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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458203/precision-pharmacology-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Lisi Flores Aguilar, Norbert Benda, Karl Broich, A Claudio Cuello, Jeffrey Cummings, Bruno Dubois, Howard J Federoff, Massimo Fiandaca, Remy Genthon, Marion Haberkamp, Eric Karran, Mark Mapstone, George Perry, Lon S Schneider, Lindsay A Welikovitch, Janet Woodcock, Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista
The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457315/testing-the-validity-and-reliability-of-the-self-administration-of-medication-sam-instrument-in-chinese-chronic-disease-patients-a-cross-cultural-adaptation
#2
Beilei Lin, Yongxia Mei, Fayang Ma, Zhenxiang Zhang, Qin Chen, Shaoyang Wang
AIMS: To develop a culturally appropriate and functional standard Mandarin Chinese translation of the Self-Administration of Medication tool and to examine its validity and reliability. METHODS: We used Brislin's guidelines for the translation and back-translation procedures. We recruited 130 patients from June 2015 to September 2016. Correlation analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, split-half reliability, item analysis and the content validity index, and exploratory factor analysis were performed...
February 18, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457281/vitrimer-elastomer-based-jigsaw-puzzle-like-healable-triboelectric-nanogenerator-for-self-powered-wearable-electronics
#3
Jianan Deng, Xiao Kuang, Ruiyuan Liu, Wenbo Ding, Aurelia C Wang, Ying-Chih Lai, Kai Dong, Zhen Wen, Yaxian Wang, Lili Wang, H Jerry Qi, Tong Zhang, Zhong Lin Wang
Functional polymers possess outstanding uniqueness in fabricating intelligent devices such as sensors and actuators, but they are rarely used for converting mechanical energy into electric power. Here, a vitrimer based triboelectric nanogenerator (VTENG) is developed by embedding a layer of silver nanowire percolation network in a dynamic disulfide bond-based vitrimer elastomer. In virtue of covalent dynamic disulfide bonds in the elastomer matrix, a thermal stimulus enables in situ healing if broken, on demand reconfiguration of shape, and assembly of more sophisticated structures of VTENG devices...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455900/heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-psychosocial-stress-in-distinct-social-domains
#4
Alexander Lischke, Robert Jacksteit, Anett Mau-Moeller, Rike Pahnke, Alfons O Hamm, Matthias Weippert
OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial stress is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in biomarkers that indicate whether individuals show adaptive (i.e., stress-buffering and health-promoting) or maladaptive (i.e., stress-escalating and health-impairing) stress reactions in social contexts. As heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested to be a biomarker of adaptive behavior during social encounters, it may be possible that inter-individual differences in HRV are associated with inter-individual differences regarding stress in distinct social domains...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455795/does-resting-heart-rate-measured-by-the-physician-reflect-the-patient-s-true-resting-heart-rate-white-coat-heart-rate
#5
Benoit Lequeux, Charles Uzan, Michaela B Rehman
OBJECTIVES: In cardiology, resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are key elements and are used to adapt treatment. However HR measured in consultation may not reflect true resting HR. We hypothesize that there may be a "white-coat" effect like with BP and that there may be an association between HR variations and BP variations. METHODS: This prospective, monocentric, observational, pilot study (January-April 2016) included 57 consecutive ambulatory patients at Poitiers University Hospital, France (58% male, mean age 64 years)...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454318/points-based-physical-activity-a-novel-approach-to-facilitate-changes-in-body-composition-in-inactive-women-with-overweight-and-obesity
#6
Adrian Holliday, Alice Burgin, Elyzabeth Vargas Fernandez, Sally A M Fenton, Frank Thielecke, Andrew K Blannin
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) interventions for the promotion of weight-management may benefit from increased choice and flexibility to overcome commonly-perceived barriers to PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel "points-based" approach to PA on body composition in inactive women, who are overweight or obese. METHODS: Seventy-six overweight or obese, inactive women were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 'Points-based' PA (PBPA; 30 "PA points"•week- 1 ), Structured exercise (StructEx; 150 min moderate-intensity exercise•week- 1 ) or control (CONT; continue habitual inactive lifestyle) for a 24-week intervention...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454316/the-theoretical-and-empirical-basis-of-a-biopsychosocial-bps-risk-screener-for-detection-of-older-people-s-health-related-needs-planning-of-community-programs-and-targeted-care-interventions
#7
Zoe J-L Hildon, Chuen Seng Tan, Farah Shiraz, Wai Chong Ng, Xiaodong Deng, Gerald Choon Huat Koh, Kelvin Bryan Tan, Ian Philp, Dick Wiggins, Su Aw, Treena Wu, Hubertus J M Vrijhoef
BACKGROUND: This study introduces the conceptual basis and operational measure, of BioPyschoSocial (BPS) health and related risk to better understand how well older people are managing and to screen for risk status. The BPS Risk Screener is constructed to detect vulnerability at older ages, and seeks to measure dynamic processes that place equal emphasis on Psycho-emotional and Socio-interpersonal risks, as Bio-functional ones. We validate the proposed measure and describe its application to programming...
February 17, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453505/does-hope-matter-associations-among-self-reported-hope-anxiety-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cancer
#8
Ana Rita Martins, Carla Crespo, Ágata Salvador, Susana Santos, Carlos Carona, Maria Cristina Canavarro
This study aimed to examine the direct and indirect effects of hope on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) via anxiety of children/adolescents with cancer. We proposed to test if the mediation model was moderated by the child/adolescent's treatment status. The participants were 211 children/adolescents diagnosed with cancer, divided into two clinical groups according to treatment status: 97 patients on-treatment and 114 off-treatment. Self-reported questionnaires measured the youths' hope, anxiety, and HRQoL perceptions...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453496/influence-of-surface-treatment-on-the-performance-of-silorane-based-composite-resin-in-class-i-restorations-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Isabella Pereira Marques, Fabíola Belkiss Santos de Oliveira, João Gabriel Silva Souza, Raquel Conceição Ferreira, Claudia Silami Magalhães, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes França, Daniela Araújo Veloso Popoff
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of silorane-based composite restorations applied after different surface treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This controlled and randomized clinical trial included 26 patients with class I restoration indications. The teeth were randomly assigned to the following treatments: control 1/G1, silorane specific self-etching adhesive (P90 self-etch primer and bond) + silorane-based composite resin (Filtek™ P90 low shrink posterior restorative); G2, 37% phosphoric acid + silorane specific self-etching adhesive + silorane-based composite resin; G3, blasting with aluminum oxide + silorane specific self-etching adhesive + silorane-based composite resin; and control 2/G4, self-etching adhesive (Adper™ SE Plus self-etch adhesive) + dimethacrylate-based composite resin (Filtek™ P60 posterior restorative)...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453191/a-text-message-intervention-with-adaptive-goal-support-to-reduce-alcohol-consumption-among-non-treatment-seeking-young-adults-non-randomized-clinical-trial-with-voluntary-length-of-enrollment
#10
Brian Suffoletto, Tammy Chung, Frederick Muench, Peter Monti, Duncan B Clark
BACKGROUND: Stand-alone text message-based interventions can reduce binge drinking episodes (≥4 drinks for women and ≥5 drinks for men) among nontreatment-seeking young adults, but may not be optimized. Adaptive text message support could enhance effectiveness by assisting context-specific goal setting and striving, but it remains unknown how to best integrate it into text message interventions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate young adults' engagement with a text message intervention, Texting to Reduce Alcohol Consumption 2 (TRAC2), which focuses on reducing weekend alcohol consumption...
February 16, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452053/social-adjustment-and-repressive-adaptive-style-in-survivors-of-pediatric-cancer
#11
Fiona Schulte, Amanda Wurz, K Brooke Russell, Kathleen Reynolds, Douglas Strother, Deborah Dewey
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between repressive adaptive style and self-reports of social adjustment in survivors of pediatric cancer compared to their siblings. We hypothesized that there would be a greater proportion of repressors among survivors of pediatric cancer compared to siblings, and that repressive adaptive style would be significantly associated with more positive self-reports of social adjustment. METHODS: We utilized a cross-sectional approach...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451720/detection-of-membrane-protein-protein-interaction-in-planta-based-on-dual-intein-coupled-tripartite-split-gfp-association
#12
Tzu-Yin Liu, Wen-Chun Chou, Wei-Yuan Chen, Ching-Yi Chu, Chen-Yi Dai, Pei-Yu Wu
Despite a great interest of identification of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in biological systems, only few attempts have been made for a large-scale PPI screen in planta. Unlike biochemical assays, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) allows visualization of the transient and weak PPIs in vivo at the subcellular resolution. However, when the non-fluorescent fragments are highly expressed, the spontaneous and irreversible self-assembly of the split halves can easily generate false positives...
February 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451590/by-the-book-adhd-prevalence-in-medical-students-varies-with-analogous-methods-of-addressing-dsm-items
#13
Paulo Mattos, Bruno P Nazar, Rosemary Tannock
OBJECTIVE: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. METHODS: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) adapted for adults...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449558/interventions-to-enhance-the-adoption-of-asthma-self-management-behaviour-in-the-south-asian-and-african-american-population-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Salina Ahmed, Liz Steed, Katherine Harris, Stephanie J C Taylor, Hilary Pinnock
South Asian and other minority communities suffer poorer asthma outcomes, have a higher rate of unscheduled care and benefit less from most existing self-management interventions when compared to the majority population. Possible reasons for these differences include failure to implement asthma self-management strategies, or that strategies implemented were inappropriate for their needs; alternatively, they may relate to the minority and/or lower socioeconomic status of these populations. We aimed to synthesise evidence from randomised controlled trials for asthma self-management in South Asian and Black populations from different sociocultural contexts, and identify barriers and facilitators to implementing self-management...
February 15, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448440/thermodynamics-and-computation-during-collective-motion-near-criticality
#15
Emanuele Crosato, Richard E Spinney, Ramil Nigmatullin, Joseph T Lizier, Mikhail Prokopenko
We study self-organization of collective motion as a thermodynamic phenomenon in the context of the first law of thermodynamics. It is expected that the coherent ordered motion typically self-organises in the presence of changes in the (generalized) internal energy and of (generalized) work done on, or extracted from, the system. We aim to explicitly quantify changes in these two quantities in a system of simulated self-propelled particles and contrast them with changes in the system's configuration entropy...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447347/cultural-adaptation-of-an-evidence-based-lifestyle-intervention-for-diabetes-prevention-in-chinese-women-at-risk-for-diabetes-results-of-a-randomized-trial
#16
Zenong Yin, Judith Perry, Xiaoqin Duan, Meizi He, Ryan Johnson, Yanling Feng, Mark Strand
Background: The prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes has been on the rise in China. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an evidence-based diabetes prevention program in Yuci, Shanxi Province, China from 2012 to 2014. Methods: Women with pre-diabetes, ages 25-65 y, were assigned randomly to a comparison (n=75) or 6-mo lifestyle intervention condition (n=109). Weight, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c and self-reported diet and physical activity were measured at baseline, 6 mo and 12 mo...
February 13, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446165/synthetic-transient-crosslinks-program-the-mechanics-of-soft-biopolymer-based-materials
#17
Jessica S Lorenz, Jörg Schnauß, Martin Glaser, Martin Sajfutdinow, Carsten Schuldt, Josef A Käs, David M Smith
Actin networks are adaptive materials enabling dynamic and static functions of living cells. A central element for tuning their underlying structural and mechanical properties is the ability to reversibly connect, i.e., transiently crosslink, filaments within the networks. Natural crosslinkers, however, vary across many parameters. Therefore, systematically studying the impact of their fundamental properties like size and binding strength is unfeasible since their structural parameters cannot be independently tuned...
February 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445521/a-method-for-co-creation-of-an-evidence-based-patient-workbook-to-address-alcohol-use-when-quitting-smoking-in-primary-care-a-case-study
#18
Nadia Minian, Aliya Noormohamed, Laurie Zawertailo, Dolly Baliunas, Norman Giesbrecht, Bernard Le Foll, Jürgen Rehm, Andriy Samokhvalov, Peter L Selby
Plain English summary: The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient engagement event designed to create an educational workbook with smokers who drink alcohol at harmful levels. The goal was to create a workbook that combined scientific evidence with patients' values, preferences, and needs. Fourteen adult smokers who drink alcohol were invited to the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) to take part in a four-hour event to help design the workbook with the CAMH research team...
2018: Research involvement and engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445346/psychological-shift-in-partners-of-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-who-undertake-lifestyle-modification-an-interpretive-phenomenological-study
#19
Sandra L Neate, Keryn L Taylor, George A Jelinek, Alysha M De Livera, Chelsea R Brown, Tracey J Weiland
Introduction: Being in an intimate relationship with a person with multiple sclerosis (MS) may have a substantial impact on the partner's quality of life. Existing research has largely focused on negative impacts of MS for both people with MS (PwMS) and their partners and has sampled the population of partners of PwMS who have primarily adopted standard medical management only. Modifiable lifestyle factors have become increasingly recognized in the management of MS symptoms and disease progression. For partners of PwMS who have undertaken lifestyle modification as an additional strategy to minimize disease progression, the impacts, both positive and negative remain unexplored...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444735/short-assessment-of-health-literacy-sahl-in-portugal-development-and-validation-of-a-self-administered-tool
#20
Carla Pires, Pedro Rosa, Marina Vigário, Afonso Cavaco
The goal of this study was to adapt, improve and validate a short, self-administered health literacy assessment tool for European Portuguese-speaking adults. Health literacy tools are of great importance to health authorities and professionals, as low or inadequate health literacy, that is, a limited capacity to handle health-related information, is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The 18-item Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Brazilian Portuguese-speaking adults (SAHLPA-18) was adapted into European Portuguese...
February 15, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
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