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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784061/understanding-developmental-language-disorder-the-helsinki-longitudinal-sli-study-helsli-a-study-protocol
#1
Marja Laasonen, Sini Smolander, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Miika Leminen, Hanna-Reetta Lajunen, Kati Heinonen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Todd M Bailey, Emmanuel M Pothos, Teija Kujala, Paavo H T Leppänen, Christopher W Bartlett, Ahmed Geneid, Leena Lauronen, Elisabet Service, Sari Kunnari, Eva Arkkila
BACKGROUND: Developmental language disorder (DLD, also called specific language impairment, SLI) is a common developmental disorder comprising the largest disability group in pre-school-aged children. Approximately 7% of the population is expected to have developmental language difficulties. However, the specific etiological factors leading to DLD are not yet known and even the typical linguistic features appear to vary by language. We present here a project that investigates DLD at multiple levels of analysis and aims to make the reliable prediction and early identification of the difficulties possible...
May 21, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780970/three-challenges-for-future-research-on-cochlear-implants
#2
REVIEW
David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Michael S Harris, Aaron C Moberly
Cochlear implants (CIs) often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL) hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779149/an-invitation-to-travel-in-an-interethnic-arena-listening-carefully-to-amerindian-leaders-speeches
#3
Rafaela Waddington Achatz, Danilo Silva Guimarães
In this article, we identify usual difficulties faced by Brazilian psychologists when dealing with Amerindian Peoples, concerning the systematic violence experienced by those Peoples, who have been suffering and fighting against a process of genocide and ethnocide. To identify those difficulties, we analysed speeches of Amerindian leaders of the State of São Paulo - Guarani Mbya, Pankararu, Xavante, Baniwa, Tupi - Guarani, Terena, Kaingang and Krenak - which were addressed to psychologists. Those speeches were delivered in events promoted by CRP-SP in 2010 and in the 2nd and 3rd Forums "The Amerindian presence in São Paulo" at the Institute of Psychology (USP), in 2014...
May 19, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777327/intensity-discrimination-and-speech-recognition-of-cochlear-implant-users
#4
Colette M McKay, Natalie Rickard, Katherine Henshall
The relation between speech recognition and within-channel or across-channel (i.e., spectral tilt) intensity discrimination was measured in nine CI users (11 ears). Within-channel intensity difference limens (IDLs) were measured at four electrode locations across the electrode array. Spectral tilt difference limens were measured with (XIDL-J) and without (XIDL) level jitter. Only three subjects could perform the XIDL-J task with the amount of jitter required to limit use of within-channel cues. XIDLs (normalized to %DR) were correlated with speech recognition (r = 0...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772380/task-dependent-modulation-of-the-visual-sensory-thalamus-assists-visual-speech-recognition
#5
Begoña Díaz, Helen Blank, Katharina von Kriegstein
The cerebral cortex modulates early sensory processing via feed-back connections to sensory pathway nuclei. The functions of this top-down modulation for human behavior are poorly understood. Here, we show that top-down modulation of the visual sensory thalamus (the lateral geniculate body, LGN) is involved in visual-speech recognition. In two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, LGN response increased when participants processed fast-varying features of articulatory movements required for visual-speech recognition, as compared to temporally more stable features required for face identification with the same stimulus material...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771359/neural-bases-of-social-communicative-intentions-in-speech
#6
Nele Hellbernd, Daniela Sammler
Our ability to understand others' communicative intentions in speech is key to successful social interaction. Indeed, misunderstanding an "excuse me" as apology, while meant as criticism, may have important consequences. Recent behavioural studies have provided evidence that prosody, i.e., vocal tone, is an important indicator for speakers' intentions. Using a novel audio-morphing paradigm, the present fMRI study examined the neurocognitive mechanisms that allow listeners to 'read' speakers' intents from vocal-prosodic patterns...
May 16, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770442/current-concepts-in-the-neuropathogenesis-of-mucolipidosis-type-iv
#7
REVIEW
Lauren C Boudewyn, Steven U Walkley
Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disorder causing progressively severe intellectual disability, motor and speech deficits, retinal degeneration often culminating in blindness, and systemic disease causing a shortened lifespan. MLIV results from mutations in the gene MCOLN1 encoding the transient receptor potential channel mucolipin-1. It is an ultra-rare disease and is currently known to affect just over 100 diagnosed individuals. The last decade has provided a wealth of research focused on understanding the role of the enigmatic mucolipin-1 protein in cell and brain function and how its absence causes disease...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765620/reducing-language-to-rhythm-amazonian-bora-drummed-language-exploits-speech-rhythm-for-long-distance-communication
#8
Frank Seifart, Julien Meyer, Sven Grawunder, Laure Dentel
Many drum communication systems around the world transmit information by emulating tonal and rhythmic patterns of spoken languages in sequences of drumbeats. Their rhythmic characteristics, in particular, have not been systematically studied so far, although understanding them represents a rare occasion for providing an original insight into the basic units of speech rhythm as selected by natural speech practices directly based on beats. Here, we analyse a corpus of Bora drum communication from the northwest Amazon, which is nowadays endangered with extinction...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761835/attention-to-speech-and-spoken-language-development-in-deaf-children-with-cochlear-implants-a-10-year-longitudinal-study
#9
Yuanyuan Wang, Carissa L Shafto, Derek M Houston
Early auditory/language experience plays an important role in language development. In this study, we examined the effects of severe-to-profound hearing loss and subsequent cochlear implantation on the development of attention to speech in children with cochlear implants (CIs). In addition, we investigated the extent to which attention to speech may predict spoken language development in children with CIs. We tested children with CIs and compared them to chronologically age-matched peers with normal hearing (NH) on their attention to speech at four time points post implantation; specifically, less than 1 month, 3 to 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months post implantation...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758189/audiovisual-perception-in-amblyopia-a-review-and-synthesis
#10
REVIEW
Michael D Richards, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Amblyopia is a common developmental sensory disorder that has been extensively and systematically investigated as a unisensory visual impairment. However, its effects are increasingly recognized to extend beyond vision to the multisensory domain. Indeed, amblyopia is associated with altered cross-modal interactions in audiovisual temporal perception, audiovisual spatial perception, and audiovisual speech perception. Furthermore, although the visual impairment in amblyopia is typically unilateral, the multisensory abnormalities tend to persist even when viewing with both eyes...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754020/the-relationship-between-schizotypal-traits-and-hoarding-symptoms-an-examination-of-symptom-specificity-and-the-role-of-perceived-cognitive-failures
#11
Marc J Weintraub, Caitlin A Brown, Kiara R Timpano
BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder presents significant individual and interpersonal consequences. Because hoarding has only recently been added to the DSM, relatively little is known about associated comorbidity patterns. Several researchers have postulated a relationship between hoarding and schizotypy. To date, however, no investigations have considered which specific types of schizotypal traits relate to hoarding symptoms. METHODS: We examined the association between hoarding and schizotypal symptoms using multivariate analyses in two samples-a sample of 120 young adults and a community sample of 291 individuals recruited from Mechanical Turk's online crowdsourcing system...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744729/supra-threshold-hearing-and-fluctuation-profiles-implications-for-sensorineural-and-hidden-hearing-loss
#12
REVIEW
Laurel H Carney
An important topic in contemporary auditory science is supra-threshold hearing. Difficulty hearing at conversational speech levels in background noise has long been recognized as a problem of sensorineural hearing loss, including that associated with aging (presbyacusis). Such difficulty in listeners with normal thresholds has received more attention recently, especially associated with descriptions of synaptopathy, the loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers as a result of noise exposure or aging. Synaptopathy has been reported to cause a disproportionate loss of low- and medium-spontaneous rate (L/MSR) AN fibers...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740795/coping-with-adversity-individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-noisy-and-accented-speech
#13
Drew J McLaughlin, Melissa M Baese-Berk, Tessa Bent, Stephanie A Borrie, Kristin J Van Engen
During speech communication, both environmental noise and nonnative accents can create adverse conditions for the listener. Individuals recruit additional cognitive, linguistic, and/or perceptual resources when faced with such challenges. Furthermore, listeners vary in their ability to understand speech in adverse conditions. In the present study, we compared individuals' receptive vocabulary, inhibition, rhythm perception, and working memory with transcription accuracy (i.e., intelligibility scores) for four adverse listening conditions: native speech in speech-shaped noise, native speech with a single-talker masker, nonnative-accented speech in quiet, and nonnative-accented speech in speech-shaped noise...
May 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740294/converging-evidence-from-electrocorticography-and-bold-fmri-for-a-sharp-functional-boundary-in-superior-temporal-gyrus-related-to-multisensory-speech-processing
#14
Muge Ozker, Daniel Yoshor, Michael S Beauchamp
Although humans can understand speech using the auditory modality alone, in noisy environments visual speech information from the talker's mouth can rescue otherwise unintelligible auditory speech. To investigate the neural substrates of multisensory speech perception, we compared neural activity from the human superior temporal gyrus (STG) in two datasets. One dataset consisted of direct neural recordings (electrocorticography, ECoG) from surface electrodes implanted in epilepsy patients (this dataset has been previously published)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729903/restoration-of-spatial-hearing-in-adult-cochlear-implant-users-with-single-sided-deafness
#15
Ruth Y Litovsky, Keng Moua, Shelly Godar, Alan Kan, Sara M Misurelli, Daniel J Lee
In recent years, cochlear implants (CIs) have been provided in growing numbers to people with not only bilateral deafness but also to people with unilateral hearing loss, at times in order to alleviate tinnitus. This study presents audiological data from 15 adult participants (ages 48 ± 12 years) with single sided deafness. Results are presented from 9/15 adults, who received a CI (SSD-CI) in the deaf ear and were tested in Acoustic or Acoustic + CI hearing modes, and 6/15 adults who are planning to receive a CI, and were tested in the unilateral condition only...
April 14, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729592/role-of-inter-trial-phase-coherence-in-atypical-auditory-evoked-potentials-to-speech-and-nonspeech-stimuli-in-children-with-autism
#16
Luodi Yu, Suiping Wang, Dan Huang, Xueyuan Wu, Yang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This autism study investigated how inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) drives abnormalities in auditory evoked potential (AEP) responses for speech and nonspeech stimuli. METHODS: Auditory P1-N2 responses and ITPCs in the theta band (4-7 Hz) for pure tones and words were assessed with EEG data from 15 school-age children with autism and 16 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls. RESULTS: The autism group showed enhanced P1 and reduced N2 for both speech and nonspeech stimuli in comparison with the TD group...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725501/the-untold-stories-of-the-speech-gene-the-foxp2-cancer-gene
#17
REVIEW
Maria Jesus Herrero, Yorick Gitton
FOXP2 encodes a transcription factor involved in speech and language acquisition. Growing evidence now suggests that dysregulated FOXP2 activity may also be instrumental in human oncogenesis, along the lines of other cardinal developmental transcription factors such as DLX5 and DLX6 [1-4]. Several FOXP familymembers are directly involved during cancer initiation, maintenance and progression in the adult [5-8]. This may comprise either a pro-oncogenic activity or a deficient tumor-suppressor role, depending upon cell types and associated signaling pathways...
January 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724145/elizabeth-usher-memorial-lecture-how-do-we-change-our-profession-using-the-lens-of-behavioural-economics-to-improve-evidence-based-practice-in-speech-language-pathology
#18
Patricia J McCabe
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a well-accepted theoretical framework around which speech-language pathologists strive to build their clinical decisions. The profession's conceptualisation of EBP has been evolving over the last 20 years with the practice of EBP now needing to balance research evidence, clinical data and informed patient choices. However, although EBP is not a new concept, as a profession, we seem to be no closer to closing the gap between research evidence and practice than we were at the start of the movement toward EBP in the late 1990s...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724130/elucidating-inconsistencies-in-dysphagia-diagnostics-redefining-normal
#19
Emily K Plowman, Ianessa A Humbert
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are the primary healthcare providers responsible for the evaluation and treatment of dysphagia. Fundamental to this role is the ability to make accurate clinical judgements to distinguish between normal versus disordered swallowing for subsequent treatment planning. In this review, we highlight recent data collected from practising clinicians in the USA that reveal low levels of agreement across clinicians and poor to moderate levels of accuracy for making binary diagnostic ratings (normal vs...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722358/reading-margery-kempe-s-inner-voices
#20
Corinne Saunders, Charles Fernyhough
This article draws on research from the major collaborative research project Hearing the Voice , based at Durham University, to reconsider and foreground Margery Kempe's inner voices, and hence, to return to an emphasis on inner, spiritual experience as shaping her Book . The richness of Margery's multi-sensory experience, and the care with which it is depicted, is illuminated by and illuminates the experience of contemporary voice-hearers, offering a powerful alternative perspective to often reductive bio-medical understandings...
June 2017: Postmedieval: a journal of medieval cultural studies
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