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Ann Clock Eddins, Erol J Ozmeral, David A Eddins
Over the years, the effect of aging on auditory function has been investigated in animal models and humans in an effort to characterize age-related changes in both perception and physiology. Here, we review how aging may impact neural encoding and processing of binaural and spatial cues in human listeners with a focus on recent work by the authors as well as others. Age-related declines in monaural temporal processing, as estimated from measures of gap detection and temporal fine structure discrimination, have been associated with poorer performance on binaural tasks that require precise temporal processing...
May 5, 2018: Hearing Research
Carina Pals, Anastasios Sarampalis, Mart van Dijk, Deniz Başkent
OBJECTIVES: Residual acoustic hearing in electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) can benefit cochlear implant (CI) users in increased sound quality, speech intelligibility, and improved tolerance to noise. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the low-pass-filtered acoustic speech in simulated EAS can provide the additional benefit of reducing listening effort for the spectrotemporally degraded signal of noise-band-vocoded speech. DESIGN: Listening effort was investigated using a dual-task paradigm as a behavioral measure, and the NASA Task Load indeX as a subjective self-report measure...
May 11, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Sriram Boothalingam, Julianne Kurke, Sumitrajit Dhar
There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
M Risoud, J-N Hanson, F Gauvrit, C Renard, P-E Lemesre, N-X Bonne, C Vincent
Sound source localization is paramount for comfort of life, determining the position of a sound source in 3 dimensions: azimuth, height and distance. It is based on 3 types of cue: 2 binaural (interaural time difference and interaural level difference) and 1 monaural spectral cue (head-related transfer function). These are complementary and vary according to the acoustic characteristics of the incident sound. The objective of this report is to update the current state of knowledge on the physical basis of spatial sound localization...
May 3, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Roman Kuc
This paper describes phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive processing of monaural echolocation waveforms to generate target maps. Composite waveforms containing both the emission and echoes are processed to estimate the target impulse response using an audible sonar. Phase-sensitive processing yields the composite signal envelope, while phase-insensitive processing that starts with the composite waveform power spectrum yields the envelope of the autocorrelation function. Analysis and experimental verification show that multiple echoes form an autocorrelation function that produces near-range phantom-reflector artifacts...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Hongmei Hu, Mathias Dietz, Ben Williges, Stephan D Ewert
For a frontal target in spatially symmetrically placed interferers, normal hearing (NH) listeners can use "better-ear glimpsing" to select time-frequency segments with favorable signal-to-noise ratio in either ear. With an ideal monaural better-ear mask (IMBM) processing, some studies showed that NH listeners can reach similar performance as in the natural binaural listening condition, although interaural phase differences at low frequencies can further improve performance. In principle, bilateral cochlear implant (BiCI) listeners could use the same better-ear glimpsing, albeit without exploiting interaural phase differences...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
David R Moore, Stephanie L Sieswerda, Maureen M Grainger, Alexandra Bowling, Nicholette Smith, Audrey Perdew, Susan Eichert, Sandra Alston, Lisa W Hilbert, Lynn Summers, Li Lin, Lisa L Hunter
BACKGROUND: Children referred to audiology services with otherwise unexplained academic, listening, attention, language, or other difficulties are often found to be audiometrically normal. Some of these children receive further evaluation for auditory processing disorder (APD), a controversial construct that assumes neural processing problems within the central auditory nervous system. This study focuses on the evaluation of APD and how it relates to diagnosis in one large pediatric audiology facility...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Martijn J H Agterberg, Ad F M Snik, Rens M G Van de Goor, Myrthe K S Hol, A John Van Opstal
An increased number of treatment options has become available for patients with single sided deafness (SSD), who are seeking hearing rehabilitation. For example, bone-conduction devices that employ contralateral routing of sound (CROS), by transmitting acoustic bone vibrations from the deaf side to the cochlea of the hearing ear, are widely used. However, in some countries, cochlear implantation is becoming the standard treatment. The present study investigated whether CROS intervention, by means of a CROS bone-conduction device (C-BCD), affected sound-localization performance of patients with SSD...
April 19, 2018: Hearing Research
Wai Lok Woo, Bin Gao, Ahmed Bouridane, Bingo Wing-Kuen Ling, Cheng Siong Chin
This paper presents an unsupervised learning algorithm for sparse nonnegative matrix factor time⁻frequency deconvolution with optimized fractional β-divergence. The β-divergence is a group of cost functions parametrized by a single parameter β. The Itakura⁻Saito divergence, Kullback⁻Leibler divergence and Least Square distance are special cases that correspond to β=0, 1, 2, respectively. This paper presents a generalized algorithm that uses a flexible range of β that includes fractional values. It describes a maximization⁻minimization (MM) algorithm leading to the development of a fast convergence multiplicative update algorithm with guaranteed convergence...
April 27, 2018: Sensors
Parvaneh Adibpour, Jessica Dubois, Marie-Laure Moutard, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz
The left hemisphere specialization for language is a well-established asymmetry in the human brain. Structural and functional asymmetries are observed as early as the prenatal period suggesting genetically determined differences between both hemispheres. The corpus callosum is a large tract connecting mostly homologous areas; some have proposed that it might participate in an enhancement of the left-hemispheric advantage to process speech. To investigate its role in early development, we compared 13 3-4-month-old infants with an agenesis of the corpus callosum ("AgCC") with 18 typical infants using high-density electroencephalography in an auditory task...
April 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Mikhail Pokhoday, Christoph Scheepers, Yury Shtyrov, Andriy Myachykov
Understanding the determinants of syntactic choice in sentence production is a salient topic in psycholinguistics. Existing evidence suggests that syntactic choice results from an interplay between linguistic and non-linguistic factors, and a speaker's attention to the elements of a described event represents one such factor. Whereas multimodal accounts of attention suggest a role for different modalities in this process, existing studies examining attention effects in syntactic choice are primarily based on visual cueing paradigms...
2018: PloS One
Glaucia de Morais Silva, Felipe Antunes, Catherine Salvador Henrique, Leonardo Bonato Felix
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The use of objective detection techniques applied to the auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) for the assessment of auditory thresholds has been investigated over the years. The idea consists in setting up the audiometric profile without subjective inference from patients and evaluators. The challenge encountered is to reduce the detection time of auditory thresholds reaching high correlation coefficients between the objective and the conventional thresholds, as well as reducing difference between thresholds...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
T P Doubell, A Alsetrawi, D A S Bastawrous, M A S Bastawrous, A Daibes, A Jadalla, J W H Schnupp
The posterior auricular muscle (PAM) reflex to sounds has been used clinically to determine hearing threshold as an alternative to other audiological diagnostic measures such as the auditory brainstem response. We have shown that the PAM response is also sensitive to interaural timing differences in normally hearing adults. PAM responses were evoked by both ipsilateral/ contralateral monaural stimulation and by binaural stimulation. Introducing sound delays ipsilaterally or contralaterally decreased the PAM response amplitude and increased its latency...
2018: PloS One
Miriam I Marrufo-Pérez, Almudena Eustaquio-Martín, Enrique A Lopez-Poveda
Sensory systems constantly adapt their responses to the current environment. In hearing, adaptation may facilitate communication in noisy settings, a benefit frequently (but controversially) attributed to the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) enhancing the neural representation of speech. Here, we show that human listeners ( N = 14; five male) recognize more words presented monaurally in ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral noise when they are given some time to adapt to the noise. This finding challenges models and theories that claim that speech intelligibility in noise is invariant over time...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Wiepke J A Koopmans, S Theo Goverts, Cas Smits
OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study was to examine developmental effects for speech recognition in noise abilities for normal-hearing children in several listening conditions, relevant for daily life. Our aim was to study the auditory component in these listening abilities by using a test that was designed to minimize the dependency on nonauditory factors, the digits-in-noise (DIN) test. Secondary aims were to examine the feasibility of the DIN test for children, and to establish age-dependent normative data for diotic and dichotic listening conditions in both stationary and interrupted noise...
March 16, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Miriam I Marrufo-Pérez, Almudena Eustaquio-Martín, Luis E López-Bascuas, Enrique A Lopez-Poveda
The amplitude modulations (AMs) in speech signals are useful cues for speech recognition. Several adaptation mechanisms may make the detection of AM in noisy backgrounds easier when the AM carrier is presented later rather than earlier in the noise. The aim of the present study was to characterize temporal adaptation to noise in AM detection. AM detection thresholds were measured for monaural (50 ms, 1.5 kHz) pure-tone carriers presented at the onset ('early' condition) and 300 ms after the onset ('late' condition) of ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral (diotic) broadband noise, as well as in quiet...
April 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Melissa J Polonenko, Blake C Papsin, Karen A Gordon
This longitudinal study aimed to identify auditory plasticity promoted by a cochlear implant in children with asymmetric hearing loss. Participants included 10 children who experienced (mean ± SD) 3.1 ± 3.6 years of asymmetric hearing (difference of 47.2 ± 47.6 dB) before receiving an implant at age 8.7 ± 5.1 years. Multi-channel electroencephalography was measured at initial implant use (5.8 ± 3.2 days) and after 10.2 ± 4.1 months in each child. Monaurally presented stimuli consisted of 36 ms trains of 9 acoustic clicks/biphasic electric pulses at a rate of 250 Hz, repeated at 1 Hz...
February 17, 2018: Hearing Research
Brian Roberts, Robert J Summers
This study explored the extent to which informational masking of speech depends on the frequency region and number of extraneous formants in an interferer. Target formants-monotonized three-formant (F1+F2+F3) analogues of natural sentences-were presented monaurally, with target ear assigned randomly on each trial. Interferers were presented contralaterally. In experiment 1, single-formant interferers were created using the time-reversed F2 frequency contour and constant amplitude, root-mean-square (RMS)-matched to F2...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Richard L Freyman, Charlotte Morse-Fortier, Amanda M Griffin, Patrick M Zurek
The precedence effect for transient sounds has been proposed to be based primarily on monaural processes, manifested by asymmetric temporal masking. This study explored the potential for monaural explanations with longer ("ongoing") sounds exhibiting the precedence effect. Transient stimuli were single lead-lag noise burst pairs; ongoing stimuli were trains of 63 burst pairs. Unlike with transients, monaural masking data for ongoing sounds showed no advantage for the lead, and are inconsistent with asymmetric audibility as an explanation for ongoing precedence...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Michael F Dorman, Sarah Natale, Louise Loiselle
BACKGROUND: Sentence understanding scores for patients with cochlear implants (CIs) when tested in quiet are relatively high. However, sentence understanding scores for patients with CIs plummet with the addition of noise. PURPOSE: To assess, for patients with CIs (MED-EL), (1) the value to speech understanding of two new, noise-reducing microphone settings and (2) the effect of the microphone settings on sound source localization. RESEARCH DESIGN: Single-subject, repeated measures design...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
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