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Metabolic rate

L X Zhang, Y M Balani, Sophia Trinh, Henry M Kronenberg, Yiming Mu
Objective: To investigate the distinct effects of intermittent and continuous administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). Methods: Six weeks old mice with C57/BL6J background and SOX9-creERT/Td-tomato/Osteocalcin-GFP genotype were divided into 6 groups: intermittent administration and withdraw group (subcutaneous injection with PTH 500 μg·kg-1 ·d-1 ), continuous administration and withdraw group (subcutaneous implantation of PTH pump, 80 μg·kg-1 ·d-1, with a rate of 0...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Parminder Raina, Anne Gilsing, Heinz Freisling, Edwin van den Heuvel, Nazmul Sohel, Mazda Jenab, Pietro Ferrari, Anne Tjønneland, Vassiliki Benetou, Susan Picavet, Sture Eriksson, Ben Schöttker, Hermann Brenner, Kai-Uwe Saum, Laura Perna, Tom Wilsgaard, Antonia Trichopoulou, Paolo Boffetta, Lauren E Griffith
Background: The number of older people living with cancer and cardio-metabolic conditions is increasing but little is known about how specific combinations of these conditions impact mortality. Methods: A total of 22,692 participants aged 65 years and older from four international cohorts were followed-up for mortality for an average of 10 years (8,596 deaths). Data were harmonized across cohorts and mutually exclusive groups of disease combinations were created for cancer, MI, stroke, and diabetes at baseline...
March 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Xiaolei Zhang, Michelle B Trevino, Miao Wang, Stephen J Gardell, Julio E Ayala, Xianlin Han, Daniel P Kelly, Bret H Goodpaster, Rick B Vega, Paul M Coen
The progression of age-related sarcopenia can be accelerated by impaired recovery of muscle mass following periods of disuse due to illness or immobilization. However, the mechanisms underlying poor recovery of aged muscle following disuse remain to be delineated. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial energetics play an important role in regulation of muscle mass. Here, we report that 22-24 month old mice with low muscle mass and low glucose clearance rate also display poor early recovery of muscle mass following 10 days of hind limb unloading...
March 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Cássia Righy, Ricardo Turon, Gabriel de Freitas, André Miguel Japiassú, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria Neto, Marcelo Bozza, Marcus F Oliveira, Fernando A Bozza
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationships of brain iron and heme with the inflammatory response of the systemic and central nervous systems and to investigate the role of defensive systems against the toxicity of iron and heme in the central nervous system. METHODS: We assessed a prospective cohort of patients presenting with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We assayed plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples for the presence of iron, heme, hemopexin, haptoglobin, enolase, S100-β and cytokines for the first three days following hemorrhagic stroke...
March 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Claudiu T Supuran
Although the role of carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC in metabolism is well-established, pharmacological applications of this phenomenon started to be considered only recently. In organisms all over the phylogenetic tree, the seven CA genetic families known to date are involved in biosynthetic processes and pH modulation, which may influence metabolism in multiple ways, with both processes being amenable to pharmacologic intervention. CA inhibitors possess antiobesity action directly by inhibiting lipogenesis, whereas the hypoxic tumor metabolism is highly controlled by the transmembrane isoforms CA IX and XII, which contribute to the acidic extracellular environment of tumors and supply bicarbonate for their high proliferation rates...
March 21, 2018: Metabolites
Daniel Joseph Kostyniuk, Brett Matthew Culbert, Jan Alexander Mennigen, Kathleen M Gilmour
Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined in pairs form social hierarchies in which socially subordinate fish display characteristic traits, including reduced growth rates and altered glucose metabolism. These effects are, in part, mediated by chronically elevated cortisol levels and/or reduced feeding. To determine the effects of social status on lipid metabolism, trout were held in pairs for 4 d, following which organismal and liver-specific indices of lipid metabolism were measured. At the organismal level, circulating triglycerides were elevated in dominant trout, whereas subordinate trout exhibited elevated concentrations of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) and lowered plasma total cholesterol levels...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Geoffrey D Abrams, David Feldman, Marc R Safran
Vitamin D is known to be important for calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. It also has important direct effects on skeletal muscle. Unlike authentic vitamins, which cannot be synthesized in the body, vitamin D is produced in the skin using sunlight. Through its nuclear receptor (ie, vitamin D receptor) located throughout the body, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D initiates genomic and nongenomic pathways regulating multiple actions, including myocyte proliferation and growth. In some studies, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to increase muscle strength, particularly in people who are vitamin D deficient...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Tina Laga, Sandrina Lambrechts, Annouschka Laenen, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Sileny N Han, Ignace Vergote
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of macroscopically complete (R0) secondary debulking surgery (SDS) in a single-center cohort of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. The performances of existing prediction models (DESKTOP score, Tian model) for R0 SDS were evaluated in this cohort. METHODS: Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics of 102 patients undergoing SDS for recurrent ovarian cancer at the University Hospitals Leuven between 1997 and 2014 were collected...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
Pranjul Mishra, Na-Rae Lee, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Minsuk Kim, Byung-Gee Kim, Dong-Yup Lee
BACKGROUND: Recently, there have been several attempts to produce long-chain dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) in various microbial hosts. Of these, Yarrowia lipolytica has great potential due to its oleaginous characteristics and unique ability to utilize hydrophobic substrates. However, Y. lipolytica should be further engineered to make it more competitive: the current approaches are mostly intuitive and cumbersome, thus limiting its industrial application. RESULTS: In this study, we proposed model-guided metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced production of DCAs in Y...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Satoshi Nozaki, Aya Mawatari, Yuka Nakatani, Emi Hayashinaka, Yasuhiro Wada, Yukihiro Nomura, Takahito Kitayoshi, Kouji Akimoto, Shinji Ninomiya, Hisashi Doi, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
PURPOSE: Thiamine is an essential component of glucose metabolism and energy production. The disulfide derivative, thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD), is better absorbed than readily-available water-soluble thiamine salts because it does not require the rate-limiting transport system required for thiamine absorption. However, the detailed pharmacokinetics of thiamine and TTFD under normal and pathological conditions have not yet been clarified. C-11-labeled thiamine and TTFD were recently synthesized by our group...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Jun Min, Jinpei Wang, Weiwei Chen, Xiaoke Hu
Cupriavidus sp. strain CNP-8 isolated from a pesticide-contaminated soil was able to utilize 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy, together with the release of nitrite and chloride ions. It could degrade 2C4NP at temperatures from 20 to 40 °C and at pH values from 5 to 10, and degrade 2C4NP as high as 1.6 mM. Kinetics assay showed that biodegradation of 2C4NP followed Haldane substrate inhibition model, with the maximum specific growth rate (μmax ) of 0.148/h, half saturation constant (Ks ) of 0...
March 20, 2018: AMB Express
Roger Mullins, David Reiter, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Objective: Brain glucose hypometabolism is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and in this case-control study we used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to assess AD-related differences in the posterior cingulate/precuneal ratio of glucose, lactate, and other metabolites. Methods: J-modulated Point-Resolved Spectroscopy (J-PRESS) and Prior-Knowledge Fitting (ProFit) software was used to measure glucose and other metabolites in the posterior cingulate/precuneus of 25 AD, 27 older controls, and 27 younger control participants...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Keshav Gopal, Malak Almutairi, Rami Al Batran, Farah Eaton, Manoj Gandhi, John Reyes Ussher
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase the risk for cardiomyopathy, which is the presence of ventricular dysfunction in the absence of underlying coronary artery disease and/or hypertension. As myocardial energy metabolism is altered during obesity/T2D (increased fatty acid oxidation and decreased glucose oxidation), we hypothesized that restricting myocardial glucose oxidation in lean mice devoid of the perturbed metabolic milieu observed in obesity/T2D would produce a cardiomyopathy phenotype, characterized via diastolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Yi Song, Yupei Jiang, Benke Kuai, Lin Li
Leaf senescence is an integral part of plant development, and the timing and progressing rate of senescence could substantially affect the yield and quality of crops. It has been known that a circadian rhythm synchronized with external environmental cues is critical for the optimal coordination of various physiological and metabolic processes. However, the reciprocal interactions between the circadian clock and leaf senescence in plants remain unknown. Here, through measuring the physiological and molecular senescence related markers of several circadian components mutants, we found that CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 inhibits leaf senescence...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Laura C O'Brien, Zachary A Graham, Qun Chen, Edward J Lesnefsky, Christopher Cardozo, Ashraf S Gorgey
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationships between circulating adiponectin levels, body composition, metabolic profile, and measures of skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and biogenesis. SETTINGS: Clinical Research in a Medical Center. METHODS: Plasma adiponectin was quantified in 19 individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Body composition was evaluated by dual x-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging...
March 20, 2018: Spinal Cord
Ge Li, Xiao Lv, Jing Zhou, Cong Shen, Danyang Xia, Hang Xie, Yiping Luo
The metabolic-level boundaries (MLB) hypothesis proposes that metabolic level mediates the relative influence of surface area (SA) vs volume related metabolic processes on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate in organisms. The variation in the scaling of SA may affect how metabolic level affects the metabolic scaling exponent. This study aimed to determine the influence of increasing metabolic level at a higher temperature on the metabolic scaling exponent of the crucian carp and determine the link between metabolic scaling exponents and SA parameters of both gills and body...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Duygu Ferek Emir, Ibrahim Ulas Ozturan, Serkan Yilmaz
INTRODUCTION: Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant used to treat a variety of disorders. Although ALA is considered a very safe supplement and intoxication is very rare, acute high-dose ingestions can cause mortality. In this report, we discuss a very rare case of ALA intoxication to increase awareness of this issue. CASE REPORT: A 22-year-old female was referred to our emergency department with ALA intoxication after ingesting a total of 18g of ALA with a suicidal intention...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ronny Kalash, Scott M Glaser, Balasubramanya Rangaswamy, Zachary D Horne, Hayeon Kim, Christopher Houser, Sushil Beriwal
PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) response and outcome in the era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based planning and to assess whether the addition of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) could more accurately classify treatment response and prognosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective chart review identified 244 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiation, including high-dose-rate image-based brachytherapy, between 2007 and 2016...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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