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Child disease

Ashley Winning, M Maria Glymour, Marie C McCormick, Paola Gilsanz, Laura D Kubzansky
OBJECTIVES: Prior research on the relationship between early adversity and adult chronic disease has often relied on retrospective reports of a limited range of exposures and has not considered childhood psychological distress as a mediator. We investigate whether distress in childhood is one pathway by which early social disadvantage leads to greater cardiometabolic risk in middle adulthood. METHODS: Data are from the 1958 British Birth Cohort study (sample n = 6027)...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Rebecca C Thurston, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, Roland von Känel, J Richard Jennings, Nanette Santoro, Doug P Landsittel, Karen A Matthews
OBJECTIVES: A childhood history of abuse or neglect may be associated with elevated adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. No studies have examined associations between child abuse/neglect and subclinical CVD using a validated measure of abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that midlife women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect would have increased subclinical CVD beyond standard CVD risk factors. We tested moderation of associations by sleep, hot flashes, and race/ethnicity...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Alessandro Consolaro, Esi M Morgan, Gabriella Giancane, Silvia Rosina, Stefano Lanni, Angelo Ravelli
Information technology in paediatric rheumatology has seen several exciting developments in recent years. The new multidimensional questionnaires for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, and juvenile autoinflammatory diseases integrate all major parent- and child-reported outcomes (PCROs) used in these diseases into a single tool, and provide an effective guide to manage, document change in health, assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, and verify the parent and child satisfaction with illness outcome...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Y Yu, S Cnattingius, J Olsen, E T Parner, M Vestergaard, Z Liew, N Zhao, J Li
BACKGROUND: The loss of a close relative is one of the most stressful life events. In pregnancy, this experience has been associated with a higher risk of fetal death and under-five mortality, but little is known about potential effects on long-term mortality in offspring. We examined the association between prenatal maternal bereavement and mortality in a cohort of 5.3 million children followed until up to 37 years of age. METHOD: The population-based cohort study included 5 253 508 live singleton births in Denmark (1973-2004) and Sweden (1973-2006)...
October 20, 2016: Psychological Medicine
A M O'Kane, C P Jackson, M Mahadevan, C Barber
BACKGROUND: Pachyonychia congenita is a rare keratinising disorder, which typically presents during the first three years of life and usually affects the nails and palmoplantar surfaces. It can involve the larynx and potentially result in life-threatening airway obstruction. METHODS: A case report is presented and the findings of a literature review are reported. The review involved a PubMed search using the keywords 'pachyonychia congenita' together with 'larynx', 'laryngeal involvement', 'laryngeal obstruction', 'airway obstruction', 'hoarseness' and/or 'stridor'...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Sigrid Bosteels, Michel Vandenbroeck, Geert Van Hove
New-born screening programs for congenital disorders and chronic disease are expanding worldwide and children "at risk" are identified by nationwide tracking systems at the earliest possible stage. These practices are never neutral and raise important social and ethical questions. An emergent concern is that a reflexive professionalism should interrogate the ever earlier interference in children's lives. The Flemish community of Belgium was among the first to generalize the screening for hearing loss in young children and is an interesting case to study the public justification of early interventions for families with deaf children...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Christine N El Ouardani
Based on 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. mental health clinic focused on the treatment of preschool-aged children who exhibited extremely disruptive behavior, this article examines the contradictions clinicians faced when trying to identify and attribute "intentionality" to very young children. Disruptive, aggressive behavior is one of the central symptoms involved in a wide-range of childhood psychopathology and the number one reason young children are referred to mental health clinics in the United States...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Hui-Ling Deng, Yu-Feng Zhang, Ya-Ping Li, Yu Zhang, Yan Xie, Jun Wang, Xiao-Yan Wang, Shuang-Suo Dang
BACKGROUND: Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is sometimes associated with serious complications such as acute heart failure that can cause substantial child mortality. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a sensitive and specific biomarker of congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to use plasma NT-proBNP levels to establish the severity of childhood HFMD. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 128 Chinese patients with severe HFMD and 88 patients with mild HFMD treated between January 2014 and October 2015...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Marina Parca Cavelagna Teixeira, Tatiana Peloso Reis Queiroga, Maria Dos Anjos Mesquita
Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio...
July 2016: Einstein
Rachael M Hiebert, Robert C Welliver, Zhongxin Yu
Fusarium species are ubiquitous fungi causing a wide array of infections, including invasive disease in the immunosuppressed. We present a fusarium bone infection in a child with Pearson syndrome and review the literature. Ten cases of fusarium osteomyelitis were reported in the past 40 years, and we review the treatments.
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Takaki Emura, Kenji Hosoda, Shota Harai, Noboru Oyachi, Takeyuki Suzuki, Ken Takada, Koji Kobayashi, Hisatake Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Massive gastrointestinal bleeding in children, mostly caused by esophageal varices secondary to chronic liver disease, is uncommon. Dieulafoy lesion in the gastrointestinal tract is a rare but important cause of gastrointestinal bleeding; massive bleeding from this lesion can be fatal unless adequate treatment is promptly initiated. We report a case of gastric Dieulafoy lesion in a 2-year old successfully treated with endoscopic hemoclipping. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old Japanese boy was admitted to our department with sudden massive hematemesis...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Malik Y Ghannam, Mohammed Naseemuddin, Peter Weiser, John O Mason
BACKGROUND: Acute Multifocal Hemorrhagic Retinal Vasculitis (AMHRV) is a rare disease with unknown incidence that presents with abrupt onset of visual loss associated with retinal vasculitis, retinal hemorrhage, non-confluent posterior retinal infiltrates, vitreous cellular inflammation and papillitis in, otherwise, healthy adult individuals. The reported treatment options for Acute Multifocal Hemorrhagic Retinal Vasculitis are oral corticosteroids, intravitreal ganciclovir and laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy...
October 18, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Jaeyoung Kim, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee, Joo Youn Oh
PURPOSE: To report a case of Mooren ulcer that developed in a pediatric patient wearing orthokeratology overnight contact lenses. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 10-year-old boy was referred to our clinic because of progressive peripheral corneal ulcer in the right eye, despite the intensive use of fortified antibiotic eye drops. The patient had been using overnight orthokeratology lenses for 4 months before presentation of corneal ulcer...
October 13, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Ricardo U Macías-Rodríguez, Astrid Ruiz-Margáin, Jose L Rodriguez-Garcia, Sergio Zepeda-Gómez, Aldo Torre
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) is useful for the management of biliary tract diseases; in patients with cirrhosis, portal hypertension may increase the risk for complications from ERCP. We evaluated the outcome and risk factors related to ERCP in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this case-control study, 37 patients (71 procedures) with cirrhosis and portal hypertension (group 1) and 37 controls (group 2) undergoing ERCP were included...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kathryn V Blake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor adherence to asthma controller medications, particularly inhaled corticosteroids, has been well known for decades and is a major cause of uncontrolled asthma and increased healthcare utilization. This review presents recent evidence on factors leading to nonadherence in specific age groups, parents of young children, adolescents and young adults, adults, and the elderly. Novel management strategies including electronic sensors with associated smart phone applications for adherence improvement are discussed...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Matthias An der Heiden, Udo Buchholz
BACKGROUND: The total burden of influenza in primary care is difficult to assess. The case definition of medically attended "acute respiratory infection" (MAARI) in the German physician sentinel is sensitive, however it requires modelling techniques to derive estimates of disease attributable to influenza. We aimed to examine the impact of type/subtype and age. METHODS: Data on MAARI and virological results of respiratory samples (virological sentinel) were available from 2001/02 until 2014/15...
October 18, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Bikas K Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Sunil Hemram, William J Moss, Samiran Panda, Ranjan Saurav Das, Sutapa Mandal, Dennis Robert, Pampa Ray
BACKGROUND: In addition to reducing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in vaccinated individuals, the Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) has indirect effects; it reduces Hib disease in unvaccinated individuals by decreasing carriage. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are at increased risk for Hib disease and live in families where multiple members may have HIV. The aim of this study is to look at the impact of 2 doses of the HibCV on nasopharyngeal carriage of Hib in HIV-infected Indian children (2-15 years) and the indirect impact on carriage in their parents...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Begoña Santiago-García, Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Jesús Ruíz-Contreras, Jose M Bellón, Maria A Muñoz-Fernández, María J Mellado-Peña
BACKGROUND: Children are at higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) dissemination and extrapulmonary disease, contributing greatly to TB-associated morbidity and long-term sequelae. However, there are very few studies that assess the impact and clinical spectrum of pediatric extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) in low-prevalence regions. METHODS: Children <18 years of age diagnosed with TB in Madrid region (2005-2013) were reviewed. We compared the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and the performance of diagnostic tests in childhood extrapulmonary and pulmonary disease...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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