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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329397/resveratrol-improves-vascular-function-and-mitochondrial-number-but-not-glucose-metabolism-in-older-adults
#1
Rena M Pollack, Nir Barzilai, Valentin Anghel, Ameya S Kulkarni, Aaron Golden, Pilib O'Broin, David A Sinclair, Michael S Bonkowski, Alexander J Coleville, Danielle Powell, Sharon Kim, Ruin Moaddel, Daniel Stein, Kehao Zhang, Meredith Hawkins, Jill P Crandall
Background: Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, has been reported to improve glucose metabolism and vascular function and to extend life span in animal models, but studies in humans have been inconclusive. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, we treated older glucose-intolerant adults (n = 30) with resveratrol (2-3 g/daily) or placebo, each for 6 weeks. A standard mixed-meal test was used to assess insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and secretion (C-peptide deconvolution) and vascular function by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry...
March 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323979/thyroid-cancer-following-childhood-low-dose-radiation-exposure-a-pooled-analysis-of-nine-cohorts
#2
Jay H Lubin, M Jacob Adams, Roy Shore, Erik Holmberg, Arthur B Schneider, Michael M Hawkins, Leslie L Robison, Peter D Inskip, Marie Lundell, Robert Johansson, Ruth A Kleinerman, Florent de Vathaire, Lena Damber, Siegal Sadetzki, Margaret Tucker, Ritsu Sakata, Lene H S Veiga
Context: The increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that involve radiation raises concerns about radiation effects, particularly in children and to the radio-sensitive thyroid gland. Objectives: Evaluation of relative risk (RR) trends for thyroid radiation doses <0.2 gray; evidence of a threshold dose; and possible modifiers of the dose-response, e.g., sex, age at exposure, time since exposure. Design and setting: Pooled data from nine cohort studies of childhood external radiation exposure and thyroid cancer with individualized dose estimates, ≥1,000 irradiated subjects or ≥10 thyroid cancer cases, with data limited to individuals receiving doses <0...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323755/cyp2b6-genotype-directed-dosing-is-required-for-optimal-efavirenz-exposure-in-children-3-to-36-months-with-hiv-infection
#3
Carolyn Bolton Moore, Edmund V Capparelli, Pearl Samson, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Carol Worrell, Barbara Heckman, Lynette Purdue, Stephen A Spector, Alex Benns, William Borkowsky, Amy Loftis, Elizabeth Hawkins, Carole Wallis, Ellen G Chadwick
OBJECTIVES: To determine safety, efficacy and genotypic-specific dose requirements of EFV in children aged 3 - <36 months of age with HIV infection with or without TB co-infection. DESIGN: IMPAACT P1070 was a 24 week prospective cohort trial of EFV (as open capsules) plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in children with HIV infection 3- < 36 months without tuberculosis (Cohort 1). METHODS: CYP2B6 G516T genotype was determined and intensive PK's were performed at week 2...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319475/advances-in-obstetric-anesthesia
#4
Joy L Hawkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317906/novel-hypophysiotropic-agrp2-neurons-and-pineal-cells-revealed-by-bac-transgenesis-in-zebrafish
#5
Inbal Shainer, Adi Buchshtab, Thomas A Hawkins, Stephen W Wilson, Roger D Cone, Yoav Gothilf
The neuropeptide agouti-related protein (AgRP) is expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulating food consumption and energy homeostasis. Fish express two agrp genes in the brain: agrp1, considered functionally homologous with the mammalian AgRP, and agrp2. The role of agrp2 and its relationship to agrp1 are not fully understood. Utilizing BAC transgenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which agrp1- and agrp2-expressing cells can be visualized and manipulated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317426/the-influence-of-social-identity-on-self-worth-commitment-and-effort-in-school-based-youth-sport
#6
Luc J Martin, Danny Balderson, Michael Hawkins, Kathleen Wilson, Mark W Bruner
​​​The current study examined the influence of social identity for individual perceptions of self-worth, commitment, and effort in school-based youth athletes. Using a prospective research design, 303 athletes (Mage = 14.89, SD = 1.77; 133 female) from 27 sport teams completed questionnaires at 2 time points (T1 - demographics, social identity; T2 - self-worth, commitment, effort) during an athletic season. Multilevel analyses indicated that at the individual level, the social identity dimension of in-group ties (IGT) predicted commitment (b = 0...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316069/employment-status-and-occupational-level-of-adult-survivors-of-childhood-cancer-in-great-britain-the-british-childhood-cancer-survivor-study
#7
Clare Frobisher, Emma R Lancashire, Helen Jenkinson, David L Winter, Julie Kelly, Raoul C Reulen, Michael M Hawkins
The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) provides the first detailed investigation of employment and occupation to be undertaken in a large population-based cohort. Previous studies have been limited by design issues such as using small numbers of survivors with specific diagnoses, and involved limited assessment of employment status and occupational level. The BCCSS includes 17,981 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Employment status and occupational level were ascertained by questionnaire from eligible survivors (n = 14,836)...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314615/distinguishing-globally-driven-changes-from-regional-and-local-scale-impacts-the-case-for-long-term-and-broad-scale-studies-of-recovery-from-pollution
#8
S J Hawkins, A J Evans, N Mieszkowska, L C Adams, S Bray, M T Burrows, L B Firth, M J Genner, K M Y Leung, P J Moore, K Pack, H Schuster, D W Sims, M Whittington, E C Southward
Marine ecosystems are subject to anthropogenic change at global, regional and local scales. Global drivers interact with regional- and local-scale impacts of both a chronic and acute nature. Natural fluctuations and those driven by climate change need to be understood to diagnose local- and regional-scale impacts, and to inform assessments of recovery. Three case studies are used to illustrate the need for long-term studies: (i) separation of the influence of fishing pressure from climate change on bottom fish in the English Channel; (ii) recovery of rocky shore assemblages from the Torrey Canyon oil spill in the southwest of England; (iii) interaction of climate change and chronic Tributyltin pollution affecting recovery of rocky shore populations following the Torrey Canyon oil spill...
March 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300448/photoprotection-knowledge-and-behaviours-among-organ-transplant-recipients
#9
Kirsten Walker, Kerry Gardner, Angela Law, Nicole Hawkins, Peter Hull
BACKGROUND: Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are at an increased risk of developing a de novo malignant neoplasm compared to the general population. The primary contributor to skin cancer in all patients is sun exposure. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to ascertain both OTR skin cancer awareness and photoprotection practices. METHODS: A questionnaire-based study of Saskatchewan transplant recipients. RESULTS: Nearly all respondents were aware that sun exposure is the best-known cause of skin cancer and that as an OTR, they are at increased risk of skin cancer (99...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300408/olefination-with-sulfonyl-halides-and-esters-scope-limitations-and-mechanistic-studies-of-the-hawkins-reaction
#10
Bartosz Górski, Alicja Talko, Tymoteusz Basak, Michał Barbasiewicz
Carbanions of alkanesulfonyl halides and esters react with nonenolizable carbonyl compounds to give olefins. Mechanistic studies reveal that initial aldol-type addition of the carbanions is followed by cyclization-fragmentation to alkenes, and the leaving group on the sulfonyl moiety (RSO2X) controls carbanion stability and rate of the olefin formation.
March 16, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299447/markers-of-physiological-stress-during-exercise-under-conditions-of-normoxia-normobaric-hypoxia-hypobaric-hypoxia-and-genuine-high-altitude
#11
David Richard Woods, John Paul O'Hara, Christopher John Boos, Peter David Hodkinson, Costas Tsakirides, Neil Edward Hill, Darren Jose, Amanda Hawkins, Kelly Phillipson, Antonia Hazlerigg, Nicola Arjomandkhah, Liam Gallagher, David Holdsworth, Mark Cooke, Nicholas Donald Charles Green, Adrian Mellor
PURPOSE: To investigate whether there is a differential response at rest and following exercise to conditions of genuine high altitude (GHA), normobaric hypoxia (NH), hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and normobaric normoxia (NN). METHOD: Markers of sympathoadrenal and adrenocortical function [plasma normetanephrine (PNORMET), metanephrine (PMET), cortisol], myocardial injury [highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (hscTnT)], and function [N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)] were evaluated at rest and with exercise under NN, at 3375 m in the Alps (GHA) and at equivalent simulated altitude under NH and HH...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298647/inhibition-of-the-mechano-enzymatic-amyloidogenesis-of-transthyretin-role-of-ligand-affinity-binding-cooperativity-and-occupancy-of-the-inner-channel
#12
Guglielmo Verona, P Patrizia Mangione, Sara Raimondi, Sofia Giorgetti, Giulia Faravelli, Riccardo Porcari, Alessandra Corazza, Julian D Gillmore, Philip N Hawkins, Mark B Pepys, Graham W Taylor, Vittorio Bellotti
Dissociation of the native transthyretin (TTR) tetramer is widely accepted as the critical step in TTR amyloid fibrillogenesis. It is modelled by exposure of the protein to non-physiological low pH in vitro and is inhibited by small molecule compounds, such as the drug tafamidis. We have recently identified a new mechano-enzymatic pathway of TTR fibrillogenesis in vitro, catalysed by selective proteolytic cleavage, which produces a high yield of genuine amyloid fibrils. This pathway is efficiently inhibited only by ligands that occupy both binding sites in TTR...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290144/the-effects-of-framed-messages-for-engaging-adolescents-with-online-smoking-prevention-interventions
#13
Darren Mays, Kirsten B Hawkins, Christine Bredfeldt, Hilary Wolf, Kenneth P Tercyak
Messages emphasizing the harms of smoking (loss-framed) or the benefits of not smoking (gain-framed) may be effective for engaging adolescents with tobacco prevention resources. This novel approach could help to close a gap in tobacco prevention intervention delivery in the pediatric primary care setting. To examine the effects of framed messages for engaging adolescents with an evidence-based smoking prevention website, adolescents ages 12 to 17 presenting for primary care well-visits were recruited for a three-arm experiment...
March 13, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288772/first-report-of-vascular-invasion-of-demodex-mites-with-thrombi-and-dissemination-to-visceral-lymph-nodes-in-a-dog
#14
Moges Woldemeskel, Ian Hawkins
An adult-onset generalized canine demodecosis is a life threatening form of demodecosis often seen in immunocompromised dogs. A generalized, adult-onset canine demodecosis with an unusual vascular invasion, thrombi and dissemination to peripheral, and visceral lymph nodes was diagnosed in an adult, female, American Bulldog of unknown age. Organized thrombi with intralesional mites were observed in multiple lymphatic vessels and in a section of blood vessel. Vascular invasion of mites with dissemination of mites into visceral lymph nodes, is an unusual findings not previously recorded in canine generalized demodecosis...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277250/the-role-of-social-media-in-quality-improvement
#15
Nadja Kadom, Paul Nagy, C Matthew Hawkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275167/novel-opsin-gene-variation-in-large-bodied-diurnal-lemurs
#16
Rachel L Jacobs, Tammie S MacFie, Amanda N Spriggs, Andrea L Baden, Toni Lyn Morelli, Mitchell T Irwin, Richard R Lawler, Jennifer Pastorini, Mireya Mayor, Runhua Lei, Ryan Culligan, Melissa T R Hawkins, Peter M Kappeler, Patricia C Wright, Edward E Louis, Nicholas I Mundy, Brenda J Bradley
Some primate populations include both trichromatic and dichromatic (red-green colour blind) individuals due to allelic variation at the X-linked opsin locus. This polymorphic trichromacy is well described in day-active New World monkeys. Less is known about colour vision in Malagasy lemurs, but, unlike New World monkeys, only some day-active lemurs are polymorphic, while others are dichromatic. The evolutionary pressures underlying these differences in lemurs are unknown, but aspects of species ecology, including variation in activity pattern, are hypothesized to play a role...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273837/class-i-phosphoinositide-3-kinases-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#17
REVIEW
David Gyori, Tamara Chessa, Phillip T Hawkins, Len R Stephens
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a diverse family of enzymes which regulate various critical biological processes, such as cell proliferation and survival. Class (I) PI3Ks (PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kγ and PI3Kδ) mediate the phosphorylation of the inositol ring at position D3 leading to the generation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 can be dephosphorylated by several phosphatases, of which the best known is the 3-phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog). The Class (I) PI3K pathway is frequently disrupted in human cancers where mutations are associated with increased PI3K-activity or loss of PTEN functionality within the tumor cells...
March 4, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273647/the-association-of-unemployment-from-age-21-to-33-with-substance-use-disorder-symptoms-at-age-39-the-role-of-childhood-neighborhood-characteristics
#18
Jungeun Olivia Lee, Tiffany M Jones, Rick Kosterman, Isaac C Rhew, Gina S Lovasi, Karl G Hill, Richard F Catalano, J David Hawkins
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether duration of unemployment from ages 21 to 33 was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder, nicotine dependence disorder, and cannabis use disorder at age 39, after accounting for childhood and early adult involvement in substance use and other indicators of psychopathology. Analyses also investigated whether dimensions of perceived neighborhood characteristics during childhood and adolescence contributed to the link between unemployment and substance use disorder symptoms during adulthood...
February 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273441/composite-impulsivity-related-domains-in-college-students
#19
Sabin Khadka, Michael C Stevens, Farah Aslanzadeh, Balaji Narayanan, Keith A Hawkins, Carol S Austad, Sarah A Raskin, Howard Tennen, Rebecca M Wood, Carolyn Fallahi, Marc N Potenza, Godfrey D Pearlson
Impulsivity is a complex, multidimensional construct with prior theoretically and empirically derived characterizations of impulsivity-related behaviors varying considerably among studies. We assessed college students (N = 440) longitudinally with five impulsivity-related self-reported assessments and two computerized behavioral measures. Using a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we derived then validated several composite impulsivity-related domains (CIRDs). These factors replicated, in large part, findings from a previous study conducted by our group in an independent sample that used a similar analytical approach...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273162/longitudinal-influence-of-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-on-academic-performance-in-college-students
#20
Shashwath A Meda, Ralitza V Gueorguieva, Brian Pittman, Rivkah R Rosen, Farah Aslanzadeh, Howard Tennen, Samantha Leen, Keith Hawkins, Sarah Raskin, Rebecca M Wood, Carol S Austad, Alecia Dager, Carolyn Fallahi, Godfrey D Pearlson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and marijuana are the two most abused substances in US colleges. However, research on the combined influence (cross sectional or longitudinal) of these substances on academic performance is currently scant. METHODS: Data were derived from the longitudinal 2-year Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students (BARCS) study including 1142 freshman students who completed monthly marijuana use and alcohol consumption surveys. Subjects were classified into data-driven groups based on their alcohol and marijuana consumption...
2017: PloS One
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