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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917394/a-deep-ensemble-learning-method-for-monaural-speech-separation
#1
Xiao-Lei Zhang, DeLiang Wang
Monaural speech separation is a fundamental problem in robust speech processing. Recently, deep neural network (DNN)-based speech separation methods, which predict either clean speech or an ideal time-frequency mask, have demonstrated remarkable performance improvement. However, a single DNN with a given window length does not leverage contextual information sufficiently, and the differences between the two optimization objectives are not well understood. In this paper, we propose a deep ensemble method, named multicontext networks, to address monaural speech separation...
March 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914414/spatial-attention-in-bilateral-cochlear-implant-users
#2
Matthew J Goupell, Alan Kan, Ruth Y Litovsky
Cochlear-implant (CI) users have difficulty understanding speech in the presence of interfering sounds. This study was designed to determine if binaural unmasking of speech is limited by peripheral or central encoding. Speech was presented to bilateral CI listeners using their clinical processors; unprocessed or vocoded speech was presented to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Performance was worst for all listener groups in conditions where both the target and interferer were presented monaurally or diotically (i...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908080/behavioral-manifestations-of-audiometrically-defined-slight-or-hidden-hearing-loss-revealed-by-measures-of-binaural-detection
#3
Leslie R Bernstein, Constantine Trahiotis
This study assessed whether audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing losses might be associated with degradations in binaural processing as measured in binaural detection experiments employing interaurally delayed signals and maskers. Thirty-one listeners participated, all having no greater than slight hearing losses (i.e., no thresholds greater than 25 dB HL). Across the 31 listeners and consistent with the findings of Bernstein and Trahiotis [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL474-EL479] binaural detection thresholds at 500 Hz and 4 kHz increased with increasing magnitude of interaural delay, suggesting a loss of precision of coding with magnitude of interaural delay...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849607/evolution-of-directional-hearing-in-moths-via-conversion-of-bat-detection-devices-to-asymmetric-pressure-gradient-receivers
#4
Andrew Reid, Thibaut Marin-Cudraz, James F C Windmill, Michael D Greenfield
Small animals typically localize sound sources by means of complex internal connections and baffles that effectively increase time or intensity differences between the two ears. However, some miniature acoustic species achieve directional hearing without such devices, indicating that other mechanisms have evolved. Using 3D laser vibrometry to measure tympanum deflection, we show that female lesser waxmoths (Achroia grisella) can orient toward the 100-kHz male song, because each ear functions independently as an asymmetric pressure gradient receiver that responds sharply to high-frequency sound arriving from an azimuth angle 30° contralateral to the animal's midline...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846038/comparison-of-speech-in-noise-and-localization-benefits-in-unilateral-hearing-loss-subjects-using-contralateral-routing-of-signal-hearing-aids-or-bone-anchored-implants
#5
Hillary A Snapp, Fred D Holt, Xuezhong Liu, Suhrud M Rajguru
OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit of wireless contralateral routing of signal (CROS) technology to bone-anchored implant (BAI) technology in monaural listeners. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, single-subject. SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center. PATIENTS: Adult English speaking subjects using either a CROS hearing aid or BAI as treatment for unilateral severe-profound hearing loss. INTERVENTIONS: Aided performance utilizing the subjects BAI or CROS hearing device...
November 14, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816972/vestibular-schwannoma-resection-with-ipsilateral-simultaneous-cochlear-implantation-in-patients-with-normal-contralateral-hearing
#6
Mario Sanna, María Del Mar Medina, Aldin Macak, Gianluca Rossi, Valerio Sozzi, Sampath Chandra Prasad
OBJECTIVE: To report the hearing results of cochlear implantation simultaneous to vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection by means of a translabyrinthine approach in patients with normal contralateral hearing. METHODS: This was a prospective study including adults with sporadic VS. Tumors were resected by means of a modified translabyrinthine approach with preservation of the cochlear nerve. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients underwent cochlear implantation...
November 5, 2016: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810286/spatial-and-non-spatial-multisensory-cueing-in-unilateral-cochlear-implant-users
#7
Francesco Pavani, Marta Venturini, Francesca Baruffaldi, Luca Artesini, Francesca Bonfioli, Giuseppe Nicolò Frau, Wieske van Zoest
In the present study we examined the integrity of spatial and non-spatial multisensory cueing (MSC) mechanisms in unilateral CI users. We tested 17 unilateral CI users and 17 age-matched normal hearing (NH) controls in an elevation-discrimination task for visual targets delivered at peripheral locations. Visual targets were presented alone (visual-only condition) or together with abrupt sounds that matched or did not match the location of the visual targets (audio-visual conditions). All participants were also tested in simple pointing to free-field sounds task, to obtain a basic measure of their spatial hearing ability in the naturalistic environment in which the experiment was conducted...
October 31, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794303/on-zwicker-tones-and-musical-pitch-in-the-likely-absence-of-phase-locking-corresponding-to-the-pitch
#8
Hedwig E Gockel, Robert P Carlyon
It was assessed whether Zwicker tones (ZTs) (an auditory afterimage produced by a band-stop noise) have a musical pitch. First (stage I), musically trained subjects adjusted the frequency, level, and decay time of an exponentially decaying diotic sinusoid to sound similar to the ZT they perceived following the presentation of diotic broadband noise, for various band-stop positions. Next (stage II), subjects adjusted a sinusoid in frequency and level so that its pitch was a specified musical interval below that of either a preceding ZT or a preceding sinusoid, and so that it was equally loud...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787393/the-relationship-between-intensity-coding-and-binaural-sensitivity-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants
#9
Ann E Todd, Matthew J Goupell, Ruth Y Litovsky
OBJECTIVES: Many bilateral cochlear implant users show sensitivity to binaural information when stimulation is provided using a pair of synchronized electrodes. However, there is large variability in binaural sensitivity between and within participants across stimulation sites in the cochlea. It was hypothesized that within-participant variability in binaural sensitivity is in part affected by limitations and characteristics of the auditory periphery which may be reflected by monaural hearing performance...
October 26, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683915/conductive-hearing-loss-has-long-lasting-structural-and-molecular-effects-on-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-structures-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-in-the-cochlear-nucleus
#10
Cheryl Clarkson, Flora M Antunes, Maria E Rubio
UNLABELLED: Sound deprivation by conductive hearing loss increases hearing thresholds, but little is known about the response of the auditory brainstem during and after conductive hearing loss. Here, we show in young adult rats that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss (i.e., earplugging) leads to hearing deficits that persist after sound levels are restored. Hearing thresholds in response to clicks and frequencies higher than 8 kHz remain increased after a 10 d recovery period. Neural output from the cochlear nucleus measured at 10 dB above threshold is reduced and followed by an overcompensation at the level of the lateral lemniscus...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659486/modeling-the-effects-of-sensorineural-hearing-loss-on-sound-localization-in-the-median-plane
#11
Robert Baumgartner, Piotr Majdak, Bernhard Laback
Listeners use monaural spectral cues to localize sound sources in sagittal planes (along the up-down and front-back directions). How sensorineural hearing loss affects the salience of monaural spectral cues is unclear. To simulate the effects of outer-hair-cell (OHC) dysfunction and the contribution of different auditory-nerve fiber types on localization performance, we incorporated a nonlinear model of the auditory periphery into a model of sagittal-plane sound localization for normal-hearing listeners. The localization model was first evaluated in its ability to predict the effects of spectral cue modifications for normal-hearing listeners...
2016: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626084/effects-of-an-auditory-lateralization-training-in-children-suspected-to-central-auditory-processing-disorder
#12
Yones Lotfi, Abdollah Moosavi, Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Hamed Sadjedi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources...
September 2016: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625137/-effect-of-cochlear-implantation-on-sound-localization-for-patients-with-unilateral-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#13
J F Liu, J S Dai, N Y Wang
The aim of this review was to examine the current literature regarding application of cochlear implantation on patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL) for improvement on sound localization. The literature were searched in the PubMed database with 'cochlear implantation AND single-sided deafness' or 'cochlear implantation AND unilateral deafness' as keywords. The publication date of the articles was up to 2015-2-12. A total of 12 articles were included. The results show that the ability of sound localization for most of the USNHL subjects (90%) with cochlear implantation was significantly improved than that without CI, which suggests that CI is a superior auditory rehabilitation treatment than BAHA and CROS hearing aids for patients with USNHL, because of the re-establishment of the benefits of binaural hearing...
August 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605909/in-vivo-whole-cell-recordings-combined-with-electron-microscopy-reveal-unexpected-morphological-and-physiological-properties-in-the-lateral-nucleus-of-the-trapezoid-body-in-the-auditory-brainstem
#14
Tom P Franken, Philip H Smith, Philip X Joris
The lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (LNTB) is a prominent nucleus in the superior olivary complex in mammals including humans. Its physiology in vivo is poorly understood due to a paucity of recordings. It is thought to provide a glycinergic projection to the medial superior olive (MSO) with an important role in binaural processing and sound localization. We combined in vivo patch clamp recordings with labeling of individual neurons in the Mongolian gerbil. Labeling of the recorded neurons allowed us to relate physiological properties to anatomy at the light and electron microscopic level...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586751/across-formant-integration-and-speech-intelligibility-effects-of-acoustic-source-properties-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-a-contralateral-interferer
#15
Robert J Summers, Peter J Bailey, Brian Roberts
The role of source properties in across-formant integration was explored using three-formant (F1+F2+F3) analogues of natural sentences (targets). In experiment 1, F1+F3 were harmonic analogues (H1+H3) generated using a monotonous buzz source and second-order resonators; in experiment 2, F1+F3 were tonal analogues (T1+T3). F2 could take either form (H2 or T2). Target formants were always presented monaurally; the receiving ear was assigned randomly on each trial. In some conditions, only the target was present; in others, a competitor for F2 (F2C) was presented contralaterally...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562803/the-binaural-interaction-component-in-barn-owl-tyto-alba-presents-few-differences-to-mammalian-data
#16
Nicolas Palanca-Castan, Geneviève Laumen, Darrin Reed, Christine Köppl
The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is an evoked potential that reflects the responses to sound by brainstem neural centers. The binaural interaction component (BIC) is obtained by subtracting the sum of the monaural ABR responses from the binaural response. Its latency and amplitude change in response to variations in binaural cues. The BIC is thus thought to reflect the activity of binaural nuclei and is used to non-invasively test binaural processing. However, any conclusions are limited by a lack of knowledge of the relevant processes at the level of individual neurons...
December 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556365/human-envelope-following-responses-to-amplitude-modulation-effects-of-aging-and-modulation-depth
#17
Andrew Dimitrijevic, Jamal Alsamri, M Sasha John, David Purcell, Sahara George, Fan-Gang Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To record envelope following responses (EFRs) to monaural amplitude-modulated broadband noise carriers in which amplitude modulation (AM) depth was slowly changed over time and to compare these objective electrophysiological measures to subjective behavioral thresholds in young normal hearing and older subjects. DESIGN: HASH(0xba91cd0) PARTICIPANTS: three groups of subjects included a young normal-hearing group (YNH 18 to 28 years; pure-tone average = 5 dB HL), a first older group ("O1"; 41 to 62 years; pure-tone average = 19 dB HL), and a second older group ("O2"; 67 to 82 years; pure-tone average = 35 dB HL)...
September 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545435/localising-the-auditory-n1m-with-event-related-beamformers-localisation-accuracy-following-bilateral-and-unilateral-stimulation
#18
Lauren Gascoyne, Paul L Furlong, Arjan Hillebrand, Siân F Worthen, Caroline Witton
The auditory evoked N1m-P2m response complex presents a challenging case for MEG source-modelling, because symmetrical, phase-locked activity occurs in the hemispheres both contralateral and ipsilateral to stimulation. Beamformer methods, in particular, can be susceptible to localisation bias and spurious sources under these conditions. This study explored the accuracy and efficiency of event-related beamformer source models for auditory MEG data under typical experimental conditions: monaural and diotic stimulation; and whole-head beamformer analysis compared to a half-head analysis using only sensors from the hemisphere contralateral to stimulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537075/monaural-beamforming-in-bimodal-cochlear-implant-users-effect-of-a-symmetric-directivity-and-noise-type
#19
Elke M J Devocht, A Miranda L Janssen, Josef Chalupper, Robert J Stokroos, Erwin L J George
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate monaural beamforming in bimodally aided cochlear implant (CI) users. DESIGN: The study enrolled twelve adult bimodal listeners with at least six months of CI-experience and using a contralateral hearing aid (HA) most of the daytime. Participants were uniformly fitted with the same CI speech processor and HA, giving access to an identical monaural beamformer in both ears. A within-subject repeated measures design evaluated three directional configurations [omnidirectional, asymmetric directivity (in CI alone) and symmetric directivity (in both CI and HA)] in two noise types [stationary and fluctuating]...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530005/using-bera-to-detect-persistence-of-auditory-injury-in-high-risk-infants
#20
Suranjana Sur Mukherjee, M V Sawane, P A Nikose
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional comparative study tried to assess the hearing status of the high risk infants by Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry (BERA) and compare with that of the normal infants. MATERIAL & METHODS: BERA was done on 127 infants of 6 to 18 months age of which 87 were high risk. All were given monaural acoustic stimulation using Cz-M₁/M₂ Montage. Waves I, III and V were analysed for absolute & interpeak latencies (in ms) & also for amplitudes (in µv) & their ratio...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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