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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914424/a-metric-for-predicting-binaural-speech-intelligibility-in-stationary-noise-and-competing-speech-maskers
#1
Yan Tang, Martin Cooke, Bruno M Fazenda, Trevor J Cox
One criterion in the design of binaural sound scenes in audio production is the extent to which the intended speech message is correctly understood. Object-based audio broadcasting systems have permitted sound editors to gain more access to the metadata (e.g., intensity and location) of each sound source, providing better control over speech intelligibility. The current study describes and evaluates a binaural distortion-weighted glimpse proportion metric-BiDWGP-which is motivated by better-ear glimpsing and binaural masking level differences...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914414/spatial-attention-in-bilateral-cochlear-implant-users
#2
Matthew J Goupell, Alan Kan, Ruth Y Litovsky
Cochlear-implant (CI) users have difficulty understanding speech in the presence of interfering sounds. This study was designed to determine if binaural unmasking of speech is limited by peripheral or central encoding. Speech was presented to bilateral CI listeners using their clinical processors; unprocessed or vocoded speech was presented to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Performance was worst for all listener groups in conditions where both the target and interferer were presented monaurally or diotically (i...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914394/relating-interaural-difference-sensitivities-for-several-parameters-measured-in-normal-hearing-and-hearing-impaired-listeners
#3
Nathaniel J Spencer, Monica L Hawley, H Steven Colburn
Just-noticeable differences (JNDs) in interaural time delay (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), and interaural cross-correlation (ICC) were measured with low- and high-frequency noise bands over multiple sessions for 10 normal-hearing (NH) and 11 hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. Individual subject thresholds tended to improve with training then stabilize. Measured JNDs varied over these experienced listeners, for both subject groups and all tasks. Group JNDs were seldom predictable from hearing level...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908080/behavioral-manifestations-of-audiometrically-defined-slight-or-hidden-hearing-loss-revealed-by-measures-of-binaural-detection
#4
Leslie R Bernstein, Constantine Trahiotis
This study assessed whether audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing losses might be associated with degradations in binaural processing as measured in binaural detection experiments employing interaurally delayed signals and maskers. Thirty-one listeners participated, all having no greater than slight hearing losses (i.e., no thresholds greater than 25 dB HL). Across the 31 listeners and consistent with the findings of Bernstein and Trahiotis [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL474-EL479] binaural detection thresholds at 500 Hz and 4 kHz increased with increasing magnitude of interaural delay, suggesting a loss of precision of coding with magnitude of interaural delay...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908072/perceptual-attributes-for-the-comparison-of-head-related-transfer-functions
#5
Laurent S R Simon, Nick Zacharov, Brian F G Katz
The benefit of using individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) in binaural audio is well documented with regards to improving localization precision. However, with the increased use of binaural audio in more complex scene renderings, cognitive studies, and virtual and augmented reality simulations, the perceptual impact of HRTF selection may go beyond simple localization. In this study, the authors develop a list of attributes which qualify the perceived differences between HRTFs, providing a qualitative understanding of the perceptual variance of non-individual binaural renderings...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908068/perception-of-music-dynamics-in-concert-hall-acoustics
#6
Jukka Pätynen, Tapio Lokki
Dynamics is one of the principal means of expressivity in Western classical music. Still, preceding research on room acoustics has mostly neglected the contribution of music dynamics to the acoustic perception. This study investigates how the different concert hall acoustics influence the perception of varying music dynamics. An anechoic orchestra signal, containing a step in music dynamics, was rendered in the measured acoustics of six concert halls at three seats in each. Spatial sound was reproduced through a loudspeaker array...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908067/lateralization-of-interaural-timing-differences-with-multi-electrode-stimulation-in-bilateral-cochlear-implant-users
#7
Alan Kan, Heath G Jones, Ruth Y Litovsky
Bilateral cochlear implant (BiCI) users have shown variability in interaural time difference (ITD) sensitivity at different places along the cochlea. This paper investigates perception of multi-electrode binaural stimulation to determine if auditory object formation (AOF) and lateralization are affected by variability in ITD sensitivity when a complex sound is encoded with multi-channel processing. AOF and ITD lateralization were compared between single- and multi-electrode configurations. Most (7/8) BiCI users perceived a single auditory object with multi-electrode stimulation, and the range of lateralization was comparable to single-electrode stimulation, suggesting that variability in single-electrode ITD sensitivity does not compromise AOF with multi-electrode stimulation...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896486/neural-correlates-of-the-binaural-masking-level-difference-in-human-frequency-following-responses
#8
Christopher G Clinard, Sarah L Hodgson, Mary Ellen Scherer
The binaural masking level difference (BMLD) is an auditory phenomenon where binaural tone-in-noise detection is improved when the phase of either signal or noise is inverted in one of the ears (SπNo or SoNπ, respectively), relative to detection when signal and noise are in identical phase at each ear (SoNo). Processing related to BMLDs and interaural time differences has been confirmed in the auditory brainstem of non-human mammals; in the human auditory brainstem, phase-locked neural responses elicited by BMLD stimuli have not been systematically examined across signal-to-noise ratio...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893766/the-effect-of-binaural-beats-on-visuospatial-working-memory-and-cortical-connectivity
#9
Christine Beauchene, Nicole Abaid, Rosalyn Moran, Rachel A Diana, Alexander Leonessa
Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893698/influence-of-acoustic-overstimulation-on-the-central-auditory-system-an-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-study
#10
Tomasz Wolak, Katarzyna Cieśla, Mateusz Rusiniak, Adam Piłka, Monika Lewandowska, Agnieszka Pluta, Henryk Skarżyński, Piotr H Skarżyński
BACKGROUND The goal of the fMRI experiment was to explore the involvement of central auditory structures in pathomechanisms of a behaviorally manifested auditory temporary threshold shift in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS The material included 18 healthy volunteers with normal hearing. Subjects in the exposure group were presented with 15 min of binaural acoustic overstimulation of narrowband noise (3 kHz central frequency) at 95 dB(A). The control group was not exposed to noise but instead relaxed in silence...
November 28, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887893/emotion-modulation-of-the-startle-reflex-in-essential-tremor-blunted-reactivity-to-unpleasant-and-pleasant-pictures
#11
Jacob A Lafo, Ania Mikos, Paul C Mangal, Bonnie M Scott, Erin Trifilio, Michael S Okun, Dawn Bowers
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor is a highly prevalent movement disorder characterized by kinetic tremor and mild cognitive-executive changes. These features are commonly attributed to abnormal cerebellar changes, resulting in disruption of cerebellar-thalamo-cortical networks. Less attention has been paid to alterations in basic emotion processing in essential tremor, despite known cerebellar-limbic interconnectivity. OBJECTIVES: In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that a psychophysiologic index of emotional reactivity, the emotion modulated startle reflex, would be muted in individuals with essential tremor relative to controls...
November 17, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885978/factors-affecting-daily-cochlear-implant-use-in-children-datalogging-evidence
#12
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Joseph Sanfilippo, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
BACKGROUND: Children with profound hearing loss can gain access to sound through cochlear implants (CIs), but these devices must be worn consistently to promote auditory development. Although subjective parent reports have identified several factors limiting long-term CI use in children, it is also important to understand the day-to-day issues which may preclude consistent device use. In the present study, objective measures gathered through datalogging software were used to quantify the following in children: (1) number of hours of CI use per day, (2) practical concerns including repeated disconnections between the external transmission coil and the internal device (termed "coil-offs"), and (3) listening environments experienced during daily use...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878557/simple-reaction-time-for-broadband-sounds-compared-to-pure-tones
#13
Josef Schlittenlacher, Wolfgang Ellermeier, Gül Avci
Although many studies have explored the relation between reaction time (RT) and loudness, including effects of intensity, frequency, and binaural summation, comparable work on spectral summation is rare. However, most real-world sounds are not pure tones and typically have bandwidths covering several critical bands. Since comparing to a 1-kHz pure tone, the reference tone, is important for loudness measurement and standardization, the present work focuses on comparing RTs for broadband noise to those for 1-kHz pure tones in three experiments using different spectral and binaural configurations...
November 22, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869513/adverse-effects-of-pesticides-on-central-auditory-functions-in-tobacco-growers
#14
França Denise Maria Vaz Romano, Adriana Bender Moreira Lacerda, Diolen Lobato, Angela Ribas, Karin Ziliotto Dias, Tony Leroux, Adrian Fuente
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of exposure to pesticides on the central auditory functions (CAF) of Brazilian tobacco growers. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study carried out between 2010 and 2012. Participants were evaluated with two behavioural procedures to investigate CAF, the random gap detection test (RGDT) and the dichotic digit test in Portuguese (DDT). STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 22 growers exposed to pesticides (study group) and 21 subjects who were not exposed to pesticides (control group) were selected...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834100/sound-lateralization-ability-of-patients-with-bilateral-microtia-and-atresia-after-bilateral-reconstruction-of-auricles-and-external-auditory-canals-and-fitting-of-new-canal-type-hearing-aids-to-replace-a-bone-conduction-hearing-aid
#15
Kimitaka Kaga, Hirotaka Asato
CONCLUSION: Each of eight patients with bilateral microtia and atresia underwent bilateral reconstruction of the auricles and external auditory canals and were fitted bilateral canal-type hearing aids in the operated ears to replace a bone conduction hearing aid. The ability to discriminate inter-aural intensity difference (IID) and even inter-aural time difference (ITD) was retained in all these patients. OBJECTIVE: This study studied the post-operative sound lateralization ability of patients with bilateral microtia and atresia after total reconstruction of both auricles and external auditory canals, followed by fitting of bilateral canal-type hearing aids...
November 11, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816972/vestibular-schwannoma-resection-with-ipsilateral-simultaneous-cochlear-implantation-in-patients-with-normal-contralateral-hearing
#16
Mario Sanna, María Del Mar Medina, Aldin Macak, Gianluca Rossi, Valerio Sozzi, Sampath Chandra Prasad
OBJECTIVE: To report the hearing results of cochlear implantation simultaneous to vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection by means of a translabyrinthine approach in patients with normal contralateral hearing. METHODS: This was a prospective study including adults with sporadic VS. Tumors were resected by means of a modified translabyrinthine approach with preservation of the cochlear nerve. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients underwent cochlear implantation...
November 5, 2016: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810286/spatial-and-non-spatial-multisensory-cueing-in-unilateral-cochlear-implant-users
#17
Francesco Pavani, Marta Venturini, Francesca Baruffaldi, Luca Artesini, Francesca Bonfioli, Giuseppe Nicolò Frau, Wieske van Zoest
In the present study we examined the integrity of spatial and non-spatial multisensory cueing (MSC) mechanisms in unilateral CI users. We tested 17 unilateral CI users and 17 age-matched normal hearing (NH) controls in an elevation-discrimination task for visual targets delivered at peripheral locations. Visual targets were presented alone (visual-only condition) or together with abrupt sounds that matched or did not match the location of the visual targets (audio-visual conditions). All participants were also tested in simple pointing to free-field sounds task, to obtain a basic measure of their spatial hearing ability in the naturalistic environment in which the experiment was conducted...
October 31, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807916/alpha-range-visual-and-auditory-stimulation-reduces-the-perception-of-pain
#18
K Ecsy, A K P Jones, C A Brown
BACKGROUND: Alpha power is believed to have an inverse relationship with the perception of pain. Increasing alpha power through an external stimulus may, therefore, induce an analgesic effect. Here, we attempt to modulate the perception of a moderately painful acute laser stimulus by separately entraining three frequencies across the alpha band: 8, 10 and 12 Hz. METHODS: Participants were exposed to either visual or auditory stimulation at three frequencies in the alpha-band range and a control frequency...
November 2, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794358/the-effects-of-click-and-masker-spectrum-on-the-auditory-brainstem-response-of-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#19
Jason Mulsow, James J Finneran, Dorian S Houser, Robert F Burkard
Two experiments were performed that investigated the effects of (1) click level and (2) continuous broadband noise on the binaural auditory brainstem response (ABR) of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In addition to spectrally uncompensated clicks and noise, stimuli were digitally compensated to achieve "white" spectra (flat spectral density level) or "pink" spectra (spectral density level rolling off at -3 dB/octave). For experiment 1, in all spectral conditions, ABR peak latencies increased and peak amplitudes decreased with decreasing click level, but interwave intervals changed little...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794310/just-noticeable-differences-of-spatial-cues-in-echoic-and-anechoic-acoustical-environments
#20
Stefan Klockgether, Steven van de Par
The perceptual limits for detecting changes in binaural cues also define the boundaries for the perception of differences in spatial impression. This study reports just noticeable differences for interaural time delays (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) of the early part and for the interaural cross-correlation (IACC) of the early and diffuse part of binaural room impulse responses. The results show that ITDs only allow a high accuracy in localization in anechoic environments, whereas ILDs show a higher robustness against reverberation...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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