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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813266/intuitive-parenting-understanding-the-neural-mechanisms-of-parents-adaptive-responses-to-infants
#1
REVIEW
Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
When interacting with an infant, parents intuitively enact a range of behaviours that support infant communicative development. These behaviours include altering speech, establishing eye contact and mirroring infant expressions and are argued to occur largely in the absence of conscious intent. Here, we describe studies investigating early, pre-conscious neural responses to infant cues, which we suggest support aspects of parental intuitive behaviour towards infants. This work has provided converging evidence for rapid differentiation of infant cues from other salient social signals in the adult brain...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808014/adaptive-benefit-of-cross-modal-plasticity-following-cochlear-implantation-in-deaf-adults
#2
Carly A Anderson, Ian M Wiggins, Pádraig T Kitterick, Douglas E H Hartley
It has been suggested that visual language is maladaptive for hearing restoration with a cochlear implant (CI) due to cross-modal recruitment of auditory brain regions. Rehabilitative guidelines therefore discourage the use of visual language. However, neuroscientific understanding of cross-modal plasticity following cochlear implantation has been restricted due to incompatibility between established neuroimaging techniques and the surgically implanted electronic and magnetic components of the CI. As a solution to this problem, here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a noninvasive optical neuroimaging method that is fully compatible with a CI and safe for repeated testing...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806336/musical-rehabilitation-in-adult-cochlear-implant-recipients-with-a-self-administered-software
#3
Leah Smith, Lee Bartel, Samidha Joglekar, Joseph Chen
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine if a self-administered computer-based rehabilitation program could improve music appreciation and speech understanding in adults who have a cochlear implant (CI). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary adult CI program. PATIENTS: Twenty-one postlingually deafened cochlear implant users between the ages of 27 and 79 years were recruited. INTERVENTIONS(S): A self-administered music rehabilitative software was designed to help improve the perception of musical patterns of increasing complexity, as well as pitch and timbre perception, premised on focused and divided attention...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806333/what-does-music-sound-like-for-a-cochlear-implant-user
#4
Nicole T Jiam, Meredith T Caldwell, Charles J Limb
OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implant research and product development over the past 40 years have been heavily focused on speech comprehension with little emphasis on music listening and enjoyment. The relatively little understanding of how music sounds in a cochlear implant user stands in stark contrast to the overall degree of importance the public places on music and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to describe what music sounds like to cochlear implant users, using a combination of existing research studies and listener descriptions...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806329/physiological-mechanisms-in-combined-electric-acoustic-stimulation
#5
Mika Sato, Peter Baumhoff, Jochen Tillein, Andrej Kral
OBJECTIVE: Electrical stimulation is normally performed on ears that have no hearing function, i.e., lack functional hair cells. The properties of electrically-evoked responses in these cochleae were investigated in several previous studies. Recent clinical developments have introduced cochlear implantation (CI) in residually-hearing ears to improve speech understanding in noise. The present study documents the known physiological differences between electrical stimulation of hair cells and of spiral ganglion cells, respectively, and reviews the mechanisms of combined electric and acoustic stimulation in the hearing ears...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806193/speech-perception-in-noise-and-listening-effort-of-older-adults-with-nonlinear-frequency-compression-hearing-aids
#6
James Shehorn, Nicole Marrone, Thomas Muller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this laboratory-based study was to compare the efficacy of two hearing aid fittings with and without nonlinear frequency compression, implemented within commercially available hearing aids. Previous research regarding the utility of nonlinear frequency compression has revealed conflicting results for speech recognition, marked by high individual variability. Individual differences in auditory function and cognitive abilities, specifically hearing loss slope and working memory, may contribute to aided performance...
August 10, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802924/the-status-of-nonmotor-features-of-the-malady-in-an-essay-on-the-shaking-palsy-1817
#7
Brian Hurwitz
This chapter examines the status James Parkinson accorded "nonmotor" features of the malady set out in his 1817 Essay. In reading the Essay through the lens of this recently developed dichotomy I use "nonmotor" to mean the application of a late 20th-century category to a 200 year old account, whereas nonmotor designates application of the concept to contemporary understanding. While Parkinson granted "motor" components of the malady high definitional visibility, the Essay shows he was also attentive to patients' overall well-being and noticed some "nonmotor" aspects of the malady, in particular, constipation, interrupted speech, and difficulties with saliva and swallowing...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801840/tobacco-related-carcinogenesis-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#8
Ashok R Jethwa, Samir S Khariwala
Head and neck cancer (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)) is a devastating disease. Patients require intensive treatment that is often disfiguring and debilitating. Those who survive are often left with poor speech articulation, difficulties in chewing and swallowing, and cosmetic disfigurement, as well as loss of taste. Furthermore, given that HNSCC survivors are frequently disabled and unable to return to work, the economic and societal costs associated with HNSCC are massive. HNSCC is one of many cancers that are strongly associated with tobacco use...
August 12, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777199/alterations-in-spanish-language-interpretation-during-pediatric-critical-care-family-meetings
#9
Carolyn S Sinow, Irene Corso, Javier Lorenzo, Kiley A Lawrence, David C Magnus, Alisa C Van Cleave
OBJECTIVES: To characterize alterations in Spanish language medical interpretation during pediatric critical care family meetings. DESIGN: Descriptive, observational study using verbatim transcripts of nine PICU family meetings conducted with in-person, hospital-employed interpreters. SETTING: A single, university-based, tertiary children's hospital. SUBJECTS: Medical staff, family members, ancillary staff, and interpreters...
August 2, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774670/exploring-a-method-for-evaluation-of-preschool-and-school-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-through-checking-their-understanding-of-the-speaker-s-emotions-with-the-help-of-prosody-of-the-voice
#10
Mayumi Horie, Hitoshi Okamura
PURPOSE: We attempted to evaluate the ability of 125 preschool and school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD children) to understand the intentions of those speaking to them using prosody of the voice, by comparing it with that of 119 typically developing children (TDC) and 51 development-age-matched children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD children), and to explore, based on the results, a method for objective evaluation of children with ASD in the early and later periods of childhood...
July 31, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769753/intraoperative-electrocochleographic-characteristics-of-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder-in-cochlear-implant-subjects
#11
William J Riggs, Joseph P Roche, Christopher K Giardina, Michael S Harris, Zachary J Bastian, Tatyana E Fontenot, Craig A Buchman, Kevin D Brown, Oliver F Adunka, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is characterized by an apparent discrepancy between measures of cochlear and neural function based on auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing. Clinical indicators of ANSD are a present cochlear microphonic (CM) with small or absent wave V. Many identified ANSD patients have speech impairment severe enough that cochlear implantation (CI) is indicated. To better understand the cochleae identified with ANSD that lead to a CI, we performed intraoperative round window electrocochleography (ECochG) to tone bursts in children (n = 167) and adults (n = 163)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768324/speech-understanding-in-noise-by-patients-with-cochlear-implants-using-a-monaural-adaptive-beamformer
#12
Michael F Dorman, Sarah Natale, Anthony Spahr, Erin Castioni
Purpose: The aim of this experiment was to compare, for patients with cochlear implants (CIs), the improvement for speech understanding in noise provided by a monaural adaptive beamformer and for two interventions that produced bilateral input (i.e., bilateral CIs and hearing preservation [HP] surgery). Method: Speech understanding scores for sentences were obtained for 10 listeners fit with a single CI. The listeners were tested with and without beamformer activated in a "cocktail party" environment with spatially separated target and maskers...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757195/selective-entrainment-of-brain-oscillations-drives-auditory-perceptual-organization
#13
Jordi Costa-Faidella, Elyse S Sussman, Carles Escera
Perceptual sound organization supports our ability to make sense of the complex acoustic environment, to understand speech and to enjoy music. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying the subjective experience of perceiving univocal auditory patterns that can be listened to, despite hearing all sounds in a scene, are poorly understood. We hereby investigated the manner in which competing sound organizations are simultaneously represented by specific brain activity patterns and the way attention and task demands prime the internal model generating the current percept...
July 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756551/family-centered-services-for-children-with-asd-and-limited-speech-the-experiences-of-parents-and-speech-language-pathologists
#14
Kelsey Mandak, Janice Light
Although family-centered services have long been discussed as essential in providing successful services to families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ideal implementation is often lacking. This study aimed to increase understanding of how families with children with ASD and limited speech receive services from speech-language pathologists (SLPs). 99 parents of children with ASD and limited speech and 211 SLPs who served children with ASD and limited speech completed questionnaires measuring their experiences with the provision of family-centered services...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756027/key-considerations-in-designing-a-speech-brain-computer-interface
#15
Florent Bocquelet, Thomas Hueber, Laurent Girin, Stéphan Chabardès, Blaise Yvert
Restoring communication in case of aphasia is a key challenge for neurotechnologies. To this end, brain-computer strategies can be envisioned to allow artificial speech synthesis from the continuous decoding of neural signals underlying speech imagination. Such speech brain-computer interfaces do not exist yet and their design should consider three key choices that need to be made: the choice of appropriate brain regions to record neural activity from, the choice of an appropriate recording technique, and the choice of a neural decoding scheme in association with an appropriate speech synthesis method...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755572/reality-monitoring-performance-and-the-role-of-visual-imagery-in-visual-hallucinations
#16
Charlotte Aynsworth, Nazik Nemat, Daniel Collerton, David Smailes, Robert Dudley
BACKGROUND: Auditory Hallucinations may arise from people confusing their own inner speech with external spoken speech. People with visual hallucinations (VH) may similarly confuse vivid mental imagery with external events. This paper reports two experiments exploring confusion between internal and external visual material. METHOD: Experiment 1 examined reality monitoring in people with psychosis; those with visual hallucinations (n = 16) and those without (n = 15)...
July 20, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753083/examining-the-perceived-impact-of-an-ethics-workshop-on-interprofessional-values-and-teamwork
#17
Sarah A Manspeaker, Elena V Donoso Brown, Sarah E Wallace, Leesa DiBartola, Allison Morgan
Interprofessional education (IPE) is a vital component of healthcare education yet challenges to implementation persist. This study aimed to evaluate the perceived impact of an ethics-based IPE workshop designed for professional phase healthcare students enrolled in athletic training, health management systems, occupational therapy, physical therapy, physician assistant studies, and speech-language pathology programmes at one university. A pre/post-test cohort study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the workshop on interprofessional values and teamwork...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752811/bilateral-versus-unilateral-cochlear-implantation-in-adult-listeners-speech-on-speech-masking-and-multitalker-localization
#18
Baljeet Rana, Jörg M Buchholz, Catherine Morgan, Mridula Sharma, Tobias Weller, Shivali Appaiah Konganda, Kyoko Shirai, Atsushi Kawano
Binaural hearing helps normal-hearing listeners localize sound sources and understand speech in noise. However, it is not fully understood how far this is the case for bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users. To determine the potential benefits of bilateral over unilateral CIs, speech comprehension thresholds (SCTs) were measured in seven Japanese bilateral CI recipients using Helen test sentences (translated into Japanese) in a two-talker speech interferer presented from the front (co-located with the target speech), ipsilateral to the first-implanted ear (at +90° or -90°), and spatially symmetric at ±90°...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750415/influences-of-phonological-context-on-tense-marking-in-spanish-english-dual-language-learners
#19
Philip N Combiths, Jessica A Barlow, Irina Potapova, Sonja Pruitt-Lord
Purpose: The emergence of tense-morpheme marking during language acquisition is highly variable, which confounds the use of tense marking as a diagnostic indicator of language impairment in linguistically diverse populations. In this study, we seek to better understand tense-marking patterns in young bilingual children by comparing phonological influences on marking of 2 word-final tense morphemes. Method: In spontaneous connected speech samples from 10 Spanish-English dual language learners aged 56-66 months (M = 61...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748095/the-origin-of-mathematics-and-number-sense-in-the-cerebellum-with-implications-for-finger-counting-and-dyscalculia
#20
Larry Vandervert
BACKGROUND: Mathematicians and scientists have struggled to adequately describe the ultimate foundations of mathematics. Nobel laureates Albert Einstein and Eugene Wigner were perplexed by this issue, with Wigner concluding that the workability of mathematics in the real world is a mystery we cannot explain. In response to this classic enigma, the major purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical model of the ultimate origin of mathematics and "number sense" (as defined by S. Dehaene) that is proposed to involve the learning of inverse dynamics models through the collaboration of the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex (but prominently cerebellum-driven)...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
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