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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929184/viral-delivery-of-genome-modifying-proteins-for-cellular-reprogramming
#1
REVIEW
Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen
Following the successful development of virus-based gene vehicles for genetic therapies, exploitation of viruses as carriers of genetic tools for cellular reprogramming and genome editing should be right up the street. However, whereas persistent, potentially life-long gene expression is the main goal of conventional genetic therapies, tools and bits for genome engineering should ideally be short-lived and active only for a limited time. Although viral vector systems have already been adapted for potent genome editing both in vitro and in vivo, regulatable gene expression systems or self-limiting expression circuits need to be implemented limiting exposure of chromatin to genome-modifying enzymes...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927300/validity-and-clinical-utility-of-dsm-and-empirically-derived-prototype-diagnosis-for-personality-disorders-in-predicting-adaptive-functioning
#2
Ora Nakash, Maayan Nagar, Drew Westen
Prototype matching, which involves comparing a patient clinical presentation with a prototype description of the disorder addresses some of the clinical limitations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases symptom-count approach. Here, we investigated the validity and clinical utility of three diagnostic systems in predicting patient adaptive functioning using a multimethod multi-informant approach. Specifically, we compared a prototype matching approach based on DSM criteria, an empirically derived prototype matching approach, and DSM symptom count diagnostic systems...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927259/self-compassion-buffers-the-link-between-self-criticism-and-depression-in-trauma-exposed-firefighters
#3
Aleksandra Kaurin, Sandra Schönfelder, Michèle Wessa
Firefighters are frequently exposed to highly stressful, potentially traumatic events (PTEs). More than 50%, however, show no significant elevation in trauma-related symptomatology (e.g., depression). In the past, self-compassion has been discussed to promote psychological and behavioral flexibility that is vital to a successful adaptation to PTEs. The goal of this study was to understand whether and how self-compassion may alleviate personal suffering in the face of PTEs. We hypothesized that individuals who encounter their profession-related affective experiences with greater self-compassion, show lower levels of depressive symptoms because self-compassion buffers processes that perpetuate negative affectivity in response to PTEs (i...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926346/a-population-based-analysis-of-life-satisfaction-and-social-support-among-children-of-diverse-backgrounds-in-british-columbia-canada
#4
Scott D Emerson, Louise C Mâsse, Tavinder K Ark, Kimberly A Schonert-Reichl, Martin Guhn
PURPOSE: The Satisfaction With Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C) is a self-report measure of children's quality of life and has exhibited sound psychometric properties. In light of increasing ethno-cultural diversity, it is important to understand child life satisfaction across diverse subgroups. Employing children's language background as a proxy for cultural background among children in British Columbia, Canada, we examined (a) the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the SWLS-C; and (b) cross-cultural relations of peer support and adult support with SWLS-C...
June 20, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926294/demonstration-of-parent-training-to-address-early-self-injury-in-young-children-with-intellectual-and-developmental-delays
#5
Jill C Fodstad, Alexandra Kirsch, Micah Faidley, Nerissa Bauer
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at a high risk for engaging in self-injurious behavior (SIB). Prognosis is poor when SIB emerges early. Limited research exists on interventions teaching parents how to manage their young child's SIB. This investigation assessed the feasibility of adapting an applied behavior analytic parent training program with 11 parents of children 1-5 years of age with IDD and SIB. Quantitative and observational measures were used to assess outcomes; semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver satisfaction...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926087/efficacy-of-dialectical-behavior-therapy-for-adolescents-at-high-risk-for-suicide-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Elizabeth McCauley, Michele S Berk, Joan R Asarnow, Molly Adrian, Judith Cohen, Kathyrn Korslund, Claudia Avina, Jennifer Hughes, Melanie Harned, Robert Gallop, Marsha M Linehan
Importance: Suicide is a leading cause of death among 10- to 24-year-old individuals in the United States; evidence on effective treatment for adolescents who engage in suicidal and self-harm behaviors is limited. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) compared with individual and group supportive therapy (IGST) for reducing suicide attempts, nonsuicidal self-injury, and overall self-harm among high-risk youths. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted from January 1, 2012, through August 31, 2014, at 4 academic medical centers...
June 20, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925858/downregulation-of-the-neuronal-opioid-gene-expression-concomitantly-with-neuronal-decline-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-human-alcoholics
#7
Igor Bazov, Daniil Sarkisyan, Olga Kononenko, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Victor M Karpyak, Tatiana Yakovleva, Georgy Bakalkin
Molecular changes in cortical areas of addicted brain may underlie cognitive impairment and loss of control over intake of addictive substances and alcohol. Prodynorphin (PDYN) gives rise to dynorphin (DYNs) opioid peptides which target kappa-opioid receptor (KOR). DYNs mediate alcohol-induced impairment of learning and memory, while KOR antagonists block excessive, compulsive-like drug and alcohol self-administration in animal models. In human brain, the DYN/KOR system may undergo adaptive changes, which along with neuronal loss, may contribute to alcohol-associated cognitive deficit...
June 20, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924078/use-of-an-in-home-body-weight-support-system-by-a-child-with-spina-bifida
#8
Elena Kokkoni, Samuel W Logan, Tracy Stoner, Terri Peffley, James C Galloway
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility of a new open-area body weight support system (BWSS) to act as both an "assistive" and a "rehabilitative" device within the home. INTERVENTION: A 5-year-old boy with spina bifida used the BWSS during self-selected activities for 10 weeks. Feasibility, behavioral, and clinical assessments provided a quantification of his activity in and out of the BWSS. OUTCOMES: On average, the child used the device on 2...
July 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923215/self-management-of-diabetes-in-hospital-a-guideline-from-the-joint-british-diabetes-societies-jbds-for-inpatient-care-group
#9
D Flanagan, K Dhatariya, A Kilvert
The aims of these guidelines are to improve the inpatient experience and safety for people with diabetes through effective self-management. The guidelines are aimed primarily at healthcare professionals working in hospitals, although some aspects are relevant to staff involved in pre-admission preparation. The guidelines suggest an approach to providing patient information, the circumstances in which self-management is appropriate, the development of care plans and the elements needed for effective self-management...
June 19, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923181/surgery-in-space
#10
REVIEW
S S Panesar, K Ashkan
BACKGROUND: There has been renewed public interest in manned space exploration owing to novel initiatives by private and governmental bodies. Long-term goals include manned missions to, and potential colonization of, nearby planets. Travel distances and mission length required for these would render Earth-based treatment and telemedical solutions unfeasible. These issues present an anticipatory challenge to planners, and novel or adaptive medical technologies must therefore be devised to diagnose and treat the range of medical issues that future space travellers will encounter...
June 19, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922641/improvements-in-heart-rate-variability-baroreflex-sensitivity-and-sleep-after-use-of-closed-loop-allostatic-neurotechnology-by-a-heterogeneous-cohort
#11
Hossam A Shaltout, Sung W Lee, Catherine L Tegeler, Joshua R Hirsch, Sean L Simpson, Lee Gerdes, Charles H Tegeler
Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicator of dynamic adaptability of the autonomic nervous system. Few interventions target upstream, cerebral cortex components of the heart-brain system for autonomic management. We report changes in HRV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), associated with use of a noninvasive, closed-loop, allostatic, computer-guided, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology. Methods: Over 5 years, 220 subjects with heterogeneous neurological, cardiovascular, and psychophysiological conditions consecutively enrolled in a naturalistic, single-arm study exploring clinical effects associated with use of the neurotechnology...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921923/efficient-and-self-adaptive-in-situ-learning-in-multilayer-memristor-neural-networks
#12
Can Li, Daniel Belkin, Yunning Li, Peng Yan, Miao Hu, Ning Ge, Hao Jiang, Eric Montgomery, Peng Lin, Zhongrui Wang, Wenhao Song, John Paul Strachan, Mark Barnell, Qing Wu, R Stanley Williams, J Joshua Yang, Qiangfei Xia
Memristors with tunable resistance states are emerging building blocks of artificial neural networks. However, in situ learning on a large-scale multiple-layer memristor network has yet to be demonstrated because of challenges in device property engineering and circuit integration. Here we monolithically integrate hafnium oxide-based memristors with a foundry-made transistor array into a multiple-layer neural network. We experimentally demonstrate in situ learning capability and achieve competitive classification accuracy on a standard machine learning dataset, which further confirms that the training algorithm allows the network to adapt to hardware imperfections...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917331/multi-protein-dynamic-combinatorial-chemistry-a-novel-strategy-that-leads-to-simultaneous-discovery-of-subfamily-selective-inhibitors-for-nucleic-acid-demethylases-fto-and-alkbh3
#13
Mohua Das, Yang Tianming, Dong Jinghua, Fransisca Prasetya, Xie Yiming, Kendra Wong, Adeline Cheong, Esther C Y Woon
Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) is a powerful supramolecular approach for discovering ligands for biomolecules. To date, most, if not all, biologically-templated DCC employ only a single biomolecule in directing the self-assembly process. To expand the scope and potential of DCC, herein, we developed a novel multi-protein DCC strategy which combines the discriminatory power of zwitterionic 'thermal-tag' with the sensitivity of differential scanning fluorimetry. This strategy enables the discovery of ligands against several proteins of interest concurrently...
June 19, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917078/reported-changes-in-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-in-children-and-adolescents-before-during-and-after-orthodontic-treatment-a-longitudinal-study
#14
Katrien Jaeken, Maria Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, Jurgen Lemiere, Anna Verdonck, Steffen Fieuws, Guy Willems
Objectives: To investigate the changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) before, during, and after orthodontic treatment, determine the relationship with the original treatment need and evaluate the influence of self-esteem (SE). Materials and methods: OHRQoL questionnaires were used in an ongoing observational prospective cohort study at baseline (T0), 1 year after start (T1), and 1 month after the end of active orthodontic treatment (T2). Participants were 11-16-year-old at baseline and 215 complete cases were obtained from a total of 498...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917048/persistent-pain-quality-as-a-novel-approach-to-assessing-risk-for-disability-in-community-dwelling-elders-with-chronic-pain
#15
Manu Thakral, Ling Shi, Janice B Foust, Kushang V Patel, Robert H Shmerling, Jonathan F Bean, Suzanne G Leveille
Background: This study aims to test whether persistent pain quality is associated with incident or worsening disability in four domains: mobility, ADL and IADL difficulty and physical performance. Methods: From the MOBILIZE Boston Study, a population-based cohort of adults aged ≥70 years, we studied participants with chronic pain who endorsed at least one pain quality descriptor (N=398) and completed baseline and 18-month assessments. Pain quality was assessed using an adapted short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire with 20 pain quality descriptors in 3 categories: sensory, cognitive/affective, neuropathic...
June 18, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915911/coping-strategies-of-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Christelle Vernhet, Florine Dellapiazza, Nathalie Blanc, Florence Cousson-Gélie, Stéphanie Miot, Herbert Roeyers, Amaria Baghdadli
To deal with stress, parents of children with ASD use coping strategies that help to tackle the challenging situations of raising their child. This systematic review examines parental coping strategy's questionnaires, factors which influence these coping strategies, interactions between these strategies and perceived stress and their impact on parental quality of life. According to PRISMA guidelines, an electronic search was conducted on Medline, PsycInfo and Eric: 156 articles were identified and 11 studies were selected...
June 18, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915671/pharmaceutical-quality-assurance-of-local-private-distributors-a-secondary-analysis-in-13-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#17
Kerlijn Van Assche, Ariadna Nebot Giralt, Jean Michel Caudron, Benedetta Schiavetti, Corinne Pouget, Achilleas Tsoumanis, Bruno Meessen, Raffaella Ravinetto
Introduction: The rapid globalisation of the pharmaceutical production and distribution has not been supported by harmonisation of regulatory systems worldwide. Thus, the supply systems in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain exposed to the risk of poor-quality medicines. To contribute to estimating this risk in the private sector in LMICs, we assessed the quality assurance system of a convenient sample of local private pharmaceutical distributors. Methods: This descriptive study uses secondary data derived from the audits conducted by the QUAMED group at 60 local private pharmaceutical distributors in 13 LMICs...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914240/reliability-and-validity-of-the-turkish-version-of-the-foot-function-index-in-patients-with-foot-disorders
#18
Bahar Anaforoğlu Külünkoğlu, Neslihan Fırat, Nazım Tolgahan Yıldız, Afra Alkan
Background/aim: The Foot Function Index (FFI) is a valid, reliable, and widely used self-reported questionnaire for the foot. The purpose of this study was to provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the FFI (FFI-TR) among patients with foot disorders such as plantar fasciitis, hallux valgus, pes planus, and hammertoe deformities. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty-nine patients with foot disorders were enrolled. The psychometric properties of the previously translated and adapted FFI-TR were assessed...
June 14, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913797/chronic-pain-after-breast-augmentation-is-associated-with-both-signs-of-peripheral-nerve-injury-and-central-nervous-mechanisms
#19
T Kaasa, L Romundstad, A Stubhaug
Background/aims The mechanisms behind chronic postsurgical pain remains unsettled. Quantitative sensory testing and questioning sensory function may help understand mechanisms behind the transition from acute to chronic pain. The aim of this study was to assess these aspects in postsurgical patients with and without chronic postsurgical pain. Methods 116 women, who answered a questionnaire in a four years follow-up study of pain, sensory changes and quality of life after cosmetic breast augmentation surgery [1], were invited to participate in a psychophysical study...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912631/a-longitudinal-assessment-of-the-road-to-mental-readiness-training-among-municipal-police
#20
R Nicholas Carleton, Stephanie Korol, Julia E Mason, Kadie Hozempa, Gregory S Anderson, Nicholas A Jones, Keith S Dobson, Andrew Szeto, Suzanne Bailey
Police agencies increasingly implement training programs to protect mental health. The Road to Mental Readiness (R2MR) program was designed by the Canadian military to increase mental health resilience. A version of R2MR was adapted for municipal police by the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC). The current research was designed to assess the R2MR program, as adapted and delivered by the MHCC, in a municipal police sample. Participants were 147 Canadian police agency employees (57% women) who received a single R2MR training session...
June 18, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
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