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Sleep homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335916/association-between-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Shanshan Jin, Suwen Jiang, Airong Hu
The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been an issue of great concern. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of OSA on the levels of liver enzymes including alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The secondary purpose was to estimate the effect of OSA on the histological lesions of NAFLD, such as steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning degeneration, fibrosis, as well as NAFLD activity score (NAS)...
January 15, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#2
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309688/genome-wide-analysis-of-starvation-selected-drosophila-melanogaster-a-genetic-model-of-obesity
#3
Christopher M Hardy, Molly K Burke, Logan J Everett, Mira V Han, Kathryn M Lantz, Allen G Gibbs
Experimental evolution affords the opportunity to investigate adaptation to stressful environments. Studies combining experimental evolution with whole-genome resequencing have provided insight into the dynamics of adaptation and a new tool to uncover genes associated with polygenic traits. Here, we selected for starvation resistance in populations of Drosophila melanogaster for over 80 generations. In response, the starvation-selected lines developed an obese condition, storing nearly twice the level of total lipids than their unselected controls...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307711/recurrent-circuitry-for-balancing-sleep-need-and-sleep
#4
Jeffrey M Donlea, Diogo Pimentel, Clifford B Talbot, Anissa Kempf, Jaison J Omoto, Volker Hartenstein, Gero Miesenböck
Sleep-promoting neurons in the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) of Drosophila are integral to sleep homeostasis, but how these cells impose sleep on the organism is unknown. We report that dFB neurons communicate via inhibitory transmitters, including allatostatin-A (AstA), with interneurons connecting the superior arch with the ellipsoid body of the central complex. These "helicon cells" express the galanin receptor homolog AstA-R1, respond to visual input, gate locomotion, and are inhibited by AstA, suggesting that dFB neurons promote rest by suppressing visually guided movement...
January 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304108/a-four-state-markov-model-of-sleep-wakefulness-dynamics-along-light-dark-cycle-in-mice
#5
Leonel Perez-Atencio, Nicolas Garcia-Aracil, Eduardo Fernandez, Luis C Barrio, Juan A Barios
Behavioral states alternate between wakefulness (wk), rapid eye movement (rem) and non-rem (nrem) sleep at time scale of hours i.e., light and dark cycle rhythms and from several tens of minutes to seconds (i.e., brief awakenings during sleep). Using statistical analysis of bout duration, Markov chains of sleep-wk dynamics and quantitative EEG analysis, we evaluated the influence of light/dark (ld) changes on brain function along the sleep-wk cycle. Bout duration (bd) histograms and Kaplan-Meier (km) survival curves of wk showed a bimodal statistical distribution, suggesting that two types of wk do exist: brief-wk (wkb) and long-wk (wkl)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291035/the-potential-use-of-physical-resilience-to-predict-healthy-aging
#6
REVIEW
Anna Schorr, Christy Carter, Warren Ladiges
Physical resilience is the ability of an organism to respond to stressors that acutely disrupt normal physiological homeostasis. By definition, resilience decreases with increasing age, while frailty, defined as a decline in tissue function, increases with increasing age. Assessment of resilience could therefore be an informative early paradigm to predict healthy aging compared to frailty, which measures late life dysfunction. Parameters for resilience in the laboratory mouse are not yet well defined, and no single standardized stress test exists...
2018: Pathobiology of Aging & Age related Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289556/chronopathophysiological-implications-of-orexin-in-sleep-disturbances-and-lifestyle-related-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Hiroshi Tsuneki, Tsutomu Wada, Toshiyasu Sasaoka
Sleep, a mysterious behavior, has recently been recognized as a crucial factor for health and longevity. The daily sleep/wake cycle provides the basis of biorhythms controlling whole-body homeostasis and homeodynamics; therefore, disruption of sleep causes several physical and psychological disorders, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. However, the mechanism linking sleep disturbances and sleep-related disorders remains unknown. Orexin (also known as hypocretin) is a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288667/chronic-sleep-disorder-induced-by-psychophysiological-stress-induces-glucose-intolerance-without-adipose-inflammation-in-mice
#8
Katsutaka Oishi, Sumika Ohyama, Sayaka Higo-Yamamoto
Sleep disturbances are associated with various metabolic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. We had previously established a mouse model of a psychophysiological stress-induced chronic sleep disorder (CSD) characterized by disrupted circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, core body temperature, and sleep-wake cycles. To evaluate the underlying mechanisms of metabolic disorders induced by CSD, we created mice with CSD for six weeks and fed them with a high-fat diet. Glucose intolerance with hyperglycemia resulted, although plasma insulin levels and body weight increases were identical between control and CSD mice...
December 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284109/morin-hydrate-mitigates-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-deprivation-induced-neurobehavioural-impairments-and-loss-of-viable-neurons-in-the-hippocampus-of-mice
#9
Elizabeth T Olonode, Adegbuyi O Aderibigbe, Olusegun A Adeoluwa, Anthony T Eduviere, Benneth Ben-Azu
Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation distorts the body's homeostasis and results in oxidative breakdown which may be responsible for a variety of neurological disorders. Some naturally occurring compounds of plant origin with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties are known to attenuate the detrimental effects of REM sleep deprivation. Morin hydrate, a flavonoid from Mulberry has demonstrated antioxidant and neuroprotective activities but its effect in sleep disturbed mice is unknown. The study was designed to explore the neuroprotective effect of Morin hydrate on 48 hr...
December 25, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283409/omentin-a-novel-adipokine-in-respiratory-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Yan Zhou, Bo Zhang, Caixia Hao, Xiaoting Huang, Xiaohong Li, Yanhong Huang, Ziqiang Luo
Adipokines, secreted by the adipose tissue, are extensively involved in the regulation and maintenance of various physiological and pathological processes, including insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory activity, neuroendocrine activity, immunity, cancer, homeostasis, angiogenesis, cardiovascular function, breeding and bone metabolism, and all functions of the endocrine-reproductive system axis. Omentin is a recently identified adipokine, which has become a research hotspot due to its pleiotropic effects on various diseases...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279202/the-emerging-relationship-between-interstitial-fluid-cerebrospinal-fluid-exchange-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-sleep
#11
REVIEW
Erin L Boespflug, Jeffrey J Iliff
Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a key histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and soluble Aβ species are believed to play an important role in the clinical development of this disease. Emerging biomarker data demonstrate that Aβ plaque deposition begins decades before the onset of clinical symptoms, suggesting that understanding the biological determinants of the earliest steps in the development of AD pathology may provide key opportunities for AD treatment and prevention. Although a clinical association between sleep disruption and AD has long been appreciated, emerging clinical studies and insights from the basic neurosciences have shed important new light on how sleep and Aβ homeostasis may be connected in the setting of AD...
February 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259298/the-after-hours-circadian-mutant-has-reduced-phenotypic-plasticity-in-behaviors-at-multiple-timescales-and-in-sleep-homeostasis
#12
Silvia Maggi, Edoardo Balzani, Glenda Lassi, Celina Garcia-Garcia, Andrea Plano, Stefano Espinoza, Liudmila Mus, Federico Tinarelli, Patrick M Nolan, Raul R Gainetdinov, Fuat Balci, Thierry Nieus, Valter Tucci
Circadian clock is known to adapt to environmental changes and can significantly influence cognitive and physiological functions. In this work, we report specific behavioral, cognitive, and sleep homeostatic defects in the after hours (Afh) circadian mouse mutant, which is characterized by lengthened circadian period. We found that the circadian timing irregularities in Afh mice resulted in higher interval timing uncertainty and suboptimal decisions due to incapability of processing probabilities. Our phenotypic observations further suggested that Afh mutants failed to exhibit the necessary phenotypic plasticity for adapting to temporal changes at multiple time scales (seconds-to-minutes to circadian)...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258993/circadian-clocks-from-stem-cells-to-tissue-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#13
REVIEW
Pieterjan Dierickx, Linda W Van Laake, Niels Geijsen
The circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timekeeper that adapts body physiology to diurnal cycles of around 24 h by influencing a wide variety of processes such as sleep-to-wake transitions, feeding and fasting patterns, body temperature, and hormone regulation. The molecular clock machinery comprises a pathway that is driven by rhythmic docking of the transcription factors BMAL1 and CLOCK on clock-controlled output genes, which results in tissue-specific oscillatory gene expression programs. Genetic as well as environmental perturbation of the circadian clock has been implicated in various diseases ranging from sleep to metabolic disorders and cancer development...
December 19, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248294/phenotyping-of-per3-variants-reveals-widespread-effects-on-circadian-preference-sleep-regulation-and-health
#14
REVIEW
Simon N Archer, Christina Schmidt, Gilles Vandewalle, Derk-Jan Dijk
Period3 (Per3) is one of the most robustly rhythmic genes in humans and animals. It plays a significant role in temporal organisation in peripheral tissues. The effects of PER3 variants on many phenotypes have been investigated in targeted and genome-wide studies. PER3 variants, especially the human variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), associate with diurnal preference, mental disorders, non-visual responses to light, brain and cognitive responses to sleep loss/circadian misalignment. Introducing the VNTR into mice alters responses to sleep loss and expression of sleep homeostasis-related genes...
November 6, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247296/decrease-of-perforin-positive-cd3-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-disordered-breathing
#15
Richard Staats, Raquel Rodrigues, André Barros, Leonor Bacelar-Nicolau, Margarida Aguiar, Dina Fernandes, Susana Moreira, André Simões, Bruno Silva-Santos, João Valença Rodrigues, Cristina Barbara, António Bugalho de Almeida, Luis Ferreira Moita
INTRODUCTION: Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) cause sleep fragmentation, intermittent hypoxia or a combination of both leading to homeostasis perturbations, including in the immune system. We investigated whether SRBD patients with or without intermittent hypoxia show substantial differences in perforin and granzyme-B positive peripheral blood lymphocytes. METHODS: A total of 87 subjects were included and distributed as follows: 24 controls (C), 19 patients with respiratory effort related arousals due to increased upper airway resistance (UAR) without hypoxic events, 24 obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (oOSA), and 20 without obesity (noOSA)...
December 15, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242137/sleep-deprivation-decreases-neuronal-excitability-and-responsiveness-in-rats-both-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo
#16
Sándor Borbély, Ildikó Világi, Zsófia Haraszti, Örs Szalontai, Tünde Hajnik, Attila Tóth, László Détári
Sleep deprivation has severe consequences for higher nervous functions. Its effects on neuronal excitability may be one of the most important factors underlying functional deterioration caused by sleep loss. In the present work, excitability changes were studied using two complementary in vivo and ex vivo models. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded from freely-moving animals in vivo. Amplitude of evoked responses showed a near-continuous decrease during deprivation. Prevention of sleep also reduced synaptic efficacy ex vivo, measured from brain slices derived from rats that underwent sleep deprivation...
December 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224668/circadian-clock-gastrointestinal-peptide-interaction-in-peripheral-tissues-and-the-brain
#17
REVIEW
Dominic Landgraf, Anne-Marie Neumann, Henrik Oster
Food intake and sleep are two mutually exclusive behaviors and both are normally confined to opposing phases of the diurnal cycle. The temporal coordination of behavior and physiology along the 24-h day-night cycle is organized by a network of circadian clocks that orchestrate transcriptional programs controlling cellular physiology. Many of the peptide hormones of the gastrointestinal tract are not only secreted in a circadian fashion, they can also affect circadian clock function in peripheral metabolic tissues and the brain, thus providing metabolic feedback to metabolic and neurobehavioral circuits...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222551/neutrophil-and-t-cell-homeostasis-in-the-closed-eye
#18
Cameron K Postnikoff, Kelly K Nichols
Purpose: This study sought to examine the changes and phenotype of the tear neutrophil and T-cell populations between early eyelid closure and after a full night of sleep. Methods: Fourteen healthy participants were recruited and trained to wash the ocular surface with PBS for at-home self-collection of ocular surface and tear leukocytes following up to 1 hour of sleep and a full night of sleep (average 7 hours), on separate days. Cells were isolated, counted, and incubated with fluorescently labeled antibodies to identify neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210635/potential-drug-targets-in-the-pentose-phosphate-pathway-of-trypanosomatids
#19
Ines Loureiro, Joana Faria, Nuno Santarem, Terry K Smith, Joana Tavares, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva
The trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp, are causative agents of important human diseases such African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease and Leishmaniasis, respectively. The high impact of these diseases on human health and economy worldwide, the unsatisfactory available chemotherapeutic options and the absence of human effective vaccines, strongly justifies the search for new drugs. The pentose phosphate pathway has been proposed to be a viable strategy to defeat several infectious diseases, including those from trypanosomatids, as it includes an oxidative branch, important in the maintenance of cell redox homeostasis, and a non-oxidative branch in which ribose 5-phosphate and erythrose 4-phosphate, precursors of nucleic acids and aromatic amino acids, are produced...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208223/neuronal-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-sleep-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea
Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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