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Miriam I Marrufo-Pérez, Almudena Eustaquio-Martín, Luis E López-Bascuas, Enrique A Lopez-Poveda
The amplitude modulations (AMs) in speech signals are useful cues for speech recognition. Several adaptation mechanisms may make the detection of AM in noisy backgrounds easier when the AM carrier is presented later rather than earlier in the noise. The aim of the present study was to characterize temporal adaptation to noise in AM detection. AM detection thresholds were measured for monaural (50 ms, 1.5 kHz) pure-tone carriers presented at the onset ('early' condition) and 300 ms after the onset ('late' condition) of ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral (diotic) broadband noise, as well as in quiet...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Melissa J Polonenko, Blake C Papsin, Karen A Gordon
This longitudinal study aimed to identify auditory plasticity promoted by a cochlear implant in children with asymmetric hearing loss. Participants included 10 children who experienced (mean ± SD) 3.1 ± 3.6 years of asymmetric hearing (difference of 47.2 ± 47.6 dB) before receiving an implant at age 8.7 ± 5.1 years. Multi-channel electroencephalography was measured at initial implant use (5.8 ± 3.2 days) and after 10.2 ± 4.1 months in each child. Monaurally presented stimuli consisted of 36 ms trains of 9 acoustic clicks/biphasic electric pulses at a rate of 250 Hz, repeated at 1 Hz...
February 17, 2018: Hearing Research
Brian Roberts, Robert J Summers
This study explored the extent to which informational masking of speech depends on the frequency region and number of extraneous formants in an interferer. Target formants-monotonized three-formant (F1+F2+F3) analogues of natural sentences-were presented monaurally, with target ear assigned randomly on each trial. Interferers were presented contralaterally. In experiment 1, single-formant interferers were created using the time-reversed F2 frequency contour and constant amplitude, root-mean-square (RMS)-matched to F2...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Richard L Freyman, Charlotte Morse-Fortier, Amanda M Griffin, Patrick M Zurek
The precedence effect for transient sounds has been proposed to be based primarily on monaural processes, manifested by asymmetric temporal masking. This study explored the potential for monaural explanations with longer ("ongoing") sounds exhibiting the precedence effect. Transient stimuli were single lead-lag noise burst pairs; ongoing stimuli were trains of 63 burst pairs. Unlike with transients, monaural masking data for ongoing sounds showed no advantage for the lead, and are inconsistent with asymmetric audibility as an explanation for ongoing precedence...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Michael F Dorman, Sarah Natale, Louise Loiselle
BACKGROUND: Sentence understanding scores for patients with cochlear implants (CIs) when tested in quiet are relatively high. However, sentence understanding scores for patients with CIs plummet with the addition of noise. PURPOSE: To assess, for patients with CIs (MED-EL), (1) the value to speech understanding of two new, noise-reducing microphone settings and (2) the effect of the microphone settings on sound source localization. RESEARCH DESIGN: Single-subject, repeated measures design...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Duo-Duo Tao, Ji-Sheng Liu, Zhen-Dong Yang, Blake S Wilson, Ning Zhou
The hearing loss criterion for cochlear implant candidacy in mainland China is extremely stringent (bilateral severe to profound hearing loss), resulting in few patients with substantial residual hearing in the nonimplanted ear. The main objective of the current study was to examine the benefit of bimodal hearing in typical Mandarin-speaking implant users who have poorer residual hearing in the nonimplanted ear relative to those used in the English-speaking studies. Seventeen Mandarin-speaking bimodal users with pure-tone averages of ∼80 dB HL participated in the study...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Supreeya Swarup, Amgad N Makaryus
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is recognized as the leading cause of mortality throughout the world. About one-third of global mortality is attributable to CVD. In addition to clinical presentation, specific clinical exam findings can assist in treating and preventing CVD. CVD may initially manifest as pulmonary pathology, and thus, accurate cardiopulmonary auscultation is paramount to establishing accurate diagnosis. One of the most powerful tools available to physicians is the stethoscope. The stethoscope first emerged in the year 1818, invented by a French physician, René Laennec...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Stephan D Ewert, Nihaad Paraouty, Christian Lorenzi
A model using temporal-envelope cues was previously developed to explain perceptual interference effects between amplitude and frequency modulation (FM). Since that model could not accurately predict FM sensitivity and the interference effects, temporal fine-structure (TFS) cues were added to the model. Thus, following the initial stage of the model consisting of a linear filterbank simulating cochlear filtering, processing was split into an 'envelope-path' based on envelope power cues, and a 'TFS-path' based on a measure of the distribution of time-intervals between successive zero-crossings...
January 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jesko L Verhey, Steven van de Par
Several behavioural studies in humans have shown that listening to sounds with two ears, i.e., binaural hearing, provides the human auditory system with extra information on the sound source that is not available when sounds are only perceived through one ear, i.e., monaurally. Binaural processing involves the analysis of phase and level differences between the two ear signals. Since monaural cochlea processing (in each ear) precedes the neural stages responsible for binaural processing properties it is reasonable to assume that properties of the cochlea may also be observed in binaural processing...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Go Ashida, Daniel J Tollin, Jutta Kretzberg
In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources...
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Dirk Oetting, Volker Hohmann, Jens-E Appell, Birger Kollmeier, Stephan D Ewert
OBJECTIVES: Normalizing perceived loudness is an important rationale for gain adjustments in hearing aids. It has been demonstrated that gains required for restoring normal loudness perception for monaural narrowband signals can lead to higher-than-normal loudness in listeners with hearing loss, particularly for binaural broadband presentation. The present study presents a binaural bandwidth-adaptive dynamic compressor (BBDC) that can apply different gains for narrow- and broadband signals...
November 27, 2017: Ear and Hearing
Bernhard Laback, Mathias Dietz, Philip Joris
Temporal effects in interaural level difference (ILD) perception are not well understood. While it is often assumed that ILD sensitivity is independent of the temporal stimulus properties, a reduction of ILD sensitivity for stimuli with a high modulation rate has been reported (known under the term binaural adaptation). Experiment 1 compared ILD thresholds and sequential-level-difference (SLD) thresholds using 300-ms bandpass-filtered pulse trains (centered at 4 kHz) with rates of 100, 400, and 800 pulses per second (pps)...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Yihsin Tai, Fatima T Husain
Despite having normal hearing sensitivity, patients with chronic tinnitus may experience more difficulty recognizing speech in adverse listening conditions as compared to controls. However, the association between the characteristics of tinnitus (severity and loudness) and speech recognition remains unclear. In this study, the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN) was conducted monaurally on 14 patients with bilateral tinnitus and 14 age- and hearing-matched adults to determine the relation between tinnitus characteristics and speech understanding...
November 27, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Qian Wang, Liang Li
A periodic sound, such as a pure tone, evokes both transient onset field-potential responses and sustained frequency-following responses (FFRs) in the auditory midbrain, the inferior colliculus (IC). It is not clear whether the two types of responses are based on the same or different neural substrates. Although it has been assumed that FFRs are based on phase locking to the periodic sound, the evidence showing the direct relationship between the FFR amplitude and the phase-locking strength is still lacking...
November 7, 2017: Hearing Research
Hillary A Snapp, Michael E Hoffer, Xuezhong Liu, Suhrud M Rajguru
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of current contralateral routing of signal technology (CROS) to bone-anchored implants in experienced bone-anchored implant users with unilateral severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss. DESIGN: Prospective, within-subject repeated-measures comparison study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Adult, English-speaking patients (n = 12) with severe-profound unilateral sensorineural hearing loss implanted with a bone-anchored implant for the indication of single-sided deafness...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
Hiroshi Yamazaki, Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Melissa Jane Polonenko, Salima Jiwani, Daniel D E Wong, Blake Croll Papsin, Karen Ann Gordon
Specialization of the auditory cortices for pure tone listening may develop with age. In adults, the right hemisphere dominates when listening to pure tones and music; we thus hypothesized that (a) asymmetric function between auditory cortices increases with age and (b) this development is specific to tonal rather than broadband/non-tonal stimuli. Cortical responses to tone-bursts and broadband click-trains were recorded by multichannel electroencephalography in young children (5.1 ± 0.8 years old) and adolescents (15...
November 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Kelsey L Anbuhl, Victor Benichoux, Nathaniel T Greene, Andrew D Brown, Daniel J Tollin
The morphology of the head and pinna shape the spatial and frequency dependence of sound propagation that give rise to the acoustic cues to sound source location. During early development, the physical dimensions of the head and pinna increase rapidly. Thus, the binaural (interaural time and level differences, ITD and ILD) and monaural (spectral shape) cues are also hypothesized to change rapidly. Complex interactions between the size and shape of the head and pinna limit the accuracy of simple acoustical models (e...
December 2017: Hearing Research
Ryosuke Yamamoto, Yasushi Naito, Risa Tona, Saburo Moroto, Rinko Tamaya, Keizo Fujiwara, Shogo Shinohara, Shinji Takebayashi, Masahiro Kikuchi, Tetsuhiko Michida
OBJECTIVES: An effect of audio-visual (AV) integration is observed when the auditory and visual stimuli are incongruent (the McGurk effect). In general, AV integration is helpful especially in subjects wearing hearing aids or cochlear implants (CIs). However, the influence of AV integration on spoken word recognition in individuals with bilateral CIs (Bi-CIs) has not been fully investigated so far. In this study, we investigated AV integration in children with Bi-CIs. METHODS: The study sample included thirty one prelingually deafened children who underwent sequential bilateral cochlear implantation...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Alfredo Brancucci, Caterina Padulo, Raffaella Franciotti, Luca Tommasi, Stefania Della Penna
The focus of the present study is on the relationships between illusory and non-illusory auditory perception analyzed at a biological level. To this aim, we investigate neural mechanisms underlying the Deutsch's illusion, a condition in which both sound identity ("what") and origin ("where") are deceptively perceived. We recorded magnetoencephalogram from healthy subjects in three conditions: (a) listening to the acoustic sequence eliciting the illusion (ILL), (b) listening to a monaural acoustic sequence mimicking the illusory percept (MON), and (c) listening to an acoustic sequence similar to (a) but not eliciting the illusion (NIL)...
October 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Christiane Kiese-Himmel, Andreas Nickisch, Franziska Werner
Objective Significant differences in performance on an eclectic German test battery for Auditory Processing Disorders (APD) was found in the most diagnostic tools between children with APD and controls in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th school year of primary education. Aim of the present study was to examine whether it is also the case for first graders. Material and Methods The performance in the behavioral test battery (including 14 specific auditory tests) was compared in two subject groups (aged 6-8 yrs): 41 first graders with APD of a clinical database, 37 typically developing first graders without APD (controls)...
October 23, 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
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