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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777755/folic-acid-and-primary-prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Jan D van Gool, Herbert Hirche, Hildegard Lax, Luc De Schaepdrijver
With 4 mg folic acid daily, it may take 20 weeks to reach red-blood-cell folate levels between 1,050 and 1,340 nmol/L, optimal for reduction of the neural tube defect risk. Therefore, folic acid supplementation should be started 5-6 months before conception. The residual risk with optimal red-blood-cell folate levels is reportedly 4.5 per 10,000 total births. The residual risk in pooled data from countries with mandatory folic acid fortification is 7.5 per 10,000 pregnancies, regardless of pre-fortification rates...
May 16, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777633/hypertrophic-effect-of-inhaled-beta-2-agonist-with-and-without-concurrent-exercise-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Søren Jessen, Johan Onslev, Anders Lemminger, Vibeke Backer, Jens Bangsbo, Morten Hostrup
INTRODUCTION: Due to a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes, there is a high use of beta2 -adrenoceptor agonists (beta2 -agonists) in the athletic population. While anabolic in rodents, no study has been able to detect hypertrophy in humans after chronic beta2 -agonist inhalation. METHODS: We investigated if inhaled beta2 -agonist, terbutaline, alters body composition and metabolic rate with and without concurrent exercise training in healthy young men...
May 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777386/substrate-metabolism-during-ironman-triathlon-different-horses-on-the-same-courses
#4
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777235/response-of-skeletal-muscle-ucp2-expression-during-metabolic-adaptation-to-caloric-restriction
#5
Sascha Heinitz, Paolo Piaggi, Shanshan Yang, Susan Bonfiglio, Jason Steel, Jonathan Krakoff, Susanne B Votruba
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Spendthrift vs. thrifty individuals expend more energy and experience greater weight loss during caloric restriction (CR). Adaptive mechanisms in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and on hormone level modulate energy expenditure (EE) during weight loss. Metabolic mechanisms underlying the variability in EE during CR are unclear. The present study explored whether during long-term CR (i) gene expression changes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue relate with the individual EE response and weight loss, and (ii) altered catecholamine and FGF21-concentrations are associated with measures of metabolic adaptation...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777227/in-utero-exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-and-adiposity-does-breastfeeding-make-a-difference
#6
L L Hui, A M Li, E A S Nelson, G M Leung, S L Lee, C M Schooling
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Short-term breastfeeding from mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) may programme metabolism and increase offspring diabetes risk. We examined the association of in utero GDM exposure with adiposity from infancy to adolescence, and whether any association was modified by breastfeeding during early infancy. METHODS: In the prospective Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997" (n = 7342, 88% follow-up rate), generalised estimate equations with multiple imputation were used to assess associations of in utero GDM exposure with age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score during infancy (3 and 9 months), childhood (2- < 8 years) and adolescence (8-16 years), adjusted for sex, parity, maternal age, birth place, preeclampisa, smoking, and family socio-economic position...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777170/systematic-biology-analysis-on-photosynthetic-carbon-metabolism-of-maize-leaf-following-sudden-heat-shock-under-elevated-co-2
#7
Mingnan Qu, Genyun Chen, James A Bunce, Xiaocen Zhu, Richard C Sicher
Plants would experience more complex environments, such as sudden heat shock (SHS) stress combined with elevated CO2 in the future, and might adapt to this stressful condition by optimizing photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM). It is interesting to understand whether this acclimation process would be altered in different genotypes of maize under elevated CO2 , and which metabolites represent key indicators reflecting the photosynthetic rates (PN ) following SHS. Although B76 had greater reduction in PN during SHS treatment, our results indicated that PN in genotype B76, displayed faster recovery after SHS treatment under elevated CO2 than in genotype B106...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776895/islet-transplantation-versus-insulin-therapy-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-with-severe-hypoglycaemia-or-poorly-controlled-glycaemia-after-kidney-transplantation-trimeco-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Sandrine Lablanche, Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Laurence Kessler, Anne Wojtusciszyn, Sophie Borot, Charles Thivolet, Sophie Girerd, Domenico Bosco, Jean-Luc Bosson, Cyrille Colin, Rachel Tetaz, Sophie Logerot, Julie Kerr-Conte, Eric Renard, Alfred Penfornis, Emmanuel Morelon, Fanny Buron, Kristina Skaare, Gwen Grguric, Coralie Camillo-Brault, Harald Egelhofer, Kanza Benomar, Lionel Badet, Thierry Berney, François Pattou, Pierre-Yves Benhamou
BACKGROUND: Islet transplantation is indicated for patients with type 1 diabetes with severe hypoglycaemia or after kidney transplantation. We did a randomised trial to assess the efficacy and safety of islet transplantation compared with insulin therapy in these patients. METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients with type 1 diabetes at 15 university hospitals to receive immediate islet transplantation or intensive insulin therapy (followed by delayed islet transplantation)...
May 15, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776364/identification-function-and-application-of-3-ketosteroid-%C3%AE-1-dehydrogenase-isozymes-in-mycobacterium-neoaurum-dsm-1381-for-the-production-of-steroidic-synthons
#9
Ruijie Zhang, Xiangcen Liu, Yushi Wang, Yuchang Han, Junsong Sun, Jiping Shi, Baoguo Zhang
BACKGROUND: 3-Ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenase (KstD) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway for chemical modifications of steroid hormones. Only a few KstDs have thus far been characterized biochemically and applied for the production of steroidal pharmaceutical intermediates. Three KstDs, KstD1, KstD2, and KstD3, were identified in Mycobacterium neoaurum DSM 1381, and they shared up to 99, 85 and 97% amino acid identity with previously reported KstDs, respectively. In this paper, KstDs from M...
May 18, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776004/knowledge-and-health-beliefs-about-gestational-diabetes-and-healthy-pregnancy-s-breastfeeding-intention
#10
Seungmi Park, Jung Lim Lee, Jang In Sun, Youngji Kim
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: If the knowledge and health beliefs relating to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy are associated with behaviours during pregnancy and lactation, this suggests potential educational interventions. BACKGROUNDS: Women with GDM are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and babies with GDM incur increased risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia and childhood obesity. Breastfeeding is an effective way to improve maternal and lipid metabolism of gestational diabetes mothers, and to lower the risk of T2DM after birth, to prevent conception...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775442/-copeptin-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Piotr Skrzypczyk, Magdalena Okarska-Napierała, Elżbieta Górska, Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
Studies in adult patients suggest that copeptin (C-terminal fragment of antidiuretin propeptide) is related to kidney and cardiovascular diseases. AIM: The aim was to assess copeptin concentration in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a group of 38 children with CKD (age: from 4.70 to 18.00 mean 12.23±4.19 years) we evaluated: serum copeptin concentration [ng/mL], age, sex, etiology of CKD, presence of arterial hypertension (AH), medications, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), hemoglobin, calcium-phosphorus metabolism parameters, and lipids...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775399/dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-for-the-maintenance-treatment-of-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infection
#12
Jose L Casado, Marta Monsalvo, Aurora M Rojo, María Fontecha, Miguel A Rodriguez-Sagrado
Triple combinations of antiretroviral (ART) drugs are the standard treatment for HIV infection, but the challenges include long-term side effects, high costs, and adherence. The recent advent of potent and well tolerated ART has renewed the interest for newer ART strategies. A dual regimen with the combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV), two well tolerated, metabolic-friendly, and potent drugs could offer additional benefits. Areas covered: A review of recent randomized trials and observational cohorts concerning the use of a dual therapy with DTG plus RPV as a switching strategy in patients with viral suppression...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775114/oxygen-dependency-of-mitochondrial-metabolism-indicates-outcome-of-newborn-brain-injury
#13
Gemma Bale, Subhabrata Mitra, Isabel de Roever, Magdalena Sokolska, David Price, Alan Bainbridge, Roxana Gunny, Cristina Uria-Avellanal, Giles S Kendall, Judith Meek, Nicola J Robertson, Ilias Tachtsidis
There is a need for a method of real-time assessment of brain metabolism during neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). We have used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor cerebral oxygenation and metabolic changes in 50 neonates with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia treatment. In 24 neonates, 54 episodes of spontaneous decreases in peripheral oxygen saturation (desaturations) were recorded between 6 and 81 h after birth. We observed differences in the cerebral metabolic responses to these episodes that were related to the predicted outcome of the injury, as determined by subsequent magnetic resonance spectroscopy derived lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774517/the-acute-effects-of-age-and-particulate-matter-exposure-on-heart-rate-and-heart-rate-variability-in-mice
#14
Blake A Bennett, Ernst W Spannhake, Ana M Rule, Patrick N Breysse, Clarke G Tankersley
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality with the elderly considered to be the most susceptible. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to PM would cause a greater impact on heart regulation in older DBA/2 (D2) male mice as determined by changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). D2 mice at the ages of 4, 12, and 19 months were instilled with 100 µg of PM or saline by aspiration. Before and after the aspiration, 3-min echocardiogram (ECG) samples for HR and HRV were recorded at 15-min intervals for 3 h along with corresponding measurements of homeostasis, such as temperature, metabolism, and ventilation...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774460/multi-layer-cube-sampling-for-liver-boundary-detection-in-pet-ct-images
#15
Xinxin Liu, Jian Yang, Shuang Song, Hong Song, Danni Ai, Jianjun Zhu, Yurong Jiang, Yongtian Wang
Liver metabolic information is considered as a crucial diagnostic marker for the diagnosis of fever of unknown origin, and liver recognition is the basis of automatic diagnosis of metabolic information extraction. However, the poor quality of PET and CT images is a challenge for information extraction and target recognition in PET-CT images. The existing detection method cannot meet the requirement of liver recognition in PET-CT images, which is the key problem in the big data analysis of PET-CT images. A novel texture feature descriptor called multi-layer cube sampling (MLCS) is developed for liver boundary detection in low-dose CT and PET images...
May 17, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774104/use-of-baseline-18f-fdg-pet-scan-to-identify-initial-sub-volumes-with-local-failure-after-concomitant-radio-chemotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#16
Floriane Legot, Florent Tixier, Minea Hadzic, Thomas Pinto-Leite, Christelle Gallais, Rémy Perdrisot, Xavier Dufour, Catherine Cheze-Le-Rest
Introduction: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated by radio-chemotherapy have a significant local recurrence rate. It has been previously suggested that 18F-FDG PET could identify the high uptake areas that can be potential targets for dose boosting. The purpose of this study was to compare the location of initial hypermetabolic regions on baseline scans with the metabolic relapse sites after radio-chemotherapy in HNSCC. Results: The initial functional tumor volume was significantly higher for patients with proven local recurrence or residual disease (23...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774011/metabolomics-analysis-of-the-toxic-effects-of-the-production-of-lycopene-and-its-precursors
#17
April M Miguez, Monica P McNerney, Mark P Styczynski
Using cells as microbial factories enables highly specific production of chemicals with many advantages over chemical syntheses. A number of exciting new applications of this approach are in the area of precision metabolic engineering, which focuses on improving the specificity of target production. In recent work, we have used precision metabolic engineering to design lycopene-producing Escherichia coli for use as a low-cost diagnostic biosensor. To increase precursor availability and thus the rate of lycopene production, we heterologously expressed the mevalonate pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773670/high-%C3%AE-tocopherol-dosing-increases-lipid-metabolism-by-changing-redox-state-in-damaged-rat-gastric-mucosa-and-liver-after-ethanol-treatment
#18
Marisela Olguín-Martínez, Diego R Hernández-Espinosa, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
Regeneration of ethanol-injured rat gastric mucosa must undergo changes in major metabolic pathways to achieve DNA replication and cell proliferation. These events are highly dependent on glucose utilization and inhibited by vitamin E (α-tocopherol) administration. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing lipid metabolism in the gastric mucosa and ethanol-induced gastric damage and the effect of α-tocopherol administration. For this, rates of fatty acid β-oxidation and lipogenesis were tested in gastric mucosa samples...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773339/quantitation-of-isoprenoids-for-natural-rubber-biosynthesis-in-natural-rubber-latex-by-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#19
Xi Zhang, Tianyang Guo, Tong Xiang, Yiyang Dong, Jichuan Zhang, Liqun Zhang
The natural rubber molecule is one of the end products of isoprenoids metabolism in the plant. Dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) are two typical isoprenoids which control the rate of biosynthesis and the molecular weight of natural rubber. A rapid, nonradioactive method for quantitation of DMAPP and FPP in natural rubber latex by liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was reported. DMAPP and FPP were determined in the multiple reaction monitoring mode(MRM)followed by separation with a silica-based C18 column...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773178/evaluation-of-changes-in-the-macro-and-micronutrients-homeostasis-of-transgenic-and-non-transgenic-soybean-plants-after-cultivation-with-silver-nanoparticles-through-ionomic-approaches
#20
Rodrigo Moretto Galazzi, Marco Aurélio Zezzi Arruda
An ionomic approach is conducted for evaluating the silver distribution, in different soybean plant compartments, as well as its influence on the homeostasis of some macro (P and S) and micro (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) nutrients. Silver is added to transgenic and non-transgenic soybean plants as nanoparticles or silver nitrate for comparative purposes. The transgenic plants translocate a higher amount of silver (100 and 65% for silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate expositions, respectively) than non-transgenic, and considering the treatments, the cultivation with silver nanoparticles results in a higher translocation rate (100 and 21% for transgenic and non-transgenic plants, respectively)...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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