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Bas P Hartel, Martijn J H Agterberg, Ad F Snik, Henricus P M Kunst, A John V Opstal, Arjan J Bosman, Ronald J E Pennings
OBJECTIVES: Usher syndrome is the leading cause of hereditary deaf-blindness. Most patients with Usher syndrome type IIa start using hearing aids from a young age. A serious complaint refers to interference between sound localization abilities and adaptive sound processing (compression), as present in today's hearing aids. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of advanced signal processing on binaural hearing, including sound localization. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: In this prospective study, patients were fitted with hearing aids with a nonlinear (compression) and linear amplification program...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Ândrea de Melo, Eliara Pinto Vieira Biaggio, Inaê Costa Rechia, Pricila Sleifer
Purpose: To measure the exogenous components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) in term and preterm newborns and compare them considering the variables latency and amplitude. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, prospective, comparative, contemporary study. One hundred twenty-seven newborns were evaluated; 96 of these were included in the study after analysis of the exams by three referees. Participants were divided into two groups: Term Group: 66 infants and Preterm Group: 30 neonates...
October 13, 2016: CoDAS
Jijo Pottackal Mathai, Asha Yathiraj
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of intensity on speech perception in individuals with late-onset auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) by obtaining their performance-intensity (PI) function. Additionally, the study investigated the effect of PI function on aided speech perception. It was hypothesized that speech perception abilities of individuals with ANSD vary with intensity and may provide information regarding their aided performance. DESIGN: A factorial research design was used to obtain the PI function and aided performance...
October 13, 2016: Ear and Hearing
John H Grose, Heather L Porter, Emily Buss
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of age on the spectro-temporal integration of speech. The hypothesis was that the integration of speech fragments distributed over frequency, time, and ear of presentation is reduced in older listeners-even for those with good audiometric hearing. Younger, middle-aged, and older listeners (10 per group) with good audiometric hearing participated. They were each tested under seven conditions that encompassed combinations of spectral, temporal, and binaural integration...
October 14, 2016: Trends in Hearing
D Wiwatwongwana, P Vichitvejpaisal, L Thaikruea, J Klaphajone, A Tantong, A Wiwatwongwana
PurposeTo investigate the anxiolytic effects of binaural beat embedded audio in patients undergoing cataract surgery under local anesthesia.MethodsThis prospective RCT included 141 patients undergoing cataract surgery under local anesthesia. The patients were randomized into three groups; the Binaural beat music group (BB), the plain music intervention group (MI), and a control group (ear phones with no music). Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured on admission, at the beginning of and 20 min after the start of the operation...
October 14, 2016: Eye
Zahra Jafari, Saeed Malayeri, Elahe Bahramian
OBJECTIVES: To explore the possible effects of recurrent otitis media (ROM) in early childhood on binaural processing and verbal memory in school-aged children. METHODS: Two hundred eleven children, including 31 children with and 180 children without a history of ROM, were examined. A dichotic digit test (DDT) and a forward and backward digit memory span test (DMST) were administered. RESULTS: A significant difference was observed between age groups among ROM-free children...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Kyoko Nagao, Tammy Riegner, Jennifer Padilla, L Ashleigh Greenwood, Jessica Loson, Sarah Zavala, Thierry Morlet
BACKGROUND: Although auditory processing disorder (APD) is a widely recognized impairment, its prevalence and demographic characteristics are not precisely known in the pediatric population. PURPOSE: To examine the demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with APD at a tertiary health-care facility and the prevalence of pediatric APD. RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 243 children (149 boys and 94 girls) who were referred to the Nemours Audiology Clinics in the Delaware Valley for an APD evaluation...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Jing Mi, H Steven Colburn
Spatially separating speech maskers from target speech often leads to a large intelligibility improvement. Modeling this phenomenon has long been of interest to binaural-hearing researchers for uncovering brain mechanisms and for improving signal-processing algorithms in hearing-assistive devices. Much of the previous binaural modeling work focused on the unmasking enabled by binaural cues at the periphery, and little quantitative modeling has been directed toward the grouping or source-separation benefits of binaural processing...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Hearing
Andrew D Brown, Francisco A Rodriguez, Cory D F Portnuff, Matthew J Goupell, Daniel J Tollin
In patients with bilateral hearing loss, the use of two hearing aids (HAs) offers the potential to restore the benefits of binaural hearing, including sound source localization and segregation. However, existing evidence suggests that bilateral HA users' access to binaural information, namely interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs), can be compromised by device processing. Our objective was to characterize the nature and magnitude of binaural distortions caused by modern digital behind-the-ear HAs using a variety of stimuli and HA program settings...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Hearing
Nicoline Thorup, Sébastien Santurette, Søren Jørgensen, Erik Kjærbøl, Torsten Dau, Morten Friis
INTRODUCTION: Hearing-impaired (HI) listeners often complain about difficulties communicating in the presence of background noise, although audibility may be restored by a hearing-aid (HA). The audiogram typically forms the basis for HA fitting, i.e. people with similar audiograms are given the same prescription by default. This study aimed at identifying clinically relevant tests that may serve as an informative addition to the audiogram and which may relate more directly to HA satisfaction than the audiogram does...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Stefan Zirn, Susan Arndt, Antje Aschendorff, Roland Laszig, Thomas Wesarg
The ability to detect a target signal masked by noise is improved in normal-hearing listeners when interaural phase differences (IPDs) between the ear signals exist either in the masker or in the signal. To improve binaural hearing in bilaterally implanted cochlear implant (BiCI) users, a coding strategy providing the best possible access to IPD is highly desirable. In this study, we compared two coding strategies in BiCI users provided with CI systems from MED-EL (Innsbruck, Austria). The CI systems were bilaterally programmed either with the fine structure processing strategy FS4 or with the constant rate strategy high definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS)...
September 22, 2016: Trends in Hearing
Mickael L D Deroche, John F Culling, Mathieu Lavandier, Vincent L Gracco
A difference in fundamental frequency (ΔF0) and a difference in spatial location (ΔSL) are two cues known to provide masking releases when multiple speakers talk at once in a room. We examined situations in which reverberation should have no effect on the mechanisms underlying the releases from energetic masking produced by these two cues. Speech reception thresholds using both unpredictable target sentences and the coordinate response measure followed a similar pattern. Both ΔF0s and ΔSLs provided masking releases in the presence of nonspeech maskers (matched in excitation pattern and temporal envelope to the speech maskers) that, as intended, were robust to reverberation...
September 19, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Justin M Aronoff, Monica Padilla, Julia Stelmach, David M Landsberger
For bilateral cochlear implant (CI) patients, electrodes that receive the same frequency allocation often stimulate locations in the left and right ear that do not yield the same perceived pitch, resulting in a pitch mismatch. This pitch mismatch may be related to degraded binaural abilities. Pitch mismatches have been found for some bilateral CI users and the goal of this study was to determine whether pitch mismatches are prevalent in bilateral CI patients, including those with extensive experience with bilateral CIs...
September 18, 2016: Trends in Hearing
Torsten Rahne, Stefan K Plontke
BACKGROUND: Patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) suffer from reduced binaural hearing (i.e., sound localization and speech in noise discrimination). Cochlear implantation has recently been introduced for patients with SSD, as an alternative to hearing devices that employ contralateral routing of the signal. Application to children has also been started. METHODS: We retrospectively analyze a case series of 4 children and 17 adults with SSD, treated with cochlear implantation...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Jaime A Undurraga, Nick R Haywood, Torsten Marquardt, David McAlpine
Humans, and many other species, exploit small differences in the timing of sounds at the two ears (interaural time difference, ITD) to locate their source and to enhance their detection in background noise. Despite their importance in everyday listening tasks, however, the neural representation of ITDs in human listeners remains poorly understood, and few studies have assessed ITD sensitivity to a similar resolution to that reported perceptually. Here, we report an objective measure of ITD sensitivity in electroencephalography (EEG) signals to abrupt modulations in the interaural phase of amplitude-modulated low-frequency tones...
September 14, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
J F Liu, J S Dai, N Y Wang
The aim of this review was to examine the current literature regarding application of cochlear implantation on patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL) for improvement on sound localization. The literature were searched in the PubMed database with 'cochlear implantation AND single-sided deafness' or 'cochlear implantation AND unilateral deafness' as keywords. The publication date of the articles was up to 2015-2-12. A total of 12 articles were included. The results show that the ability of sound localization for most of the USNHL subjects (90%) with cochlear implantation was significantly improved than that without CI, which suggests that CI is a superior auditory rehabilitation treatment than BAHA and CROS hearing aids for patients with USNHL, because of the re-establishment of the benefits of binaural hearing...
August 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Anusha Mishra
Astrocytes are the most common glial cells in the brain with fine processes and endfeet that intimately contact both neuronal synapses and the cerebral vasculature. They play an important role in mediating neurovascular coupling (NVC) via several astrocytic Ca(2+) -dependent signalling pathways such as K(+) release through BK channels, and the production and release of arachidonic acid metabolites. They are also involved in maintaining the resting tone of the cerebral vessels by releasing ATP and COX-1 derivatives...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Neetha Das, Wouter Biesmans, Alexander Bertrand, Tom Francart
OBJECTIVE: We consider the problem of Auditory Attention Detection (AAD), where the goal is to detect which speaker a person is attending to, in a multi-speaker environment, based on neural activity. This work aims to analyze the influence of head-related filtering and ear-specific decoding on the performance of an AAD algorithm. APPROACH: We recorded high-density EEG of 16 normal-hearing subjects as they listened to two speech streams while tasked to attend to the speaker in either their left or right ear...
October 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Bernhard Hommel, Roberta Sellaro, Rico Fischer, Saskia Borg, Lorenza S Colzato
Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive-control processes can be configured to optimize either persistence of information processing (by amplifying competition between decision-making alternatives and top-down biasing of this competition) or flexibility (by dampening competition and biasing). We investigated whether high-frequency binaural beats, an auditory illusion suspected to act as a cognitive enhancer, have an impact on cognitive-control configuration. We hypothesized that binaural beats in the gamma range bias the cognitive-control style toward flexibility, which in turn should increase the crosstalk between tasks in a dual-task paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Tom P Franken, Philip H Smith, Philip X Joris
The lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (LNTB) is a prominent nucleus in the superior olivary complex in mammals including humans. Its physiology in vivo is poorly understood due to a paucity of recordings. It is thought to provide a glycinergic projection to the medial superior olive (MSO) with an important role in binaural processing and sound localization. We combined in vivo patch clamp recordings with labeling of individual neurons in the Mongolian gerbil. Labeling of the recorded neurons allowed us to relate physiological properties to anatomy at the light and electron microscopic level...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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