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Sleep homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645331/circadian-clock-gene-polymorphisms-in-relation-to-sleep-patterns-and-obesity-in-african-americans-findings-from-the-jackson-heart-study
#1
Pia Riestra, Samson Y Gebreab, Ruihua Xu, Rumana J Khan, Amadou Gaye, Adolfo Correa, Nancy Min, Mario Sims, Sharon K Davis
BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms regulate key biological processes and the dysregulation of the intrinsic clock mechanism affects sleep patterns and obesity onset. The CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput) gene encodes a core transcription factor of the molecular circadian clock influencing diverse metabolic pathways, including glucose and lipid homeostasis. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between CLOCK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and body mass index (BMI)...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642082/clinical-trial-of-the-effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-psychological-symptoms-and-metabolic-profiles-in-maintenance-methadone-treatment-patients
#2
Amir Ghaderi, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Maryam Motmaen, Morad Rasouli-Azad, Fereshteh Bahmani, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with some complications including nonspecific musculoskeletal pain and periodontal disease in maintenance methadone treatment (MMT) patients. This study was designed to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on psychological symptoms and metabolic profiles in MMT patients. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out among 68 MMT patients. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either 50,000IU vitamin D supplements (n=34) or placebo (n=34) every 2weeks for 12weeks...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641933/the-role-of-sleep-in-regulating-structural-plasticity-and-synaptic-strength-implications-for-memory-and-cognitive-function
#3
REVIEW
Frank Raven, Eddy A Van der Zee, Peter Meerlo, Robbert Havekes
Dendritic spines are the major sites of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Alterations in the strength of synaptic connections directly affect the neuronal communication, which is crucial for brain function as well as the processing and storage of information. Sleep and sleep loss bidirectionally alter structural plasticity, by affecting spine numbers and morphology, which ultimately can affect the functional output of the brain in terms of alertness, cognition, and mood. Experimental data from studies in rodents suggest that sleep deprivation may impact structural plasticity in different ways...
May 18, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633050/the-adenosine-mediated-neuronal-glial-homeostatic-sleep-response
#4
REVIEW
Robert W Greene, Theresa E Bjorness, Ayako Suzuki
Slow wave activity (SWA) during slow wave sleep (SWS) is the best indicator of the sleep homeostasis. The intensity of the SWA observed during SWS that follows prolonged waking is directly correlated with the duration of prior waking and its intensity decays during SWS suggesting a buildup and a resolution of sleep need. This sleep-homeostasis related SWA results from a buildup and decay of extracellular adenosine that acts at neuronal adenosine A1 receptors to facilitate SWA and is metabolized by adenosine kinase found in glia...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630298/hypocretin-orexin-is-critical-in-sustaining-theta-gamma-rich-waking-behaviors-that-drive-sleep-need
#5
Anne Vassalli, Paul Franken
Hcrt gene inactivation in mice leads to behavioral state instability, abnormal transitions to paradoxical sleep, and cataplexy, hallmarks of narcolepsy. Sleep homeostasis is, however, considered unimpaired in patients and narcoleptic mice. We find that whereas Hcrt(ko/ko) mice respond to 6-h sleep deprivation (SD) with a slow-wave sleep (SWS) EEG δ (1.0 to 4.0 Hz) power rebound like WT littermates, spontaneous waking fails to induce a δ power reflecting prior waking duration. This correlates with impaired θ (6...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628804/neuronal-substrates-of-sleep-homeostasis-lessons-from-flies-rats-and-mice
#6
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea, Md Noor Alam, Ronald Szymusiak
Sleep homeostasis is a fundamental property of vigilance state regulation that is highly conserved across species. Neuronal systems and circuits that underlie sleep homeostasis are not well understood. In Drosophila, a neuronal circuit involving neurons in the ellipsoid body and in the dorsal Fan-shaped body is a candidate for both tracing sleep need during waking and translating it to increased sleep drive and expression. Sleep homeostasis in rats and mice involves multiple neuromodulators acting on multiple wake- and sleep-promoting neuronal systems...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620314/orexin-system-the-key-for-a-healthy-life
#7
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Marco Carotenuto, Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Francesco Precenzano, Domenico Tafuri, Monica Salerno, Nicola Filippi, Francesco Nuccio, Maria Ruberto, Vincenzo De Luca, Luigi Cipolloni, Giuseppe Cibelli, Maria P Mollica, Diego Iacono, Ersilia Nigro, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
The orexin-A/hypocretin-1 and orexin-B/hypocretin-2 are neuropeptides synthesized by a cluster of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area. Orexin neurons receive a variety of signals related to environmental, physiological and emotional stimuli, and project broadly to the entire CNS. Orexin neurons are "multi-tasking" neurons regulating a set of vital body functions, including sleep/wake states, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, reward systems, cognition and mood. Furthermore, a dysfunction of orexinergic system may underlie different pathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611585/role-of-n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-aa-5-ht-in-sleep-wake-cycle-architecture-sleep-homeostasis-and-neurotransmitters-regulation
#8
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Sergio Machado, Nuno B Rocha, André B Veras, Geraldo A M Neto, Henning Budde, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval
The endocannabinoid system comprises several molecular entities such as endogenous ligands [anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes such as [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAHH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)], as well as the anandamide membrane transporter. Although the role of this complex neurobiological system in the sleep-wake cycle modulation has been studied, the contribution of the blocker of FAAH/transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) in sleep has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587149/suppression-of-osteoclastogenesis-by-melatonin-a-melatonin-receptor-independent-action
#9
Hyung Joon Kim, Ha Jin Kim, Moon-Kyoung Bae, Yong-Deok Kim
In vertebrates, melatonin is primarily secreted from the pineal gland but it affects various biological processes including the sleep-wake cycle, vasomotor control, immune system and bone homeostasis. Melatonin has been known to promote osteoblast differentiation and bone maturation, but a direct role of melatonin on osteoclast differentiation is still elusive. The present study investigated the effect of melatonin on the differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts. The presence of melatonin significantly reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and the siRNA-mediated knockdown of the melatonin receptor failed to overcome the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of melatonin...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584667/melatonin-secretion-pattern-in-critically-ill-patients-a-pilot-descriptive-study
#10
Yuliya Boyko, René Holst, Poul Jennum, Helle Oerding, Miki Nikolic, Palle Toft
Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin secretion and sleep patterns differed in these patients with and without remifentanil infusion. Eight patients were included. Blood-melatonin was taken every 4th hour, and polysomnography was carried out continually during a 48-hour period...
2017: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577340/abnormal-growth-and-feeding-behavior-persist-after-removal-of-upper-airway-obstruction-in-juvenile-rats
#11
Mohammad H Assadi, Elena Shknevsky, Yael Segev, Ariel Tarasiuk
Pediatric obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is associated with growth retardation, but also with obesity that has a tendency to persist following treatment. We investigated the effect of upper airways obstruction (AO) and of obstruction removal (OR) in juvenile rats on gut-derived ghrelin and related hypothalamic factors, feeding, and growth hormone (GH) homeostasis. Here, we show that after seven weeks of AO, animals gained less weight compared to controls, despite an increase in food intake due to elevated ghrelin and hypothalamic feeding factors...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575872/abnormal-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-associated-with-rapid-eye-movement-in-chronic-primary-insomnia-patients
#12
Qian Ran, Jia Chen, Chuan Li, Li Wen, Faguo Yue, Tongsheng Shu, Jianxun Mi, Guangxian Wang, Lei Zhang, Dong Gao, Dong Zhang
PURPOSE: Chronic primary insomnia (CPI) is the most prevalent sleep disorder worldwide. CPI manifests as difficulties in sleep onset, maintaining sleep, prolonged sleep latency, and daytime impairment and is often accompanied by cognitive problems such as poor academic performance, poor attention, and decreased memory. The most popular explanation of insomnia is hyperarousal or increased activities of neurons. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep detected by polysomnography (PSG) exhibits a positive relationship with brain homeostasis and can be helpful for optimally preparing an organism for emotional and social function...
May 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575719/fast-and-slow-ca-2-dependent-hyperpolarization-mechanisms-connect-membrane-potential-and-sleep-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Koji L Ode, Takahiro Katsumata, Daisuke Tone, Hiroki R Ueda
Several lines of evidence indicate that the sleep-wake state of cortical neurons is regulated not only through neuronal projections from the lower brain, but also through the cortical neurons' intrinsic ability to initiate a slow firing pattern related to the slow-wave oscillation observed in electroencephalography of the sleeping brain. Theoretical modeling and experiments with genetic and pharmacological perturbation suggest that ion channels and kinases acting downstream of calcium signaling regulate the cortical-membrane potential and sleep duration...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575718/sleep-homeostasis-habits-and-habituation
#14
REVIEW
Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, Mark E Walton, Stuart N Peirson, David M Bannerman
The importance of sleep for behavioural performance during waking is long-established, but the underlying reasons and mechanisms remain elusive. Waking and sleep are associated with changes in the levels of GluA1 AMPAR subunit in synaptic membranes, while studies using genetically-modified mice have identified an important role for GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity in a non-associative form of memory that underlies short-term habituation to recently experienced stimuli. Here we posit that sleep may play a role in dishabituation, which restores attentional capacity and maximises the readiness of the animal for learning and goal-directed behaviour during subsequent wakefulness...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557129/recreational-stimulants-herbal-and-spice-cannabis-the-core-psychobiological-processes-that-underlie-their-damaging-effects
#15
Andrew C Parrott, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey
AIMS: Recreational drugs are taken for their positive mood effects, yet their regular usage damages well-being. The psychobiological mechanisms underlying these damaging effects will be debated. METHODS: The empirical literature on recreational cannabinoids and stimulant drugs is reviewed. A theoretical explanation for how they cause similar types of damage is outlined. RESULTS: All psychoactive drugs cause moods and psychological states to fluctuate...
May 30, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526411/jnj10181457-a-histamine-h3-receptor-inverse-agonist-regulates-in%C3%A2-vivo-microglial-functions-and-improves-depression-like-behaviours-in-mice
#16
Tomomitsu Iida, Takeo Yoshikawa, Anikó Kárpáti, Takuro Matsuzawa, Haruna Kitano, Asuka Mogi, Ryuichi Harada, Fumito Naganuma, Tadaho Nakamura, Kazuhiko Yanai
Brain histamine acts as a neurotransmitter and regulates various physiological functions, such as learning and memory, sleep-wake cycles, and appetite regulation. We have recently shown that histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is expressed in primary mouse microglia and has a strong influence on critical functions in microglia, including chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion in vitro. However, the importance of H3R in microglial activity in vivo remains unknown. Here, we examined the effects of JNJ10181457 (JNJ), a selective and potent H3R inverse agonist, on microglial functions ex vivo and in vivo...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515677/brain-control-of-plasma-cholesterol-involves-polysialic-acid-molecules-in-the-hypothalamus
#17
Xavier Brenachot, Thomas Gautier, Emmanuelle Nédélec, Valérie Deckert, Amélie Laderrière, Danaé Nuzzaci, Caroline Rigault, Aleth Lemoine, Luc Pénicaud, Laurent Lagrost, Alexandre Benani
The polysialic acid (PSA) is a large glycan that is added to cell-surface proteins during their post-translational maturation. In the brain, PSA modulates distances between cells and controls the plasticity of the nervous system. In the hypothalamus, PSA is involved in many aspects of energy balance including food intake, osmoregulation, circadian rhythm, and sleep. In this work, we investigated the role of hypothalamic PSA in the regulation of plasma cholesterol levels and distribution. We report that HFD consumption in mice rapidly increased plasma cholesterol, including VLDL, LDL, and HDL-cholesterol...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513068/a-randomized-controlled-trial-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-and-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-obesity-and-sleep-apnea
#18
Antonia Barceló, Daniel Morell-Garcia, Neus Salord, Cristina Esquinas, Gerardo Pérez, Antonio Pérez, Carmen Monasterio, Merce Gasa, Ana Maria Fortuna, Josep Maria Montserrat, Mercedes Mayos
There is evidence that changes in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels may correlate with the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for affecting improvement in metabolic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) could mediate in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective randomized controlled trial of OSA patients with morbid obesity was conducted...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489875/functional-data-analysis-of-sleeping-energy-expenditure
#19
Jong Soo Lee, Issa F Zakeri, Nancy F Butte
Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of SEE and to discriminate SEE between obese and non-obese children. Minute-by-minute SEE in 109 children, ages 5-18, was measured in room respiration calorimeters. A smoothing spline method was applied to the calorimetric data to extract the true smoothing function for each subject...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485844/neuropeptides-and-neurotransmitters-that-modulate-thalamo-cortical-pathways-relevant-to-migraine-headache
#20
REVIEW
Rodrigo Noseda, David Borsook, Rami Burstein
Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological, and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective, and cognitive functions. This review defines a chemical framework for thinking about the complexity of factors that modulate the response properties of relay trigeminovascular thalamic neurons...
May 2017: Headache
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