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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712816/enhanced-startle-reflexivity-during-presentation-of-visual-nurture-cues-in-young-adults-who-experienced-parental-divorce-in-early-childhood
#1
Xenia Hengesch, Mauro F Larra, Johannes B Finke, Terry D Blumenthal, Hartmut Schächinger
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) may influence stress and affective processing in adulthood. Animal and human studies show enhanced startle reflexivity in adult participants with ACE. This study examined the impact of one of the most common ACE, parental divorce, on startle reflexivity in adulthood. Affective modulation of acoustically-elicited startle eye blink was assessed in a group of 23 young adults with self-reported history of parental divorce, compared to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=18)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702821/-bilateral-cochlear-implants
#2
REVIEW
J Müller
Cochlear implants (CI) are standard for the hearing rehabilitation of severe to profound deafness. Nowadays, if bilaterally indicated, bilateral implantation is usually recommended (in accordance with German guidelines). Bilateral implantation enables better speech discrimination in quiet and in noise, and restores directional and spatial hearing. Children with bilateral CI are able to undergo hearing-based hearing and speech development. Within the scope of their individual possibilities, bilaterally implanted children develop faster than children with unilateral CI and attain, e...
July 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701912/brain-responses-to-a-6-hz-binaural-beat-effects-on-general-theta-rhythm-and-frontal-midline-theta-activity
#3
Nantawachara Jirakittayakorn, Yodchanan Wongsawat
A binaural beat is a beat phenomenon that is generated by the dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies. The brain responses to binaural beats remain controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate theta activity responses to a binaural beat by controlling factors affecting localization, including beat frequency, carrier tone frequency, exposure duration, and recording procedure. Exposure to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone for 30 min was utilized in this study...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701535/enhancement-of-phase-locking-in-rodents-i-an-axonal-recording-study-in-gerbil
#4
Liting Wei, Shotaro Karino, Eric Verschooten, Philip X Joris
The trapezoid body (TB) contains axons of neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) projecting to monaural and binaural nuclei in the superior olivary complex (SOC). Characterization of these monaural inputs is important for the interpretation of response properties of SOC neurons. In particular, understanding of the sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs) in neurons of the medial and lateral superior olive (MSO and LSO) requires knowledge of the temporal firing properties of the monaural excitatory and inhibitory inputs to these neurons...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697658/determining-the-minimum-number-of-electrodes-that-need-to-be-pitch-matched-to-accurately-estimate-pitch-matches-across-the-array
#5
Julia Stelmach, David M Landsberger, Monica Padilla, Justin M Aronoff
OBJECTIVE: With bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users there is typically a place mismatch between the locations stimulated by the left and right electrode arrays. This mismatch can affect performance, potentially limiting binaural benefits. One way to address this is by perceptually realigning the arrays such that a given frequency in the input stimulates perceptually matched locations in the two ears. A clinically feasible technique is needed that can determine the appropriate perceptual alignment...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690556/sound-spectrum-influences-auditory-distance-perception-of-sound-sources-located-in-a-room-environment
#6
Ignacio Spiousas, Pablo E Etchemendy, Manuel C Eguia, Esteban R Calcagno, Ezequiel Abregú, Ramiro O Vergara
Previous studies on the effect of spectral content on auditory distance perception (ADP) focused on the physically measurable cues occurring either in the near field (low-pass filtering due to head diffraction) or when the sound travels distances >15 m (high-frequency energy losses due to air absorption). Here, we study how the spectrum of a sound arriving from a source located in a reverberant room at intermediate distances (1-6 m) influences the perception of the distance to the source. First, we conducted an ADP experiment using pure tones (the simplest possible spectrum) of frequencies 0...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688548/eeg-activity-as-an-objective-measure-of-cognitive-load-during-effortful-listening-a-study-on-pediatric-subjects-with-bilateral-asymmetric-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#7
Pasquale Marsella, Alessandro Scorpecci, Giulia Cartocci, Sara Giannantonio, Anton Giulio Maglione, Isotta Venuti, Ambra Brizi, Fabio Babiloni
OBJECTIVES: Deaf subjects with hearing aids or cochlear implants generally find it challenging to understand speech in noisy environments where a great deal of listening effort and cognitive load are invested. In prelingually deaf children, such difficulties may have detrimental consequences on the learning process and, later in life, on academic performance. Despite the importance of such a topic, currently, there is no validated test for the assessment of cognitive load during audiological tasks...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687057/factors-influencing-speech-perception-in-noise-for-5-year-old-children-using-hearing-aids-or-cochlear-implants
#8
Teresa Yc Ching, Vicky W Zhang, Christopher Flynn, Lauren Burns, Laura Button, Sanna Hou, Karen McGhie, Patricia Van Buynder
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the factors influencing speech perception in babble for 5-year-old children with hearing loss who were using hearing aids (HAs) or cochlear implants (CIs). DESIGN: Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for 50% correct identification were measured in two conditions - speech collocated with babble, and speech with spatially separated babble. The difference in SRTs between the two conditions give a measure of binaural unmasking, commonly known as spatial release from masking (SRM)...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685837/proteomic-analyses-of-nucleus-laminaris-identified-candidate-targets-of-the-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein
#9
Hitomi Sakano, Diego A R Zorio, Xiaoyu Wang, Ying S Ting, William S Noble, Michael J MacCoss, Edwin W Rubel, Yuan Wang
The avian nucleus laminaris (NL) is a brainstem nucleus necessary for binaural processing, analogous in structure and function to the mammalian medial superior olive. In chickens (Gallus gallus), NL is a well-studied model system for activity-dependent neural plasticity. Its neurons have bipolar extension of dendrites, which receive segregated inputs from two ears and display rapid and compartment-specific reorganization in response to unilateral changes in auditory input. More recently, FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein), an RNA-binding protein that regulates local protein translation, has been shown to be enriched in NL dendrites, suggesting its potential role in the structural dynamics of these dendrites...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679244/proportion-of-effects-by-head-related-transfer-function-and-receiver-position-variation-to-interaural-cross-correlation-values
#10
Jukka Pätynen
Interaural cross-correlation coefficient (IACC) is an objective room-acoustic parameter associated with the spatial impression and subjective quality of the acoustics. This study investigates the proportion of effects on the IACC variance simultaneously by (1) varied head-related transfer function (HRTF) and (2) locally varied receiver positions. The early IACC80 values are estimated from the binaural room simulations in eight room-acoustic conditions varying in room shape, side wall absorption, and receiver distance...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674175/enhanced-excitatory-connectivity-and-disturbed-sound-processing-in-the-auditory-brainstem-of-fragile-x-mice
#11
Elisabet Garcia-Pino, Nikodemus Gessele, Ursula Koch
Hypersensitivity to sounds is one of the prevalent symptoms in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS). It manifests behaviorally early during development and is often used as a landmark for treatment efficacy. However, the physiological mechanisms and circuit-level alterations underlying this aberrant behavior remain poorly understood. Using the mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 KO) we demonstrate that functional maturation of auditory brainstem synapses is impaired in FXS. Fmr1 KO mice showed a greatly enhanced excitatory synaptic input strength in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO), a prominent auditory brainstem nucleus, which integrates ipsilateral excitation and contralateral inhibition to compute interaural level differences (ILDs)...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659780/estimation-of-human-workload-from-the-auditory-steady-state-response-recorded-via-a-wearable-electroencephalography-system-during-walking
#12
Yusuke Yokota, Shingo Tanaka, Akihiro Miyamoto, Yasushi Naruse
Workload in the human brain can be a useful marker of internal brain state. However, due to technical limitations, previous workload studies have been unable to record brain activity via conventional electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) devices in mobile participants. In this study, we used a wearable EEG system to estimate workload while participants walked in a naturalistic environment. Specifically, we used the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) which is an oscillatory brain activity evoked by repetitive auditory stimuli, as an estimation index of workload...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659280/a-test-of-the-stereausis-hypothesis-for-sound-localization-in-mammals
#13
Andrius Plauška, Marcel van der Heijden, J Gerard G Borst
The relative arrival times of sounds at both ears constitute an important cue for localization of low-frequency sounds in the horizontal plane. The binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) act as coincidence detectors that fire when inputs from both ears arrive near simultaneously. Each principal neuron in the MSO is tuned to its own best interaural time difference (ITD), indicating the presence of an internal delay, a difference in the travel times from either ear to the MSO. According to the stereausis hypothesis, differences in wave propagation along the cochlea could provide the delays necessary for coincidence detection if the ipsi- and contralateral inputs originated from different cochlear positions, with different frequency tuning...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635497/desynchronisation-of-auditory-steady-state-responses-related-to-changes-in-interaural-phase-differences-an-objective-measure-of-binaural-hearing
#14
Charlotte Vercammen, Astrid van Wieringen, Jan Wouters, Tom Francart
OBJECTIVE: Binaural processing can be measured objectively as a desynchronisation of phase-locked neural activity to changes in interaural phase differences (IPDs). This was reported in a magnetoencephalography study for 40 Hz amplitude modulated tones. The goal of this study was to measure this desynchronisation using electroencephalography and explore the outcomes for different modulation frequencies. DESIGN: Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) were recorded to pure tones, amplitude modulated at 20, 40 or 80 Hz...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623107/speech-in-noise-perception-in-unilateral-hearing-loss-relation-to-pure-tone-thresholds-and-brainstem-plasticity
#15
Nicolas Vannson, Chris J James, Bernard Fraysse, Boris Lescure, Kuzma Strelnikov, Olivier Deguine, Pascal Barone, Mathieu Marx
We investigated speech recognition in noise in subjects with mild to profound levels of unilateral hearing loss. Thirty-five adults were evaluated using an adaptive signal-to-noise ratio (SNR50) sentence recognition threshold test in three spatial configurations. The results revealed a significant correlation between pure-tone average audiometric thresholds in the poorer ear and SNR thresholds in the two conditions where speech and noise were spatially separated: dichotic - with speech presented to the poorer ear and reverse dichotic - with speech presented to the better ear...
June 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618825/spectral-equalization-in-binaural-signals-represented-by-order-truncated-spherical-harmonics
#16
Zamir Ben-Hur, Fabian Brinkmann, Jonathan Sheaffer, Stefan Weinzierl, Boaz Rafaely
The synthesis of binaural signals from spherical microphone array recordings has been recently proposed. The limited spatial resolution of the reproduced signal due to order-limited reproduction has been previously investigated perceptually, showing spatial perception ramifications, such as poor source localization and limited externalization. Furthermore, this spatial order limitation also has a detrimental effect on the frequency content of the signal and its perceived timbre, due to the rapid roll-off at high frequencies...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618809/binaural-sensitivity-in-children-who-use-bilateral-cochlear-implants
#17
Erica Ehlers, Matthew J Goupell, Yi Zheng, Shelly P Godar, Ruth Y Litovsky
Children who are deaf and receive bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) perform better on spatial hearing tasks using bilateral rather than unilateral inputs; however, they underperform relative to normal-hearing (NH) peers. This gap in performance is multi-factorial, including the inability of speech processors to reliably deliver binaural cues. Although much is known regarding binaural sensitivity of adults with BiCIs, less is known about how the development of binaural sensitivity in children with BiCIs compared to NH children...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611657/vestibular-adaptations-induced-by-gentle-physical-activity-are-reduced-among-older-women
#18
Julien Maitre, Thierry Paillard
The aim of this study was to compare the ability of older individuals to maintain an efficient upright stance in contexts of vestibular sensory manipulation, according to their physical activity status. Two groups of healthy older women (aged over 65) free from any disorders (i.e., neurological, motor and metabolic disorders) and vestibular disturbances, participated in this study. One group comprised participants who regularly practiced gentle physical activities, i.e., soft gym, aquarobic, active walking, ballroom dancing (active group, age: 73...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599571/binaural-timing-information-in-electric-hearing-at-low-rates-effects-of-inaccurate-encoding-and-loudness
#19
Katharina Egger, Piotr Majdak, Bernhard Laback
Stimulation strategies for cochlear implants potentially impose timing limitations that may hinder the correct encoding and representation of interaural time differences (ITDs) in realistic bilateral signals. This study aimed to specify the tolerable room for inaccurate encoding of ITDs at low rates by investigating the perceptual degradation due to the removal of individual pulses at various levels of loudness. Unmodulated, 100-pulses-per-second pulse trains were presented at a single, interaurally pitch-matched electrode pair...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599547/audible-sonar-images-generated-with-proprioception-for-target-analysis
#20
Roman B Kuc
Some blind humans have demonstrated the ability to detect and classify objects with echolocation using palatal clicks. An audible-sonar robot mimics human click emissions, binaural hearing, and head movements to extract interaural time and level differences from target echoes. Targets of various complexity are examined by transverse displacements of the sonar and by target pose rotations that model movements performed by the blind. Controlled sonar movements executed by the robot provide data that model proprioception information available to blind humans for examining targets from various aspects...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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