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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936429/investigation-of-biomechanical-response-of-hoffa-s-fat-pad-and-comparative-characterization
#1
Chiara Giulia Fontanella, Emanuele Luigi Carniel, Alessandro Frigo, Veronica Macchi, Andrea Porzionato, Gloria Sarasin, Marco Rossato, Raffaele De Caro, Arturo N Natali
The infrapatellar adipose body (Hoffa's fat pad, IFP) is situated between the patellar tendon, the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau. The IFP consists of lobules of white adipose tissue delimited by thin connective septa. The actual structural functionality of the IFP is debated and should pertain to a cushioning role in the knee joint, providing to distribute and to damp mechanical stresses during articular activity. The present study is aimed to analyze the correlation between histological configuration and mechanical properties of the IFP, compared to other adipose tissues, partially differentiated by composition and conformation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936066/the-influence-of-articular-cartilage-thickness-reduction-on-meniscus-biomechanics
#2
Piotr Łuczkiewicz, Karol Daszkiewicz, Jacek Chróścielewski, Wojciech Witkowski, Pawel J Winklewski
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the biomechanical interaction between meniscus and cartilage in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: The finite element method was used to simulate knee joint contact mechanics. Three knee models were created on the basis of knee geometry from the Open Knee project. We reduced the thickness of medial cartilages in the intact knee model by approximately 50% to obtain a medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) model. Two variants of medial knee OA model with congruent and incongruent contact surfaces were analysed to investigate the influence of congruency...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936007/a-99mtc-labelled-tetrazine-for-bioorthogonal-chemistry-synthesis-and-biodistribution-studies-with-small-molecule-trans-cyclooctene-derivatives
#3
Alyssa Vito, Hussain Alarabi, Shannon Czorny, Omid Beiraghi, Jeff Kent, Nancy Janzen, Afaf R Genady, Salma A Alkarmi, Stephanie Rathmann, Zoya Naperstkow, Megan Blacker, Lisset Llano, Paul J Berti, John F Valliant
A convenient strategy to radiolabel a hydrazinonicotonic acid (HYNIC)-derived tetrazine with 99mTc was developed, and its utility for creating probes to image bone metabolism and bacterial infection using both active and pretargeting strategies was demonstrated. The 99mTc-labelled HYNIC-tetrazine was synthesized in 75% yield and exhibited high stability in vitro and in vivo. A trans-cyclooctene (TCO)-labelled bisphosphonate (TCO-BP) that binds to regions of active calcium metabolism was used to evaluate the utility of the labelled tetrazine for bioorthogonal chemistry...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935893/-results-of-using-various-methods-of-autovenous-femoropopliteal-bypass-grafting-below-the-knee-joint-fissure
#4
B S Sukovatykh, L N Belikov, M B Sukovatykh, D V Sidorov, M A Inarkhov, E B Inokhodova
The objective of the study was to improve therapeutic outcomes in patients presenting with lower limb critical ischaemia by means of optimizing the technique of femoropopliteal bypass grafting. The authors analysed the results of comprehensive examination and treatment of a total of 90 patients presenting with critical lower limb ischaemia on the background of atherosclerotic lesions of arteries of the femoropopliteal and crural segments. Depending on the technology of performing femoropopliteal bypass grafting, the patients were subdivided into three groups each consisting of 30 subjects...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935780/forced-air-warmers-and-surgical-site-infections-in-patients-undergoing-knee-or-hip-arthroplasty
#5
Paul N Austin
The majority of the evidence indicates preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia reduces the incidence of many perioperative complications. Among the results of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia are increased bleeding, myocardial events, impaired wound healing, and diminished renal function. Most researchers agree there is an increased incidence of surgical site infections in patients who experience inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Forced-air warming is effective in preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia...
January 2017: Annual Review of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935557/wearable-tubing-assistive-walking-device-immediately-enhances-gait-parameters-in-subjects-with-stroke-a-randomized-controlled-study
#6
Seung-Mi Lee, Heon-Seock Cynn, Chung-Hwi Yi, Tae-Lim Yoon, Ji-Hyun Lee
BACKGROUND: Stroke patients develop compensatory movements due to limitations of ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion. To solve the limitations, there are many adjustable walking assistive devices such as robotic devices, ankle-foot orthoses, and functional electric stimulation in rehabilitation session. However, these assistive devices have some disadvantages, including expense and discomforts. Therefore, the development of a new assistive device for stroke patients is needed to assist ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion...
December 8, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935472/trunk-compensation-during-bimanual-reaching-at-different-heights-by-healthy-and-hemiparetic-adults
#7
Bulmaro A Valdés, Stephanie M N Glegg, H F Machiel Van der Loos
The authors explored how trunk compensation and hand symmetry in stroke survivors and healthy controls were affected by the distance and height of virtual targets during a bimanual reaching task. Participants were asked to reach to 4 different virtual targets set at: 90% of their arm length at shoulder, xiphoid process, and knee height, and 50% of their arm length at xiphoid process height. For the stroke group, for all targets, the hands' movements were more asymmetrical than those of the healthy group, with more asymmetry observed in the direction of gravity, and trunk forward displacement values were larger and more variable...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935426/joint-stiffness-and-running-economy-during-imposed-forefoot-strike-before-and-after-a-long-run-in-rearfoot-strike-runners
#8
Daniel A Melcher, Max R Paquette, Brian K Schilling, Richard J Bloomer
Research has focused on the effects of acute strike pattern modifications on lower extremity joint stiffness and running economy (RE). Strike pattern modifications on running biomechanics have mostly been studied while runners complete short running bouts. This study examined the effects of an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) on RE and ankle and knee joint stiffness before and after a long run in habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Joint kinetics and RE were collected before and after a long run. Sagittal joint kinetics were computed from kinematic and ground reaction force data that were collected during over-ground running trials in 13 male runners...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935172/acl-injury-reduces-satellite-cell-abundance-and-promotes-fibrogenic-cell-expansion-within-skeletal-muscle
#9
Christopher S Fry, Darren L Johnson, Mary Lloyd Ireland, Brian Noehren
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are associated with significant loss of strength in knee extensor muscles that persists despite physical therapy. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this protracted muscle weakness are poorly understood; however, we recently showed significant myofiber atrophy and altered muscle phenotype following ACL injury. We sought to further explore perturbations in skeletal muscle morphology and progenitor cell activity following an ACL injury. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the injured and non-injured vastus lateralis of young adults (n = 10) following ACL injury, and histochemical/immunohistochemical analyses were undertaken to determine collagen content, abundance of connective tissue fibroblasts, fibrogenic/adipogenic progenitor (FAP) cells, satellite cells, in addition to indices of muscle fiber denervation and myonuclear apoptosis...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935109/transplantation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-derived-progenitor-cells-ameliorates-knee-osteoarthritis-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#10
Ding-Cheng Chan, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Kuo-Cheng Lan, Te-I Weng, Rong-Sen Yang, Shing-Hwa Liu
The epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that diabetes can be an independent risk factor for osteoarthritis. The osteoarthritis-like cartilage damage has been shown in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The therapeutic effects of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells (HSMPCs) on diabetic osteoarthritis still remain unclear. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of HSMPCs on diabetic knee osteoarthritis. The in vitro chondrogenic ability of HSMPCs was determined by pellet culture assay...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935105/identifying-the-optimum-source-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-use-in-knee-surgery
#11
Benjamin M Davies, Sarah Jb Snelling, Lynn Quek, Osnat Hakimi, Hua Ye, Andrew Carr, Andrew J Price
Single sitting procedures where the mononuclear cell fraction is extracted from bone marrow and implanted directly into cartilage and bone defects are becoming more popular as novel treatments for cartilage defects which have, until now had few treatment options. This is on the basis that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contained within will repair the damaged tissue. This study sought to determine if the femur and tibia could provide equivalent amounts of mesenchymal stem cells, with equivalent viability and proliferative capacity, to that obtained from the gold standard of the pelvis in order to potentially reduce the morbidity associated with these procedures...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935067/asymmetry-of-lower-extremity-force-and-muscle-activation-during-knee-extension-and-functional-tasks
#12
Colin W Bond, Summer B Cook, Erik E Swartz, Dain P LaRoche
INTRODUCTION: Strength and power asymmetries >10% may negatively impact physical function. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy participants, aged 30-60 yrs, were assessed for muscle power asymmetry during isokinetic knee extension and ground reaction force asymmetry during chair-rise and vertical jump tasks. Neuromuscular activation asymmetry and coactivation of vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) were assessed in each condition. Symmetric (SG) and asymmetric groups (AG) were identified using a 10% knee extension power asymmetry criterion...
December 9, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935064/intersession-reliability-of-the-interpolated-twitch-technique-applied-during-isometric-concentric-and-eccentric-actions-of-the-human-knee-extensor-muscles
#13
Martin Behrens, Florian Husmann, Martin Gube, Sabine Felser, Matthias Weippert, Sven Bruhn, Volker Zschorlich, Anett Mau-Moeller
INTRODUCTION: Although it has been shown that voluntary activation (%VA) of knee extensors during isometric contractions can be reliably assessed with the interpolated twitch technique, little is known about the reliability of %VA during concentric and eccentric muscle actions. Therefore, relative and absolute intersession reliability of quadriceps muscle %VA during different contraction modes was determined. METHODS: After a familiarization session, 21 participants (17 men, 25 ± 2 years) completed 2 testing sessions...
December 9, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934789/a-3d-map-of-the-hindlimb-motor-representation-in-the-lumbar-spinal-cord-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#14
Jordan A Borrell, Shawn B Frost, Jeremy Peterson, Randolph J Nudo
OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological trauma with a prevalence of about 282 000 people living with an SCI in the United States in 2016. Advances in neuromodulatory devices hold promise for restoring function by incorporating the delivery of electrical current directly into the spinal cord grey matter via intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). In such designs, detailed topographic maps of spinal cord outputs are needed to determine ISMS locations for eliciting hindlimb movements...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934555/does-installation-of-the-backstroke-start-device-reduce-15-m-start-time-in-swimming
#15
Yusuke Ikeda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Rio Nara, Yasuhiro Baba, Yoshimitsu Shimoyama
The purpose of this study was to determine the installation of the backstroke start device reduces 15-m time. Thirteen college swimmers participated in this study. The aerial start and underwater motions were recorded with two digital video cameras. The center of mass (CM) of the swimmer, angular displacements and velocities of the shoulder, hip and knee joints were calculated. As an indicator of performance, the 5- and 15-m times were measured. The 5- and 15-m times in the backstroke start device condition were significantly shorter than in the non-backstroke start device condition...
January 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934220/photophysical-characterization-of-enhanced-6-methylisoxanthopterin-fluorescence-in-duplex-dna
#16
Andrew Moreno, J L Knee, Ishita Mukerji
The structure and dynamic motions of bases in DNA duplexes and other constructs are important for understanding mechanisms of selectivity and recognition of DNA-binding proteins. The fluorescent guanine analogue, 6-methylisoxanthopterin 6-MI, is well suited to this purpose as it exhibits an unexpected 3- to 4-fold increase in relative quantum yield upon duplex formation when incorporated into the following sequences: ATFAA, AAFTA, or ATFTA (where F represents 6-MI). To better understand some of the factors leading to the 6-MI fluorescence increase upon duplex formation, we characterized the effect of local sequence and structural perturbations on 6-MI photophysics through temperature melts, quantum yield measurements, fluorescence quenching assays, and fluorescence lifetime measurements...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933408/twelve-weeks-progressive-resistance-training-combined-with-protein-supplementation-beyond-habitual-intakes-increases-upper-leg-lean-tissue-mass-muscle-strength-and-extended-gait-speed-in-healthy-older-women
#17
Peter Francis, William Mc Cormack, Clodagh Toomey, Catherine Norton, Jean Saunders, Emmet Kerin, Mark Lyons, Philip Jakeman
The age-related decline in functional capability is preceded by a reduction in muscle quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes on upper leg lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle quality and functional capability in healthy 50-70 years women. In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 57 healthy older women (age 61.1 ± 5.1 years, 1.61 ± 0.65 m, 65.3 ± 15.3 kg) consumed 0.33 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) for 12 weeks...
December 8, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933259/deformity-correction-and-extremity-lengthening-in-the-lower-leg-comparison-of-clinical-outcomes-with-two-external-surgical-procedures
#18
Eugen Reitenbach, Robert Rödl, Georg Gosheger, Björn Vogt, Frank Schiedel
OBJECTIVE: Distraction osteogenesis is a method of stimulating the growth of new bone tissue in order to lengthen the extremities or bridge resected bone defects. In addition to the now-established intramedullary procedures, two different fixator systems are in use. The present study investigated the classical Ilizarov ring fixator (IRF) and a hexapod to assess the precision of lower-leg lengthening and complications classified using the Paley criteria for problems, obstacles, and complications...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932678/adjustments-with-running-speed-reveal-neuromuscular-adaptations-during-landing-associated-with-high-mileage-running-training
#19
Jasper Verheul, Adam C Clansey, Mark J Lake
It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations prior to and during the first half of stance, and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n=13) and low mileage (LM; <15 km/wk, n=13) runners ran at four speeds (2...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932358/association-between-lower-limb-osteoarthritis-and-incidence-of-depressive-symptoms-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative
#20
Nicola Veronese, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Toby O Smith, Marianna Noale, Cyrus Cooper, Stefania Maggi
BACKGROUND: osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with a number of medical morbidities. Although the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms is presumed to be high in people with OA, no prospective comparative study has analyzed its incidence. OBJECTIVE: to determine whether OA was associated with an increased odds of developing depressive symptoms. DESIGN: longitudinal cohort study (follow-up: 4.2 years). SETTING: data were gathered from the North American Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) dataset...
December 7, 2016: Age and Ageing
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