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Speech understanding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147036/measuring-arithmetic-a-psychometric-approach-to-understanding-formatting-effects-and-domain-specificity
#1
Katherine T Rhodes, Lee Branum-Martin, Julie A Washington, Lynn S Fuchs
Using multitrait, multimethod data, and confirmatory factor analysis, the current study examined the effects of arithmetic item formatting and the possibility that across formats, abilities other than arithmetic may contribute to children's answers. Measurement hypotheses were guided by several leading theories of arithmetic cognition. With a sample of 1314 3rd grade students (age M=103.24 months, SD=5.41 months), Abstract Code Theory, Encoding Complex Theory, Triple Code Theory, and the Exact versus Approximate Calculations Hypothesis were evaluated, using 11 measures of arithmetic with symbolic problem formats (e...
October 2017: Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137852/dysarthria-in-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia-depends-on-the-posterior-location-of-active-electrode-contacts-a-pilot-study
#2
K A M Pauls, P J Bröckelmann, S Hammesfahr, J Becker, A Hellerbach, V Visser-Vandewalle, T A Dembek, I G Meister, L Timmermann
BACKGROUND: Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (GPi-DBS) is an efficient treatment for primary dystonia. We investigated stimulation-induced dysarthria, which is the most frequent side-effect of GPi-DBS. METHODS: Speech was recorded while reading a standard text, and performing rapid syllable repetitions ON and OFF DBS in ten dystonia patients (6 men; 3 cervical, 4 segmental, 3 generalized, unselected for DBS-related speech impairments). Speech and articulation rate, pauses, and syllable repetition rates were extracted via acoustic analysis...
November 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132188/-hearing-loss-and-speech-recognition-in-the-elderly
#3
Petra von Gablenz, Inga Holube
Elderly people often complain about poor speech understanding in noisy environments. In clinical practice, speech tests under noise conditions are used to examine hearing ability. The HÖRSTAT study, conducted on a population-based random sample consisting of 1903 adults, used the Goettingen Sentence Test (GÖSA) under noise conditions along with pure-tone audiometry. Hearing impairment was defined as pure-tone average at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz (PTA-4) greater than 25 dB HL in the better ear (WHO criterion). As expected, pure-tone thresholds and speech recognition thresholds (SRT) in GÖSA worsened steadily with age...
November 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130439/cochlear-implantation-in-children-with-postlingual-progressive-steeply-sloping-high-frequency-hearing-loss
#4
Margaret A Meredith, Jay T Rubinstein, Kathleen C Y Sie, Susan J Norton
BACKGROUND: Children with steeply sloping sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) lack access to critical high-frequency cues despite the use of advanced hearing aid technology. In addition, their auditory-only aided speech perception abilities often meet Food and Drug Administration criteria for cochlear implantation. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to describe hearing preservation and speech perception outcomes in a group of young children with steeply sloping SNHL who received a cochlear implant (CI)...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122415/observer-agreement-for-measurements-in-videolaryngostroboscopy
#5
Jan Wouter Brunings, Sophie Vanbelle, Annemarie Akkermans, Nienke M M Heemskerk, Bernd Kremer, Robert J Stokroos, Laura W J Baijens
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the levels of intraobserver and interobserver agreement for measurements of visuoperceptual variables in videolaryngostroboscopic examinations and compared the observers' behavior during independent versus consensus panel rating. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study. SETTING: This study was conducted in a single-center tertiary care facility. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-four patients with dysphonia of heterogeneous etiology were included...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121195/a-national-survey-of-simulation-use-in-university-programs-in-communication-sciences-and-disorders
#6
Carol C Dudding, Elizabeth E Nottingham
Purpose: This study provides a framework for understanding the range and diversity of simulation use, along with the benefits and challenges to the growth of simulation in university programs in communication sciences and disorders (CSD) across the United States. Method: A web-based questionnaire was developed and deployed to educators in undergraduate and graduate speech-language pathology and audiology programs in the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association EdFind database (N = 309)...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117062/relations-between-self-reported-daily-life-fatigue-hearing-status-and-pupil-dilation-during-a-speech-perception-in-noise-task
#7
Yang Wang, Graham Naylor, Sophia E Kramer, Adriana A Zekveld, Dorothea Wendt, Barbara Ohlenforst, Thomas Lunner
OBJECTIVE: People with hearing impairment are likely to experience higher levels of fatigue because of effortful listening in daily communication. This hearing-related fatigue might not only constrain their work performance but also result in withdrawal from major social roles. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationships between fatigue, listening effort, and hearing impairment by examining the evidence from both subjective and objective measurements. The aim of the present study was to investigate these relationships by assessing subjectively measured daily-life fatigue (self-report questionnaires) and objectively measured listening effort (pupillometry) in both normally hearing and hearing-impaired participants...
November 7, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114194/audiology-and-speech-language-pathology-practice-in-saudi-arabia
#8
Ahmad A Alanazi
Objectives: Audiology and speech-language pathology (SLP) are relatively new professions in Saudi Arabia. The idea of establishing new audiology and SLP programs in some education facilities has become popular across Saudi Arabia; yet, only four undergraduate and graduate programs are currently available. This study aimed to explore the fields of audiology and SLP in Saudi Arabia, obtain demography of audiologists and Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), understand their current practices, and identify their perspective on what both professions need to improve...
November 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112533/abo-blood-group-and-cochlear-status-otoacoustic-emission-markers
#9
Welen Weilu Chen, Kin Tsun Chow, Bradley McPherson
OBJECTIVES: There are an increasing number of research studies examining the effects of ABO blood group on susceptibility to disease. However, little is known regarding the potential relationship between blood group and hearing. Higher risk of noise-induced hearing loss was linked to blood group O in several occupational health studies. Based on this finding, a recent study of cochlear status was conducted with normal-hearing female participants representing equal numbers of the four blood groups in the ABO blood group system...
November 4, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112532/speech-in-noise-perception-as-a-marker-of-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infection
#10
Yi Zhan, Abigail M Fellows, Tangkai Qi, Odile H Clavier, Sigfrid D Soli, Xiudong Shi, Jiang Gui, Yuxin Shi, Jay C Buckey
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals report hearing difficulties, but standard audiological tests show no, or small, changes in peripheral hearing ability. The hearing complaints may reflect central nervous system (CNS) auditory processing deficits, rather than middle or inner ear problems, and may result from CNS damage due to HIV infection or treatment. If central auditory task performance and cognitive deficits in HIV+ individuals are shown to be related, then central auditory tests might serve as a "window" into CNS function in these patients...
November 4, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108924/visual-cortical-activity-before-and-after-cochlear-implantation-a-follow-up-erp-prospective-study-in-deaf-children
#11
Scania de Schonen, Josiane Bertoncini, Nathalie Petroff, Thierry van der Abbeele
ERPs were recorded in response to presentation of static colored patterned stimuli in 25 children (19 to 80months of age at cochlear implantation, CI) with very early prelingual profound deafness (PreLD), 21 postlingual profoundly deaf children (PostLD) (34 to 180months of age at CI) and gender- and age-matched control hearing children. Recording sessions were performed before CI, then 6 and 24months after CI. Results showed that prelingual and, at a lesser degree, postlingual auditory deprivation altered cortical visual neural activity associated to colored shapes from both P1 and N1 cortical processing stages...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108462/the-effect-of-clear-speech-on-temporal-metrics-of-rhythm-in-spanish-accented-speakers-of-english
#12
Alison Behrman, Sarah Hargus Ferguson, Ali Akhund, Mariola Moeyaert
This paper presents a comparative analysis of temporal rhythm in native American English talkers and Spanish-accented English talkers producing clear (hyperarticulated) speech and typical, conversational-style speech. Five acoustic measures of comparative vocalic and consonantal interval duration ("temporal metrics") were obtained from speech samples of 40 adult men and women (half native and half Spanish-accented talkers). In conversational-style speech, vocalic-based metrics differed significantly between native and Spanish-accented talkers, consistent with phonotactic differences between the two native languages...
November 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107847/the-fbn-rat-model-of-aging-investigation-of-abr-waveforms-and-ribbon-synapse-changes
#13
Rui Cai, Scott C Montgomery, Kaley A Graves, Donald M Caspary, Brandon C Cox
Age-related hearing loss is experienced by one-third of individuals aged 65 years and older and can be socially debilitating. Historically, there has been poor correlation between age-related threshold changes, loss of speech understanding, and loss of cochlear hair cells. We examined changes in ribbon synapse number at four different ages in Fisher Brown Norway rats, an extensively studied rat model of aging. In contrast to previous work in mice/Wistar rats, we found minimal ribbon synapse loss before 20 months, with significant differences in 24- and 28-month-old rats at 4 kHz...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099442/prospective-evaluation-of-patients-undergoing-translabyrinthine-excision-of-vestibular-schwannoma-with-concurrent-cochlear-implantation
#14
Meredith A Rooth, Margaret T Dillon, Kevin D Brown
OBJECTIVE: Translabyrinthine (TL) vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection may be accomplished with preservation of the cochlear nerve, permitting successful, concurrent cochlear implantation. In this single institution, Food and Drug Administration-approved feasibility study, we wished to determine the success and outcomes of concurrent cochlear implantation at the time of TL resection of VS. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Tertiary referral center...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098450/early-detection-of-speech-and-voice-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-treated-with-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-a-1-year-follow-up-study
#15
Takashi Tsuboi, Hirohisa Watanabe, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Reiko Ohdake, Makoto Hattori, Kazuya Kawabata, Kazuhiro Hara, Mizuki Ito, Yasushi Fujimoto, Daisuke Nakatsubo, Satoshi Maesawa, Yasukazu Kajita, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
We previously reported that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) had distinct phenotypes of speech and voice disorders: hypokinetic dysarthria, stuttering, breathy voice, strained voice, and spastic dysarthria. However, changes over time remain unclear. In the present study, 32 consecutive PD patients were assessed before and up to 1 year after surgery (PD-DBS). Eleven medically treated PD patients were also assessed (PD-Med). Speech, voice, motor, and cognitive functions were evaluated...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098283/with-some-help-from-others-hands-iconic-gesture-helps-semantic-learning-in-children-with-specific-language-impairment
#16
Susanne S Vogt, Christina Kauschke
Purpose: Semantic learning under 2 co-speech gesture conditions was investigated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. Learning was analyzed between conditions. Method: Twenty children with SLI (aged 4 years), 20 TD children matched for age, and 20 TD children matched for language scores were taught rare nouns and verbs. Children heard the target words while seeing either iconic gestures illustrating a property of the referent or a control gesture focusing children's attention on the word...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092613/individual-variability-as-a-window-on-production-perception-interactions-in-speech-motor-control
#17
Matthias K Franken, Daniel J Acheson, James M McQueen, Frank Eisner, Peter Hagoort
An important part of understanding speech motor control consists of capturing the interaction between speech production and speech perception. This study tests a prediction of theoretical frameworks that have tried to account for these interactions: If speech production targets are specified in auditory terms, individuals with better auditory acuity should have more precise speech targets, evidenced by decreased within-phoneme variability and increased between-phoneme distance. A study was carried out consisting of perception and production tasks in counterbalanced order...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092591/continued-search-for-better-prediction-of-aided-speech-understanding-in-multi-talker-environments
#18
Jing Xia, Sridhar Kalluri, Christophe Micheyl, Ervin Hafter
To better understand issues of hearing-aid benefit during natural listening, this study examined the added demand placed by the goal of understanding speech over the more typically studied goal of simply recognizing speech sounds. The study compared hearing-aid benefit in two conditions, and examined factors that might account for the observed benefits. In the phonetic condition, listeners needed only identify the correct sound to make a correct response. In the semantic condition, listeners had to understand what they had heard to respond correctly, because the answer did not include any keywords from the spoken speech...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091112/speech-profile-of-patients-undergoing-primary-palatoplasty
#19
Katia Ignacio Menegueti, Laura Davison Mangilli, Nivaldo Alonso, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade
PURPOSE: To characterize the profile and speech characteristics of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty in a Brazilian university hospital, considering the time of intervention (early, before two years of age; late, after two years of age). METHODS: Participants were 97 patients of both genders with cleft palate and/or cleft and lip palate, assigned to the Speech-language Pathology Department, who had been submitted to primary palatoplasty and presented no prior history of speech-language therapy...
October 26, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090640/listening-into-2030-workshop-an-experiment-in-envisioning-the-future-of-hearing-and-communication-science
#20
Simon Carlile, Gregory Ciccarelli, Jane Cockburn, Anna C Diedesch, Megan K Finnegan, Ervin Hafter, Simon Henin, Sridhar Kalluri, Alexander J E Kell, Erol J Ozmeral, Casey L Roark, Jessica E Sagers
Here we report the methods and output of a workshop examining possible futures of speech and hearing science out to 2030. Using a design thinking approach, a range of human-centered problems in communication were identified that could provide the motivation for a wide range of research. Nine main research programs were distilled and are summarized: (a) measuring brain and other physiological parameters, (b) auditory and multimodal displays of information, (c) auditory scene analysis, (d) enabling and understanding shared auditory virtual spaces, (e) holistic approaches to health management and hearing impairment, (f) universal access to evolving and individualized technologies, (g) biological intervention for hearing dysfunction, (h) understanding the psychosocial interactions with technology and other humans as mediated by technology, and (i) the impact of changing models of security and privacy...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
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