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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092637/non-invasive-classification-of-breast-microcalcifications-using-x-ray-coherent-scatter-computed-tomography
#1
Bahaa Ghammraoui, Lucretiu M Popescu
We investigate the use of energy dispersive x-ray coherent scatter computed tomography (ED-CSCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic method to differentiate between type I and type II breast calcifications. This approach is sensitive to the differences of composition and internal crystal structure of different types of microcalcifications. The study is carried out by simulating a CSCT system with a scanning pencil beam, considering a polychromatic x-ray source and an energy-resolving photon counting detector. In a first step, the multidimensional angle and energy distributed CSCT data is reduced to the projection-space distributions of only a few components, corresponding to the expected target composition: adipose, glandular tissue, weddellite (calcium oxalate) for type I calcifications, and hydroxyapatite for type II calcifications...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092074/biomimetic-coprecipitation-of-silk-fibrin-and-calcium-phosphate-influence-of-selenite-ions
#2
Yanhua Wang, Hang Hao, Shengmin Zhang
Large bone defect creates an urgent need for osteogenic biomaterials. However, bone nonunion and infection are choke points in the therapy of this disease. How to recruit the mesenchymal stem cells to defect sites and increase the cell viability are the critical processes. One effective method was the fabrication of biomimetic silk fibrin/selenium-doped hydroxyapatite (SF/HASe) material, which could create a niche for cell proliferation. So, the aim of the present study was to seek a facile route to prepare this biocomposites and investigate the osteogenic capability...
January 14, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088072/microstructural-mechanical-and-corrosion-characteristics-of-heat-treated-mg-1-2zn-0-5ca-wt-alloy-for-use-as-resorbable-bone-fixation-material
#3
Hamdy Ibrahim, Andrew D Klarner, Behrang Poorganji, David Dean, Alan A Luo, Mohammad Elahinia
Mg-Zn-Ca alloys have grabbed most of the recent attention in research attempting to develop an Mg alloy for bone fixation devices due to their superior biocompatibility. However, early resorption and insufficient strength remain the main problems that hinder their use. Heat treatment has previously been thoroughly studied as a post-shaping process, especially after the fabrication of complex parts (e.g. porous structures) by 3D-printing or powder metallurgy. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on Mg-1...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087448/fabrication-and-characterization-of-electrospun-cellulose-nano-hydroxyapatite-nanofibers-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#4
Chenghong Ao, Yan Niu, Ximu Zhang, Xu He, Wei Zhang, Canhui Lu
Nanofibrous scaffolds from cotton cellulose and nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) were electrospun for bone tissue engineering. The solution properties of cellulose/nano-HA spinning dopes and their associated electrospinnability were characterized. Morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of the electrospun cellulose/nano-HA nanocomposite nanofibers (ECHNN) were measured and the biocompatibility of ECHNN with human dental follicle cells (HDFCs) was evaluated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images indicated that the average diameter of ECHNN increased with a higher nano-HA loading and the fiber diameter distributions were well within the range of natural ECM (extra cellular matrix) fibers (50-500nm)...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087211/the-effect-of-bone-growth-onto-massive-prostheses-collars-in-protecting-the-implant-from-fracture
#5
Paul Fromme, Gordon W Blunn, William J Aston, Tasneem Abdoola, Jacob Koris, Melanie J Coathup
Limb-sparing distal femoral endoprotheses used in cancer patients have a high risk of aseptic loosening. It had been reported that young adolescent patients have a higher rate of loosening and fatigue fracture of intramedullary stems because the implant becomes undersized as patients grow. Extracortical bone growth into the grooved hydroxyapatite-coated collar had been shown to reduce failure rates. The stresses in the implant and femur have been calculated from Finite Element models for different stages of bone growth onto the collar...
January 10, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077890/effect-of-lead-nanoparticles-inhalation-on-bone-calcium-sensing-receptor-hydroxyapatite-crystal-and-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-in-rats
#6
Rendra Leonas, Zairin Noor, Hermawan Nagar Rasyid, Tita Husnitawati Madjid, Fachry Ambia Tanjung
This study aimed to investigate whether Pb nanoparticle exposure affects the bone calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), hydroxyapatite crystal, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) in rats exposed to subchronic and chronic inhalation. Thirty two rats were randomly divided into eight groups. One group is a non-exposed group. While three groups were exposed to nanoparticles Pb at the following doses 6.25; 12.5; or 25 mg/m(3) an hour daily for 28 days. Another three groups were exposed to nanoparticles Pb at following doses 6...
October 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077764/antimicrobial-peptide-coatings-for-hydroxyapatite-electrostatic-and-covalent-attachment-of-antimicrobial-peptides-to-surfaces
#7
Leigh Townsend, Richard L Williams, Olachi Anuforom, Matthew R Berwick, Fenella Halstead, Erik Hughes, Artemis Stamboulis, Beryl Oppenheim, Julie Gough, Liam Grover, Robert A H Scott, Mark Webber, Anna F A Peacock, Antonio Belli, Ann Logan, Felicity de Cogan
The interface between implanted devices and their host tissue is complex and is often optimized for maximal integration and cell adhesion. However, this also gives a surface suitable for bacterial colonization. We have developed a novel method of modifying the surface at the material-tissue interface with an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) coating to allow cell attachment while inhibiting bacterial colonization. The technology reported here is a dual AMP coating. The dual coating consists of AMPs covalently bonded to the hydroxyapatite surface, followed by deposition of electrostatically bound AMPs...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076887/in-vivo-bone-tunnel-evaluation-of-nanoparticle-grafts-using-an-acl-reconstruction-rabbit-model
#8
S A Grant, S E Smith, H Schmidt, F Pfeiffer, K Kuroki, S Sherman, R A White, D A Grant
Acellular human gracilis tendons conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAp) were used as a graft in an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rabbit model. The ACLs of 11 New Zealand rabbits were reconstructed using grafts conjugated without nanoparticles, with AuNP only, and with both AuNP and nano-HAp. Semi-quantitative histological scoring of bone tunnel portion of grafts was performed after 14 weeks. Bone tunnels were scored for graft degeneration, graft remodeling, percentage of new host fibrous connective, collateral connection, head-to-head connection, graft collagen fiber organization, new host fibrous connective tissue organization, and graft and interface vascularity...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076372/bad-to-the-bone-on-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-microbial-biofilm-ability-to-directly-destroy-colonized-bone-surfaces-without-participation-of-host-immunity-or-osteoclastogenesis
#9
Adam Junka, Patrycja Szymczyk, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Ewa Karuga-Kuzniewska, Danuta Smutnicka, Iwona Bil-Lula, Marzenna Bartoszewicz, Susan Mahabady, Parish Paymon Sedghizadeh
Bone infections are a significant public health burden associated with morbidity and mortality in patients. Microbial biofilm pathogens are the causative agents in chronic osteomyelitis. Research on the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has focused on indirect bone destruction by host immune cells and cytokines secondary to microbial insult. Direct bone resorption by biofilm pathogens has not yet been seriously considered. In this study, common osteomyelitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Streptococcus mutans) were grown as biofilms in multiple in vitro and ex vivo experiments to analyze quantitative and qualitative aspects of bone destruction during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072516/cobalt-based-single-ion-magnets-on-an-apatite-lattice-toward-patterned-arrays-for-magnetic-memories
#10
Pavel E Kazin, Mikhail A Zykin, Walter Schnelle, Yan V Zubavichus, Konstantin A Babeshkin, Victor A Tafeenko, Claudia Felser, Martin Jansen
Single-ion magnets (SIMs) that can maintain magnetization direction on an individual transition metal atom represent the smallest atomic-scale units for future magnetic data storage devices and molecular electronics. Here we present a robust extended inorganic solid hosting efficient SIM centers, as an alternative to molecular SIM crystals. We show that unique dioxocobaltate(II) ions, confined in the channels of strontium hydroxyapatite, exhibit classical SIM features with a large energy barrier for magnetization reversal (Ueff) of 51-59 cm(-1)...
January 10, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072427/calorimetric-studies-on-thermal-properties-of-nano-cryoprotectant-solutions-during-vitrification
#11
H F Xu, B T Hao, L J Liu, L L Tang, B L Liu
:   BACKGROUND: Vitrification, the ice-free cryopreservation, develops rapidly and can become an ideal method for long-term preservation of cells and tissues. But up to now it is not practical for samples with large size because of the ultra-rapid cooling rate required. It has been reported that nanoparticles improve heat conductivity of solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles(20, 40 or 60nm)at 0.1 %, 0.5 % or 1 % (w/w) were added into glycerol solutions...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070850/zolendronic-acid-conjugated-plga-ultrasmall-nanoparticle-loaded-with-methotrexate-as-a-supercarrier-for-bone-targeted-drug-delivery
#12
Vinay Raichur, Kusum Devi Vemula, Naini Bhadri, Rema Razdan
Drug delivery to deep-seated tissues such as bone has been a major complication till date. This preferential drug delivery is further important in targeting anti-tumour agents to bone metastasis owing to its complexity. The present study involves the formulation of PLGA nanoparticles and conjugation with zolendronic acid-a bisphosphonate which will anchor the nanosystem to bone due to its selective bone affinity. The conjugated nanosystem was characterized for particle size by TEM (average 36 nm) and morphology by AFM depicting surface irregularities due to ZOL conjugation on the surface of nanoparticles...
January 9, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068758/strontium-doped-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-porous-microspheres-synthesized-through-a-microwave-hydrothermal-method-using-fructose-1-6-bisphosphate-as-an-organic-phosphorus-source-application-in-drug-delivery-and-enhanced-bone-regeneration
#13
Weilin Yu, Tuan-Wei Sun, Chao Qi, Zhen-Yu Ding, Hua-Kun Zhao, Feng Chen, Dao-Yun Chen, Ying-Jie Zhu, Zhongmin Shi, Yaohua He
Nanostructured calcium phosphate (CaP) porous microspheres are of great potential in drug delivery and bone regeneration due to their large specific surface area, biocompatibility and similarity to inorganic component of osseous tissue. In this work, strontium (Sr)-doped amorphous calcium phosphate porous microspheres (SrAPMs) were synthesized through a microwave-hydrothermal method using fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt (FBP) as the source of phosphate ions. The SrAPMs showed a mesoporous structure and a relatively high specific area...
January 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068623/processing-and-mechanical-characteristics-of-magnesium-hydroxyapatite-metal-matrix-biocomposites
#14
R Del Campo, B Savoini, A Muñoz, M A Monge, R Pareja
Magnesium/hydroxyapatite composites were produced by conventional extrusion and their mechanical behavior studied under uniaxial compression at room temperature. The results evidence the capability of the HA for strengthening the Mg material, lowering its microstructural anisotropy and inhibiting deformation twinning. They also reveal that the ECAP processing is effective for improving the grain structure and reducing the crystallographic texture of these composites, giving rise to a significant enhancement of their yield strength and microhardness although the ultimate compressive stress worsens...
December 24, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068621/formation-of-porous-hpcl-lpcl-ha-scaffolds-with-supercritical-co2-gas-foaming-method
#15
M Zahedi Moghadam, Sh Hassanajili, F Esmaeilzadeh, M Ayatollahi, M Ahmadi
Scaffold is a 3D porous structure that is made of different materials, such as synthetic and natural polymers. It plays the role of a synthetic extracellular matrix and permits adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of the cells. Porosity and pore size are the important factors for any 3D scaffold used in bone tissue engineering. In this study, porous scaffolds were prepared by adding hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles as filler to the polymeric matrix of polycaprolactone (PCL) blends with two different molecular weight by using supercritical CO2 (ScCO2) foaming method...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065967/influence-of-trace-elements-on-dental-enamel-properties-a-review
#16
Zeeshan Qamar, Zubaidah Binti Haji Abdul Rahim, Hooi Pin Chew, Tayyaba Fatima
Dental enamel, an avascular, irreparable, outermost and protective layer of the human clinical crown has a potential to withstand the physico-chemical effects and forces. These properties are being regulated by a unique association among elements occurring in the crystallites setup of human dental enamel. Calcium and phosphate are the major components (hydroxyapatite) in addition to some trace elements which have a profound effect on enamel. The current review was planned to determine the aptitude of various trace elements to substitute and their influence on human dental enamel in terms of physical and chemical properties...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060094/the-bioresorption-and-guided-bone-regeneration-of-absorbable-hydroxyapatite-coated-magnesium-mesh
#17
Soo-Hwan Byun, Ho-Kyung Lim, Soung-Min Kim, Sung-Mi Lee, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Jong-Ho Lee
INTRODUCTION: Nonabsorbable metallic membrane for guided bone regeneration is remained permanently even though after complete healing. There would be metallic exposure followed by the risk of infection; the membrane should be removed for the additional procedure such as implant installation. Since absorbable nonmetallic mesh is absorbed within 3 to 6 months, it is unnecessary to be removed. However, the absorbable membrane shows lower retention, lower mechanical strength, and difficulty of manipulation than the nonabsorbable ones...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059442/hydroxyapatite-cement-cranioplasty-following-translabyrinthine-approach-long-term-study-of-369-cases
#18
Peter G Volsky, Todd A Hillman, Kellen J Stromberg, Farrel J Buchinsky, Douglas A Chen, Neal M Jackson, Moisés A Arriaga
OBJECTIVE: To report the authors' experience with hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) cranioplasty and analyze the material's long-term safety and efficacy in repairing translabyrinthine skull-base defects by examining adverse events, specifically cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks and surgical site infections. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study (primary study arm); prospective cross-sectional study of patients not examined within the last 5 years (secondary arm)...
January 6, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056959/morphological-densitometric-and-mechanical-properties-of-mandible-in-5-month-old-polish-merino-sheep
#19
Anna Szabelska, Marcin R Tatara, Witold Krupski
BACKGROUND: Among bones building the axial and appendicular skeleton, the mandible is characterized by unique morphological and functional traits. The aim of the study was to evaluate morphological, densitometric and mechanical properties of mandible in 5-month-old Polish Merino sheep. Using quantitative computed tomography, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and calcium hydroxyapatite density of the cortical bone (CbCa-HA), mean vBMD (MvBMD) and total bone volume were determined...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056727/preparation-and-mineralization-of-a-biocompatible-double-network-hydrogel
#20
Quanzhu Yang, Fangfang Song, Xueqing Zou, Liqiong Liao
Double network (DN) hydrogels have shown favorable toughness and strength and been harnessed as scaffolding materials in tissue engineering, particularly, mineralized DN hydrogels may be potential scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. In this paper, DN hydrogels were fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and methacrylated poly(γ-glutamic acid) (mPGA). This DN hydrogel not only showed excellent mechanical properties but also good cytocompatibility as evidenced by the characterizations in terms of swelling ratio, mechanical strength/modulus, and cytotoxicity...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
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