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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817722/nicotinamide-alone-accelerates-the-conversion-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neuronal-populations
#1
Síle M Griffin, Mark R Pickard, Rowan P Orme, Clive P Hawkins, Adrian C Williams, Rosemary A Fricker
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B3 has been shown to play an important role during embryogenesis. Specifically, there is growing evidence that nicotinamide, the biologically active form of vitamin B3, plays a critical role as a morphogen in the differentiation of stem cells to mature cell phenotypes, including those of the central nervous system (CNS). Detailed knowledge of the action of small molecules during neuronal differentiation is not only critical for uncovering mechanisms underlying lineage-specification, but also to establish more effective differentiation protocols to obtain clinically relevant cells for regenerative therapies for neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816651/cyclosporiasis-in-travellers-returning-to-the-united-kingdom-from-mexico-in-summer-2017-lessons-from-the-recent-past-to-inform-the-future
#2
Diogo F P Marques, Claire L Alexander, Rachel M Chalmers, Richard Elson, Joanne Freedman, Gillian Hawkins, Janice Lo, Guy Robinson, Katherine Russell, Alison Smith-Palmer, Hilary Kirkbride
During the summers of 2015 and 2016, the United Kingdom experienced large outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in travellers returning from Mexico. As the source of the outbreaks was not identified, there is the potential for a similar outbreak to occur in 2017; indeed 78 cases had already been reported as at 27 July 2017. Early communication and international collaboration is essential to provide a better understanding of the source and extent of this recurring situation.
August 3, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816160/the-impact-of-cardiac-radiation-dosimetry-on-survival-after-radiation-therapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
S Vivekanandan, D B Landau, N Counsell, D R Warren, A Khwanda, S D Rosen, E Parsons, Y Ngai, L Farrelly, L Hughes, M A Hawkins, J D Fenwick
PURPOSE: The heart receives high radiation doses during radiation therapy of advanced-stage lung cancer. We have explored associations between overall survival, cardiac radiation doses, and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in patients treated in IDEAL-CRT, a trial of isotoxically escalated concurrent chemoradiation delivering tumor doses of 63 to 73 Gy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Dosimetric and survival data were analyzed for 78 patients. The whole heart, pericardium, AV node, and walls of left and right atria (LA/RA-Wall) and ventricles (LV/RV-Wall) were outlined on radiation therapy planning scans, and differential dose-volume histograms (dDVHs) were calculated...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815427/learning-about-love-a-meta-analytic-study-of-individually-oriented-relationship-education-programs-for-adolescents-and-emerging-adults
#4
David M Simpson, Nathan D Leonhardt, Alan J Hawkins
Despite recent policy initiatives and substantial federal funding of individually oriented relationship education programs for youth, there have been no meta-analytic reviews of this growing field. This meta-analytic study draws on 17 control-group studies and 13 one-group/pre-post studies to evaluate the effectiveness of relationship education programs on adolescents' and emerging adults' relationship knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Overall, control-group studies produced a medium effect (d = .36); one-group/pre-post studies also produced a medium effect (d = ...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813746/differences-in-the-manifestation-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-african-american-patients
#5
Chamika Hawkins-Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813661/tissue-resident-macrophages-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-originate-from-embryonic-hematopoiesis-and-promote-tumor-progression
#6
Yu Zhu, John M Herndon, Dorothy K Sojka, Ki-Wook Kim, Brett L Knolhoff, Chong Zuo, Darren R Cullinan, Jingqin Luo, Audrey R Bearden, Kory J Lavine, Wayne M Yokoyama, William G Hawkins, Ryan C Fields, Gwendalyn J Randolph, David G DeNardo
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are essential components of the cancer microenvironment and play critical roles in the regulation of tumor progression. Optimal therapeutic intervention requires in-depth understanding of the sources that sustain macrophages in malignant tissues. In this study, we investigated the ontogeny of TAMs in murine pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) models. We identified both inflammatory monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages as sources of TAMs. Unexpectedly, significant portions of pancreas-resident macrophages originated from embryonic development and expanded through in situ proliferation during tumor progression...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810827/validation-of-%C3%AE-lactam-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-predictions-for-pneumococcal-isolates-with-newly-encountered-penicillin-binding-protein-pbp-sequences
#7
Yuan Li, Benjamin J Metcalf, Sopio Chochua, Zhongya Li, Robert E Gertz, Hollis Walker, Paulina A Hawkins, Theresa Tran, Lesley McGee, Bernard W Beall
BACKGROUND: Genomic sequence-based deduction of antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) has great potential to enhance the speed and sensitivity of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We previously developed a penicillin-binding protein (PBP) typing system and two methods (Random Forest (RF) and Mode MIC (MM)) that accurately predicted β-lactam MICs for pneumococcal isolates carrying a characterized PBP sequence type (phenotypic β-lactam MICs known for at least one isolate of this PBP type)...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809629/-talar-neck-fractures-treated-using-percutaneous-screw-fixation
#8
R Veselý, M Kelbl, J Kacián, V Hulka, J Kočiš, R Kunovský
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation of nondisplaced talar neck fractures have been applied by some authors. The aim of this paper is to assess the results and complications of this minimally invasive technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2009 to 2014, twenty-one patients with a talar neck fracture were observed after closed reduction and percutaneous screw fixation in the Traumatological Hospital in Brno. The mean age of the patients was 38 years (range 18-56 years)...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808592/a-case-of-fulminant-meningococcemia-it-is-all-in-the-complement
#9
Kellie L Hawkins, Mariah Hoffman, Sonia Okuyama, Sarah E Rowan
Eculizumab is a novel monoclonal antibody that inhibits complement-mediated hemolysis in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Complement deficiency is a well-known risk factor for meningococcal infection. We describe a case of a young patient with PNH treated with eculizumab who presented with a life-threatening case of nongroupable meningococcemia. As this new biologic agent becomes more widely prescribed, providers should be aware of the increased risk of meningococcemia. In addition to vaccination, providers may consider the use of oral penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis against Neisseria meningitidis in these cases of functional complement deficiency...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807360/introducing-the-cancer-research-uk-advanced-radiotherapy-technologies-network-art-net
#10
EDITORIAL
K Harrington, E Hall, M Hawkins, A Henry, R MacKay, T Maughan, A McDonald, C Nutting, U Oelfke, D Sebag-Montefiore, R A Sharma, M van Herk, C Faivre-Finn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801899/bioluminescence-monitoring-of-promoter-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Juliette M K M Delhove, Rajvinder Karda, Kate E Hawkins, Lorna M FitzPatrick, Simon N Waddington, Tristan R McKay
The application of luciferase reporter genes to provide quantitative outputs for the activation of promoters is a well-established technique in molecular biology. Luciferase catalyzes an enzymatic reaction, which in the presence of the substrate luciferin produces photons of light relative to its molar concentration. The luciferase transgene can be genetically inserted at the first intron of a target gene to act as a surrogate for the gene's endogenous expression in cells and transgenic mice. Alternatively, promoter sequences can be excised and/or amplified from genomic sources or constructed de novo and cloned upstream of luciferase in an expression cassette transfected into cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799598/antiproliferative-activity-of-%C3%AE-6-arene-ruthenacarborane-sandwich-complexes-against-hct116-and-mcf7-cell-lines
#12
Marta Gozzi, Benedikt Schwarze, Menyhárt-Botond Sárosi, Peter Lönnecke, Dijana Drača, Danijela Maksimović-Ivanić, Sanja Mijatović, Evamarie Hey-Hawkins
Three [(η(6)-arene)RuC2B9H11] complexes (arene = p-cymene (2), biphenyl (3) and 1-Me-4-COOEt-C6H4 (4)) were synthesised according to modified literature procedures and fully characterised. 2-4 were found to be moderately active against two types of tumour cell lines (HCT116 and MCF7), with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. However, viability of normal, healthy cells (MRC-5 cell line, MLEC and mouse macrophages) was not affected by treatment with 2-4, indicating high selectivity of the metallacarborane complexes towards tumour cell lines, compared to the unselective antitumour agent cisplatin and other potential Ru(II) drugs...
August 11, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798208/more-than-metaphor-online-resources-for-teaching-cancer-biology
#13
Amy J Hawkins, Louisa A Stark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796597/a-home-based-type-2-diabetes-self-management-intervention-in-rural-guatemala
#14
David Flood, Jessica Hawkins, Peter Rohloff
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is a fundamental element of type 2 diabetes care. Although 75% of adults with diabetes worldwide live in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), limited DSME research has been conducted in LMICs. The objective of this study was to evaluate a home-based DSME intervention in rural Guatemala. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of a DSME intervention using a quasi-experimental, single-group pretest-posttest design...
August 10, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793267/epigenomic-landscapes-of-hesc-derived-neural-rosettes-modeling-neural-tube-formation-and-diseases
#15
Cristina Valensisi, Colin Andrus, Sam Buckberry, Naresh Doni Jayavelu, Riikka J Lund, Ryan Lister, R David Hawkins
We currently lack a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying neural tube formation and their contributions to neural tube defects (NTDs). Developing a model to study such a complex morphogenetic process, especially one that models human-specific aspects, is critical. Three-dimensional, human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural rosettes (NRs) provide a powerful resource for in vitro modeling of human neural tube formation. Epigenomic maps reveal enhancer elements unique to NRs relative to 2D systems...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791799/reducing-the-flexibility-of-type-ii-dehydroquinase-enzyme-for-inhibition-a-fragment-based-approach-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study
#16
Antonio Peón, Adrián Robles, Beatriz Blanco, Marino Convertino, Paul Thompson, Alastair R Hawkins, Amedeo Caflisch, Concepcion Gonzalez-Bello
A multidisciplinary approach was used to identify and optimize a quinazolinedione-based ligand that would reduce the flexibility of the substrate-covering loop (catalytic loop) of the type II dehydroquinase from Helicobacter pylori. This enzyme, which is essential for the survival of this bacterium, is involved in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids. A computer-aided fragment-based protocol (ALTA) was first employed to identify the aromatic fragments able to block the interface pocket that separates two neighbor enzyme subunits and is located at the active site entrance...
August 9, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791251/combining-oncolytic-adenovirus-with-radiation-a-paradigm-for-the-future-of-radiosensitization
#17
REVIEW
Sean M O'Cathail, Tzveta D Pokrovska, Timothy S Maughan, Kerry D Fisher, Leonard W Seymour, Maria A Hawkins
Oncolytic viruses and radiotherapy represent two diverse areas of cancer therapy, utilizing quite different treatment modalities and with non-overlapping cytotoxicity profiles. It is, therefore, an intriguing possibility to consider that oncolytic ("cancer-killing") viruses may act as cancer-selective radiosensitizers, enhancing the therapeutic consequences of radiation treatment on tumors while exerting minimal effects on normal tissue. There is a solid mechanistic basis for this potential synergy, with many viruses having developed strategies to inhibit cellular DNA repair pathways in order to protect themselves, during genome replication, from unwanted interference by cell processes that are normally triggered by DNA damage...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790014/bmp2-expression-in-the-endocardial-lineage-is-required-for-av-endocardial-cushion-maturation-and-remodeling
#18
Jacob G Saxon, Daniel R Baer, Julie A Barton, Travis Hawkins, Bingruo Wu, Thomas C Trusk, Stephen E Harris, Bin Zhou, Yuji Mishina, Yukiko Sugi
Distal outgrowth, maturation and remodeling of the endocardial cushion mesenchyme in the atrioventricular (AV) canal are the essential morphogenetic events during four-chambered heart formation. Mesenchymalized AV endocardial cushions give rise to the AV valves and the membranous ventricular septum (VS). Failure of these processes results in several human congenital heart defects. Despite this clinical relevance, the mechanisms governing how mesenchymalized AV endocardial cushions mature and remodel into the membranous VS and AV valves have only begun to be elucidated...
August 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782866/a-collaborative-care-skills-workshop-for-carers-can-it-be-delivered-in-1%C3%A2-day
#19
Paul E Jenkins, Sonia Bues, Julie Cottrell, Joel Hawkins, Laura Pinder, Susan Price, Anne Stewart
Carers of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) report high levels of burden and distress and describe a number of unmet needs. As a result, a number of interventions have been designed to support carers, including the "Maudsley eating disorder collaborative care skills workshops," which comprise six 2-hr workshops delivered over 3 months for parents and carers of people with EDs. The current study aimed to test a proof-of-concept that this workshop could be effectively delivered in 1 day. An additional aim was to assess whether the workshop had direct effects on carer skills...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782701/a-systematic-review-of-end-of-life-care-communication-skills-training-for-generalist-palliative-care-providers-research-quality-and-reporting-guidance
#20
REVIEW
Lisa Jane Brighton, Jonathan Koffman, Amy Hawkins, Christine McDonald, Suzanne O'Brien, Vicky Robinson, Shaheen A Khan, Rob George, Irene J Higginson, Lucy Ellen Selman
CONTEXT: End of life care (EoLC) communication skills training for generalist palliative care providers is recommended in policy guidance globally. Whilst many training programmes now exist, there has been no comprehensive evidence synthesis to inform future training delivery and evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To identify and appraise how EoLC communication skills training interventions for generalist palliative care providers are developed, delivered, evaluated, and reported...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
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