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Daria Genzel, Michael Schutte, W Owen Brimijoin, Paul R MacNeilage, Lutz Wiegrebe
Distance is important: From an ecological perspective, knowledge about the distance to either prey or predator is vital. However, the distance of an unknown sound source is particularly difficult to assess, especially in anechoic environments. In vision, changes in perspective resulting from observer motion produce a reliable, consistent, and unambiguous impression of depth known as motion parallax. Here we demonstrate with formal psychophysics that humans can exploit auditory motion parallax, i.e., the change in the dynamic binaural cues elicited by self-motion, to assess the relative depths of two sound sources...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Diego Marques do Carmo, Márcio Holsbach Costa
This work presents an online approximation method for the multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) noise reduction technique with preservation of the noise interaural level difference (ILD) for binaural hearing-aids. The steepest descent method is applied to a previously proposed MWF-ILD cost function to both approximate the optimal linear estimator of the desired speech and keep the subjective perception of the original acoustic scenario. The computational cost of the resulting algorithm is estimated in terms of multiply and accumulate operations, whose number can be controlled by setting the number of iterations at each time frame...
February 22, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Melissa J Polonenko, Blake C Papsin, Karen A Gordon
This longitudinal study aimed to identify auditory plasticity promoted by a cochlear implant in children with asymmetric hearing loss. Participants included 10 children who experienced (mean ± SD) 3.1 ± 3.6 years of asymmetric hearing (difference of 47.2 ± 47.6 dB) before receiving an implant at age 8.7 ± 5.1 years. Multi-channel electroencephalography was measured at initial implant use (5.8 ± 3.2 days) and after 10.2 ± 4.1 months in each child. Monaurally presented stimuli consisted of 36 ms trains of 9 acoustic clicks/biphasic electric pulses at a rate of 250 Hz, repeated at 1 Hz...
February 17, 2018: Hearing Research
Matthew J Goupell, Olga A Stakhovskaya
Accurate localization of complex sounds involves combining interaural information across frequencies to produce a single location percept. Interaural level differences (ILDs) are highly frequency dependent and it is unclear how the auditory system combines differing ILDs across frequency. Therefore, ILD just noticeable differences (JNDs) and intracranial lateralization were measured in young normal-hearing listeners using single- and multi-band stimuli. The bands were 300-ms, 10-Hz narrowband noises; the multi-band condition had three bands; they started and ended synchronously; they were located around three different frequency regions (750, 2000, or 4000 Hz); they had five different frequency separations that ranged from unresolved to resolved; the bands were dichotic with the same non-zero ILD (targets) or were diotic with zero ILD (interferers)...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
G Christopher Stecker
Sound onsets dominate spatial judgments of many types of periodic sound. Conversely, ongoing cues often dominate in spatial judgments of aperiodic noise. This study quantified onset dominance as a function of both the bandwidth and the temporal regularity of stimuli by measuring temporal weighting functions (TWF) from Stecker, Ostreicher, and Brown [(2013) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 1242-1252] for lateralization of periodic and aperiodic noise-burst trains. Stimuli consisted of 16 noise bursts (1 ms each) repeating at an interval of 2 or 5 ms...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Jaume Segura-Garcia, Juan Miguel Navarro-Ruiz, Juan J Perez-Solano, Jose Montoya-Belmonte, Santiago Felici-Castell, Maximo Cobos, Ana M Torres-Aranda
Sound pleasantness or annoyance perceived in urban soundscapes is a major concern in environmental acoustics. Binaural psychoacoustic parameters are helpful to describe generic acoustic environments, as it is stated within the ISO 12913 framework. In this paper, the application of a Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network (WASN) to evaluate the spatial distribution and the evolution of urban acoustic environments is described. Two experiments are presented using an indoor and an outdoor deployment of a WASN with several nodes using an Internet of Things (IoT) environment to collect audio data and calculate meaningful parameters such as the sound pressure level, binaural loudness and binaural sharpness...
February 26, 2018: Sensors
Pedro Helo Dos Santos Neto, Johnni Oswaldo Zamponi, Rogério Hamerschmidt, Gislaine Richter Minhoto Wiemes, Marcio S Rassi, Luis A B Borba
Hearing loss is the most common symptom of vestibular schwannomas (VSs). The management of these lesions includes observation, radiosurgery, and microsurgical resection. Hearing preservation and rehabilitation are the major challenges after the tumor treatment. A 43-year-old man with previous left-sided profound hearing loss and tinnitus presented with a 2-mm left-sided intracanalicular VS. The decision was made to perform a simultaneous cochlear implantation (CI) and microsurgical resection of the tumor. The patient did well postoperatively, with significant improvement of tinnitus, sound localization, and speech recognition in noise...
March 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Andre Wedekind, Dayse Távora-Vieira, Gunesh P Rajan
Cochlear implantation (CI) for early-onset single-sided deafness (SSD) provides a unique insight into the development and cortical reorganization of binaural pathways. This case series aimed to investigate the impact of duration of deafness on CI outcomes as measured by cortical evoked auditory potentials (CAEPs). Four adults with early-onset SSD were studied after CI. The adults had a duration of deafness of 22, 24, 42, and 38 years before implantation. CAEPs and speech perception in noise were used to investigate binaural cortical pathways and function...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
Kairn Stetler Kelley, Benjamin Littenberg
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the evidence of clinical utility for dichotic speech tests of binaural integration used to assess auditory processing in English-speaking children 6-14 years old. Method: Dichotic speech test recordings and pertinent research studies were identified from iterative searches of the Internet and bibliographic databases, as well as communication with colleagues and test publishers. Test documentation and peer-reviewed literature were evaluated for evidence of reliability, accuracy, usefulness, and value...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Gilles Courtois, Hervé Lissek, Philippe Estoppey, Yves Oesch, Xavier Gigandet
Little is known about the perception of artificial spatial hearing by hearing-impaired subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate how listeners with hearing disorders perceived the effect of a spatialization feature designed for wireless microphone systems. Forty listeners took part in the experiments. They were arranged in four groups: normal-hearing, moderate, severe, and profound hearing loss. Their performance in terms of speech understanding and speaker localization was assessed with diotic and binaural stimuli...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Andreas Nickisch, Franziska Werner, Christiane Kiese-Himmel
OBJECTIVE: In a controlled group comparison it was shown for 2nd, 3th and 4th graders that children with auditory processing disorders (APD) could be distinguished from those without (Non-APD) by three to four diagnostic tools. The hit rate was 93.6 % resp. 97.5 % 1, 2. The current study investigated whether such a separation is also possible in first graders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Performance of 77 first graders in two clinically and diagnostically confirmed groups (n = 40 with APD, mean age: 6...
February 15, 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Vishakha W Rawool, Madaline Parrill
OBJECTIVE: A previous study [Rawool, V. W. (2016). Auditory processing deficits: Assessment and intervention. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., pp. 186-187] demonstrated objective assessment of binaural summation through right contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds (ARTs) in women. The current project examined if previous findings could be generalised to men and to the left ear. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. STUDY SAMPLE: Sixty individuals participated in the study...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
Emma Holmes, Paula Folkeard, Ingrid S Johnsrude, Susan Scollie
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether speech intelligibility and listening effort for hearing-aid users is affected by semantic context and hearing-aid setting. DESIGN: Participants heard target sentences spoken in a reverberant background of cafeteria noise and competing speech. Participants reported each sentence verbally. Eight participants also rated listening effort after each sentence. Sentence topic was either the same as, or different from, the previous target sentence...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
Karen L Clunies-Ross, Catherine Campbell, Jeneva L Ohan, Mike Anderson, Corinne Reid, Allison M Fox
The asymmetric sampling in time hypothesis (AST) suggests that the left and right secondary auditory areas process auditory stimuli according to different sampling rates (Poeppel, 2003). We investigated whether asymmetries consistent with the AST are observable in children at age 7 and whether they become more pronounced at age 9. Data were collected from 50 children who attended a 2-day research program at age 7 and were followed up 2 years later. At both time points, children were presented with tone-pairs, each composed of two 50 ms, 1000Hz, sinusoidal tones separated by inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 25, 50, 100, or 200 ms...
February 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ida Siveke, Julian J Ammer, Sarah A Gleiss, Benedikt Grothe, Christian Leibold, Felix Felmy
In sensory systems the neuronal representation of external stimuli is enhanced along the sensory pathway. In the auditory system, strong enhancement of binaural information takes place between the brainstem and the midbrain, however the underlying cellular mechanisms are unknown. Here we investigated the transformation of binaural information in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), a nucleus that connects the binaural nuclei in the brainstem and the inferior colliculus in the midbrain. We used in vitro and in vivo electrophysiology in adult Mongolian gerbils to show that NMDARs play a critical role in neuronal encoding of stimulus properties in the DNLL...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jonas Braasch, M Torben Pastore
Masked detection thresholds were measured for a noise target in the presence of a masker composed of (1) a lead/lag noise pair with the lead interaural time difference (ITD) set the same or opposite to the target, (2) a diotic masker, and (3) a dichotic pair of decorrelated noises. If the precedence effect actually eliminates a second, later arriving stimulus, a spatial release from masking would be expected when the lead ITD is opposite that of the target. Results for a range of lead/lag delays suggest that the precedence effect is not the result of a perceptual removal of the lag...
January 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Elizabeth Burnette, Erin G Piker, Dennis Frank-Ito
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a significant order effect exists in the binaural bithermal caloric test. Method: Fifteen volunteers (mean age = 24.3 years, range = 18-38 years) with no history of vestibular disorder, hearing loss, concussion, or neurological disease underwent caloric testing on 3 occasions. Irrigations were randomized using 8 possible order combinations. The parameters of interest included unilateral weakness, directional preponderance, total response from the right ear, and total response from the left ear...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Stephan M A Ernst, Steffen Kortlang, Giso Grimm, Thomas Bisitz, Birger Kollmeier, Stephan D Ewert
OBJECTIVE: Binaural cues such as interaural level differences (ILDs) are used to organise auditory perception and to segregate sound sources in complex acoustical environments. In bilaterally fitted hearing aids, dynamic-range compression operating independently at each ear potentially alters these ILDs, thus distorting binaural perception and sound source segregation. DESIGN: A binaurally-linked model-based fast-acting dynamic compression algorithm designed to approximate the normal-hearing basilar membrane (BM) input-output function in hearing-impaired listeners is suggested...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
Stephan D Ewert, Nihaad Paraouty, Christian Lorenzi
A model using temporal-envelope cues was previously developed to explain perceptual interference effects between amplitude and frequency modulation (FM). Since that model could not accurately predict FM sensitivity and the interference effects, temporal fine-structure (TFS) cues were added to the model. Thus, following the initial stage of the model consisting of a linear filterbank simulating cochlear filtering, processing was split into an 'envelope-path' based on envelope power cues, and a 'TFS-path' based on a measure of the distribution of time-intervals between successive zero-crossings...
January 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kurtis G Gruters, David L K Murphy, Cole D Jenson, David W Smith, Christopher A Shera, Jennifer M Groh
Interactions between sensory pathways such as the visual and auditory systems are known to occur in the brain, but where they first occur is uncertain. Here, we show a multimodal interaction evident at the eardrum. Ear canal microphone measurements in humans (n = 19 ears in 16 subjects) and monkeys (n = 5 ears in three subjects) performing a saccadic eye movement task to visual targets indicated that the eardrum moves in conjunction with the eye movement. The eardrum motion was oscillatory and began as early as 10 ms before saccade onset in humans or with saccade onset in monkeys...
January 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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