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Medulloblastoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076842/systemically-identifying-and-prioritizing-risk-lncrnas-through-integration-of-pan-cancer-phenotype-associations
#1
Chaohan Xu, Rui Qi, Yanyan Ping, Jie Li, Hongying Zhao, Li Wang, Michael Yifei Du, Yun Xiao, Xia Li
LncRNAs have emerged as a major class of regulatory molecules involved in normal cellular physiology and disease, our knowledge of lncRNAs is very limited and it has become a major research challenge in discovering novel disease-related lncRNAs in cancers. Based on the assumption that diverse diseases with similar phenotype associations show similar molecular mechanisms, we presented a pan-cancer network-based prioritization approach to systematically identify disease-specific risk lncRNAs by integrating disease phenotype associations...
January 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074148/apraxia-of-speech-and-cerebellar-mutism-syndrome-a-case-report
#2
E De Witte, I Wilssens, D De Surgeloose, G Dua, M Moens, J Verhoeven, M Manto, P Mariën
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) or posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) consists of a constellation of neuropsychiatric, neuropsychological and neurogenic speech and language deficits. It is most commonly observed in children after posterior fossa tumor surgery. The most prominent feature of CMS is mutism, which generally starts after a few days after the operation, has a limited duration and is typically followed by motor speech deficits. However, the core speech disorder subserving CMS is still unclear...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048024/su-f-t-116-predicting-iq-and-the-risk-of-hearing-loss-following-proton-versus-photon-radiotherapy-for-pediatric-brain-tumor-patients
#3
D Fortin, A Ng, D Tsang, M Sharpe, N Laperriere, D Hodgson
PURPOSE: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. METHODS: Patients who had received radical IMRT were randomly selected from our retrospective database: 10 cases each of craniopharyngioma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma, and 20 cases of glioma...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046677/su-f-t-218-validation-of-an-in-vivo-proton-range-verification-method-for-reducing-the-risk-of-permanent-alopecia-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#4
G Lucconi, E Bentefour, S Deepak, G Janssens, K Weaver, M Moteabbed, H-M Lu
PURPOSE: The clinical commissioning of a workflow for pre-treatment range verification/adjustment for the head treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma patients, including dose monitoring during treatment. METHODS: An array of Si-diodes (DIODES Incorporated) is placed on the patient skin on the opposite side to the beam entrance. A "scout" SOBP beam, with a longer beam range to cover the diodes in its plateau, is delivered; the measured signal is analyzed and the extracted water equivalent path lengths (WEPL) are compared to the expected values, revealing if a range correction is needed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046455/su-f-t-429-craniospinal-irradiation-by-vmat-technique-impact-of-fff-beam-and-high-resolution-mlc-on-plan-quality
#5
T Ganesh, B Sarkar, A Munshi, B Mohanti
PURPOSE: Objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of using flattening filter free (FFF) beam with 0.5 cm multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves over conventional flattened beam with 1 cm leaf width MLC on the treatment plan quality in cranio-spinal irradiation (CSI). METHODS: For five medulloblastoma cases (3 males and 2 females), who were previously treated by volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique using conventional flattened beam shaped by 1 cm width MLC leaves, four test plans were generated and compared against the delivered plan...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039368/long-term-neurologic-health-and-psychosocial-function-of-adult-survivors-of-childhood-medulloblastoma-pnet-a-report-from-the-childhood-cancer-survivor-study
#6
Allison A King, Kristy Seidel, Chongzhi Di, Wendy M Leisenring, Stephanie Mabry Perkins, Kevin R Krull, Charles A Sklar, Daniel M Green, Gregory T Armstrong, Lonnie K Zeltzer, Elizabeth Wells, Marilyn Stovall, Nicole J Ullrich, Kevin C Oeffinger, Leslie L Robison, Roger J Packer
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor, although long-term risks for chronic neurologic health and psychosocial functioning in aging adult survivors are incompletely characterized. METHODS: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) includes 380 five-year survivors of medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET; median age at follow-up: 30 y, interquartile range 24-36) and sibling comparison (n = 4031). Cumulative incidence of neurologic health conditions was reported...
December 29, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035977/shp2-socs3-and-pias3-expression-patterns-in-medulloblastomas-relevance-to-stat3-activation-and-resveratrol-suppressed-stat3-signaling
#7
Cong Li, Hong Li, Peng Zhang, Li-Jun Yu, Tian-Miao Huang, Xue Song, Qing-You Kong, Jian-Li Dong, Pei-Nan Li, Jia Liu
BACKGROUND: Activated STAT3 signaling is critical for human medulloblastoma cells. SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 are known as the negative regulators of STAT3 signaling, while their relevance to frequent STAT3 activation in medulloblastomas remains unknown. METHODS: Tissue microarrays were constructed with 17 tumor-surrounding noncancerous brain tissues and 61 cases of the classic medulloblastomas, 44 the large-cell medulloblastomas, and 15 nodular medulloblastomas, which were used for immunohistochemical profiling of STAT3, SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 expression patterns and the frequencies of STAT3 nuclear translocation...
December 27, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035748/a-phase-i-study-of-perifosine-with-temsirolimus-for-recurrent-pediatric-solid-tumors
#8
Oren J Becher, Stephen W Gilheeney, Yasmin Khakoo, David C Lyden, Sofia Haque, Kevin C De Braganca, Jill M Kolesar, Jason T Huse, Shakeel Modak, Leonard H Wexler, Kim Kramer, Ivan Spasojevic, Ira J Dunkel
BACKGROUND: The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is aberrantly activated in many pediatric solid tumors including gliomas and medulloblastomas. Preclinical data in a pediatric glioma model demonstrated that the combination of perifosine (AKT inhibitor) and temsirolimus (mTOR inhibitor) is more potent at inhibiting the axis than either agent alone. We conducted this study to assess pharmacokinetics and identify the maximum tolerated dose for the combination. PROCEDURE: We performed a standard 3+3 phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study in patients with recurrent/refractory pediatric solid tumors...
December 30, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031228/reprogramming-medulloblastoma-propagating-cells-via-combined-antagonism-of-sonic-hedgehog-and-cxcr4
#9
Stacey A Ward, Nicole M Warrington, Sara Taylor, Najla Kfoury, Jingqin Luo, Joshua B Rubin
The CXCR4 chemokine and sonic hedgehog (SHH) morphogen pathways are validated therapeutic targets in many cancer types, including medulloblastoma. However, single agent treatments with SHH or CXCR4 antagonists have not proven efficacious in clinical trials to date. Here we show that dual inhibition of the SHH and CXCR4 pathways exerts potent antitumor effects in a murine model of SHH-subtype medulloblastoma. This therapeutic synergy resulted in suppression of tumor-propagating cell function and correlated with increased histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation within the promoters of stem cell genes, resulting in their decreased expression...
December 28, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029547/improving-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-capturing-and-detecting-targeted-cancer-cells-with-anti-biofouling-polymer-coated-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#10
Run Lin, Yuancheng Li, Tobey MacDonald, Hui Wu, James Provenzale, Xingui Peng, Jing Huang, Liya Wang, Andrew Y Wang, Jianyong Yang, Hui Mao
Detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with high sensitivity and specificity is critical to management of metastatic cancers. Although immuno-magnetic technology for in vitro detection of CTCs has shown promising potential for clinical applications, the biofouling effect, i.e., non-specific adhesion of biomolecules and non-cancerous cells in complex biological samples to the surface of a device/probe, can reduce the sensitivity and specificity of cell detection. Reported herein is the application of anti-biofouling polyethylene glycol-block-allyl glycidyl ether copolymer (PEG-b-AGE) coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to improve the separation of targeted tumor cells from aqueous phase in an external magnetic field...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025999/mir-200a-3p-promotes-the-proliferation-of-human-esophageal-cancer-cells-by-post-transcriptionally-regulating-cytoplasmic-collapsin-response-mediator-protein-1
#11
Yanzi Zang, Yong Tai, Baoluo Wan, Xiaodong Jia
The dysregulation of cytoplasmic collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) has been reported in lung cancer, medulloblastoma and esophageal cancer. However, the role of CRMP1 and its regulatory mechanisms in esophageal cancer remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that CRMP1 expression was downregulated in esophageal cancer tissues and that there were differences in its expression levels in different esophageal cancer cell lines. We found that CRMP1 overexpression inhibited the proliferation of esophageal cancer cells, whereas the silencing of CRMP1 promoted cell proliferation...
November 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018222/suppression-of-medulloblastoma-lesions-by-forced-migration-of-preneoplastic-precursor-cells-with-intracerebellar-administration-of-the-chemokine-cxcl3
#12
Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Felice Tirone
Medulloblastoma (MB), tumor of the cerebellum, remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in childhood. We previously showed, in a mouse model of spontaneous MB (Ptch1(+/-)/Tis21(-/-)), that a defect of the migration of cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells (GCPs) correlates with an increased frequency of MB. This occurs because GCPs, rather than migrating internally and differentiating, remain longer in the proliferative area at the cerebellar surface, becoming targets of transforming insults...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013334/cerebellopontine-angle-medulloblastoma-with-extensive-nodularity-in-a-child-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Raywat Noiphithak, Vich Yindeedej, Chatchai Thamwongskul
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar medulloblastomas (MBs) are one of the most common posterior fossa tumors in children but rarely occur in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Only 39 cases of CPA MBs were reported in the literature, and most of them were classic and desmoplastic MBs. CASE PRESENTATION: A 22-month-old girl presented with progressive cerebellar ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large tumor in the right CPA and obstructive hydrocephalus. Surgical resection was performed and achieved total tumor removal...
December 24, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000417/a-phase-ii-feasibility-study-of-oral-etoposide-given-concurrently-with-radiotherapy-followed-by-dose-intensive-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-children-with-newly-diagnosed-high-risk-medulloblastoma-protocol-pog-9631-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#14
Adam J Esbenshade, Mehmet Kocak, Linda Hershon, Pierre Rousseau, Jean-Claude Decarie, Susan Shaw, Peter Burger, Henry S Friedman, Amar Gajjar, Albert Moghrabi
BACKGROUND: Children with high-risk medulloblastoma historically have had a poor prognosis. The Children's Oncology Group completed a Phase II study using oral etoposide given with radiotherapy followed by intensive chemotherapy. PROCEDURE: Patients enrolled in the study had high-risk disease defined as ≥1.5 cm(2) of residual disease postsurgery or definite evidence of central nervous metastasis. All patients underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy. During radiation, the patients received oral etoposide (21 days on, 7 off) at an initial dose of 50 mg/m(2) per day (treatment 1), which was reduced to 35 mg/m(2) per day (treatment 2) due to toxicity...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999733/know-your-neighbors-different-tumor-microenvironments-have-implications-in-immunotherapeutic-targeting-strategies-across-mb-subgroups
#15
Christina D Pham, Duane A Mitchell
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common pediatric brain tumor with few reports of successful immunologic targeting. We have recently demonstrated the immune tumor microenvironment as well as response to immune checkpoint blockade differ across subtypes of murine MB.
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999713/intracranial-aneurysm-formation-after-radiotherapy-for-medulloblastoma
#16
Tomoya Kamide, Masanao Mohri, Kouichi Misaki, Naoyuki Uchiyama, Mitsutoshi Nakada
BACKGROUND: The development of an intracranial aneurysm after radiotherapy is rare but secondary effect of cranial irradiation in a primary disease treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 17-year-old male adolescent who was diagnosed as having a posterior fossa medulloblastoma when he was 8 years old. He had undergone tumor resection with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm was identified by magnetic resonance imaging 8 years after radiotherapy and grew rapidly throughout the next 1 year...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982543/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-using-orthotopic-xenografts-towards-patient-s-derived-xenograft-medulloblastoma-models
#17
Fatemeh Asadzadeh, Veronica Ferrucci, Pasqualino DE Antonellis, Massimo Zollo
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is a cerebellar neoplasia of the central nervous system. Four molecular subgrups have been identified (MBWNT, MBSHH, MBgroup3 and MBgroup4) with distinct genetics and clinical outcome. Among these, MBgroup3-4 are highly metastatic with the worst prognosis. The current standard therapy includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Thus, specific treatments adapted to cure those different molecular subgroups are needed. The use of orthotopic xenograft models, together with the non-invasive in vivo biolumiscence imaging (BLI) technology, is emerging during preclinical studies to test novel therapeutics for medulloblastoma treatment...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981412/survival-in-pediatric-medulloblastoma-a-population-based-observational-study-to-improve-prognostication
#18
Alexander G Weil, Anthony C Wang, Harrison J Westwick, George M Ibrahim, Rojine T Ariani, Louis Crevier, Sebastien Perreault, Tom Davidson, Chi-Hong Tseng, Aria Fallah
Medulloblastoma is the most common form of brain malignancy of childhood. The mainstay of epidemiological data regarding childhood medulloblastoma is derived from case series, hence population-based studies are warranted to improve the accuracy of survival estimates. To utilize a big-data approach to update survival estimates in a contemporary cohort of children with medulloblastoma. We performed a population-based retrospective observational cohort study utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database that captures all children, less than 20 years of age, between 1973 and 2012 in 18 geographical regions representing 28% of the US population...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978508/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-pediatric-neuro-oncology-patients-improves-diagnosis-identifies-pathogenic-germline-mutations-and-directs-targeted-therapy
#19
Cassie N Kline, Nancy M Joseph, James P Grenert, Jessica van Ziffle, Eric Talevich, Courtney Onodera, Mariam Aboian, Soonmee Cha, David R Raleigh, Steve Braunstein, Joseph Torkildson, David Samuel, Michelle Bloomer, Alejandra G de Alba Campomanes, Anuradha Banerjee, Nicholas Butowski, Corey Raffel, Tarik Tihan, Andrew W Bollen, Joanna J Phillips, W Michael Korn, Iwei Yeh, Boris C Bastian, Nalin Gupta, Sabine Mueller, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, David A Solomon
BACKGROUND: Molecular profiling is revolutionizing cancer diagnostics and leading to personalized therapeutic approaches. Herein we describe our clinical experience performing targeted sequencing for 31 pediatric neuro-oncology patients. METHODS: We sequenced 510 cancer-associated genes from tumor and peripheral blood to identify germline and somatic mutations, structural variants, and copy number changes. RESULTS: Genomic profiling was performed on 31 patients with tumors including 11 high-grade gliomas, 8 medulloblastomas, 6 low-grade gliomas, 1 embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 uveal ganglioneuroma, 1 choroid plexus carcinoma, 1 chordoma, and 1 high-grade neuroepithelial tumor...
November 14, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966820/overexpression-of-tead4-in-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-new-insight-to-the-pathophysiology-of-an-aggressive-brain-tumor
#20
Mario Suzuki, Akihide Kondo, Ikuko Ogino, Hajime Arai, Tadanori Tomita, Simone Treiger Sredni
BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal brain tumor that occurs mainly in early childhood. Although most of the tumors are characterized by inactivating mutations of the tumor suppressor gene, SMARCB1, the biological basis of its tumorigenesis and aggressiveness is still unknown. PROCEDURE: We performed high-throughput copy number variation analysis of primary cell lines generated from primary and relapsed tumors from one of our patients to identify new genes involved in AT/RT biology...
December 14, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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