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Hallvard Reigstad, Berit Woldseth, Johannes Häberle
A girl born at term was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit because of mild respiratory distress after a complicated delivery. She recovered, but was readmitted at 58 h of life with mild respiratory distress and increased muscle tone. Neonatal abstinence syndrome because of maternal use of lithium, clomipramine, and quetiapine during pregnancy was suspected, but at 115 h of life she became unresponsive, and an immediate work-up for coma was initiated. An ammonia of 2,235 μmol/l was found, and treatment with sodium benzoate, sodium phenylacetate, arginine, glucose, and N-carbamylglutamate (NCG, Carbaglu® ) was started...
2017: JIMD Reports
Elisabeth Schwob, Yohannes Hagos, Gerhard Burckhardt, Birgitta C Burckhardt
Inborn defects in N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthase (NAGS) cause a reduction of NAG, an essential cofactor for the initiation of the urea cycle. As a consequence, blood ammonium concentrations are elevated, leading to severe neurological disorders. The orphan drug N-carbamoylglutamate (NCG; Carbaglu), efficiently overcomes NAGS deficiency. However, not much is known about the transporters involved in the uptake, distribution, and elimination of the divalent organic anion NCG. Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) as well as organic anion transporters (OATs) working in cooperation with sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter 3 (NaDC3) accept a wide variety of structurally unrelated drugs...
December 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Ljubica Caldovic, Hiroki Morizono, Mendel Tuchman
N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder, is the last urea cycle disorder for which molecular testing became available. This is the first comprehensive report of 21 mutations that cause NAGS deficiency and of commonly found polymorphisms in the NAGS gene. Five mutations are reported here for the first time. A total of 10 disease-causing mutations are associated with acute neonatal hyperammonemia; the remaining mutations were found in patients with late onset disease. Residual enzymatic activities are included in this report and the deleterious effects of eight mutations were confirmed by expression studies...
August 2007: Human Mutation
Hiroki Morizono, Ljubica Caldovic, Dashuang Shi, Mendel Tuchman
N-Acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, E.C. is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the formation of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), an essential allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I (CPSI). The mouse and human NAGS genes have been identified based on similarity to regions of NAGS from Neurospora crassa and cloned from liver cDNA libraries. These genes were shown to complement an argA- (NAGS) deficient Escherichia coli strain, and enzymatic activity of the proteins was confirmed by a new stable isotope dilution assay...
April 2004: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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