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Oluwadamilola Teniola, Kevin Yuqi Wang, Wei-Lien Wang, WilliamW Tseng, Behrang Amini
Liposarcoma (LPS) is a malignancy of fat and one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas. There are three major subtypes of LPS: Well-differentiated / dedifferentiated, myxoid, and pleomorphic. We review the imaging features of LPS in the abdomen and extremities, describe features that help differentiate the subtypes, and provides alternative considerations for fat-containing lesions (many benign) that can mimic LPS.
December 11, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
R-J Wei, C-H Zhang, W-Z Yang
OBJECTIVE: Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) negatively regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway through degrading β-catenin protein. It plays an inhibitory role in various tumors, while the influence in the pathogenesis of renal carcinoma has not been elucidated. MicroRNA-155 (MiR-155) was found to be upregulated in renal carcinoma tissue. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the complementary binding site between miR-155 and 3'-UTR of GSK-3β. This study investigated the influence of miR-155 in regulating GSK-3β expression, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activity, and renal carcinoma cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Mayur Sharma, Antonio Meola, Sushma Bellamkonda, Xuefei Jia, Joshua Montgomery, Samuel T Chao, John H Suh, Lilyana Angelov, Gene H Barnett
BACKGROUND: Glomus jugulare tumors (GJTs) are rare benign tumors, which pose significant treatment challenges due to proximity to critical structures. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term clinical and radiological outcome in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for GJTs through retrospective study. METHODS: Forty-two patients with 43 GJTs were treated using Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) at our institute from 1997 to 2016...
December 4, 2017: Neurosurgery
Tiantian Pang, Leidan Huang, Yingyuan Deng, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen, Xuehao Gong, Weixiang Liu
The aim of the study is to screen the significant sonographic features by logistic regression analysis and fit a model to diagnose thyroid nodules. A total of 525 pathological thyroid nodules were retrospectively analyzed. All the nodules underwent conventional ultrasonography (US), strain elastosonography (SE), and contrast -enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Those nodules' 12 suspicious sonographic features were used to assess thyroid nodules. The significant features of diagnosing thyroid nodules were picked out by logistic regression analysis...
2017: PloS One
Sanjay Sonney, Jeremy Leipzig, Marie T Lott, Shiping Zhang, Vincent Procaccio, Douglas C Wallace, Neal Sondheimer
Novel or rare variants in mitochondrial tRNA sequences may be observed after mitochondrial DNA analysis. Determining whether these variants are pathogenic is critical, but confirmation of the effect of a variant on mitochondrial function can be challenging. We have used available databases of benign and pathogenic variants, alignment between diverse tRNAs, structural information and comparative genomics to predict the impact of all possible single-base variants and deletions. The Mitochondrial tRNA Informatics Predictor (MitoTIP) is available through MITOMAP at www...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Grzegorz Piotrowicz, Tomasz Syryło, Rafał Jedynak, Henryk Zieliński
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) in the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. BACKGROUND: The "gold standard" of surgical treatment of BPH is transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Since the risk of complications associated with TURP is still significant, there is a continuous search for safer and equally effective procedures...
December 11, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Andrea Palermo, Marco Fosca, Gaia Tabacco, Federico Marini, Valerio Graziani, Maria Carla Santarsia, Filippo Longo, Angelo Lauria, Roberto Cesareo, Isabella Giovannoni, Chiara Taffon, Massimiliano Rocchia, Silvia Manfrini, Pierfilippo Crucitti, Paolo Pozzilli, Anna Crescenzi, Julietta V Rau
Primary hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder characterized by autonomous production of parathyroid hormone. Patients with the symptomatic disease should be referred for parathyroidectomy. However, the distinction between the pathological condition and the benign one is very challenging in the surgical setting; therefore, accurate recognition is important to ensure success during minimally invasive surgery. At present, all intraoperative techniques significantly increase surgical time and, consequently, cost...
December 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Soyoung Kang, Yu Winston Wang, Xiaochun Xu, Eric Navarro, Kenneth M Tichauer, Jonathan T C Liu
Previous studies have shown that functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) topically applied on fresh tissues are able to rapidly target cell-surface protein biomarkers of cancer. Furthermore, studies have shown that a paired-agent approach, in which an untargeted NP is co-administered with a panel of targeted NPs, controls for nonspecific behavior of the NPs, enabling quantitative imaging of biomarker expression. However, given the complexities in nonspecific accumulation, diffusion, and chemical binding of targeted NPs in tissues, studies are needed to better understand these processes at the microscopic scale...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
Junghee Yoon, Jong Bin Lee, Ho Yun Lee, Byung Don Lee, Chi Kyou Lee, Seong Jun Choi
OBJECTIVE: To define the risk factors and adverse effects associated with repeated canalith repositioning procedures (CRPs). STUDY DESIGN: A case series featuring chart review. SETTING: An academic university hospital. PATIENTS: We retrospectively reviewed 1900 patients (average age, 54.9 years; range, 11-88 years) diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). All underwent repeated CRPs. We recorded clinical features including age, gender, BPPV cause (idiopathic or secondary), symptom duration, the canal involved, the number of sessions of CRP, recurrence, follow-up duration, and complications...
December 7, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek
PURPOSE: To assess masses of the external ear with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 43 consecutive patients with soft tissue mass of the external ear. They underwent single shot diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the ear. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the mass of the external ear was calculated. The final diagnosis was performed by biopsy. The ADC value correlated with the biopsy results. RESULTS: The mean ADC value of malignancy (=27) of external ear (0...
December 7, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
Sara Monaco, Mitra Mehrad, Sanja Dacic
Mesothelial proliferations can be diagnostically challenging in small specimens, such as body fluid cytology and small tissue biopsies. A great morphologic challenge for pathologists is the separation of benign reactive mesothelial proliferations from malignant mesotheliomas. Reactive mesothelial proliferations may have histologic features that resemble malignancy including increased cellularity, cytologic atypia, and mitoses. Recent advances in mesothelioma genetics resulted in identification of BAP1 mutations and p16 deletions as features of malignant mesotheliomas...
January 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Gerda Fouche, Bellonah M Sakong, Olubukola T Adenubi, Jean Paul Dzoyem, Vinny Naidoo, Tlabo Leboho, Kevin W Wellington, Jacobus N Eloff
The acaricidal activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 plant species was evaluated using the contact method on Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks at an initial concentration of 20% (200 mg/mL). Eight of the 12 plants had mortality greater than 50% and the acetone extracts had better acaricidal activity than the ethanol extracts. The acetone extract of Calpurnia aurea (leaves and flowers) had the highest corrected mortality (CM) of 92.2% followed by Schkuhria pinnata (whole plant) with a CM of 88...
November 23, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Šárka Hadravská, Magdaléna Dubová, Markéta Miesbauerová, Petr Mukenšnabl, Ondřej Daum, Alois Mádle, Karel Smetana
Hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes (HMCM) is a rare benign pseudoneoplastic myocardial lesion. We describe a case of 39-year-old Bulgarian woman living in the Czech Republic, who died because of rupture of anterior communicating artery aneurysm, and severe bronchopneumonia. An incidental finding at the autopsy was a whitish unencapsulated and not sharply demarcated tumor of the left ventricle and adjacent area of interventricular septum, which protruded above the plane of section. Microscopically the tumor consisted of various different forms of disorganized hypertrophic mature cardiac myocytes without vacuolization of cytoplasm, focally in a "herringbone" pattern...
2017: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Xin-Ran Xu, Xin Wang, Hong Zhang, Ming-Yan Liu, Qi Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the clinical significance of serum Smac, HE4 and CA125 alone or combined for detecting endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC). METHODS: The level of serum Smac, HE4 and CA125 in 40 healthy controls, 40 cases of benign endometriosis ovarian tumor, and 60 cases of EAOC were detected by ELISA and electrochemical immune method. RESULTS: Serum Smac expression level was significantly lower in the EAOC group than in the control group and benign ovarian tumor group (P< 0...
November 30, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Kyung Mi Lee, Hyug-Gi Kim, Yeon-Hee Lee, Eui Jong Kim
An intraosseous lipoma is a rare histologic variant of lipoma, accounting for only 0.1% of all primary bone tumors. This may not be the actual incidence because most of these lesions are frequently asymptomatic, but imaging modalities, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seem to have increased the detection rate. Lipoma occasionally undergoes osseous metaplasia and becomes an osseous lipoma. Although there are numerous papers discussing intraosseous lipoma and some authors have tried to differentiate lipomas from osseous lipomas, there is still a great deal of confusion with regard to characteristic radiologic features and the use of terms...
December 6, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Petra Osmancikova, Josef Novotny, Jaroslav Solc, Jan Pipek
The Convolution algorithm, implemented in Leksell GammaPlan® ver. Here, 10, is the first algorithm for Leksell Gamma Knife that takes heterogeneities into account and models dose build-up effects close to tissue boundaries. The aim of this study was preliminary comparison of the Convolution and TMR10 algorithms for real clinical cases and dosimetric verification of the algorithms, using measurements in a phantom. A total of 25 patients involved in comparison of the Convolution and TMR10 algorithms were divided into three groups: patients with benign tumors close to heterogeneities, patients with functional disorders, and patients with tumors located far from heterogeneities...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
J P Nott, E Pervolaraki, A P Benson, E A Bonney, J D Pickering, N Wilkinson, Nab Simpson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the microarchitecture of the cervix using high-resolution diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Leeds, UK. SAMPLE: Women undergoing hysterectomy for benign pathology. METHODS: Ex-vivo DT-MRI measurements were obtained using a 9.4-T Bruker nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer on seven fixed human cervices obtained at hysterectomy...
October 26, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Agnieszka Paziewska, Michal Mikula, Michalina Dabrowska, Maria Kulecka, Krzysztof Goryca, Artur Antoniewicz, Jakub Dobruch, Andrzej Borowka, Piotr Rutkowski, Jerzy Ostrowski
BACKGROUND: While histopathological evaluation remains the gold standard for diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), sampling errors remain a frequent problem; therefore, use of tissue biomarkers that can distinguish between benign and malignant prostate disease is a potentially beneficial diagnostic strategy. METHODS: Deep sequencing of the miRNA transcriptome of 14 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 60 cancerous and non-cancerous prostate samples extracted from 34 cancer-bearing prostates removed by prostatectomy was performed; of the latter 60 samples, 16, 21, and 23 samples contained <10%, >30%, and no dysplastic cells, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Prostate
Takao Fuchigami, Hirofumi Koyama, Michiko Kishida, Yoshiaki Nishizawa, Mikio Iijima, Toshiro Kibe, Masahiro Ueda, Tohru Kiyono, Yoshimasa Maniwa, Norifumi Nakamura, Shosei Kishida
Ameloblastoma is a benign tumor of the odontogenic epithelium with several histological subtypes. All subtypes of ameloblastoma contain abundant stroma; the tumor cells invade collectively into the surrounding tissues without losing intratumor cell attachments. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating ameloblastoma invasion remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the functional significance of the interactions between ameloblastoma tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts on collective cellular invasion using a three-dimensional cultivation method, double-layered collagen gel hemisphere (DL-CGH) culture...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Meaghan J Mackenzie, Rashi Hiranandani, Dongmei Wang, Tak Fung, Eddy Lang
Background Many specialty societies have found that neuroimaging in headache is a low-value intervention for benign presentations. This study describes factors that influence Emergency Room (ER) physicians' adherence to Choosing Wisely (CW) recommendations for low-risk headache patients presenting to Calgary's Emergency Departments (EDs). Emergency medicine has yet to address imaging in headache as a CW topic; however, this study may inform that decision. Methods Data were retrospectively collected for all patients presenting to Calgary EDs with headaches from April 1, 2014 to March 31, 2016...
October 9, 2017: Curēus
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