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Galina Shapiro, Raphael Lieber, Dan Gazit, Gadi Pelled
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances in gene therapy as a treatment for bone regeneration. While most fractures heal spontaneously, patients who present with fracture nonunion suffer from prolonged pain, disability, and often require additional operations to regain musculoskeletal function. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last few years, BMP gene delivery by means of electroporation and sonoporation resulted in repair of nonunion bone defects in mice, rats, and minipigs...
June 16, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Long Bai, Yanlian Liu, Zhibin Du, Zeming Weng, Wei Yao, Xiangyu Zhang, Xiaobo Huang, Xiaohong Yao, Ross Crawford, Ruiqiang Hang, Di Huang, Bin Tang, Yin Xiao
Coating materials applied for intraosseous implants must be optimized to stimulate osseointegration. Osseointegration is a temporal and spatial physiological process that not only requires interactions between osteogenesis and angiogenesis but also necessitates a favorable immune microenvironment. It is now well-documented that hierarchical nano-micro surface structures promote the long-term stability of implants, the interactions between nano-micro structure and the immune response are largely unknown. Here, we report the effects of microporous titanium (Ti) surfaces coated with nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) produced by micro-arc oxidation and steam-hydrothermal treatment (SHT) on multiple cell behavior and osseointegration...
June 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Kokkarachedu Varaprasad, Dariela Nunez, Murali Mohan Yallapu, Tippabattini Jayaramudu, Elizabeth Elgueta, Patricio Oyarzun
Herein, two kinds of nano-hydroxyapatite were synthesized from Clam and Magellan shell by wet chemical precipitation method. Mainly, carboxymethyl cellulose/acrylamide/nano-hydroxyapatite composite hydrogels were developed via a free-radical polymerization process and investigated as a sorbent for Acid Blue 113 (AB) from aqueous AB solution. The swelled and kinetic behaviours of hydrogels were investigated using a gravimetric method. The swelling properties of the CMC-AM-hydrogels were influenced by the calcium electrolytes (Ca2+ ) content in nano-hydroxyapatites...
May 16, 2018: RSC Advances
Cheyann Lee Wetteland, Huinan Liu
This article reports a new process for creating polymer-based nanocomposites with enhanced dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles without using any surfactants, and the resulted changes in their optical and biological properties. Specifically, dispersion of two different ceramic nanoparticles, i.e, hydroxyapatite (nHA) and magnesium oxide (nMgO) nanoparticles, in a model biodegradable polymer, namely poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), was studied. High-power sonication was integrated with dual asymmetric centrifugal (DAC) mixing to improve dispersion of nanoparticles during solvent casting...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Albert S Lee, Diana K Bowen, Seth Vatsky, Stephen A Zderic, Gregory E Tasian
We report successful percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in an 8-week-old, 4.12 kg infant with a combined stone burden of > 2 cm in a solitary kidney. The patient was born with thoracolumbar myelomeningocele and had developed recurrent urinary tract infections. Her size precluded retrograde intrarenal surgery and shockwave lithotripsy would be unlikely to clear the stone burden. Stone analysis revealed hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite stones, and metabolic work up revealed hypercalciuria for which chlorothiazide was started...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
Gabriel Fernandez de Grado, Laetitia Keller, Ysia Idoux-Gillet, Quentin Wagner, Anne-Marie Musset, Nadia Benkirane-Jessel, Fabien Bornert, Damien Offner
Bone replacement might have been practiced for centuries with various materials of natural origin, but had rarely met success until the late 19th century. Nowadays, many different bone substitutes can be used. They can be either derived from biological products such as demineralized bone matrix, platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite, adjunction of growth factors (like bone morphogenetic protein) or synthetic such as calcium sulfate, tri-calcium phosphate ceramics, bioactive glasses, or polymer-based substitutes...
January 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Andréa Vaz Braga Pintor, Rodrigo Figueiredo de Brito Resende, Adriana Terezinha Novelino Neves, Gutemberg Gomes Alves, Paulo G Coelho, José Mauro Granjeiro, Monica Diuana Calasans-Maia
This study evaluated comparatively two configurations (powder and putty) of a composite biomaterial based on PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/nanoescale hydroxyapatite (ReOss®, Intra-Lock International) through microscopic morphology, in vitro cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and in vivo response as a bone substitute. SEM and EDS characterized the biomaterials before/after grafting. Cytocompatibility was assessed with murine pre-osteoblasts. Osteoconductivity and biocompatibility were evaluated in White New Zealand rabbits...
March 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Miles H Graivier, Z Paul Lorenc, Lawrence M Bass, Rebecca Fitzgerald, David J Goldberg
The recent approval in 2015 of Radiesse for injection into the hand by the FDA has spurred an increase in interest among patients and clinicians in nonsurgical hand rejuvenation using fillers. Application of the same techniques used to treat the face to the dorsum of the hands does not account for the unique nature of the skin and underlying anatomy, and can lead to suboptimal outcomes and an increased risk of adverse events such as the formation of nodules. Here, the authors discuss dilution strategies and injection techniques for hand rejuvenation using Radiesse for optimal patient safety and aesthetic outcomes...
April 6, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Seyedali Seyedmajidi, Maryam Seyedmajidi, Ebrahim Zabihi, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki
Considering to the possibility of cellular and genetic damage by the implant materials in the patient and the clinician, the safety of the biomaterials should be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by two nanocomposites, hydroxyapatite/bioactive glass (HA/BG) and fluorapatite/bioactive glass (FA/BG) in vitro. Biomaterial extracts (BMEX, 100%) were prepared by incubating 100 mg/mL of each biomaterial powder in complete culture medium (RPMI1640 + 10% FBS) for 72 hours...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Yuan Li, Anna Rita Cappello, Luigina Muto, Emanuela Martello, Marianna Madeo, Rosita Curcio, Paola Lunetti, Susanna Raho, Francesco Zaffino, Luca Frattaruolo, Rosamaria Lappano, Rocco Malivindi, Marcello Maggiolini, Donatella Aiello, Carmela Piazzolla, Loredana Capobianco, Giuseppe Fiermonte, Vincenza Dolce
Several ATP-depending reactions take place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ER the existence of a Sac1p-dependent ATP transport system was already known, its direct involvement in ATP transport was excluded. Here we report an extensive biochemical characterization of a partially purified adenine nucleotide transport system (ANTS) not dependent on Sac1p. Highly purified ER membranes from the wild-type and Δsac1 yeast strains reconstituted into liposomes transported ATP with the same efficiency...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Chao Zhang, Kun Zhang, Feifei Huang, Weijing Feng, Jie Chen, Huanji Zhang, Jingfeng Wang, Pei Luo, Hui Huang
Vascular calcification (VC) is caused by hydroxyapatite deposition in the intimal and medial layers of the vascular wall, leading to severe cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. VC occurrences involve complicated mechanism networks, such as matrix vesicles or exosomes production, osteogenic differentiation, reduced cell viability, aging and so on. However, with present therapeutic methods targeting at VC ineffectively, novel targets for VC treatment are demanded...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Marcio Luiz Dos Santos, Carla Dos Santos Riccardi, Edson de Almeida Filho, Antonio C Guastaldi
Ti-15Mo alloy samples were irradiated by pulsed Yb: YAG laser beam under air and atmospheric pressure. Calcium phosphate coatings were deposited on the irradiated surfaces by the sol-gel method. The sol was prepared from the precursors Ca (NO3 )2 .4H2 O and H3 PO4 . The modified surfaces were submitted to heat treatment conditions at 350 and 600 °C. The results showed that the two conditions established have a sufficient energy to promote ablation on the laser beam irradiated surfaces. Likewise, it has been demonstrated the processes of fusion and fast solidification from the laser beam irradiation, under ambient atmosphere, inducing the formation of stoichiometric TiO2 and non-stoichiometric titanium oxides, including Ti3 O5 , TiO, Ti3 O and Ti6 O with different oxide percentages depending on the fluency used...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Yu Yuan Zhang, Hai Ming Wong, Colman P J McGrath, Quan Li Li
Casein phosphate-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), as a remineralisation agent, is extensively used in managing demineralised enamel; however, its remineralisation kinetics is low. This study aimed to improve remineralisation kinetics of CPP-ACP by introducing a rapid remineralisation method with electrophoresis. In vitro, a pH-cycling enamel model was used to test remineralisation potentials of electrophoresis-aided CPP-ACP. For verifying remineralisation potentials of electrophoresis-aided CPP-ACP in vivo in a rabbit model, acid-etched enamel surface on rabbit maxillary incisors was remineralised by electrophoresis-aided CPP-ACP with 1...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Svetlana Shkarina, Roman Shkarin, Venera Weinhardt, Elizaveta Melnik, Gabriele Vacun, Petra Kluger, Kateryna Loza, Matthias Epple, Sergei I Ivlev, Tilo Baumbach, Maria A Surmeneva, Roman A Surmenev
To date, special interest has been paid to composite scaffolds based on polymers enriched with hydroxyapatite (HA). However, the role of HA containing different trace elements such as silicate in the structure of a polymer scaffold has not yet been fully explored. Here, we report the potential use of silicate-containing hydroxyapatite (SiHA) microparticles and microparticle aggregates in the predominant range from 2.23 to 12.40 µm in combination with polycaprolactone (PCL) as a hybrid scaffold with randomly oriented and well-aligned microfibers for regeneration of bone tissue...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Naohisa Miyakoshi, Daisuke Kudo, Michio Hongo, Yuji Kasukawa, Yoshinori Ishikawa, Yoichi Shimada
BACKGROUND: Safe excision of spinal cord tumors depends on sufficient visualization of the tumor and surrounding structures. In patients with spinal cord tumor adjacent to a stenotic spinal canal, extensive bony decompression proximal and distal to the tumor should be considered for safer excision of the tumor. Extensive wide laminectomy is one choice for such cases, but postoperative problems such as kyphotic deformity remain a concern. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old man and a 60-year-old woman presented with symptomatic intradural extramedullary spinal cord tumors in the cervical spine...
June 11, 2018: BMC Surgery
Steffan Tabori-Jensen, Christina Frølich, Torben B Hansen, Søren Bøvling, Morten Homilius, Maiken Stilling
INTRODUCTION: Dual mobility (DM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) may reduce dislocation risk, but might increase the risk of high polyethylene (PE) wear due to double wearing surfaces. METHODS: 127 patients (97 female) with 129 hips operated with THA after displaced femoral neck fracture FNF between 2005 and 2011, were seen for a cross-sectional clinical follow-up. Acetabular components were Saturne® DM cups with 28mm chrome-cobalt heads in UHMWPE. Cementless cups (n = 73) were hydroxyapatite coated...
March 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Yuki Shirosaki, Motomasa Furuse, Takuji Asano, Yoshihiko Kinoshita, Toshihiko Kuroiwa
Burr holes in craniotomy are not self-repairing bone defects. To regenerate new bone at the sites of these defects, a good scaffold is required. Biodegradable hybrids including silica or siloxane networks have been investigated as bone tissue scaffolds. This study examined skull bone regeneration using chitosan-siloxane hybrids after long-term implantation (two and three years). After implantation of the hybrids, the surrounding cells migrated and formed fibrous tissues and blood vessels. Then, bone formation occurred from the surrounding blood vessels...
June 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Rosaria Saletti, Simona Reina, Maria G G Pittalà, Andrea Magrì, Vincenzo Cunsolo, Salvatore Foti, Vito De Pinto
VDACs three isoforms (VDAC1, VDAC2, VDAC3) are integral proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane whose primary function is to permit the communication and exchange of molecules related to the mitochondrial functions. We have recently reported about the peculiar over-oxidation of VDAC3 cysteines. In this work we have extended our analysis, performed by tryptic and chymotryptic proteolysis and UHPLC/High Resolution ESI-MS/MS, to the other two isoforms VDAC1 and VDAC2 from rat liver mitochondria, and we have been able to find also in these proteins over-oxidation of cysteines...
June 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Zhijun Xu, Xiao Yang, Qichao Wei, Weilong Zhao, Beiliang Cui, Xiaoning Yang, Nita Sahai
Understanding the molecular mechanism of protein adsorption on solids is critical to their applications in materials synthesis and tissue engineering. Though the water phase at the surface/water interface has been recognized as three types: free water in the bulk region, intermediate water phase and surface-bound water layers adjacent to the surface, the roles of the water and surface in determining the protein adsorption are not clearly identified, particularly at the quantitative level. Herein, we provide a methodology involving the combination of microsecond strengthen sampling simulation and force integration to quantitatively characterize the water-induced contribution and the peptide-surface interactions into the adsorption free energy...
June 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
M Mehedi Hasan, M Nuruzzaman Khan, Papia Haque, Mohammed Mizanur Rahman
The present study describes the fabrication of a novel alginate-di-aldehyde (ADA) cross-linked gelatin (GEL)/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) bioscaffold by lyophilization process. The physico-chemical properties of the scaffolds were evaluated in order to assess its suitability for tissue engineering application. ADA was prepared from periodate oxidation of alginate which facilitate the crosslinking between free amino group of gelatin and available aldehyde group of ADA through Schiff's base formation. nHAp was synthesized from waste egg-shells by wet chemical method...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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