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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098502/united-kingdom-national-paediatric-bilateral-project-results-of-professional-rating-scales-and-parent-questionnaires
#1
H E Cullington, D Bele, J C Brinton, S Cooper, M Daft, J Harding, N Hatton, J Humphries, M E Lutman, J Maddocks, J Maggs, K Millward, G O'Donoghue, S Patel, K Rajput, V Salmon, T Sear, A Speers, A Wheeler, K Wilson
OBJECTIVES: This fourteen-centre project used professional rating scales and parent questionnaires to assess longitudinal outcomes in a large non-selected population of children receiving simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implants. METHODS: This was an observational non-randomized service evaluation. Data were collected at four time points: before bilateral cochlear implants or before the sequential implant, one year, two years, and three years after...
January 18, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095012/how-our-own-speech-rate-influences-our-perception-of-others
#2
Hans Rutger Bosker
In conversation, our own speech and that of others follow each other in rapid succession. Effects of the surrounding context on speech perception are well documented but, despite the ubiquity of the sound of our own voice, it is unknown whether our own speech also influences our perception of other talkers. This study investigated context effects induced by our own speech through 6 experiments, specifically targeting rate normalization (i.e., perceiving phonetic segments relative to surrounding speech rate)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094647/using-drawings-as-a-reflective-tool-to-enhance-communication-in-dementia-care
#3
Phil McEvoy, Sue Bellass
Communication skills training can be a valuable means of supporting professional and family carers of people with dementia. Most communication skills training programmes for those caring for people with dementia focus on dementia awareness and the technical aspects of communication, such as the pace and volume of the carer's speech. However, it is also important to examine what is conveyed about a carer's internal experience in their non-verbal interactions with people living with dementia. This article explores how drawings can be used to help carers to reflect on what is communicated and question any hidden assumptions...
January 4, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093889/power-in-methods-language-to-infants-in-structured-and-naturalistic-contexts
#4
Catherine S Tamis-LeMonda, Yana Kuchirko, Rufan Luo, Kelly Escobar, Marc H Bornstein
Methods can powerfully affect conclusions about infant experiences and learning. Data from naturalistic observations may paint a very different picture of learning and development from those based on structured tasks, as illustrated in studies of infant walking, object permanence, intention understanding, and so forth. Using language as a model system, we compared the speech of 40 mothers to their 13-month-old infants during structured play and naturalistic home routines. The contrasting methods yielded unique portrayals of infant language experiences, while simultaneously underscoring cross-situational correspondence at an individual level...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093574/an-acoustically-driven-vocal-tract-model-for-stop-consonant-production
#5
Brad H Story, Kate Bunton
The purpose of this study was to further develop a multi-tier model of the vocal tract area function in which the modulations of shape to produce speech are generated by the product of a vowel substrate and a consonant superposition function. The new approach consists of specifying input parameters for a target consonant as a set of directional changes in the resonance frequencies of the vowel substrate. Using calculations of acoustic sensitivity functions, these "resonance deflection patterns" are transformed into time-varying deformations of the vocal tract shape without any direct specification of location or extent of the consonant constriction along the vocal tract...
March 2017: Speech Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091761/on-the-origins-of-endogenous-thoughts
#6
Alexandros Tillas
Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
January 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091178/behavioral-assessment-of-listening-effort-using-a-dual-task-paradigm
#7
Jean-Pierre Gagné, Jana Besser, Ulrike Lemke
Published investigations ( n = 29) in which a dual-task experimental paradigm was employed to measure listening effort during speech understanding in younger and older adults were reviewed. A summary of the main findings reported in the articles is provided with respect to the participants' age-group and hearing status. Effects of different signal characteristics, such as the test modality, on dual-task outcomes are evaluated, and associations with cognitive abilities and self-report measures of listening effort are described...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089707/understanding-infant-eating-behaviour-lessons-learned-from-observation
#8
REVIEW
Marion M Hetherington
Observations of human infants during feeding presents a rich source of data to identify the ways in which hunger, appetite and satiety are communicated in early life. Infants signal appetite through their interest or disinterest in food using a series of communication cues from rapid and transient facial expressions to subtle or potent gestures and bodily movements through to vocalisations and eventually speech. Even in the first days of life facial expressions in response to basic tastes are clearly demonstrated and shared between human infants, other primates and the rat...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079113/congenital-hearing-loss
#9
Anna M H Korver, Richard J H Smith, Guy Van Camp, Mark R Schleiss, Maria A K Bitner-Glindzicz, Lawrence R Lustig, Shin-Ichi Usami, An N Boudewyns
Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss...
January 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071974/from-ancient-greece-to-the-cognitive-revolution-a-comprehensive-view-of-physical-rehabilitation-sciences
#10
David Martínez-Pernía, Óscar González-Castán, David Huepe
The development of rehabilitation has traditionally focused on measurements of motor disorders and measurements of the improvements produced during the therapeutic process; however, physical rehabilitation sciences have not focused on understanding the philosophical and scientific principles in clinical intervention and how they are interrelated. The main aim of this paper is to explain the foundation stones of the disciplines of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech/language therapy in recovery from motor disorder...
January 10, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067750/unilateral-hearing-loss-understanding-speech-recognition-and-localization-variability-implications-for-cochlear-implant-candidacy
#11
Jill B Firszt, Ruth M Reeder, Laura K Holden
OBJECTIVES: At a minimum, unilateral hearing loss (UHL) impairs sound localization ability and understanding speech in noisy environments, particularly if the loss is severe to profound. Accompanying the numerous negative consequences of UHL is considerable unexplained individual variability in the magnitude of its effects. Identification of covariables that affect outcome and contribute to variability in UHLs could augment counseling, treatment options, and rehabilitation. Cochlear implantation as a treatment for UHL is on the rise yet little is known about factors that could impact performance or whether there is a group at risk for poor cochlear implant outcomes when hearing is near-normal in one ear...
November 4, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067575/perceptual-judgments-of-resonance-nasal-airflow-understandability-and-acceptability-in-speakers-with-cleft-palate-ordinal-versus-visual-analogue-scaling
#12
Sarah Castick, Rachael-Anne Knight, Debbie Sell
OBJECTIVE:   To investigate the reliability of ordinal versus visual analogue scaling (VAS) ratings for perceptual judgments of nasal resonance, nasal airflow, understandability, and acceptability in speakers with cleft palate. DESIGN:   Within-subjects comparative study. SETTING:   Multisite. PARTICIPANTS:   Five specialist speech and language therapists from U.K. Regional Cleft Centres. OUTCOME MEASURES:   Participants rated 30 audio speech samples obtained from the Speech and Language Therapy archives of Great Ormond Street Hospital...
January 2017: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067221/quantum-chemical-insights-from-deep-tensor-neural-networks
#13
Kristof T Schütt, Farhad Arbabzadah, Stefan Chmiela, Klaus R Müller, Alexandre Tkatchenko
Learning from data has led to paradigm shifts in a multitude of disciplines, including web, text and image search, speech recognition, as well as bioinformatics. Can machine learning enable similar breakthroughs in understanding quantum many-body systems? Here we develop an efficient deep learning approach that enables spatially and chemically resolved insights into quantum-mechanical observables of molecular systems. We unify concepts from many-body Hamiltonians with purpose-designed deep tensor neural networks, which leads to size-extensive and uniformly accurate (1 kcal mol(-1)) predictions in compositional and configurational chemical space for molecules of intermediate size...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063244/single-sided-deafness-affects-language-and-auditory-development-a-case-control-study
#14
Anouk Sangen, Liesbeth Royackers, Christian Desloovere, Jan Wouters, Astrid van Wieringen
OBJECTIVES: To examine auditory, linguistic and cognitive outcomes of children with single sided deafness (SSD). An increasing body of research suggests that children with SSD lag behind with respect to their normal hearing (NH) peers. In the present study we tap into certain developmental skills. DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: 21 children with SSD between 5 and 15 years of age participated. Per child with SSD two NH control children were matched on age and gender...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060992/a-longitudinal-study-in-children-with-sequential-bilateral-cochlear-implants-time-course-for-the-second-implanted-ear-and-bilateral-performance
#15
Ruth M Reeder, Jill B Firszt, Jamie H Cadieux, Michael J Strube
Purpose: Whether, and if so when, a second-ear cochlear implant should be provided to older, unilaterally implanted children is an ongoing clinical question. This study evaluated rate of speech recognition progress for the second implanted ear and with bilateral cochlear implants in older sequentially implanted children and evaluated localization abilities. Method: A prospective longitudinal study included 24 bilaterally implanted children (mean ear surgeries at 5...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060090/morphology-of-the-levator-veli-palatini-muscle-in-adults-with-repaired-cleft-palate
#16
Katelyn J Kotlarek, Jamie L Perry, Xiangming Fang
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in levator veli palatini (levator) morphology between adults with repaired cleft palate and adults with noncleft anatomy. Fifteen adult participants (10 with noncleft anatomy, 5 with repaired cleft palate) underwent 3-dimensional (3D) static magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Image analyses included measures of total muscle volume and the circumference and diameter at 6 points along the length of the muscle. Differences between groups were analyzed using independent sample Mann-Whitney U tests (α < 0...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054912/the-effect-of-conventional-and-transparent-surgical-masks-on-speech-understanding-in-individuals-with-and-without-hearing-loss
#17
Samuel R Atcherson, Lisa Lucks Mendel, Wesley J Baltimore, Chhayakanta Patro, Sungmin Lee, Monique Pousson, M Joshua Spann
BACKGROUND: It is generally well known that speech perception is often improved with integrated audiovisual input whether in quiet or in noise. In many health-care environments, however, conventional surgical masks block visual access to the mouth and obscure other potential facial cues. In addition, these environments can be noisy. Although these masks may not alter the acoustic properties, the presence of noise in addition to the lack of visual input can have a deleterious effect on speech understanding...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054907/-the-effect-of-conventional-and-transparent-surgical-masks-on-speech-understanding-in-individuals-with-and-without-hearing-loss-by-atcherson-et-al
#18
EDITORIAL
Gary P Jacobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045787/some-neurocognitive-correlates-of-noise-vocoded-speech-perception-in-children-with-normal-hearing-a-replication-and-extension-of-eisenberg-et-al-2002
#19
Adrienne S Roman, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Kathleen F Faulkner
OBJECTIVES: Noise-vocoded speech is a valuable research tool for testing experimental hypotheses about the effects of spectral degradation on speech recognition in adults with normal hearing (NH). However, very little research has utilized noise-vocoded speech with children with NH. Earlier studies with children with NH focused primarily on the amount of spectral information needed for speech recognition without assessing the contribution of neurocognitive processes to speech perception and spoken word recognition...
December 27, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040344/-other-care-in-parkinson-s-disease-psychological-rehabilitation-therapeutic-education-and-new-technologies
#20
Julia Dupouy, Fabienne Ory-Magne, Christine Brefel-Courbon
Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is often traumatic. It is then important to organize this announcement in order to support the patient in this major step of his care course. Anxiety and depression are present in about 50% of PD patients. Besides pharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy induces improvement in anxio-depressive symptoms. We have to promote physical activity for PD patients, from the beginning of the disease, because it prevents from deconditioning, improves motor and non-motor symptoms, quality of life, and decreases loneliness...
December 28, 2016: La Presse Médicale
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