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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528521/myeloid-populations-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#1
REVIEW
María Morell, Nieves Varela, Concepción Marañón
Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) encompass a wide spectrum of clinical signs as a reflection of their complex physiopathology. A variety of mechanisms related with the innate immune system are in the origin of the loss of self-tolerance in these diseases, and for most of them, the myeloid leukocytes are key actors. Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils are first-line immune effectors located in the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. They are crucial in the organization of the local and systemic responses to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and determine the intensity, orientation, and duration of the local immune response through the expression of chemokines, costimulatory or protolerogenic factors...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528132/the-perceived-medical-condition-self-management-scale-can-be-applied-to-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Marcus G Wild, Kenneth A Wallston, Jamie A Green, Lauren B Beach, Ebele Umeukeje, Julie A Wright Nunes, T Alp Ikizler, Julia Steed, Kerri L Cavanaugh
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major burden on patients and the health care system. Treatment of CKD requires dedicated involvement from both caretakers and patients. Self-efficacy, also known as perceived competence, contributes to successful maintenance of patient's CKD self-management behaviors such as medication adherence and dietary regulations. Despite a clear association between self-efficacy and improved CKD outcomes, there remains a lack of validated self-report measures of CKD self-efficacy. To address this gap, the Perceived Kidney/Dialysis Self-Management Scale (PKDSMS) was adapted from the previously validated Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale...
May 18, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527900/hip-fracture-an-interruption-that-has-consequences-four-months-after-a-hip-fracture-a-qualitative-study
#3
Berit Gesar, Carina Baath, Hanne Hedin, Ami Hommel
BACKGROUND: Effects following a hip fracture often lead to functional disabilities and increased dependence on others. Although persons sustaining a hip fracture constitute a heterogeneous group in Swedish health care, they tend to be treated as a homogenous one. AIM: The aim of this study was to reveal how previously healthy people, aged 65 years and older, described how they had adapted to daily life four months after a hip fracture. METHOD: The follow-up interviews were performed by the first author four months after the hip fracture...
April 9, 2017: International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527791/neural-substrates-of-male-parochial-altruism-are-modulated-by-testosterone-and-behavioral-strategy
#4
Luise Reimers, Christian Büchel, Esther K Diekhof
Parochial altruism refers to ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility and has recently been linked to testosterone. Here, we investigated the neurobiological mechanism of parochial altruism in male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game (UG) against ingroup and outgroup members (i.e., fans of the favorite or of a rivalling team) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our results suggest that individual differences in altruistic tendency influence the tendency for parochialism. While altruistic subjects rejected unfair offers independent of team membership, the more self-oriented 'pro-selfs' displayed a stronger ingroup bias and rejected outgroup offers more often...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527789/neural-processes-underlying-cultural-differences-in-cognitive-persistence
#5
Eva H Telzer, Yang Qu, Lynda C Lin
Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527478/-translation-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-satisfaction-with-amplification-in-daily-life-scale-for-european-portuguese
#6
Luis Roque Dos Reis, Mariana Donato, Rita Sousa, Pedro Escada
INTRODUCTION: The scale Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life uses a simple and easily administered questionnaire to evaluate the adaptation of individuals to their hearing aids. The objective of this study is to validate the scale for European Portuguese speakers, by means of translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The study includes an evaluation of reproducibility and a description of the results of the administration of the questionnaire to patients fitted with hearing aids...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526480/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#7
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526055/developing-a-proxy-version-of-the-adult-social-care-outcome-toolkit-ascot
#8
Stacey Rand, James Caiels, Grace Collins, Julien Forder
BACKGROUND: Social care-related quality of life is a key outcome indicator used in the evaluation of social care interventions and policy. It is not, however, always possible to collect quality of life data by self-report even with adaptations for people with cognitive or communication impairments. A new proxy-report version of the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) measure of social care-related quality of life was developed to address the issues of wider inclusion of people with cognitive or communication difficulties who may otherwise be systematically excluded...
May 19, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524766/psychological-flexibility-among-youth-with-type-1-diabetes-relating-patterns-of-acceptance-adherence-and-stress-to-adaptation
#9
Rebecca C Kamody, Kristoffer S Berlin, Tiffany M Rybak, Kimberly L Klages, Gabrielle G Banks, Jeanelle S Ali, Ramin Alemzadeh, Robert J Ferry, Alicia M Diaz Thomas
Psychological flexibility, a complex concept encompassing both acceptance and action related factors, has been identified as a target for intervention for diabetes management. Research suggests acceptance, self-management, and stress, all factors that influence psychological flexibility, have an impact on adaptation to type 1 diabetes (T1D) by youth independently. However, yet to be explored is individually varying patterns of these variables and how they may relate to diabetes adaptation outcomes. The present study aimed to establish individual variations of patterns of these factors to derive profiles of psychological flexibility, and examine their relations to the adaptation outcomes of glycemic control and health-related quality of life...
May 19, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524236/commitment-to-care-the-most-important-coping-strategies-among-family-caregivers-of-patients-undergoing-haemodialysis
#10
Shahriar Salehi-Tali, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Kourosh Zarea, Malek Fereidooni-Moghadam
BACKGROUND: Caregivers of patients undergoing haemodialysis often experience an intensive burden of care; therefore, it is important to understand the type of strategies that are used by caregivers to adapt and to commit themselves to caring for another individual. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the specific coping strategies used by family caregivers of patients undergoing haemodialysis. METHODS: In this qualitative study, 16 family caregivers of patients undergoing haemodialysis were selected through purposive sampling in four dialysis centres in south of Iran...
May 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521905/harnessing-the-properties-of-dendritic-cells-in-the-pursuit-of-immunological-tolerance
#11
REVIEW
Christopher Horton, Kumaran Shanmugarajah, Paul J Fairchild
The acquisition of self-perpetuating, immunological tolerance specific for graft alloantigens has long been described as the "holy grail" of clinical transplantation. By removing the need for life-long immunosuppression following engraftment, the adverse consequences of immunosuppressive regimens, including chronic infections and malignancy, may be avoided. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases and allergy are, by definition, driven by aberrant immunological responses to ordinarily innocuous antigens. The re-establishment of permanent tolerance towards instigating antigens may, therefore, provide a cure to these common diseases...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521568/prion-based-memory-of-heat-stress-in-yeast
#12
Tatiana A Chernova, Yury O Chernoff, Keith D Wilkinson
Amyloids and amyloid-based prions are self-perpetuating protein aggregates which can spread by converting a normal protein of the same sequence into a prion form. They are associated with diseases in humans and mammals, and control heritable traits in yeast and other fungi. Some amyloids are implicated in biologically beneficial processes. As prion formation generates reproducible memory of a conformational change, prions can be considered as molecular memory devices.  We have demonstrated that in yeast, stress-inducible cytoskeleton-associated protein Lsb2 forms a metastable prion in response to high temperature...
May 19, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520551/strategies-for-sustained-weight-management-perspectives-from-african-american-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Stephanie L Fitzpatrick, Felicia Hill-Briggs
Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify effective strategies for sustained weight management used by African American patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Methods In this study, nominal group technique was used to identify effective strategies for weight management used by 12 African Americans with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes who successfully lost or maintained their weight after completing DECIDE (Decision-making Education for Choices In Diabetes Everyday), a 9-module, literacy-adapted diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) education and problem-solving training program...
June 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520445/telodendrimers-for-physical-encapsulation-and-covalent-linking-of-individual-or-combined-therapeutics
#14
Ashok Kakkar, Jason Choi, Alexandre Moquin, Enzo Bomal, Li Na, Dusica Maysinger
New therapeutics for glioblastoma multiforme and our ability to deliver them using efficient nanocarriers, constitute topical areas of research. We report a comparative study of temozolomide and quercetin in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) in 3D, and their incorporation into micelles obtained from synthetically articulated architectural copolymers, and a commercially available linear polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA). A versatile synthetic methodology to telodendrimers which can be easily adapted to the needs of other therapeutic interventions, is presented...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516209/foreign-language-effect-and-psychological-distance
#15
Hong Im Shin, Juyoung Kim
Does using a foreign language result in forming different moral decisions than using our mother tongue? Two studies were conducted to investigate whether there is a relationship between foreign language effects (differences between native vs. foreign language conditions) and psychological distance. Study 1 tested four moral dilemmas adapted from Greene et al. (Cognition 107: 1144-1155, 2008). Non-fluent Korean-English bilingual participants (N = 161) indicated decisions regarding four moral dilemmas in either Korean or English languages...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515617/a-modified-subgradient-extragradient-method-for-solving-monotone-variational-inequalities
#16
Songnian He, Tao Wu
In the setting of Hilbert space, a modified subgradient extragradient method is proposed for solving Lipschitz-continuous and monotone variational inequalities defined on a level set of a convex function. Our iterative process is relaxed and self-adaptive, that is, in each iteration, calculating two metric projections onto some half-spaces containing the domain is involved only and the step size can be selected in some adaptive ways. A weak convergence theorem for our algorithm is proved. We also prove that our method has [Formula: see text] convergence rate...
2017: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515539/why-does-positive-mental-health-buffer-against-psychopathology-an-exploratory-study-on-self-compassion-as-a-resilience-mechanism-and-adaptive-emotion-regulation-strategy
#17
Hester R Trompetter, Elian de Kleine, Ernst T Bohlmeijer
Growing evidence suggests that positive mental health or wellbeing protects against psychopathology. How and why those who flourish derive these resilient outcomes is, however, unknown. This exploratory study investigated if self-compassion, as it continuously provides a friendly, accepting and situational context for negative experiences, functions as a resilience mechanism and adaptive emotion regulation strategy that protects against psychopathology for those with high levels of positive mental health. Participants from the general population (n = 349) provided measures at one time-point on positive mental health (MHC-SF), self-compassion (SCS-SF), psychopathology (HADS) and negative affect (mDES)...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515356/licensing-delineates-helper-and-effector-nk-cell-subsets-during-viral-infection
#18
Anthony E Zamora, Ethan G Aguilar, Can M Sungur, Lam T Khuat, Cordelia Dunai, G Raymond Lochhead, Juan Du, Claire Pomeroy, Bruce R Blazar, Dan L Longo, Jeffrey M Venstrom, Nicole Baumgarth, William J Murphy
Natural killer (NK) cells can be divided into phenotypic subsets based on expression of receptors that bind self-MHC-I molecules, a concept termed licensing or education. Here we show NK cell subsets with different migratory, effector, and immunoregulatory functions in dendritic cell and antigen (ag)-specific CD8+ T cell responses during influenza and murine cytomegalovirus infections. Shortly after infection, unlicensed NK cells localized in draining lymph nodes and produced GM-CSF, which correlated with the expansion and activation of dendritic cells, and resulted in greater and sustained ag-specific T cell responses...
May 18, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514530/curious-thoughtful-and-affirmative-young-children-s-meanings-of-participation-in-healthcare-situations-when-using-an-interactive-communication-tool
#19
Anna Stålberg, Anette Sandberg, Thomas Larsson, Imelda Coyne, Maja Söderbäck
AIM: to describe young children's demonstrated participation in healthcare situations while using an interactive communication tool. BACKGROUND: participation is a multidimensional concept influenced by situational and contextual issues. In child participation, verbal and non-verbal communicative expressions are of interest, as both demonstrate the child's perspective. Children have a right to participate in all situations that matter to them, for instance healthcare situations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514438/conversion-of-adult-endothelium-to-immunocompetent-haematopoietic-stem-cells
#20
Raphael Lis, Charles C Karrasch, Michael G Poulos, Balvir Kunar, David Redmond, Jose G Barcia Duran, Chaitanya R Badwe, William Schachterle, Michael Ginsberg, Jenny Xiang, Arash Rafii Tabrizi, Koji Shido, Zev Rosenwaks, Olivier Elemento, Nancy A Speck, Jason M Butler, Joseph M Scandura, Shahin Rafii
Developmental pathways that orchestrate the fleeting transition of endothelial cells into haematopoietic stem cells remain undefined. Here we demonstrate a tractable approach for fully reprogramming adult mouse endothelial cells to haematopoietic stem cells (rEC-HSCs) through transient expression of the transcription-factor-encoding genes Fosb, Gfi1, Runx1, and Spi1 (collectively denoted hereafter as FGRS) and vascular-niche-derived angiocrine factors. The induction phase (days 0-8) of conversion is initiated by expression of FGRS in mature endothelial cells, which results in endogenous Runx1 expression...
May 17, 2017: Nature
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