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Speech understanding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213135/genetic-variants-in-the-peripheral-auditory-system-significantly-affect-adult-cochlear-implant-performance
#1
A Eliot Shearer, Robert W Eppsteiner, Kathy Frees, Viral Tejani, Christina M Sloan-Heggen, Carolyn Brown, Paul Abbas, Camille Dunn, Marlan R Hansen, Bruce J Gantz, Richard J H Smith
BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation is an effective habilitation modality for adults with significant hearing loss. However, post-implant performance is variable. A portion of this variance in outcome can be attributed to clinical factors. Recent physiological studies suggest that the health of the spiral ganglion also impacts post-operative cochlear implant outcomes. The goal of this study was to determine whether genetic factors affecting spiral ganglion neurons may be associated with cochlear implant performance...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213134/speech-in-noise-perception-in-musicians-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Emily B J Coffey, Nicolette Mogilever, Robert J Zatorre
The ability to understand speech in the presence of competing sound sources is an important neuroscience question in terms of how the nervous system solves this computational problem. It is also a critical clinical problem that disproportionally affects the elderly, children with language-related learning disorders, and those with hearing loss. Recent evidence that musicians have an advantage on this multifaceted skill has led to the suggestion that musical training might be used to improve or delay the decline of speech-in-noise (SIN) function...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212718/a-speech-and-psychological-profile-of-treatment-seeking-adolescents-who-stutter
#3
Lisa Iverach, Robyn Lowe, Mark Jones, Susan O'Brian, Ross G Menzies, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between stuttering severity, psychological functioning, and overall impact of stuttering, in a large sample of adolescents who stutter. METHOD: Participants were 102 adolescents (11-17 years) seeking speech treatment for stuttering, including 86 boys and 16 girls, classified into younger (11-14 years, n=57) and older (15-17 years, n=45) adolescents. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between speech and psychological variables and overall impact of stuttering...
March 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207842/evaluating-evidence-based-health-care-teaching-and-learning-in-the-undergraduate-human-nutrition-occupational-therapy-physiotherapy-and-speech-language-and-hearing-therapy-programs-at-a-sub-saharan-african-academic-institution
#4
Anel Schoonees, Anke Rohwer, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. METHODS: We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203630/gesture-enhances-learning-of-a-complex-statistical-concept
#5
Linda Rueckert, Ruth Breckinridge Church, Andrea Avila, Theresa Trejo
Prior research has shown that gestures that co-occur with speech can improve understanding of abstract concepts by embodying the underlying meaning of those concepts, thereby making them more accessible to the listener. The present study examined the effect of gesture on undergraduate students' learning of a complex statistical concept (analysis of variance; ANOVA). Students in three classes watched a brief video in which the speaker explained the conceptual background of ANOVA while using gesture and students in three other classes saw a similar video with the same speech, but no gesture...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196475/nutrition-and-dementia-care-developing-an-evidence-based-model-for-nutritional-care-in-nursing-homes
#6
Jane L Murphy, Joanne Holmes, Cindy Brooks
BACKGROUND: There is a growing volume of research to offer improvements in nutritional care for people with dementia living in nursing homes. Whilst a number of interventions have been identified to support food and drink intake, there has been no systematic research to understand the factors for improving nutritional care from the perspectives of all those delivering care in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to develop a research informed model for understanding the complex nutritional problems associated with eating and drinking for people with dementia...
February 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196377/speaking-tongues-are-actively-braced
#7
Bryan Gick, Blake Allen, François Roewer-Després, Ian Stavness
Purpose: Bracing of the tongue against opposing vocal-tract surfaces such as the teeth or palate has long been discussed in the context of biomechanical, somatosensory, and aeroacoustic aspects of tongue movement. However, previous studies have tended to describe bracing only in terms of contact (rather than mechanical support), and only in limited phonetic contexts, supporting a widespread view of bracing as an occasional state, peculiar to specific sounds or sound combinations. Method: The present study tests the pervasiveness and effortfulness of tongue bracing in continuous English speech passages using electropalatography and 3-D biomechanical simulations...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194120/sincere-deceitful-and-ironic-communicative-acts-and-the-role-of-the-theory-of-mind-in-childhood
#8
Francesca M Bosco, Ilaria Gabbatore
The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship among age, first- and second-order Theory of Mind and the increasing ability of children to understand and produce different kinds of communicative acts - sincere, ironic, and deceitful communicative acts - expressed through linguistic and extralinguistic expressive means. To communicate means to modify an interlocutor's mental states (Grice, 1989), and pragmatics studies the inferential processes that are necessary to fill the gap, which often exists in human communication, between the literal meaning of a speaker's utterance and what the speaker intends to communicate to the interlocutor...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193135/a-longitudinal-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-motivation-and-late-second-language-speech-learning-in-classroom-settings
#9
Kazuya Saito, Jean-Marc Dewaele, Keiko Hanzawa
The current study set out to examine the role of learner motivation in second language (L2) speech learning in English-as-a-Foreign-Language classrooms. The motivational orientations of 40 first-year university Japanese students were surveyed via a tailored questionnaire and linked to their spontaneous speech development, elicited via a timed picture description task at the onset and end of one academic semester, in terms of perceived comprehensibility (i.e., ease of understanding) and accentedness (i.e., linguistic nativelikeness)...
January 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182973/dyslexia-risk-gene-relates-to-representation-of-sound-in-the-auditory-brainstem
#10
Nicole E Neef, Bent Müller, Johanna Liebig, Gesa Schaadt, Maren Grigutsch, Thomas C Gunter, Arndt Wilcke, Holger Kirsten, Michael A Skeide, Indra Kraft, Nina Kraus, Frank Emmrich, Jens Brauer, Johannes Boltze, Angela D Friederici
Dyslexia is a reading disorder with strong associations with KIAA0319 and DCDC2. Both genes play a functional role in spike time precision of neurons. Strikingly, poor readers show an imprecise encoding of fast transients of speech in the auditory brainstem. Whether dyslexia risk genes are related to the quality of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem remains to be investigated. Here, we quantified the response consistency of speech-evoked brainstem responses to the acoustically presented syllable [da] in 159 genotyped, literate and preliterate children...
January 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179553/mouth-and-voice-a-relationship-between-visual-and-auditory-preference-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus
#11
Lin L Zhu, Michael S Beauchamp
Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually-presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176397/a-scientific-theory-of-ars-memoriae-spatial-view-cells-in-a-continuous-attractor-network-with-linked-items
#12
Edmund T Rolls
The art of memory (ars memoriae) used since classical times includes using a well-known scene to associate each view or part of the scene with a different item in a speech. This memory technique is also known as the 'method of loci'. The new theory is proposed that this type of memory is implemented in the CA3 region of the hippocampus where there are spatial view cells in primates that allow a particular view to be associated with a particular object in an event or episodic memory. Given that the CA3 cells with their extensive recurrent collateral system connecting different CA3 cells, and associative synaptic modifiability, form an autoassociation or attractor network, the spatial view cells with their approximately Gaussian view fields become linked in a continuous attractor network...
February 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174545/categorization-of-natural-whistled-vowels-by-na%C3%A3-ve-listeners-of-different-language-background
#13
Julien Meyer, Laure Dentel, Fanny Meunier
Whistled speech in a non-tonal language consists of the natural emulation of vocalic and consonantal qualities in a simple modulated whistled signal. This special speech register represents a natural telecommunication system that enables high levels of sentence intelligibility by trained speakers and is not directly intelligible to naïve listeners. Yet, it is easily learned by speakers of the language that is being whistled, as attested by the current efforts of the revitalization of whistled Spanish in the Canary Islands...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173768/-bowel-prep-hyponatremia-a-state-of-acute-water-intoxication-facilitated-by-low-dietary-solute-intake-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Martin Windpessl, Christoph Schwarz, Manfred Wallner
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic hyponatremia is considered a rare complication of oral bowel preparation for colonoscopy. The pathophysiology underlying this phenomenon has been widely regarded as a mere sequela of excessive arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. CASE PRESENTATION: This case describes a 61-year old woman who developed acute hyponatremic encephalopathy when preparing for elective outpatient lower endoscopy. She had had negligible oral solute intake for two days and ingested four liters of clear fluid within two hours...
February 7, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169839/speech-intelligibility-as-a-cue-for-acceptable-noise-levels
#15
Karrie L Recker, Christophe Micheyl
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to examine whether individuals are using speech intelligibility to determine how much noise they are willing to accept while listening to running speech. Previous research has shown that the amount of background noise that an individual is willing to accept while listening to speech is predictive of his or her likelihood of success with hearing aids. If it were possible to determine the criterion by which individuals make this judgment, then it may be possible to alter this cue, especially for those who are unlikely to be successful with hearing aids, and thereby improve their chances of success with hearing aids...
February 6, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168061/right-hemisphere-remapping-of-naming-functions-depends-on-lesion-size-and-location-in-poststroke-aphasia
#16
Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Elizabeth H Lacey, Shihui Xing, Peter E Turkeltaub
The study of language network plasticity following left hemisphere stroke is foundational to the understanding of aphasia recovery and neural plasticity in general. Damage in different language nodes may influence whether local plasticity is possible and whether right hemisphere recruitment is beneficial. However, the relationships of both lesion size and location to patterns of remapping are poorly understood. In the context of a picture naming fMRI task, we tested whether lesion size and location relate to activity in surviving left hemisphere language nodes, as well as homotopic activity in the right hemisphere during covert name retrieval and overt name production...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167379/within-session-effect-of-repeated-stress-exposure-on-extinction-circuitry-function-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#17
Fredrik Åhs, Malin Gingnell, Tomas Furmark, Mats Fredrikson
Anxiety reduction following repeated exposure to stressful experiences is generally held to depend on neural processes involved in extinction of conditioned fear. We predicted that repeated exposure to stressful experiences would change activity throughout the circuitry serving extinction, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the hippocampus and the amygdala. To test this prediction, 36 participants diagnosed with SAD performed two successive speeches in front of an observing audience while regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was recorded using positron emission tomography...
January 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167003/visual-speech-alters-the-discrimination-and-identification-of-non-intact-auditory-speech-in-children-with-hearing-loss
#18
Susan Jerger, Markus F Damian, Rachel P McAlpine, Hervé Abdi
OBJECTIVES: Understanding spoken language is an audiovisual event that depends critically on the ability to discriminate and identify phonemes yet we have little evidence about the role of early auditory experience and visual speech on the development of these fundamental perceptual skills. Objectives of this research were to determine 1) how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification; 2) whether visual speech influences these two processes in a like manner, such that discrimination predicts identification; and 3) how the degree of hearing loss affects this relationship...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163193/the-neuropathological-signature-of-bulbar-onset-als-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
S Shellikeri, V Karthikeyan, R Martino, S E Black, L Zinman, J Keith, Y Yunusova
ALS is a multisystem disorder affecting cognitive and motor functions. Bulbar-onset ALS (bALS) may be preferentially associated with language/cognitive impairments, compared with spinal-onset ALS (sALS), stemming from a potentially unique neuropathology. The objective of this systematic review was to compare neuropathology reported for bALS and sALS subtypes in studies of cadaveric brains. Using Cochrane guidelines, we reviewed articles in MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases using standardized search terms for ALS and neuropathology, from inception until July 16th 2016...
February 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155306/an-audiological-profile-of-patients-infected-with-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-at-a-district-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal
#20
Delicia Appana, Lavanithum Joseph, Jessica Paken
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the consequent use of aminoglycosides with their ototoxic potential necessitate a better understanding of the audiological pattern of infected patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence and nature of hearing loss in patients with MDR-TB receiving aminoglycosides over a period of 6 months. METHODS: Baseline and five consecutive monthly audiological assessments were conducted on 52 adults at a hospital in KwaZulu-Natal...
November 25, 2016: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
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