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bioethic AND office medicine

Cynthia Forlini, Wayne Hall
As the world's population ages, governments and non-governmental organizations in developed countries are promoting healthy cognitive ageing to reduce the rate of age-related cognitive decline and sustain economic productivity in an ageing workforce. Recommendations from the Productivity Commission (Australia), Dementia Australia, Government Office for Science (UK), Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (USA), Institute of Medicine (USA), among others, are encouraging older adults to engage in mental, physical, and social activities...
October 4, 2017: Bioethics
Santiago de la Garza, Vania Phuoc, Steven Throneberry, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Laurence McCullough, John Coverdale
OBJECTIVE: One objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to psychiatry residents. In order to gain insights from other disciplines that have published research in this area, a second objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to residents across all other specialties of training and on teaching medical students. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for controlled trials on teaching medical ethics with quantitative outcomes...
August 2017: Academic Psychiatry
Hiroshi Mizuno
Production of human fertilized embryos by using germ cells derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) entails ethical issues that differ fundamentally depending on the aim. If the aim is solely to conduct research, then embryo generation, utilization and destruction must respect for the human embryo as having the innate potential to develop into a human being. If the aim is human reproduction, this technology must never be used to manipulate human life, confuse social order, or negatively affect future generations...
August 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Bartłomiej Noszczyk
Over the last decade autologous fat from subcutaneous tissue has been used by plastic surgeons for face volumization. It has also been used with growing frequency for aesthetic breast enhancement. Currently, experts in this field are becoming increasingly aware of the potential of fat for breast reconstruction. However, the safety of fat transfers to post-mastectomy defects has been called into question in recent debates due to the, albeit rare, observations of their possible influence on local cancer recurrence...
2015: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Laura A McEwen, Jane Griffiths, Karen Schultz
The use of portfolios in postgraduate medical residency education to support competency development is increasing; however, the processes by which these assessment systems are designed, implemented, and maintained are emergent. The authors describe the needs assessment, development, implementation, and continuing quality improvement processes that have shaped the Portfolio Assessment Support System (PASS) used by the postgraduate family medicine program at Queen's University since 2009. Their description includes the impetus for change and contextual realities that guided the effort, plus the processes used for selecting assessment components and developing strategic supports...
November 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Jay D Amsterdam, Leemon B McHenry
BACKGROUND: The problem of ghostwriting in corporate-sponsored clinical trials is of concern to medicine, bioethics, and government agencies. We present a study of the ghostwritten archival report of an industry-sponsored trial comparing antidepressant treatments for bipolar depression: GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) paroxetine study 352. This analysis is based upon publicly available evidence presented in a complaint of research misconduct filed with the Office of Research Integrity of the Department of Health and Human Services...
2012: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
Marie Gaille, Géraldine Viot
Today, French public debate and bioethics research reflect an ongoing controversy about eugenics. The field of reproductive medicine is often targeted as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), prenatal diagnosis, and prenatal detection are accused of drifting towards eugenics or being driven by eugenics considerations. This article aims at understanding why the charge against eugenics came at the forefront of the ethical debate. Above all, it aims at showing that the charge against prenatal diagnosis is groundless...
February 2013: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Constance L Jenkins, Aaron R Elliott, Janet R Harris
The purposes of this study were to identify the ethical issues Department of the Army civilian and Army Nurse Corps certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) encountered in their anesthesia practice and how disturbed they were by these issues. This descriptive study used a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of Army Nurse Corps officers and Department of the Army civilian registered nurses (N = 5,293). The CRNA subset (n = 97) was obtained from questionnaires that indicated a primary practice setting as anesthesia...
August 2006: Military Medicine
Tara Acharya, Mohammed Abdur Rab, Peter A Singer, Abdallah S Daar
BACKGROUND: While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics jointly organized a Genomics and Public Health Policy Executive Course, held September 20th-23rd, 2003, in Muscat, Oman...
January 21, 2005: Health Research Policy and Systems
Marjorie Sirridge, Kathleen Welch
UNLABELLED: The University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine opened officially in 1971, offering a combined BA/MD in a six-year program. The program has a defined goal of offering humanities courses throughout the curriculum. The Sirridge Office of Medical Humanities was established in 1992, and it assumed the responsibility of developing conveniently scheduled courses in medical humanities, making more specific requirements for such courses in the medical curriculum. The goal of these courses has been to provide students a different way of looking at things by giving them insight into the ways that reading literature and writing stories helps medical students better read patient experiences...
October 2003: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Matthew Rimmer
This article considers the integral role played by patent law in respect of stem cell research. It highlights concerns about commercialization, access to essential medicines and bioethics. The article maintains that there is a fundamental ambiguity in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) as to whether stem cell research is patentable subject matter. There is a need to revise the legislation in light of the establishment of the National Stem Cell Centre and the passing of the Research Involving Embryos Act 2002 (Cth)...
May 2003: Journal of Law and Medicine
Jean F Martin
PREAMBLE: This article is written by the "Médecin cantonal" (Chief Medical Officer) of the Swiss Canton of Vaud (capital city, Lausanne). Under the Swiss Constitution, responsibility for most health-related issues lies with the Cantons. The "Médecin cantonal" is the medical advisor to the health minister and the cantonal government. His or her traditional role concerned the organisation of health care delivery, such as the distribution of hospitals and licencing of practitioners, as well as health promotion, school health and disaster preparedness...
June 2003: European Journal of Public Health
D Guilhem
This paper focuses on the debate about the utilization of new reproductive technologies in Brazil, and the paths taken in the Brazilian National Congress in an attempt to draw up legislation to regulate the clinical practice of human assisted reproduction. British documents, such as the Warnock Report and Human Fertilization and Embriology [sic] Authority (HFEA) are used for thorough reference. The analysis of the Law Projects in the National Congress, the Resolution by the Federal Medicine Council, Resolution 196/96 and documents by the the Ministerio Publico (Public Prosecution Office), supplied the bases for the discussion...
June 2001: Bioethics
C Manuel, V Pellissier, D Hairion, P Auquier
There has been a considerable amount of debate in Europe on the use of the human embryo in research, a key point in the ongoing examination of bioethics laws. The French Academy of Medicine, the National Consultative Committee on Ethics, the State Council and the Parliamentary Office for the evaluation of scientific and technologic decisions have all made formal statements. An examination of these opinions discloses that there is a critical agreement concerning the Laws of July 1994 and on the requirement for a better text regulating research on the human embryo...
July 3, 1999: La Presse Médicale
C Laroche
The president of the joint-academy working group (National Academy of Medicine and the National Academy of Pharmacy) will present the group's proposals for a revision of the 1994 French bioethics laws to the Parliamentary Office for the evaluation of scientific and technological choices in view of a new examination of the laws by the Parliament in 1999.
January 1999: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
M H Biros, R J Lewis, C M Olson, J W Runge, R O Cummins, N Fost
OBJECTIVE: A coalition conference of acute resuscitation researchers was held to discuss the feasibility of applying current federal research regulations regarding informed consent to the emergency setting. This article presents consensus recommendations for regulatory changes for consent in emergency research. PARTICIPANTS: Representatives from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine and the American Heart Association identified several professional organizations as stakeholders in this issue, including research, clinical, bioethics, legal, and patient advocacy groups...
April 26, 1995: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
D P Sulmasy, M Dwyer, E Marx
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that faculty members' inadequate knowledge of and unfavorable attitudes toward ethics may present barriers to effective education in ethics for house officers. METHOD: To test this hypothesis, the authors administered a questionnaire assessing the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding ethics of the 73 house officers and 73 full-time faculty members in the Department of Medicine at the Georgetown University Medical Center in 1992-93...
November 1995: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
D P Sulmasy, G Geller, D M Levine, R Faden
As part of a trial of ethics education in a university-based, categorical, internal medicine training program, we surveyed all medical house officers at our institution regarding their knowledge of medical ethics, their attitudes and beliefs about selected issues in medical ethics, and their confidence in dealing with ethical problems. In a multivariate linear regression model, house officer knowledge scores were negatively correlated with postgraduate year, and positively correlated with age and with reporting a Jewish religious identity...
December 1990: Archives of Internal Medicine
J E Frader
Previous papers on ethics consultation in medicine have taken a positivistic approach and lack critical scrutiny of the psychosocial, political, and moral contexts in which consultations occur. This paper discusses some of the contextual factors that require more careful research. We need to know more about what prompts and inhibits consultation, especially what factors effectively prevent house officers and nonphysicians from requesting consultation despite perceived moral conflict in cases. The attitudes and institutional power of attending medical staff seem important, especially where innovative interventions raise ethical questions...
March 1992: Theoretical Medicine
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