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Speech understanding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351354/the-effects-of-intensive-speech-treatment-on-conversational-intelligibility-in-spanish-speakers-with-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Gemma Moya-Galé, Alireza Goudarzi, Àngels Bayés, Megan McAuliffe, Bram Bulté, Erika S Levy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of intensive speech treatment on the conversational intelligibility of Castilian Spanish speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as on the speakers' self-perceptions of disability. Method: Fifteen speakers with a medical diagnosis of PD participated in this study. Speech recordings were completed twice before treatment, immediately posttreatment, and at a 1-month follow-up session. Conversational intelligibility was assessed in 2 ways-transcription accuracy scores and intelligibility ratings on a 9-point Likert scale...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343859/rate-after-effects-fail-to-transfer-cross-modally-evidence-for-distributed-sensory-timing-mechanisms
#2
Aysha Motala, James Heron, Paul V McGraw, Neil W Roach, David Whitaker
Accurate time perception is critical for a number of human behaviours, such as understanding speech and the appreciation of music. However, it remains unresolved whether sensory time perception is mediated by a central timing component regulating all senses, or by a set of distributed mechanisms, each dedicated to a single sensory modality and operating in a largely independent manner. To address this issue, we conducted a range of unimodal and cross-modal rate adaptation experiments, in order to establish the degree of specificity of classical after-effects of sensory adaptation...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341346/a-systematic-review-and-classification-of-interventions-for-speech-sound-disorder-in-preschool-children
#3
REVIEW
Yvonne Wren, Sam Harding, Juliet Goldbart, Sue Roulstone
BACKGROUND: Multiple nterventions have been developed to address speech sound disorder (SSD) in children. Many of these have been evaluated but the evidence for these has not been considered within a model which categorizes types of intervention. The opportunity to carry out a systematic of interventions for SSD arose as part of a larger scale study of interventions for primary speech and language impairment in preschool children. AIMS: To review systematically the evidence for interventions for SSD in preschool children and to categorize them within a classification of interventions for SSD...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339512/neural-preservation-underlies-speech-improvement-from-auditory-deprivation-in-young-cochlear-implant-recipients
#4
Gangyi Feng, Erin M Ingvalson, Tina M Grieco-Calub, Megan Y Roberts, Maura E Ryan, Patrick Birmingham, Delilah Burrowes, Nancy M Young, Patrick C M Wong
Although cochlear implantation enables some children to attain age-appropriate speech and language development, communicative delays persist in others, and outcomes are quite variable and difficult to predict, even for children implanted early in life. To understand the neurobiological basis of this variability, we used presurgical neural morphological data obtained from MRI of individual pediatric cochlear implant (CI) candidates implanted younger than 3.5 years to predict variability of their speech-perception improvement after surgery...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338310/therapy-induced-plasticity-in-chronic-aphasia-is-associated-with-behavioral-improvement-and-time-since-stroke
#5
Priya Santhanam, E Susan Duncan, Steven L Small
Cortical reorganization after stroke is thought to underlie functional improvement. Patterns of reorganization may differ depending on the amount of time since the stroke or the degree of improvement. We investigated these issues in a study of brain connectivity changes with aphasia therapy. Twelve individuals with chronic aphasia participated in a 6-week trial of imitation-based speech therapy. We assessed improvement on a repetition test and analyzed effective connectivity during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a speech observation task before and after therapy...
January 16, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337763/the-effect-of-simulated-interaural-frequency-mismatch-on-speech-understanding-and-spatial-release-from-masking
#6
Matthew J Goupell, Corey A Stoelb, Alan Kan, Ruth Y Litovsky
OBJECTIVE: The binaural-hearing system interaurally compares inputs, which underlies the ability to localize sound sources and to better understand speech in complex acoustic environments. Cochlear implants (CIs) are provided in both ears to increase binaural-hearing benefits; however, bilateral CI users continue to struggle with understanding speech in the presence of interfering sounds and do not achieve the same level of spatial release from masking (SRM) as normal-hearing listeners...
January 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337143/the-role-of-hedgehog-responsive-fibroblasts-in-facial-nerve-regeneration
#7
Gabriela L Bobarnac Dogaru, Subhash C Juneja, Alireza Shokrani, Roseanne Y Hui, Yang Chai, Jon-Paul Pepper
BACKGROUND: Facial nerve paralysis is a significant cause of morbidity, affecting facial appearance, emotional expression, speech, oral competence, and vision. A more complete understanding of the complex cellular events required for successful nerve regeneration may reveal new therapeutic targets. The role of fibroblasts in regeneration, and the process by which the nerve reforms its three-dimensional structure after a transection injury, are not fully understood. The Hedgehog signaling pathway has been shown to mediate nerve sheath formation during development...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334269/effects-of-a-transient-noise-reduction-algorithm-on-speech-intelligibility-in-noise-noise-tolerance-and-perceived-annoyance-in-cochlear-implant-users
#8
J Gertjan Dingemanse, Jantien L Vroegop, André Goedegebure
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and efficacy of a transient noise reduction algorithm (TNR) in cochlear implant processing and the interaction of TNR with a continuous noise reduction algorithm (CNR). DESIGN: We studied the effects of TNR and CNR on the perception of realistic sound samples with transients, using subjective ratings of annoyance, a speech-in-noise test and a noise tolerance test. STUDY SAMPLE: Participants were 16 experienced cochlear implant recipients wearing an Advanced Bionics Naida Q70 processor...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325391/frequency-limiting-effects-on-speech-and-environmental-sound-identification-for-cochlear-implant-and-normal-hearing-listeners
#9
Son-A Chang, Jong Ho Won, HyangHee Kim, Seung-Ha Oh, Richard S Tyler, Chang Hyun Cho
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is important to understand the frequency region of cues used, and not used, by cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Speech and environmental sound recognition by individuals with CI and normal-hearing (NH) was measured. Gradients were also computed to evaluate the pattern of change in identification performance with respect to the low-pass filtering or high-pass filtering cutoff frequencies. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Frequency-limiting effects were implemented in the acoustic waveforms by passing the signals through low-pass filters (LPFs) or high-pass filters (HPFs) with seven different cutoff frequencies...
December 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323402/neurogenic-stuttering-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
C Cruz, H Amorim, G Beca, R Nunes
INTRODUCTION: Neurogenic stuttering is a disorder of neurologic origin in the rhythm of speech during which the patient knows exactly what he wants to say but is unable to because of an involuntary prolongation, cessation or repetition of a sound. AIM: To assemble new insights regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of neurogenic stuttering. DEVELOPMENT: A review of all PubMed and Scopus published articles between January 2000 and September 2016 was performed...
January 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322239/the-lateralized-arcuate-fasciculus-in-developmental-pitch-disorders-among-mandarin-amusics-left-for-speech-and-right-for-music
#11
Xizhuo Chen, Yanxin Zhao, Suyu Zhong, Zaixu Cui, Jiaqi Li, Gaolang Gong, Qi Dong, Yun Nan
The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322106/questioning-the-role-of-facebook-in-maintaining-syrian-social-capital-during-the-syrian-crisis
#12
Reem Ramadan
The Syrian crisis is considered the 'world's single largest crisis for almost a quarter of a century that has the biggest refugee population from a single conflict in a generation' (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2016). The rapid adoption of Facebook among Syrians questions whether it helps in maintaining the social capital of a war-torn nation and a dispersed Syrian population worldwide. Data was collected by means of a Facebook survey from 964 Syrian users. Results indicated that Facebook enhanced social identity and social capital through facilitating communication, collaboration and resource sharing among dispersed Syrians inside and outside the country...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320876/-it-s-not-really-worth-my-while-understanding-contextual-factors-contributing-to-decisions-to-participate-in-community-aphasia-groups
#13
Lucette Lanyon, Linda Worrall, Miranda Rose
PURPOSE: Community aphasia groups represent a formalised opportunity for social participation. The potential barriers and facilitators to accessing and maintaining group participation remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore environmental and personal factors contributing to community aphasia group participation. METHODS: A framework analysis (FA) was used to analyse the semi-structured interview data from 22 current and past members of community aphasia groups...
January 10, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319009/cognitive-function-predicts-listening-effort-performance-during-complex-tasks-in-normally-aging-adults
#14
Jennine Harvey, Deborah von Hapsburg, Scott Seeman
PURPOSE: This study examines whether cognitive function, as measured by the subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WCJ-III) assessment, predicts listening-effort performance during dual tasks across the adults of varying ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 14 listeners (number of females = 11) who were 41-61 years old [mean = 53.18; standard deviation (SD) = 5.97]. Group 2 consisted of 15 listeners (number of females = 9) who were 63-81 years old (mean = 72...
November 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317007/growing-health-partnerships-in-rural-and-remote-communities-what-drives-the-joint-efforts-of-primary-schools-and-universities-in-maintaining-service-learning-partnerships
#15
Sue Kirby, Fabian P Held, Debra Jones, David Lyle
Aim This study explored the partnership between universities and local primary schools to deliver a classroom-based paediatric communication impairment service provided by undergraduate speech pathology students. It aimed to understand how partnerships work to facilitate programme replication. BACKGROUND: The partners included universities sending students on rural clinical placement, local host academic units and primary schools who worked together to provide paediatric speech and language services in primary schools in three sites in Australia...
January 10, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313147/voice-discrimination-by-adults-with-cochlear-implants-the-benefits-of-early-implantation-for-vocal-tract-length-perception
#16
Yael Zaltz, Raymond L Goldsworthy, Liat Kishon-Rabin, Laurie S Eisenberg
Cochlear implant (CI) users find it extremely difficult to discriminate between talkers, which may partially explain why they struggle to understand speech in a multi-talker environment. Recent studies, based on findings with postlingually deafened CI users, suggest that these difficulties may stem from their limited use of vocal-tract length (VTL) cues due to the degraded spectral resolution transmitted by the CI device. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of adult CI users who had no prior acoustic experience, i...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309023/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-approaches-to-auditory-rehabilitation-for-blast-exposed-veterans-with-normal-or-near-normal-hearing-who-report-hearing-problems-in-difficult-listening-situations
#17
Gabrielle H Saunders, Melissa T Frederick, Michelle L Arnold, ShienPei C Silverman, Theresa H Chisolm, Paula J Myers
BACKGROUND: Blast exposure is a major source of injury among Service members in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. Many of these blast-exposed veterans report hearing-related problems such as difficulties understanding speech in noise and rapid speech, and following instructions and long conversations that are disproportionate to their measured peripheral hearing sensitivity. Evidence is mounting that these complaints result from damage to the central auditory processing system. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of audiological rehabilitative interventions for blast-exposed veterans with normal or near-normal peripheral hearing and functional hearing difficulties...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309022/evaluation-of-a-stereo-music-preprocessing-scheme-for-cochlear-implant-users
#18
Wim Buyens, Bas van Dijk, Marc Moonen, Jan Wouters
BACKGROUND: Although for most cochlear implant (CI) users good speech understanding is reached (at least in quiet environments), the perception and the appraisal of music are generally unsatisfactory. PURPOSE: The improvement in music appraisal was evaluated in CI participants by using a stereo music preprocessing scheme implemented on a take-home device, in a comfortable listening environment. The preprocessing allowed adjusting the balance among vocals/bass/drums and other instruments, and was evaluated for different genres of music...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305747/do-children-understand-iconic-gestures-about-events-as-early-as-iconic-gestures-about-entities
#19
Melissa L Glasser, Rebecca A Williamson, Şeyda Özçalışkan
Children can understand iconic co-speech gestures that characterize entities by age 3 (Stanfield et al. in J Child Lang 40(2):1-10, 2014; e.g., "I'm drinking" [Formula: see text] tilting hand in C-shape to mouth as if holding a glass). In this study, we ask whether children understand co-speech gestures that characterize events as early as they do so for entities, and if so, whether their understanding is influenced by the patterns of gesture production in their native language. We examined this question by studying native English speaking 3- to 4 year-old children and adults as they completed an iconic co-speech gesture comprehension task involving motion events across two studies...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305612/effects-of-familiarization-on-intelligibility-of-dysarthric-speech-in-older-adults-with-and-without-hearing-loss
#20
Kaitlin L Lansford, Stephani Luhrsen, Erin M Ingvalson, Stephanie A Borrie
Purpose: Familiarization tasks offer a promising platform for listener-targeted remediation of intelligibility disorders associated with dysarthria. To date, the body of work demonstrating improved understanding of dysarthric speech following a familiarization experience has been carried out on younger adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the intelligibility effects of familiarization in older adults. Method: Nineteen older adults, with and without hearing loss, completed a familiarization protocol consisting of three phases: pretest, familiarization, and posttest...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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