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Speech understanding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639708/young-infants-word-comprehension-given-an-unfamiliar-talker-or-altered-pronunciations
#1
Elika Bergelson, Daniel Swingley
To understand spoken words, listeners must appropriately interpret co-occurring talker characteristics and speech sound content. This ability was tested in 6- to 14-months-olds by measuring their looking to named food and body part images. In the new talker condition (n = 90), pictures were named by an unfamiliar voice; in the mispronunciation condition (n = 98), infants' mothers "mispronounced" the words (e.g., nazz for nose). Six- to 7-month-olds fixated target images above chance across conditions, understanding novel talkers, and mothers' phonologically deviant speech equally...
June 22, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638329/the-contribution-of-cognitive-factors-to-individual-differences-in-understanding-noise-vocoded-speech-in-young-and-older-adults
#2
Stephanie Rosemann, Carsten Gießing, Jale Özyurt, Rebecca Carroll, Sebastian Puschmann, Christiane M Thiel
Noise-vocoded speech is commonly used to simulate the sensation after cochlear implantation as it consists of spectrally degraded speech. High individual variability exists in learning to understand both noise-vocoded speech and speech perceived through a cochlear implant (CI). This variability is partly ascribed to differing cognitive abilities like working memory, verbal skills or attention. Although clinically highly relevant, up to now, no consensus has been achieved about which cognitive factors exactly predict the intelligibility of speech in noise-vocoded situations in healthy subjects or in patients after cochlear implantation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637445/cerebellar-mutism-syndrome-in-children-with-brain-tumours-of-the-posterior-fossa
#3
Morten Wibroe, Johan Cappelen, Charlotte Castor, Niels Clausen, Pernilla Grillner, Thora Gudrunardottir, Ramneek Gupta, Bengt Gustavsson, Mats Heyman, Stefan Holm, Atte Karppinen, Camilla Klausen, Tuula Lönnqvist, René Mathiasen, Pelle Nilsson, Karsten Nysom, Karin Persson, Olof Rask, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Astrid Sehested, Harald Thomassen, Ingrid Tonning-Olsson, Barbara Zetterqvist, Marianne Juhler
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has been reported in up to 39% of the patients but the exact incidence is uncertain since milder cases may be unrecognized. Recovery is usually incomplete. Reported risk factors are tumour type, midline location and brainstem involvement, but the exact aetiology, surgical and other risk factors, the clinical course and strategies for prevention and treatment are yet to be determined...
June 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635570/quality-dementia-care-prerequisites-and-relational-ethics-among-multicultural-healthcare-providers
#4
Gerd Sylvi Sellevold, Veslemøy Egede-Nissen, Rita Jakobsen, Venke Sørlie
BACKGROUND: Many nursing homes appear as multicultural workplaces where the majority of healthcare providers have an ethnic minority background. This environment creates challenges linked to communication, interaction and cultural differences. Furthermore, the healthcare providers have varied experiences and understanding of what quality care of patients with dementia involves. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to illuminate multi-ethnic healthcare providers' lived experiences of their own working relationship, and its importance to quality care for people with dementia...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633960/effect-of-stimulus-level-on-the-temporal-response-properties-of-the-auditory-nerve-in-cochlear-implants
#5
Michelle L Hughes, Sarah A Laurello
Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) have been used to examine temporal response patterns of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. ECAP responses to individual pulses in a pulse train vary across stimulation rates for individual CI users. For very slow rates, auditory neurons have ample time to discharge, recover, and respond to each pulse in the train. As the pulse rate increases, an alternating ECAP-amplitude pattern occurs. As the stimulation rate increases further, the alternating pattern eventually ceases and the overall ECAP amplitudes are diminished, yielding a relatively stochastic state that presumably reflects a combination of adaptation, desynchronization, and facilitation across fibers...
June 13, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633958/small-talk-identifying-communication-problems-in-maltreated-children
#6
M Frederico, A L Jackson, C M Black, A Cox, B Joffe
Development of speech and language is rapid in early years, yet if developmental problems in speech and language are not addressed they are likely to continue and impact negatively on a child's overall development and their life trajectory. Children who have experienced abuse and or neglect are particularly vulnerable. The aim of this study was to develop a tool to assist in identifying a child's need for assessment by a speech pathologist so that there could be early identification of problems. A culturally sensitive tool was developed to be completed by the child's carer included questions on language, speech and hearing, voice, fluency, understanding sentences, vocabulary and expression...
June 17, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632018/exploring-the-learnability-and-usability-of-a-near-field-communication-based-application-for-semantic-enrichment-in-children-with-language-disorders
#7
Maria Luisa Lorusso, Emilia Biffi, Massimo Molteni, Gianluigi Reni
Recently, a few software applications (apps) have been developed to enhance vocabulary and conceptual networks to address the needs of children with language impairments (LI), but there is no evidence about their impact and their usability in therapy contexts. Here, we try to fill this gap presenting a system aimed at improving the semantic competence and the structural knowledge of children with LI. The goal of the study is to evaluate learnability, usability, user satisfaction and quality of the interaction between the system and the children...
February 13, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628732/understanding-neurophobia-reasons-behind-impaired-understanding-and-learning-of-neuroanatomy-in-cross-disciplinary-healthcare-students
#8
Muhammad Asim Javaid, Shelly Chakraborty, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens, André Toulouse
Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a broad cohort of medical, dental, occupational therapy, and speech and language sciences students. Direct evidence of the students' perception regarding specific difficulties associated with learning neuroanatomy has been provided and some of the measures required to address these issues have been identified...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624645/cingulo-opercular-activity-affects-incidental-memory-encoding-for-speech-in-noise
#9
Kenneth I Vaden, Susan Teubner-Rhodes, Jayne B Ahlstrom, Judy R Dubno, Mark A Eckert
Correctly understood speech in difficult listening conditions is often more difficult to remember. A long-standing hypothesis for this observation is that the engagement of cognitive resources to aid speech understanding can limit resources available for memory encoding. This hypothesis is consistent with evidence that speech presented in difficult conditions typically elicits greater activity throughout cingulo-opercular regions of frontal cortex that are proposed to optimize task performance through adaptive control of behavior and tonic attention...
June 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621083/metacognition-in-speech-and-language-therapy-for-children-with-social-pragmatic-communication-disorders-implications-for-a-theory-of-therapy
#10
Jacqueline Gaile, Catherine Adams
BACKGROUND: Metacognition is a significant component of complex interventions for children who have developmental language disorders. Research into how metacognition operates in the content or process of developmental language therapy delivery is limited. Identification and description of proposed active therapy components, such as metacognition, may contribute to our understanding of how to deliver complex communication interventions in an optimal manner. AIMS: To analyse aspects of metacognition during therapy derived from a manualized speech and language intervention (the Social Communication Intervention Programme-SCIP) as delivered to children who have social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD) and to examine the dynamic process of delivering therapy...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620998/a-survey-of-speech-language-therapy-provision-for-people-with-post-stroke-dysarthria-in-the-uk
#11
Nick Miller, Steven Bloch
BACKGROUND: A large number of people who experience a stroke are affected by dysarthria. This may be in isolation or in association with aphasia and/or dysphagia. Despite evidence highlighting the psychological and social impact of having post-stroke dysarthria and a number of clinical guidelines that make recommendations for appropriate management, little is known currently about UK service delivery issues relating to speech and language therapy (SLT) assessment and treatment for this group...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620283/octopus-cells-in-the-posteroventral-cochlear-nucleus-provide-the-main-excitatory-input-to-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus
#12
Richard A Felix Ii, Boris Gourévitch, Marcelo Gómez-Álvarez, Sara C M Leijon, Enrique Saldaña, Anna K Magnusson
Auditory streaming enables perception and interpretation of complex acoustic environments that contain competing sound sources. At early stages of central processing, sounds are segregated into separate streams representing attributes that later merge into acoustic objects. Streaming of temporal cues is critical for perceiving vocal communication, such as human speech, but our understanding of circuits that underlie this process is lacking, particularly at subcortical levels. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), a prominent group of inhibitory neurons in the mammalian brainstem, has been implicated in processing temporal information needed for the segmentation of ongoing complex sounds into discrete events...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618817/an-algorithm-to-increase-intelligibility-for-hearing-impaired-listeners-in-the-presence-of-a-competing-talker
#13
Eric W Healy, Masood Delfarah, Jordan L Vasko, Brittney L Carter, DeLiang Wang
Individuals with hearing impairment have particular difficulty perceptually segregating concurrent voices and understanding a talker in the presence of a competing voice. In contrast, individuals with normal hearing perform this task quite well. This listening situation represents a very different problem for both the human and machine listener, when compared to perceiving speech in other types of background noise. A machine learning algorithm is introduced here to address this listening situation. A deep neural network was trained to estimate the ideal ratio mask for a male target talker in the presence of a female competing talker...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618807/the-effect-of-presentation-level-and-stimulation-rate-on-speech-perception-and-modulation-detection-for-cochlear-implant-users
#14
Tim Brochier, Hugh J McDermott, Colette M McKay
In order to improve speech understanding for cochlear implant users, it is important to maximize the transmission of temporal information. The combined effects of stimulation rate and presentation level on temporal information transfer and speech understanding remain unclear. The present study systematically varied presentation level (60, 50, and 40 dBA) and stimulation rate [500 and 2400 pulses per second per electrode (pps)] in order to observe how the effect of rate on speech understanding changes for different presentation levels...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610814/analyzing-crowdsourced-ratings-of-speech-based-take-over-requests-for-automated-driving
#15
P Bazilinskyy, J C F de Winter
Take-over requests in automated driving should fit the urgency of the traffic situation. The robustness of various published research findings on the valuations of speech-based warning messages is unclear. This research aimed to establish how people value speech-based take-over requests as a function of speech rate, background noise, spoken phrase, and speaker's gender and emotional tone. By means of crowdsourcing, 2669 participants from 95 countries listened to a random 10 out of 140 take-over requests, and rated each take-over request on urgency, commandingness, pleasantness, and ease of understanding...
October 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607889/outcomes-of-newborn-hearing-screening-program-a-hospital-based-study
#16
Kavita Sachdeva, Tulsi Sao
Hearing loss is hidden disability and second most common congenital pathology. Prevention, early identification and early intervention of hearing loss can prevent further disability in development of speech, language, cognition and other developmental domains. The prevalence of congenital hearing loss has been estimated to be 1.2-5.7 per thousand in neonates. In these contexts, the aim of study was to determine outcomes of neonates hearing screening program in Hospital. It is a clinical cross-sectional study which was conducted in tertiary care centre from 8th July, 2015 to 31th May, 2016...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604578/long-term-outcomes-of-cochlear-implantation-in-children-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#17
Haruo Yoshida, Haruo Takahashi, Yukihiko Kanda, Kyoko Kitaoka, Minoru Hara
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the developmental delay often observed in children with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on the improvement of language understanding after cochlear implantation (CI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. PATIENTS: Sixteen children with severe and/or profound hearing loss due to congenital CMV infection (CMV group) and 107 congenitally deaf children (168 ears) without CMV infection as the cause of deafness (non-CMV group)...
June 9, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602134/the-effects-of-early-auditory-based-intervention-on-adult-bilateral-cochlear-implant-outcomes
#18
Stacey R Lim
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this exploratory study was to determine the types of improvement that sequentially implanted auditory-verbal and auditory-oral adults with prelingual and childhood hearing loss received in bilateral listening conditions, compared to their best unilateral listening condition. METHODS: Five auditory-verbal adults and five auditory-oral adults were recruited for this study. Participants were seated in the center of a 6-loudspeaker array. BKB-SIN sentences were presented from 0° azimuth, while multi-talker babble was presented from various loudspeakers...
June 12, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601530/spectro-temporal-cues-enhance-modulation-sensitivity-in-cochlear-implant-users
#19
Yi Zheng, Monty Escabí, Ruth Y Litovsky
Although speech understanding is highly variable amongst cochlear implants (CIs) subjects, the remarkably high speech recognition performance of many CI users is unexpected and not well understood. Numerous factors, including neural health and degradation of the spectral information in the speech signal of CIs, likely contribute to speech understanding. We studied the ability to use spectro-temporal modulations, which may be critical for speech understanding and discrimination, and hypothesize that CI users adopt a different perceptual strategy than normal-hearing (NH) individuals, whereby they rely more heavily on joint spectro-temporal cues to enhance detection of auditory cues...
May 26, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599569/the-effect-of-visual-distraction-on-auditory-visual-speech-perception-by-younger-and-older-listeners
#20
Julie I Cohen, Sandra Gordon-Salant
Visual distractions are present in real-world listening environments, such as conversing in a crowded restaurant. This study examined the impact of visual distractors on younger and older adults' ability to understand auditory-visual (AV) speech in noise. AV speech stimuli were presented with one competing talker and with three different types of visual distractors. SNR50 thresholds for both listener groups were affected by visual distraction; the poorest performance for both groups was the AV + Video condition, and differences across groups were noted for some conditions...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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