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Linda W Norrix, Vivian Rubiano, Thomas Muller
Purpose: Minimum contralateral interference levels (MCILs) are used to estimate true hearing thresholds in individuals with unilateral nonorganic hearing loss. In this study, we determined MCILs and examined the correspondence of MCILs to true hearing thresholds to quantify the accuracy of this procedure. Method: Sixteen adults with normal hearing participated. Subjects were asked to feign a unilateral hearing loss at 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz. MCILs were determined...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
Maria Stella Arantes do Amaral, Thiago A Damico, Alina S Gonçales, Ana C M B Reis, Myriam de Lima Isaac, Eduardo T Massuda, Miguel Angelo Hyppolito
INTRODUCTION: Cochlear Implant is a sensory prosthesis capable of restoring hearing in patients with severe or profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if there is a better side to be implanted in post-lingual patients. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal study. Participants were 40 subjects, of both sex, mean age of 47 years, with post-lingual hearing loss, users of unilateral cochlear implant for more than 12 months and less than 24 months, with asymmetric auditor reserve between the ears (difference of 10dBNA, In at least one of the frequencies with a response, between the ears), divided into two groups...
July 29, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, James R Ison, Paul D Allen
In mammals, acoustic information arises in the cochlea and is transmitted to the ventral cochlear nuclei (VCN). Three groups of VCN neurons extract different features from the firing of auditory nerve fibers and convey that information along separate pathways through the brainstem. Two of these pathways process temporal information: octopus cells detect coincident firing among auditory nerve fibers and transmit signals along monaural pathways, and bushy cells sharpen the encoding of fine structure and feed binaural pathways...
August 31, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
Marc Nitschmann, Ifat Yasin, G Bruce Henning, Jesko L Verhey
Experimental binaural masking-pattern data are presented together with model simulations for 12- and 600-ms signals. The masker was a diotic 11-Hz wide noise centered on 500 Hz. The tonal signal was presented either diotically or dichotically (180° interaural phase difference) with frequencies ranging from 400 to 600 Hz. The results and the modeling agree with previous data and hypotheses; simulations with a binaural model sensitive to monaural modulation cues show that the effect of duration on off-frequency binaural masking-level differences is mainly a result of modulation cues which are only available in the monaural detection of long signals...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Areti Andreopoulou, Brian F G Katz
The inter-aural time difference (ITD) is a fundamental cue for human sound localization. Over the past decades several methods have been proposed for its estimation from measured head-related impulse response (HRIR) data. Nevertheless, inter-method variations in ITD calculation have been found to exceed the known just noticeable differences (JNDs), leading to possible perceptible artifacts in virtual binaural auditory scenes, when personalized HRIRs are being used. In the absence of an objective means for validating ITD estimations, this paper examines which methods lead to the most perceptually relevant results...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Yonghee Oh, Lina A J Reiss
Both bimodal cochlear implant and bilateral hearing aid users can exhibit broad binaural pitch fusion, the fusion of dichotically presented tones over a broad range of pitch differences between ears [Reiss, Ito, Eggleston, and Wozny. (2014). J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 15(2), 235-248; Reiss, Eggleston, Walker, and Oh. (2016). J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 17(4), 341-356; Reiss, Shayman, Walker, Bennett, Fowler, Hartling, Glickman, Lasarev, and Oh. (2017). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 143(3), 1909-1920]. Further, the fused binaural pitch is often a weighted average of the different pitches perceived in the two ears...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Christian Füllgrabe, Andrew J Harland, Aleksander P Sęk, Brian C J Moore
OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate a test of the ability to process binaural temporal-fine-structure (TFS) information. The test was intended to provide a graded measure of TFS sensitivity for all listeners. DESIGN: Sensitivity to TFS was assessed at a sensation level of 30 dB using the established TFS-LF test at centre frequencies of 250, 500 and 750 Hz, and using the new TFS-AF test, in which the interaural phase difference (IPD) was fixed and the frequency was adaptively varied...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
Seiji B Shibata, Hidekane Yoshimura, Paul T Ranum, Alexander T Goodwin, Richard J H Smith
Gene therapy for genetic deafness is a promising approach by which to prevent hearing loss or to restore hearing after loss has occurred. Although a variety of direct approaches to introduce viral particles into the inner ear have been described, presumed physiological barriers have heretofore precluded investigation of systemic gene delivery to the cochlea. In this study, we sought to characterize systemic delivery of a rAAV2/9 vector as a non-invasive means of cochlear transduction. In wild-type neonatal mice (postnatal day 0-1), we show that intravenous injection of rAAV2/9 carrying an eGFP-reporter gene results in binaural transduction of inner hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons and vestibular hair cells...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tone Stokkereit Mattsson, Turid Follestad, Stein Andersson, Ola Lind, Jon Øygarden, Ståle Nordgård
OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this research was to obtain normative data for auditory processing tests for Norwegian speaking children. DESIGN: Participants were administered routine audiological tests and an auditory processing test-battery consisting of Filtered Words, Competing Words, Dichotic Digits, Gaps In Noise, Duration- and Frequency Pattern, Binaural Masking Level Difference and HIST Speech in Noise test. A group of 10-year-old children were retested after two weeks...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
Nathan C Higgins, Susan A McLaughlin, Teemu Rinne, G Christopher Stecker
Few auditory functions are as important or as universal as the capacity for auditory spatial awareness (e.g., sound localization). That ability relies on sensitivity to acoustical cues-particularly interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD)-that correlate with sound-source locations. Under nonspatial listening conditions, cortical sensitivity to ITD and ILD takes the form of broad contralaterally dominated response functions. It is unknown, however, whether that sensitivity reflects representations of the specific physical cues or a higher-order representation of auditory space (i...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kari Smilsky, Peter R Dixon, Leah Smith, David Shipp, Amy Ng, Tara Millman, Suzanne Stewart, Julian M Nedzelski, Vincent Y Lin, Joseph M Chen
OBJECTIVE: To determine if depriving the use of the first cochlear implant (CI1) impacts adaptation to a sequential implant (CI2). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Academic center. PATIENTS: Sixteen unilateral cochlear implant recipients undergoing contralateral implantation (sequential bilateral) were matched according to age, etiology, duration of deafness, device age, and delay between implants. INTERVENTION: During a 4-week adaptation period after CI2 activation, patients underwent deprivation of CI1 or were permitted continued use of it...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
Tobias Neher, Kirsten C Wagener, Matthias Latzel
Hearing aid (HA) users can differ markedly in their benefit from directional processing (or beamforming) algorithms. The current study therefore investigated candidacy for different bilateral directional processing schemes. Groups of elderly listeners with symmetric (N = 20) or asymmetric (N = 19) hearing thresholds for frequencies below 2 kHz, a large spread in the binaural intelligibility level difference (BILD), and no difference in age, overall degree of hearing loss, or performance on a measure of selective attention took part...
July 29, 2017: Hearing Research
Nicholas J Wade
Vision and hearing are dependent on disparities of spatial patterns received by two eyes and on time and intensity differences to two ears. However, the experiences of a single world have masked attention to these disparities. While eyes and ears are paired, there has not been parity in the attention directed to their functioning. Phenomena involving binocular vision were commented upon since antiquity whereas those about binaural hearing are much more recent. This history is compared with respect to the experimental manipulations of dichoptic and dichotic stimuli and the instruments used to stimulate the paired organs...
August 2, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Astrid Schepman, Paul Rodway, Louise Cornmell, Bethany Smith, Sabrina Lauren de Sa, Ciara Borwick, Elisha Belfon-Thompson
Much evidence suggests that the processing of emotions is lateralized to the right hemisphere of the brain. However, under some circumstances the left hemisphere might play a role, particularly for positive emotions and emotional experiences. We explored whether emotion contagion was right-lateralized, lateralized valence-specifically, or potentially left-lateralized. In two experiments, right-handed female listeners rated to what extent emotionally intoned pseudo-sentences evoked target emotions in them. These sound stimuli had a 7 ms ear lead in the left or right channel, leading to stronger stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere...
August 2, 2017: Laterality
Richard L Freyman, Patrick M Zurek
This study describes the contributions to auditory image position of an interaural time delay (ITD) cue at onset relative to subsequent ITDs during the ongoing part of a stimulus. Test stimuli were trains of 1-ms binaural noise bursts; lateral position was measured with a wideband acoustic pointer that subjects adjusted to match the intracranial position of test stimuli. In different conditions the ongoing part of the stimulus (the bursts following the first one) either had a consistent ITD (the same ITD on each ongoing burst), or had alternating leading and lagging components with ITDs that opposed one another...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Stephan D Ewert, Wiebke Schubotz, Thomas Brand, Birger Kollmeier
Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) decrease as target and maskers are spatially separated (spatial release from masking, SRM). The current study systematically assessed how SRTs and SRM for a frontal target in a spatially symmetric masker configuration depend on spectro-temporal masker properties, the availability of short-time interaural level difference (ILD) and interaural time difference (ITD), and informational masking. Maskers ranged from stationary noise to single, interfering talkers and were modified by head-related transfer functions to provide: (i) different binaural cues (ILD, ITD, or both) and (ii) independent maskers in each ear ("infinite ILD")...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Nikhil Deshpande, Jonas Braasch
This study investigates how virtual head rotations can improve a binaural model's ability to segregate speech signals. The model takes two mixed speech sources spatialized to unique azimuth positions and localizes them. The model virtually rotates its head to orient itself for the maximum signal-to-noise ratio for extracting the target. An equalization-cancellation approach is used to generate a binary mask for the target based on localization cues. The mask is then overlaid onto the mixed signal's spectrogram to extract the target from the mixture...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
James L Sinclair, Matthew J Fischl, Olga Alexandrova, Martin Heβ, Benedikt Grothe, Christian Leibold, Conny Kopp-Scheinpflug
Plasticity of myelination represents a mechanism to tune the flow of information by balancing functional requirements with metabolic and spatial constraints. The auditory system is heavily myelinated and operates at the upper limits of action potential generation frequency and speed observed in the mammalian CNS. This study aimed to characterize the development of myelin within the trapezoid body, a central auditory fiber tract, and determine the influence sensory experience has on this process in mice of both sexes...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Virginia Best, Elin Roverud, Timothy Streeter, Christine R Mason, Gerald Kidd
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a visually guided hearing aid (VGHA) under conditions designed to capture some aspects of "real-world" communication settings. The VGHA uses eye gaze to steer the acoustic look direction of a highly directional beamforming microphone array. Although the VGHA has been shown to enhance speech intelligibility for fixed-location, frontal targets, it is currently not known whether these benefits persist in the face of frequent changes in location of the target talker that are typical of conversational turn-taking...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
Baljeet Rana, Jörg M Buchholz, Catherine Morgan, Mridula Sharma, Tobias Weller, Shivali Appaiah Konganda, Kyoko Shirai, Atsushi Kawano
Binaural hearing helps normal-hearing listeners localize sound sources and understand speech in noise. However, it is not fully understood how far this is the case for bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users. To determine the potential benefits of bilateral over unilateral CIs, speech comprehension thresholds (SCTs) were measured in seven Japanese bilateral CI recipients using Helen test sentences (translated into Japanese) in a two-talker speech interferer presented from the front (co-located with the target speech), ipsilateral to the first-implanted ear (at +90° or -90°), and spatially symmetric at ±90°...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
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