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Medulloblastoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916736/silencing-of-urothelial-carcinoma-associated-1-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-medulloblastoma-cells
#1
Xie Zhengyuan, Xiao Hu, Wang Qiang, Li Nanxiang, Cai Junbin, Zhang Wangming
BACKGROUND UCA1 is a long non-coding RNA that has been found to be aberrantly upregulated in various cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the expression level and function of UCA1 in medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor during childhood. MATERIAL AND METHODS Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of UCA1 in medulloblastoma specimens and cell lines. Lentiviral-mediated expression of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting UCA1 or a negative control shRNA was also achieved with the medulloblastoma cell line, Daoy...
September 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915627/panobinostat-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-suppresses-leptomeningeal-seeding-in-a-medulloblastoma-animal-model
#2
Ji Hoon Phi, Seung Ah Choi, Pil Ae Kwak, Ji Yeoun Lee, Kyu-Chang Wang, Do Won Hwang, Seung-Ki Kim
Leptomeningeal seeding is a strong negative prognostic factor for medulloblastoma (MB). The mechanism of leptomeningeal seeding is unclear but may involve epigenetic regulation. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, panobinostat, in the suppression of MB leptomeningeal seeding. Panobinostat decreased the cell viability and proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MB cell lines. The migration and adhesion capabilities were significantly decreased...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912682/extracellular-vesicles-in-brain-tumors-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Federica Ciregia, Andrea Urbani, Giuseppe Palmisano
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be classified into apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs), and exosomes, based on their origin or size. Exosomes are the smallest and best characterized vesicles which derived from the endosomal system. These vesicles are released from many different cell types including neuronal cells and their functions in the nervous system are investigated. They have been proposed as novel means for intercellular communication, which takes part not only to the normal neuronal physiology but also to the transmission of pathogenic proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905508/tandem-thiotepa-with-autologous-hematopoietic-cell-rescue-in-patients-with-recurrent-refractory-or-poor-prognosis-solid-tumor-malignancies
#4
Diana S Osorio, Ira J Dunkel, Kelly Ann Cervone, Rakesh K Goyal, K M Steve Lo, Jonathan L Finlay, Sharon L Gardner
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and tolerability of tandem courses of high-dose thiotepa with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AHCR) in patients with recurrent, refractory solid tumors who were ineligible for a single course of high-dose therapy due to greater than minimal residual disease. Patients with decreased hearing or poor renal function were eligible. PROCEDURE: Thiotepa was administered intravenously at a dose of 200 mg/m(2) /day (6...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903419/development-of-zebrafish-medulloblastoma-like-pnet-model-by-talen-mediated-somatic-gene-inactivation
#5
Jaegal Shim, Jung-Hwa Choi, Moon-Hak Park, Hyena Kim, Jong Hwan Kim, Seon-Young Kim, Dongwan Hong, Sunshin Kim, Ji Eun Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Jeong-Soo Lee, Young-Ki Bae
Genetically engineered animal tumor models have traditionally been generated by the gain of single or multiple oncogenes or the loss of tumor suppressor genes; however, the development of live animal models has been difficult given that cancer phenotypes are generally induced by somatic mutation rather than by germline genetic inactivation. In this study, we developed somatically mutated tumor models using TALEN-mediated somatic gene inactivation of cdkn2a/b or rb1 tumor suppressor genes in zebrafish. One-cell stage injection of cdkn2a/b-TALEN mRNA resulted in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors with high frequency (about 39%) and early onset (about 35 weeks of age) in F0 tp53(e7/e7) mutant zebrafish...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901497/regulation-of-uhrf1-by-microrna-378-modulates-medulloblastoma-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#6
Zhen-Yu Zhang, Bin Zhu, Xin-Wei Zhao, Yun-Bo Zhan, Jian-Ji Bao, Jin-Qiao Zhou, Feng-Jiang Zhang, Bin Yu, Jun Liu, Yan-Min Wang, Ya-Hui Bai, Jin Hong, Xian-Zhi Liu
A previous study revealed that ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) promoted cell proliferation and was a potential biomarker in medulloblastoma (MB). In the present study, we reported that miR-378 inhibited the expression of UHRF1 to affect the proliferation of MB through competitive binding to the same region of its 3'-UTR. We found that the expression of miR-378 was significantly downregulated in MB tissues and inversely correlated with the expression of UHRF1. Western blot analysis revealed that overexpression of miR-378 led to the suppression of UHRF1...
September 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899831/acquired-chiari-i-malformation-with-syringomyelia-secondary-to-colloid-cyst-with-hydrocephalus-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#7
Amit Kumar Thotakura, Nageswara R Marabathina
INTRODUCTION: Acquired Chiari malformation and associated syringomyelia have been previously described following lumbar puncture/drainage, lumboperitoneal shunts, and spontaneous CSF leakage. In addition to these etiologies, space-occupying lesions such as meningiomas, epidermoid cysts, medulloblastomas, and arachnoid cysts are rare causes of acquired Chiari malformation and syringomyelia. We report a rare case of colloid cyst with hydrocephalus causing secondary Chiari malformation with syringomyelia...
September 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899050/advances-in-genomics-explain-medulloblastoma-behavior-at-the-bedside
#8
Claudia M Kuzan-Fischer, Ana S Guerreiro Stucklin, Michael D Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890814/outcomes-and-complications-of-radiation-therapy-in-patients-with-familial-adenomatous-polyposis
#9
Meng Gan, Dustin Boothe, Deborah W Neklason, N Jewel Samadder, Jonathan Frandsen, Megan B Keener, Shane Lloyd
BACKGROUND: The outcomes, complications, and rates of secondary malignancies from radiation therapy (RT) are not known for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). METHODS: We queried the Hereditary Gastrointestinal Cancer Registry (HGCR) for patients with FAP who received RT. Outcomes assessed included acute and late treatment toxicity and secondary malignancies. RESULTS: We identified 15 patients undergoing 18 treatment courses...
August 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887665/impact-of-radiation-technique-radiation-fraction-dose-and-total-cisplatin-dose-on-hearing-retrospective-analysis-of-29%C3%A2-medulloblastoma-patients
#10
Sergiu Scobioala, Ross Parfitt, Peter Matulat, Christopher Kittel, Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Heidi Wolters, Antoinette Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Hans Theodor Eich
PURPOSE: To analyze the incidence and degree of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) resulting from different radiation techniques, fractionation dose, mean cochlear radiation dose (Dmean), and total cisplatin dose. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In all, 29 children with medulloblastoma (58 ears) with subclinical pretreatment hearing thresholds participated. Radiotherapy (RT) and cisplatin had been applied sequentially according to the HIT MED Guidance. Audiological outcomes up to the latest follow-up (median 2...
September 8, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877739/estrogen-and-soy-isoflavonoids-decrease-sensitivity-of-medulloblastoma-and-central-nervous-system-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-cells-to-chemotherapeutic-cytotoxicity
#11
Scott M Belcher, Caleb C Burton, Clifford J Cookman, Michelle Kirby, Gabriel L Miranda, Fatima O Saeed, Kathleen E Wray
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies demonstrated that growth and migration of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumor in children, are stimulated by 17β-estradiol. The growth stimulating effects of estrogens are mediated through ERβ and insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling to inhibit caspase 3 activity and reduce tumor cell apoptosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether estrogens decreased sensitivity of MB cells to cytotoxic actions of chemotherapeutic drugs...
September 6, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873303/discovery-of-novel-macrocyclic-hedgehog-pathway-inhibitors-acting-by-suppressing-the-gli-mediated-transcription
#12
Gang Liu, Wenjing Huang, Juan Wang, Xiaohua Liu, Jun Yang, Yu Zhang, Yong Geng, Wenfu Tan, Ao Zhang
A systemic medicinal chemistry campaign was conducted based on a literature hit compound 5 bearing the 4,5-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,5]oxazocin-6(3H)-one core through cyclization of two side substituents of the bicyclic skeleton combined with N-atom walking or ring-walking and the central ring expansion or extraction approaches, leading to several series of structurally unique tricyclic compounds. Among these, compound 29a was identified as the most potent against the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway showing an IC50 value of 23 nM...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867398/visual-and-ocular-motor-outcomes-in-children-with-posterior-fossa-tumors
#13
Crandall E Peeler, Jane C Edmond, Jeffrey Hollander, Jamie K Alexander, David Zurakowski, Nicole J Ullrich, Peter E Manley, Gena Heidary
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics and visual and ocular motor outcomes of a large cohort of pediatric patients treated for tumors of the posterior cranial fossa. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with posterior fossa tumors evaluated by the ophthalmology services at two large tertiary care academic hospitals between 2005 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Data abstracted for each study patient included demographic information, presenting signs and symptoms, pathologic diagnosis, and results of the most recent ophthalmology examination...
August 31, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867358/radiation-induced-large-vessel-cerebral-vasculopathy-in-pediatric-patients-with-brain-tumors-treated-with-proton-radiation-therapy
#14
Stephen F Kralik, Gordon A Watson, Chie-Schin Shih, Chang Y Ho, Whitney Finke, Jeffrey Buchsbaum
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence, time to development, imaging patterns, risk factors, and clinical significance of large vessel cerebral vasculopathy in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective study was performed on 75 consecutive pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Radiation-induced large vessel cerebral vasculopathy (RLVCV) was defined as intracranial large vessel arterial stenosis or occlusion confirmed on magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, catheter angiography, or a combination of these within an anatomic region with previous exposure to proton beam therapy and not present before radiation therapy...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856557/endothelial-cells-promote-formation-of-medulloblastoma-stem-like-cells-via-notch-pathway-activation
#15
Yong Wang, Yushe Wang, Hang Chen, Qinghua Liang
The aim of the study is to investigate whether endothelial cells (ECs) promoted the capacity of stem-like cell formation in medulloblastoma (MB) and whether the mechanism of action was associated with mediation of Notch signaling pathway. Co-culture experiment was conducted to particularly understand the potential role of ECs in promoting phenotype and gene expression of MB stem-like cells. Self-renewal capacity and tumor cell population were measured by sphere-forming assay and flow cytometry, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844926/an-unusual-combination-of-mirror-image-dextrocardia-with-familial-medulloblastoma-is-there-a-histogenetic-relationship
#16
Chao Ke, Jing Wang, Shaoyan Xi, Kay Ka-Wai Li, Junran Luo, Zhenghe Chen, Jian Wang, Zhong-Ping Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844716/oncogenic-role-of-cytomegalovirus-in-medulloblastoma
#17
Alejandro M Hortal, Jeroen F Vermeulen, Wim Van Hecke, Niels Bovenschen
Medulloblastoma is the most common solid tumor among children. Current therapeutic strategies for this malignancy include surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, these treatments are accompanied with serious side effects such as neurological complications and psychosocial problems, due to the severity of treatment on the developing nervous system. To solve this problem, novel therapeutic approaches are currently being investigated. One of them is targeting human cytomegalovirus in medulloblastoma cancer cells...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833911/discovery-of-a-novel-inhibitor-of-the-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-through-cell-based-compound-discovery-and-target-prediction
#18
Lea Kremer, Carsten Schultz-Fademrecht, Matthias Baumann, Peter Habenberger, Axel Choidas, Bert Klebl, Susanne Kordes, Hans R Schöler, Jared Sterneckert, Slava Ziegler, Gisbert Schneider, Herbert Waldmann
Cell-based assays enable monitoring of small-molecule bioactivity in a target-agnostic manner and help uncover new biological mechanisms. Subsequent identification and validation of the small-molecule targets, typically employing proteomics techniques, is very challenging and limited, in particular if the targets are membrane proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that the combination of cell-based bioactive-compound discovery with cheminformatic target prediction may provide an efficient approach to accelerate the process and render target identification and validation more efficient...
August 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828582/incidence-and-survival-trends-for-medulloblastomas-in-the-united-states-from-2001-to-2013
#19
Vishesh Khanna, Rebecca L Achey, Quinn T Ostrom, Hunter Block-Beach, Carol Kruchko, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Peter M de Blank
Population-based data examining recent epidemiological trends in medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain malignancy, are limited. Therefore, we sought to examine recent population-level trends in medulloblastoma incidence and survival. Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) data were analyzed from 2001 to 2013. Age-adjusted incidence rates (IR) and annual percent changes (APCs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by age, sex, and race. Relative survival rates were calculated by age, sex, and race using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) registries; subsets of CBTRUS data...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816956/differential-diagnosis-of-posterior-fossa-brain-tumors-multiple-discriminant-analysis-of-tl-spect-and-fdg-pet
#20
Moritaka Yamauchi, Tomohisa Okada, Tsutomu Okada, Akira Yamamoto, Yasutaka Fushimi, Yoshiki Arakawa, Susumu Miyamoto, Kaori Togashi
This study investigated the combined capability of thallium-201 (Tl)-SPECT and fluorine-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-PET for differential diagnosis of posterior fossa brain tumors using multiple discriminant analysis.This retrospective study was conducted under approval of the institutional review board. In the hospital information system, 27 patients with posterior fossa intra-axial tumor between January 2009 and June 2015 were enrolled and grouped as the following 7 entities: low grade glioma (LGG) 6, anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) 2, glioblastoma (GBM) 3, medulloblastoma (MB) 3, hemangioblastoma (HB) 6, metastatic tumor (Mets) 3, and malignant lymphoma (ML) 4...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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