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Speech understanding

Talita Sousa Queiroz, Tania Cristina Morais Santa Barbara Rehem, Marina Morato Stival, Silvana Schwerz Funghetto, Luciano Ramos de Lima, Breno Guilherme Cardoso, Walterlânia Silva Santos
OBJECTIVE: To understand the care of elderly men with their own health. METHOD: A qualitative study with the participation of ten elderly men, through responses to the semi-structured interview guided by the "Tell me about your experiences of care with your health", carried out in a basic health unit, during the period of October-December 2014. The speeches, after being transcribed were submitted to content analysis. RESULTS: The ten interviewees were retired and had an average age of 67...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Allan McGroarty, Rebecca McCartan
PURPOSE: Although considerable efforts have been made to investigate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for stuttering, little is known about how the stuttering community perceives these treatments. This study aimed to assess and quantify beliefs regarding pharmacotherapy for adults who stutter and to establish whether behavioural intentions to undertake treatment were related to these beliefs. METHOD: An adapted version of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire was completed by adults who stutter...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Jason A Brant, Steven J Eliades, Hannah Kaufman, Jinbo Chen, Michael J Ruckenstein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate high-performing cochlear implant patients' performance on AzBio sentence testing. METHODS: Retrospective review of prospectively collected database at a tertiary care hospital. Unilateral cochlear implant patients with AzBio testing were included. The primary outcome of interest was AzBio performance scores in quiet and at +10 and +5 decibels signal to noise (dB S/N). RESULTS: One hundred eighty five subjects met inclusion criteria with scores for AzBio in quiet, 114 at +10 dB S/N, and 66 at +5 dB S/N...
March 19, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Lengshi Dai, Virginia Best, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham
Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss often have trouble understanding speech amid other voices. While poor spatial hearing is often implicated, direct evidence is weak; moreover, studies suggest that reduced audibility and degraded spectrotemporal coding may explain such problems. We hypothesized that poor spatial acuity leads to difficulty deploying selective attention, which normally filters out distracting sounds. In listeners with normal hearing, selective attention causes changes in the neural responses evoked by competing sounds, which can be used to quantify the effectiveness of attentional control...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Daniel M Vahaba, Luke Remage-Healey
Steroid hormones, such as estrogens, were once thought to be exclusively synthesized in the ovaries and enact transcriptional changes over the course of hours to days. However, estrogens are also locally synthesized within neural circuits, wherein they rapidly (within minutes) modulate a range of behaviors, including spatial cognition and communication. Here, we review the role of brain-derived estrogens (neuroestrogens) as modulators within sensory circuits in songbirds. We first present songbirds as an attractive model to explore how neuroestrogens in auditory cortex modulate vocal communication processing and learning...
March 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Dave F Kleinschmidt, Kodi Weatherholtz, T Florian Jaeger
Social and linguistic perceptions are linked. On one hand, talker identity affects speech perception. On the other hand, speech itself provides information about a talker's identity. Here, we propose that the same probabilistic knowledge might underlie both socially conditioned linguistic inferences and linguistically conditioned social inferences. Our computational-level approach-the ideal adapter-starts from the idea that listeners use probabilistic knowledge of covariation between social, linguistic, and acoustic cues in order to infer the most likely explanation of the speech signals they hear...
March 15, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Jennifer Thomson, Melanie Gee, Karen Sage, Traci Walker
BACKGROUND: Aphasia assessment is traditionally divided into formal and informal approaches. Informal assessment is useful in developing a rich understanding of the person with aphasia's performance, e.g., describing performance in the context of real-world activities, and exploring the impact of environmental and/or partner supports upon communication. However, defining 'informal assessment' is problematic and can result in clinical issues including idiosyncratic practices regarding why, when and how to apply informal assessment...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Henkjan Honing
In recent years, music and musicality have been the focus of an increasing amount of research effort. This has led to a growing role and visibility of the contribution of (bio)musicology to the field of neuroscience and cognitive sciences at large. While it has been widely acknowledged that there are commonalities between speech, language, and musicality, several researchers explain this by considering musicality as an epiphenomenon of language. However, an alternative hypothesis is that musicality is an innate and widely shared capacity for music that can be seen as a natural, spontaneously developing set of traits based on and constrained by our cognitive abilities and their underlying biology...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Wei-En J Tseng, Siew-Na Lim, Lu-An Chen, Shuo-Bin Jou, Hsiang-Yao Hsieh, Mei-Yun Cheng, Chun-Wei Chang, Han-Tao Li, Hsing-I Chiang, Tony Wu
Whether the cognitive processing of music and speech relies on shared or distinct neuronal mechanisms remains unclear. Music and language processing in the brain are right and left temporal functions, respectively. We studied patients with musicogenic epilepsy (ME) that was specifically triggered by popular songs to analyze brain hyperexcitability triggered by specific stimuli. The study included two men and one woman (all right-handed, aged 35-55 years). The patients had sound-triggered left temporal ME in response to popular songs with vocals, but not to instrumental, classical, or nonvocal piano solo versions of the same song...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jong Min Kim, Seung Beom Woo, Zeeihn Lee, Sung Jae Heo, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Verbal auditory agnosia is the selective inability to recognize verbal sounds. Patients with this disorder lose the ability to understand language, write from dictation, and repeat words with reserved ability to identify nonverbal sounds. However, to the best of our knowledge, there was no report about verbal auditory agnosia in adult patient with traumatic brain injury. PATIENT CONCERNS: He was able to clearly distinguish between language and nonverbal sounds, and he did not have any difficulty in identifying the environmental sounds...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Khetsiwe P Masuku, Munyane Mophosho, Muziwakhe Tshabalala
Background: Aphasia is an acquired impairment in language and in the cognitive processes that underlie language. Aphasia affects the quality of life of the person with aphasia (PWA) and his or her families in various ways in diverse contexts and cultures. It is therefore important that speech language therapists understand how different contextual and cultural factors may mediate experiences. Purpose: The aim of the study was to describe the caregiving experience of female caregivers of PWA residing in Tembisa, a township situated in the east of Johannesburg...
2018: African Journal of Disability
Xuefei Shao, Di Qiang, Yinhua Liu, Quan Yuan, Jin Tao, Bihua Ji
Cerebral syphilitic gumma is very rare and is often pathologically confirmed following surgery. This study reports three patients with cerebral syphilitic gumma. The first case was a 62-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital due to speech arrest for 10 hours. Head MRI showed a nodular signal shadow with a significant enhancement and a significant centerline shift. He subsequently received surgery, and cerebral syphilitic gumma was confirmed by postoperative pathology. The second patient was a 66-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital due to complaints of gradually decreasing right eye vision and headache for nearly 50 days...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
G Begnoni, G Serrao, F Musto, G Pellegrini, F M Triulzi, C Dellavia
INTRODUCTION: The development of skeletal structures (cranial base, upper and lower) and upper airways spaces (oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal) of the skull has always been an issue of great interest in orthodontics. Foetal MRI images obtained as screening exam during pregnancy can help to understand the development of these structures using a sample cephalometric analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 MRI images in sagittal section of foetuses from 20th to 32th weeks of gestation were obtained to dispel doubts about the presence of skeletal malformations...
March 13, 2018: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
Vincent G Wettstein, Rudolf Probst
BACKGROUND: Postlingual single-sided deafness (SSD) is defined as normal hearing in one ear and severely impaired hearing in the other ear. A right ear advantage and dominance of the left hemisphere are well established findings in individuals with normal hearing and speech processing. Therefore, it seems plausible that a right ear advantage would exist in patients with SSD. METHODS: The audiometric database was searched to identify patients with SSD. Results from the German monosyllabic Freiburg word test and four-syllabic number test in quiet were evaluated...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Patrick S C D'Haese, Marc De Bodt, Vincent Van Rompaey, Paul Van de Heyning
The objectives of this study were to assess the factors which contribute to individuals' health motivation to address hearing loss and to gather baseline data that could then be used to measure the impact of an awareness campaign. An online questionnaire with 13 closed set questions was completed by 100 subjects in each country including Austria, Germany, France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The questionnaire was based around the Health Belief Model, which describes how, in order to take action to address a medical problem, the individual must perceive that the condition presents a threat to their well-being that exceeds any barriers to treatment...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
Julie G Arenberg, Wendy S Parkinson, Leonid Litvak, Chen Chen, Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
OBJECTIVES: The standard, monopolar (MP) electrode configuration used in commercially available cochlear implants (CI) creates a broad electrical field, which can lead to unwanted channel interactions. Use of more focused configurations, such as tripolar and phased array, has led to mixed results for improving speech understanding. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a physiologically inspired configuration called dynamic focusing, using focused tripolar stimulation at low levels and less focused stimulation at high levels...
March 9, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Jessica Overweg, Catharina A Hartman, Petra Hendriks
Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6-12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children with ASD and 43 typically developing (TD) peers. We contrasted children's interpretation of I and you in indirect and direct speech reports, with the latter type requiring an additional perspective shift. To examine which cognitive processes are involved in pronoun interpretation, additional tasks were administered to measure Theory of Mind (ToM) understanding, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Sophia Uddin, Shannon L M Heald, Stephen C Van Hedger, Howard C Nusbaum
Environmental sounds (ES) can be understood easily when substituted for words in sentences, suggesting that linguistic context benefits may be mediated by processes more general than some language-specific theories assert. However, the underlying neural processing is not understood. EEG was recorded for spoken sentences ending in either a spoken word or a corresponding ES. Endings were either congruent or incongruent with the sentence frame, and thus were expected to produce N400 activity. However, if ES and word meanings are combined with language context by different mechanisms, different N400 responses would be expected...
March 6, 2018: Brain and Language
Samuel R Donnenfeld
The nineteenth century Mormon Prophet, Brigham Young, has long been lauded as progressive for sending dozens of Mormon women from the Utah territory to receive a formal medical education at The Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania. This manuscript comes to a contrary conclusion through close reading of diaries and journals created by these same women and the public speeches of the Prophet himself. These texts have historically been held up as evidence of Prophet Young's encouragement of women as physicians...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Elaine C Thompson, Jennifer Krizman, Travis White-Schwoch, Trent Nicol, Cynthia R LaBella, Nina Kraus
OBJECTIVE: Concussions can result in auditory processing deficits even in the absence of hearing loss. In children and adolescents, the extent to which these impairments have functional consequences for everyday listening, such as the ability to understand speech in noisy environments, is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN: Case-control study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty youth comprised the participants: 20 had sustained a concussion and were recovering from their injury, and 20 controls had sustained non-concussive orthopaedic (e...
March 8, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
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