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Xiaobo Chen, Song Li, Lili Hu, Kezhi Wang, Guoying Zhao, Lizhu He, Jinying Liu, Chunlei Yu, Jingfu Tao, Wei Lin, Guojian Yang, Gregory J Salamo
The multiphoton near-infrared, quantum cutting luminescence in Er(3+)/Tm(3+) co-doped telluride glass was studied. We found that the near-infrared 1800-nm luminescence intensity of (A) Er(3+)(8%)Tm(3+)(0.5%):telluride glass was approximately 4.4 to 19.5 times larger than that of (B) Tm(3+)(0.5%):telluride glass, and approximately 5.0 times larger than that of (C) Er(3+)(0.5%):telluride glass. Additionally, the infrared excitation spectra of the 1800 nm luminescence, as well as the visible excitation spectra of the 522 nm and 652 nm luminescence, of (A) Er(3+)(8%)Tm(3+)(0...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jason R Fuchs, Shelby W Darlington, John T Green, Anthony D Morielli
Numerous experiments using ex vivo electrophysiology suggest that mammalian learning and memory involves regulation of voltage-gated ion channels in terms of changes in function. Yet, little is known about learning-related regulation of voltage-gated ion channels in terms of changes in expression. In two experiments, we examined changes in cell surface expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha-subunit Kv1.2 in a discrete region of cerebellar cortex after eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a well-studied form of cerebellar-dependent learning...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Rasika R Nawimanage, Bijeta Prasai, Suraj U Hettiarachchi, Robin L McCarley
The ability to detect and visualize cellular events and their associated target biological analytes through use of cell-permeable pro-fluorogenic probes is dependent on the availability of activatable probes that respond rapidly and selectively to target analytes by production of fluorescent reporting molecules whose excitation and emission energies span a broad range. Herein is described a new probe DCM-Cys that preferentially reacts with cysteine to form a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM) reporter whose red-energy fluorescence can be stimulated by two-photon, near-infrared excitation so as to provide visualization of cysteine presence inside living human cells with a high signal-to-background ratio...
May 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Miao-Bin Lien, Ji-Young Kim, Myung-Geun Han, You-Chia Chang, Yu-Chung Chang, Heather J Ferguson, Yimei Zhu, Andrew A Herzing, John C Schotland, Nicholas A Kotov, Theodore B Norris
A systematic study is presented of the intensity-dependent nonlinear light scattering spectra of gold nanorods under resonant excitation of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The spectra exhibit features due to coherent second and third harmonic generation as well as a broadband feature that has been previously attributed to multiphoton photoluminescence arising primarily from interband optical transitions in the gold. A detailed study of the spectral dependence of the scaling of the scattered light with excitation intensity shows unexpected scaling behavior of the coherent signals, which is quantitatively accounted for by optically induced damping of the SPR mode through a Fermi liquid model of the electronic scattering...
May 16, 2017: ACS Nano
Witold Krasny, Claire Morin, Hélène Magoariec, Stéphane Avril
The load bearing properties of large blood vessels are principally conferred by collagen and elastin networks and their microstructural organization plays an important role in the outcomes of various arterial pathologies. In particular, these fibrous networks are able to rearrange and reorient spatially during mechanical deformations. In this study, we investigate for the first time whether these well-known morphological rearrangements are the same across the whole thickness of blood vessels, and subsequently if the underlying mechanisms that govern these rearrangements can be predicted using affine kinematics...
May 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
A Mazzoni, V Angeloni, N Sartori, S Duarte, T Maravic, L Tjäderhane, D H Pashley, F R Tay, L Breschi
The use of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide HCl (EDC) has recently been investigated for its effectiveness in the prevention of collagen degradation over time and the improvement of resin-dentin bond durability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 0.3 M EDC-containing conditioner on endogenous enzymatic activities within the hybrid layer (HL) created by a self-etch or an etch-and-rinse adhesive after 1 y. The activity within the HL was examined using in situ zymography and confocal laser scanning microscopy after 24 h or 1-y storage in artificial saliva...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
Simon Knapen, Tongyan Lin, Hou Keong Lou, Tom Melia
We show that ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be used to search for axionlike particles with mass below 100 GeV. The Z^{4} enhanced photon-photon luminosity from the ions provides a large exclusive production rate, with a signature of a resonant pair of back-to-back photons and no other activity in the detector. In addition, we present both new and updated limits from recasting multiphoton searches at LEP II and the LHC, which are more stringent than those currently in the literature for the mass range 100 MeV to 100 GeV...
April 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Weiqiang Chen, Saikat Bhaumik, Sjoerd A Veldhuis, Guichuan Xing, Qiang Xu, Michael Grätzel, Subodh Mhaisalkar, Nripan Mathews, Tze Chien Sum
Multiphoton absorption processes enable many technologically important applications, such as in vivo imaging, photodynamic therapy and optical limiting, and so on. Specifically, higher-order nonlinear absorption such as five-photon absorption offers significant advantages of greater spatial confinement, increased penetration depth, reduced autofluorescence, enhanced sensitivity and improved resolution over lower orders in bioimaging. Organic chromophores and conventional semiconductor nanocrystals are leaders in two-/three-photon absorption applications, but face considerable challenges from their small five-photon action cross-sections...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Lauren Richardson, Gracie Vargas, Tyra Brown, Lorenzo Ochoa, Jayshil Trivedi, Marian Kacerovský, Martha Lappas, Ramkumar Menon
INTRODUCTION: Remodeling of human placental membranes (amniochorionic or fetalmembrane) throughout gestation, a necessity to accommodate increasing uterine volume, involves continuous alterations (replacement of cells and remodeling of extracellular matrix). Methodologic limitations have obscured microscopic determination of cellular and layer-level alterations. This study used a combination of advanced imaging by multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy along with tissue optical clearing to characterize the 3Dimensional multilayer organization of placental membranes...
May 2017: Placenta
Sivaprasad Chinnakkannu Vijayakumar, Krishnan Venkatakrishnan, Bo Tan
Cellular interactions are regulated by various mechanical, physical and chemical factors that are either introduced to or are pre-existing in their local microenvironments. These factors include geometric confinement, cell-substrate interactions and cell-cell contacts. The systematic elucidation of these dictating mechanisms is crucial for fundamental understanding of regenerative medicine and for designing biomedical devices. Here, we have developed an elegant multi-photon ionization based mechanism, which accomplishes selective surface bio-functionalization of native titanium substrates, to achieve stable cellular confinements...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Pei-Lun He, Di Lao, Feng He
The exact nondipole Volkov solutions to the Schrödinger equation and Pauli equation are found, based on which a strong field theory beyond the dipole approximation is built for describing the nondipole effects in nonrelativistic laser driven electron dynamics. This theory is applied to investigate momentum partition laws for multiphoton and tunneling ionization and explicitly shows that the complex interplay of a laser field and Coulomb action may reverse the expected photoelectron momentum along the laser propagation direction...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
J Sperling, W R Clements, A Eckstein, M Moore, J J Renema, W S Kolthammer, S W Nam, A Lita, T Gerrits, W Vogel, G S Agarwal, I A Walmsley
We introduce a method for the verification of nonclassical light which is independent of the complex interaction between the generated light and the material of the detectors. This is accomplished by means of a multiplexing arrangement. Its theoretical description yields that the coincidence statistics of this measurement layout is a mixture of multinomial distributions for any classical light field and any type of detector. This allows us to formulate bounds on the statistical properties of classical states...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Júlia López-Guimet, Jordi Andilla, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, Gustavo Egea
In Marfan syndrome, the tunica media is disrupted, which leads to the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms. Marfan aortic samples are histologically characterized by the fragmentation of elastic laminae. However, conventional histological techniques using transverse sections provide limited information about the precise location, progression and 3D extension of the microstructural changes that occur in each lamina. We implemented a method using multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy and computational image processing, which provides high-resolution en-face images of segmented individual laminae from unstained whole aortic samples...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Martin Vielreicher, Oliver Friedrich
Multiphoton microscopy allows continuous depth-resolved, nondestructive imaging of scaffold-seeded cells during cell or tissue culture. Spectrally separated images in high resolution can be provided while cells are conserved in their native state. Here we describe the seeding of mesenchymal stem cells to bacterial nanocellulose hydropolymer scaffolds followed by 2-channel imaging of cellular autofluorescence (AF) and collagen-I formation using second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. With this approach the simultaneous observation of the progression of cell morphology and production of extracellular matrix as hallmarks of viability and cell fitness is possible...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andreas Rohrbacher, Omar E Olarte, Vesna Villamaina, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, Bojan Resan
We report a directly blue diode pumped Ti:Sapphire oscillator that generates 5 nJ pulses. This is five times higher pulse energy than previously reported for a directly diode pumped Ti:sapphire laser. With 460 mW of average power at 92 MHz and 82 fs pulses, its peak power reaches 61 kW, also several times higher the value than previously published. Direct diode pumping significantly reduces the complexity and therefore the footprint and the cost of the laser, while SESAM modelocking ensures reliable selfstarting and robust operation...
May 1, 2017: Optics Express
Shu Wang, Xiuqiang Chen, Weilin Wu, Zhida Chen, Huiping Du, Xingfu Wang, Yu Vincent Fu, Liwen Hu, Jianxin Chen
The cerebellum is the prominent laminar structure of the mammalian brain that has been implicated in various psychiatric and neurological diseases. Although clinical brain imaging techniques have provided precise anatomic images of cerebellar structures, a definitive diagnosis still requires adequate resolution to identify individual layers in cerebellar cortex, the extent of tumor, even requires the histological tissue examination during surgical procedures. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), based on second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), was perform on the rat cerebellar structures and pathology with the combination of image analysis methods...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
Chia-Yuan Chang, Cheng-Han Lin, Chun-Yu Lin, Yong-Da Sie, Yvonne Yuling Hu, Sheng-Feng Tsai, Shean-Jen Chen
A developed temporal focusing-based multiphoton excitation microscope (TFMPEM) has a digital micromirror device (DMD) which is adopted not only as a blazed grating for light spatial dispersion but also for patterned illumination simultaneously. Herein, the TFMPEM has been extended to implement spatially modulated illumination at structured frequency and orientation to increase the beam coverage at the back-focal aperture of the objective lens. The axial excitation confinement (AEC) of TFMPEM can be condensed from 3...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
Masataka Nishimura, J R Casanova, John W Swann
Neurobehavioral abnormalities are commonly associated with intractable childhood epilepsy. Studies from numerous labs have demonstrated cognitive and socialization deficits in rats and mice that have experienced early-life seizures. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Previously, experiments have shown that recurrent seizures in infancy suppress the growth of hippocampal dendrites at the same time they impair learning and memory. Experiments in slice cultures have also demonstrated dendrite growth suppression...
March 2017: ENeuro
Sebastian Beck, Sabrina Trog, Sarah Knizia, Michael W Linscheid
1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) is a macrocycle that is able to complexate a large variety of metals. The stability of these metal complexes is generally very high. This has led to the use of these complexes in medical applications, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have investigated the fragmentation behavior of a number of DOTA-metal complexes under collision-induced dissociation (CID), infrared-multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) activation conditions...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Sascha Agne, Thomas Kauten, Jeongwan Jin, Evan Meyer-Scott, Jeff Z Salvail, Deny R Hamel, Kevin J Resch, Gregor Weihs, Thomas Jennewein
Multiparticle quantum interference is critical for our understanding and exploitation of quantum information, and for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. A remarkable example of multi-partite correlations is exhibited by the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state. In a GHZ state, three particles are correlated while no pairwise correlation is found. The manifestation of these strong correlations in an interferometric setting has been studied theoretically since 1990 but no three-photon GHZ interferometer has been realized experimentally...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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