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Sleep homeostasis

Julia Pietilä, Elina Helander, Ilkka Korhonen, Tero Myllymäki, Urho M Kujala, Harri Lindholm
BACKGROUND: Sleep is fundamental for good health, and poor sleep has been associated with negative health outcomes. Alcohol consumption is a universal health behavior associated with poor sleep. In controlled laboratory studies, alcohol intake has been shown to alter physiology and disturb sleep homeostasis and architecture. The association between acute alcohol intake and physiological changes has not yet been studied in noncontrolled real-world settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of alcohol intake on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep in a large noncontrolled sample of Finnish employees...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Lina A Matschke, Susanne Rinné, Terrance P Snutch, Wolfgang H Oertel, Amalia M Dolga, Niels Decher
The physiological, intrinsic activity of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is important for the control of sleep/wakefulness, cognition and autonomous body functions. Dysregulations of the LC-noradrenergic network contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and are key findings in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, identifying ion channels mediating the intrinsic pacemaking mechanism of LC neurons, which is in turn directly coupled to Ca2+ homeostasis and cell survival signaling pathways, can help to foster our understanding of the vulnerability of these neurons in neurodegenerative diseases...
March 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Ana González-Rueda, Victor Pedrosa, Rachael C Feord, Claudia Clopath, Ole Paulsen
Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is critical for cortical circuit refinement. The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis suggests that synaptic connections are strengthened during wake and downscaled during sleep; however, it is not obvious how the same plasticity rules could explain both outcomes. Using whole-cell recordings and optogenetic stimulation of presynaptic input in urethane-anesthetized mice, which exhibit slow-wave-sleep (SWS)-like activity, we show that synaptic plasticity rules are gated by cortical dynamics in vivo...
February 12, 2018: Neuron
Giovanna Liguori, Simona Tafuri, Chika Miyoshi, Masashi Yanagisawa, Caterina Squillacioti, Valeria De Pasquale, Nicola Mirabella, Alfredo Vittoria, Anna Costagliola
The peptides orexin A (OXA) and orexin B (OXB) derived from the proteolytic cleavage of a common precursor molecule, prepro-orexin, were originally described in the rat hypothalamus. Successively, they have been found in many other brain regions as well as in peripheral organs of mammals and other less evolved animals. The widespread localization of orexins accounts for the multiple activities that they exert in the body, including the regulation of energy homeostasis, feeding, metabolism, sleep and arousal, stress, addiction, and cardiovascular and endocrine functions...
February 26, 2018: Acta Histochemica
George A Mandelaris, Bradley S DeGroot, Robert Relle, Brian Shah, Iwei Huang, Brian S Vence
Comorbidities that negatively impact orthodontic (malocclusion), periodontal (periodontitis, deficient dentoalveolar bone volume, mucogingival), and prosthetic (structural integrity compromise from caries, attrition, and erosion) conditions can affect the general health of the patient. In addition, emerging data highlights the importance of undiagnosed airway volume deficiencies and sleep-disordered breathing conditions in the adult and pediatric population. Deficiencies in dentoalveolar bone and discrepancies in skeletal relationships can impact the volume of hard- and soft-tissue structures of the periodontium and decrease oral cavity volume...
March 2018: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Lin-Hui Wang, Zi-Lan Wang, Wen-Yue Chen, Ming-Jia Chen, Guang-Yin Xu
The glymphatic system is a cerebrospinal fluid-interstitial fluid exchange system dependent on the water channel aquaporin-4 polarized on astrocyte endfeet, which is proposed to account for the clearance of abnormal proteins (e.g. β-amyloid) and metabolites (e.g. lactate) from the brain. Accumulating studies have revealed that glymphatic activity during sleep and general anesthesia is dramatically enhanced, while its function is significantly damaged during aging, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and diabetes...
February 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
S Y Christin Chong, Lijuan Xin, Louis J Ptáček, Ying-Hui Fu
Sleep is fundamental to the survival of humans. However, knowledge regarding the role of sleep and its regulation is poorly understood. Genetics in flies, mice, and humans has led to a detailed understanding of some aspects of circadian regulation. Sleep homeostasis (the effect of increasing periods of wakefulness on our sleep propensity) is largely not understood. Sleep homeostasis is distinct from, but also linked to, the circadian clock. It is only in the last two decades that our understanding of some sleep disorders has been revealed...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Amandine Valomon, Sebastian C Holst, Alessandro Borrello, Susanne Weigend, Thomas Müller, Wolfgang Berger, Michael Sommerauer, Christian R Baumann, Hans-Peter Landolt
Tolcapone, a brain penetrant selective inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) devoid of psychostimulant properties, improves cognition and cortical information processing in rested volunteers, depending on the genotype of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of COMT. The impact of this common genetic variant on behavioral and neurophysiological markers of increased sleep need after sleep loss is controversial. Here we investigated the potential usefulness of tolcapone to mitigate consequences of sleep deprivation on lapses of sustained attention, and tested the hypothesis that dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) causally contributes to neurobehavioral and neurophysiological markers of sleep homeostasis in humans...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Monika Rani, Raghuvansh Kumar, Pawan Krishan
Orexins (A & B), neuropeptides of hypothalamic origin, act through G-protein coupled receptors, orexin 1 receptor (OX1 R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2 R). The wide projection of orexin neurons in the hypothalamic region allows them to interact with the other neurons and regulate food intake, emotional status, sleep wake cycle and energy metabolism. The autonomic nervous system plays an important regulatory role in the energy metabolism as well as glucose homeostasis. Orexin neurons are also under the control of GABAergic neurons...
February 6, 2018: Neuropeptides
João C P Santiago, Markus Otto, Werner Kern, Paul Christian Baier, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (hypocretin-1) is a key signal in sleep/wake regulation and promotes food intake. We investigated the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid orexin A concentrations and body composition in non-narcoleptic human subjects with a wide range of body weight to gain insight into the role of orexin A in human metabolism. We collected cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples and measured body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis in 36 subjects (16 women and 20 men) with body mass indices between 16...
February 19, 2018: Peptides
Rhîannan H Williams, Sarah W Black, Alexia M Thomas, Juliette Piquet, Bruno Cauli, Thomas S Kilduff
We have proposed that cortical nNOS/NK1R interneurons have a role in sleep homeostasis. The hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons project to the cortex. Hcrt peptides affect deep layer cortical neurons, and Hcrt receptor 1 (Hcrtr1; Ox1r) mRNA is expressed in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Hcrt neuron stimulation affects cingulate cortex nNOS/NK1R neurons. Bath application of HCRT1/orexin-A evoked an inward current and membrane depolarization in most nNOS/NK1R cells which persisted in tetrodotoxin; optogenetic stimulation of Hcrt terminals expressing channelrhodopsin-2 confirmed these results, and pharmacological studies determined that HCRTR1 mediated these responses...
February 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Yves Dauvilliers, Sofiene Chenini, Jérôme Vialaret, Constance Delaby, Lily Guiraud, Audrey Gabelle, Regis Lopez, Christophe Hirtz, Isabelle Jaussent, Sylvain Lehmann
BACKGROUND: To better understand the role of iron homeostasis dysregulation in restless legs syndrome, we compared serum hepcidin and ferritin levels in drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome and healthy controls and studied the relationship between hepcidin level and restless legs syndrome severity. METHODS: One hundred and eight drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome (65 women; median age, 61.5 years) and 45 controls (28 women; median age, 53...
February 8, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Mayra Mello, Ana Carolina J Vasques, José C Pareja, Maria da S de Oliveira, Fernanda S Novaes, Élinton A Chaim, Bruno Geloneze
OBJECTIVE: The poor quality of sleep and the deprivation thereof have been associated with disruption of metabolic homeostasis, favoring the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We aimed to evaluate the influence of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) surgery on sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness of obese patients with T2DM, comparing them with two control groups consisting of obese and normal weight individuals, both normal glucose tolerant. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-two women were divided into three groups: LeanControl (n = 11), ObeseControl (n = 13), and ObeseT2DM (n = 18)...
December 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Panagiotis Aristotelous, George Aphamis, Giorgos K Sakkas, Eleni Andreou, Marios Pantzaris, Theodoros Kyprianou, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou, Mauro Manconi, Christoforos D Giannaki
Dehydration is associated with several alternations in body homeostasis involving both physiological and mental aspects. In addition some studies have reported a negative effect of dehydration on subjectively assessed sleep-related parameters. The aim of the current study was to examine for the first time the effect of controlled dehydration on sleep quality and quantity using the gold-standard method of polysomnography. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in this study (23.4 ± 0.8 years). Participants performed an in-house full polysomnographic assessment in two different occasions taking place in random order: (i) in a dehydrated state; and (ii) in a euhydrated state...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Claire Gizowski, Cristian Zaelzer, Charles W Bourque
Previous studies have shown that mice housed under 12:12 h light-dark conditions display a pronounced increase in water intake during a 2-hour anticipatory period (AP) near the end of their active period (Zeitgeber Time ZT; ZT21.5-ZT23.5) compared to the preceding basal period (BP, ZT19.5-ZT21.5). This increased water intake during the AP is not associated with physiological stimuli for thirst, such as food intake, hyperosmolality, hyperthermia, or hypovolemia. Denying mice the water intake supplement during the AP causes them to be dehydrated at wake time...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Dae Lim Koo, Hyunwoo Nam, Robert J Thomas, Chang-Ho Yun
Sleep, a vital process of human being, is carefully orchestrated by the brain and consists of cyclic transitions between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Autonomic tranquility during NREM sleep is characterized by vagal dominance and stable breathing, providing an opportunity for the cardiovascular-neural axis to restore homeostasis, in response to use, distress or fatigue inflicted during wakefulness. Abrupt irregular swings in sympathovagal balance during REM sleep act as phasic loads on the resting cardiovascular system...
January 2018: Journal of Stroke
Daniela Tempesta, Valentina Socci, Luigi De Gennaro, Michele Ferrara
A growing body of literature suggests that sleep plays a critical role in emotional processing. This review aims at synthesizing current evidence on the role of sleep and sleep loss in the modulation of emotional reactivity, emotional memory formation, empathic behavior, fear conditioning, threat generalization and extinction memory. Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggesting that rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep plays an important role in emotional processing is also discussed. Furthermore, we examine the relations between sleep and emotions by reviewing the functional neuroimaging studies that elucidated the brain mechanisms underlying these relations...
December 22, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Juanjuan Zou, Yunyan Xia, Huajun Xu, Yiqun Fu, Yingjun Qian, Xinyi Li, Xiaolong Zhao, Jianyin Zou, Lili Meng, Suru Liu, Huaming Zhu, Hongliang Yi, Jian Guan, Bin Chen, Shankai Yin
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with abnormal glycometabolism; however, the cardinal features of OSA, such as sleep fragmentation (SF) and intermittent hypoxia (IH), have yet to show clear, independent associations with glycometabolism. METHODS: We enrolled 1834 participants with suspected OSA from July 2008 to July 2013 to participate in this study. Polysomnographic variables, biochemical indicators, and physical measurements were collected for each participant...
January 27, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
L Marti-Sanchez, J D Ortigoza-Escobar, A Darling, M Villaronga, H Baide, M Molero-Luis, M Batllori, M I Vanegas, J Muchart, L Aquino, R Artuch, A Macaya, M A Kurian, Pérez Dueñas
BACKGROUND: The SLC39A14, SLC30A10 and SLC39A8 are considered to be key genes involved in manganese (Mn) homeostasis in humans. Mn levels in plasma and urine are useful tools for early recognition of these disorders. We aimed to explore further biomarkers of Mn deposition in the central nervous system in two siblings presenting with acute dystonia and hypermanganesemia due to mutations in SLC39A14. These biomarkers may help clinicians to establish faster and accurate diagnosis and to monitor disease progression after chelation therapy is administered...
January 30, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Ryan W Logan, Brant P Hasler, Erika E Forbes, Peter L Franzen, Mary M Torregrossa, Yanhua H Huang, Daniel J Buysse, Duncan B Clark, Colleen A McClung
Sleep homeostasis and circadian function are important maintaining factors for optimal health and well-being. Conversely, sleep and circadian disruptions are implicated in a variety of adverse health outcomes, including substance use disorders. These risks are particularly salient during adolescence. Adolescents require 8 to 10 hours of sleep per night, although few consistently achieve these durations. A mismatch between developmental changes and social/environmental demands contributes to inadequate sleep...
December 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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