oxide as diffusion barriers. Ideally, the passivation layer can repair its own breaches quickly under deformation. While studies suggest that the native aluminum oxide may manifest such properties; it has yet been experimentally proved because direct observations of the environmental deformation of aluminum oxide and its initial formation at room temperature are challenging. Here, we report in situ experiments to stretch pure aluminum nano tips under O2 gas environments in a transmission electron microscope...
February 28, 2018: Nano Letters
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