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Sleep homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932409/increased-prevalence-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-compared-to-weight-and-age-matched-controls
#1
Feyzi Gokosmanoglu, Aygül Güzel, Elif Kilic Kan, Hulusi Atmaca
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus and obesity are well-known risk factors associated with obstructive sleep apnea(OSA). Cushing's syndrome (CS) is also characterised by obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the association between CS and OSA remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the possible associations between CS and OSA in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty female patients with newly diagnosed active CS and 30 age-, gender and body mass index (BMI)-matched female controls were included in this study...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921430/-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Andrea Plíhalová, Kateřina Westlake, Jan Polák
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) is a disease very frequently occurring in people with type 2 diabetes, that significantly increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In a number of studies, OSA has been identified as an independent risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disorders of glucose homeostasis in patients with OSA are probably mediated by chronic intermittent hypoxia and/or sleep fragmentation through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis, pro-inflammatory paths or oxidative stress...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919795/current-and-novel-insights-into-the-neurophysiology-of-migraine-and-its-implications-for-therapeutics
#3
REVIEW
Simon Akerman, Marcela Romero-Reyes, Philip R Holland
Migraine headache and its associated symptoms have plagued humans for two millennia. It is manifest throughout the world, and affects more than 1/6 of the global population. It is the most common brain disorder, and is characterized by moderate to severe unilateral headache that is accompanied by vomiting, nausea, photophobia, phonophobia, and other hypersensitive symptoms of the senses. While there is still a clear lack of understanding of its neurophysiology, it is beginning to be understood, and it seems to suggest migraine is a disorder of brain sensory processing, characterized by a generalized neuronal hyperexcitability...
December 2, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914881/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-and-diabetes-risk-in-sleep-apnea-patients-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Liang Chen, Jian Kuang, Jian-Hao Pei, Hong-Mei Chen, Zhong Chen, Zhong-Wen Li, Hua-Zhang Yang, Xiao-Ying Fu, Long Wang, Zhi-Jiang Chen, Shui-Qing Lai, Shu-Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: The study assessed the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by evaluating change in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin following CPAP treatment in non-diabetic patients and pre-diabetic with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases were searched until August 24, 2015...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909989/orexin-and-central-modulation-of-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-function
#5
Pascal Carrive, Tomoyuki Kuwaki
Orexin makes an important contribution to the regulation of cardiorespiratory function. When injected centrally under anesthesia, orexin increases blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic nerve activity, and the amplitude and frequency of respiration. This is consistent with the location of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus and the distribution of orexin terminals at all levels of the central autonomic and respiratory network. These cardiorespiratory responses are components of arousal and are necessary to allow the expression of motivated behaviors...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905548/neurexin-regulates-nighttime-sleep-by-modulating-synaptic-transmission
#6
Huawei Tong, Qian Li, Zi Chao Zhang, Yi Li, Junhai Han
Neurexins are cell adhesion molecules involved in synaptic formation and synaptic transmission. Mutations in neurexin genes are linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are frequently associated with sleep problems. However, the role of neurexin-mediated synaptic transmission in sleep regulation is unclear. Here, we show that lack of the Drosophila α-neurexin homolog significantly reduces the quantity and quality of nighttime sleep and impairs sleep homeostasis. We report that neurexin expression in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) αβ neurons is essential for nighttime sleep...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895577/fus1-ko-mouse-as-a-model-of-oxidative-stress-mediated-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-circadian-disruption-and-long-term-spatial-and-olfactory-memory-impairments
#7
Guillermo Coronas-Samano, Keeley L Baker, Winston J T Tan, Alla V Ivanova, Justus V Verhagen
Insufficient advances in the development of effective therapeutic treatments of sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (sAD) to date are largely due to the lack of sAD-relevant animal models. While the vast majority of models do recapitulate AD's hallmarks of plaques and tangles by virtue of tau and/or beta amyloid overexpression, these models do not reflect the fact that in sAD (unlike familial AD) these genes are not risk factors per se and that other mechanisms like oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and inflammation play key roles in AD etiology...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885006/mechanisms-linking-circadian-clocks-sleep-and-neurodegeneration
#8
REVIEW
Erik S Musiek, David M Holtzman
Disruptions of normal circadian rhythms and sleep cycles are consequences of aging and can profoundly affect health. Accumulating evidence indicates that circadian and sleep disturbances, which have long been considered symptoms of many neurodegenerative conditions, may actually drive pathogenesis early in the course of these diseases. In this Review, we explore potential cellular and molecular mechanisms linking circadian dysfunction and sleep loss to neurodegenerative diseases, with a focus on Alzheimer's disease...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884756/repeated-unpredictable-threats-without-harm-impair-spatial-working-memory-in-the-barnes-maze
#9
Diane J Kim, Nathan St Louis, Ralph A Molaro, Glenn T Hudson, Robert C Chorley, Brenda J Anderson
Psychological stressors elicit the anticipation of homeostatic challenge, whereas physical stressors are direct threats to homeostasis. Many rodent models of stress include both types of stressors, yet deficits, like those reported for working memory, are often attributed to psychological stress. To empirically test whether intermittent psychological stressors, such as repeated threats, are solely sufficient to impair spatial working memory, we developed a novel rodent model of stress that is restricted to the anticipation of threat, and free of direct physical challenge...
November 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881161/lower-hypoxic-ventilatory-response-in-smokers-compared-to-non-smokers-during-abstinence-from-cigarettes
#10
Wulf Hildebrandt, Roland Sauer, Ulrich Koehler, Peter Bärtsch, Ralf Kinscherf
BACKGROUND: Carotid body O2-chemosensitivity determines the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) as part of crucial regulatory reflex within oxygen homeostasis. Nicotine has been suggested to attenuate HVR in neonates of smoking mothers. However, whether smoking affects HVR in adulthood has remained unclear and probably blurred by acute ventilatory stimulation through cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that HVR is substantially reduced in smokers when studied after an overnight abstinence from cigarettes i...
November 24, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880816/paradoxical-sleep-deprivation-causes-cardiac-dysfunction-and-the-impairment-is-attenuated-by-resistance-training
#11
Sara Quaglia de Campos Giampá, Marcos Mônico-Neto, Marco Tulio de Mello, Helton de Sá Souza, Sergio Tufik, Kil Sun Lee, Marcia Kiyomi Koike, Alexandra Alberta Dos Santos, Ednei Luiz Antonio, Andrey Jorge Serra, Paulo José Ferreira Tucci, Hanna Karen Moreira Antunes
BACKGROUND: Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, subsequently interfering with the cardiovascular system. The beneficial effects of resistance training are related to hemodynamic, metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. We hypothesized that resistance training can prevent the cardiac remodeling and dysfunction caused by paradoxical sleep deprivation. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (C), resistance training (RT), paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 hours (PSD96) and both resistance training and sleep deprivation (RT/PSD96)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868206/impact-of-short-sleep-on-metabolic-variables-in-obese-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#12
Bharat Bhushan, Bushra Ayub, Dana M Thompson, Fizan Abdullah, Kathleen R Billings
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To analyze the association between sleep duration, metabolic variables, and insulin resistance in obese children with and without obstructive sleep apnea. The decline in sleep duration has paralleled a dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, suggesting a mechanistic relationship. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case series. METHODS: Consecutive obese patients 3 to 12 years of age who underwent polysomnography (PSG) and a metabolic panel and who completed a 14-item sleep questionnaire were analyzed...
November 21, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864139/evening-morning-peroxiredoxin-2-redox-oligomeric-state-changes-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-red-blood-cells-correlation-with-polysomnographic-and-metabolic-parameters
#13
Amélia Feliciano, Fátima Vaz, Vukosava M Torres, Cristina Valentim-Coelho, Rita Silva, Vesna Prosinecki, Bruno M Alexandre, Ana S Carvalho, Rune Matthiesen, Atul Malhotra, Paula Pinto, Cristina Bárbara, Deborah Penque
We have examined the effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) on red blood cell (RBC) proteome variation at evening/morning day time to uncover new insights into OSA-induced RBC dysfunction that may lead to OSA manifestations. Dysregulated proteins mainly fall in the group of catalytic enzymes, stress response and redox regulators such as peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2). Validation assays confirmed that at morning the monomeric/dimeric forms of PRDX2 were more overoxidized in OSA RBC compared to evening samples. Six month of positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment decreased this overoxidation and generated multimeric overoxidized forms associated with chaperone/transduction signaling activity of PRDX2...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852781/drosophila-dh31-neuropeptide-and-pdf-receptor-regulate-night-onset-temperature-preference
#14
Tadahiro Goda, Xin Tang, Yujiro Umezaki, Michelle L Chu, Fumika N Hamada
: Body temperature exhibits rhythmic fluctuations over a 24 h period (Refinetti and Menaker, 1992) and decreases during the night, which is associated with sleep initiation (Gilbert et al., 2004; Kräuchi, 2007a,b). However, the underlying mechanism of this temperature decrease is largely unknown. We have previously shown that Drosophila exhibit a daily temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which their preferred temperatures increase during the daytime and then decrease at the transition from day to night (night-onset) (Kaneko et al...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829983/melatoninergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-neuroprotection-to-the-management-of-motor-and-nonmotor-symptoms
#15
REVIEW
Josiel Mileno Mack, Marissa Giovanna Schamne, Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Renata Aparecida Nedel Pértile, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno Fernandes, Regina P Markus, Rui Daniel Prediger
Melatonin is synthesized by several tissues besides the pineal gland, and beyond its regulatory effects in light-dark cycle, melatonin is a hormone with neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Melatonin acts as a free-radical scavenger, reducing reactive species and improving mitochondrial homeostasis. Melatonin also regulates the expression of neurotrophins that are involved in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and reduces α-synuclein aggregation, thus protecting the dopaminergic system against damage...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815720/the-role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#16
REVIEW
Chunchen Xiang, Yujia Wang, Han Zhang, Fang Han
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle involved in cellular homeostasis and control of protein quality. Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular response to ER stress and promotes cell survival. Severe or prolonged stress activates apoptosis signaling to trigger cell death. In mammals, the UPR is initiated by three major ER stress sensors, including inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase 1, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase and activating transcription factor 6...
November 4, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801296/removal-of-unwanted-variation-reveals-novel-patterns-of-gene-expression-linked-to-sleep-homeostasis-in-murine-cortex
#17
Jason R Gerstner, John N Koberstein, Adam J Watson, Nikolai Zapero, Davide Risso, Terence P Speed, Marcos G Frank, Lucia Peixoto
BACKGROUND: Why we sleep is still one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology. Strong evidence indicates that sleep is necessary for normal brain function and that sleep need is a tightly regulated process. Surprisingly, molecular mechanisms that determine sleep need are incompletely described. Moreover, very little is known about transcriptional changes that specifically accompany the accumulation and discharge of sleep need. Several studies have characterized differential gene expression changes following sleep deprivation...
October 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789521/energy-expenditure-in-frontotemporal-dementia-a-behavioural-and-imaging-study
#18
Rebekah M Ahmed, Ramon Landin-Romero, Tinh-Hai Collet, Agatha A van der Klaauw, Emma Devenney, Elana Henning, Matthew C Kiernan, Olivier Piguet, I Sadaf Farooqi, John R Hodges
Abnormal eating behaviour and metabolic parameters including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and body mass index are increasingly recognized as important components of neurodegenerative disease and may contribute to survival. It has previously been established that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is associated with abnormal eating behaviour characterized by increased sweet preference. In this study, it was hypothesized that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia might also be associated with altered energy expenditure...
October 27, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784808/the-role-of-adenosine-in-the-maturation-of-sleep-homeostasis-in-rats
#19
Irma Gvilia, Natalia Suntsova, Andrey Kostin, Anna Kalinchuk, Dennis McGinty, Radhika Basheer, Ronald Szymusiak
Sleep homeostasis in rats undergoes significant maturational changes during post-weaning development, but underlying mechanisms of this process are unknown. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the maturation of sleep is related to the functional emergence of adenosine (AD) signaling in the brain. We assessed post-weaning changes in (1) wake-related elevation of extracellular AD in the basal forebrain (BF) and adjacent lateral preoptic area (LPO) and (2) the responsiveness of median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) sleep-active cells to increasing homeostatic sleep drive...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775095/estimating-individual-optimal-sleep-duration-and-potential-sleep-debt
#20
Shingo Kitamura, Yasuko Katayose, Kyoko Nakazaki, Yuki Motomura, Kentaro Oba, Ruri Katsunuma, Yuri Terasawa, Minori Enomoto, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Akiko Hida, Kazuo Mishima
In this study, we hypothesized that dynamics of sleep time obtained over consecutive days of extended sleep in a laboratory reflect an individual's optimal sleep duration (OSD) and that the difference between OSD and habitual sleep duration (HSD) at home represents potential sleep debt (PSD). We found that OSD varies among individuals and PSD showed stronger correlation with subjective/objective sleepiness than actual sleep time, interacting with individual's vulnerability of sleep loss. Furthermore, only 1 h of PSD takes four days to recover to their optimal level...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
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